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ISBN : 978-1-387-57887-0

Chapter – 9


1,2, 1,3 1
Azis Kemal Fauzie *, G.V. Venkataramana , Naveen S.
Department of Studies in Environmental Sciences, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysuru - 570006,
Karnataka, India
Department of Environment, Government of Karawang Regency - 41316, West Java, Indonesia
School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

Rapid urbanization and industrialization in the city of Mysuru has an effect on the increase in
registration and utilization of motor vehicles. Number of registered vehicles rises gradually at a rate of
20% per year. Highest proportion was found in the number of two-wheelers accounted for about 81%
of total vehicle population. However, air quality status of Mysuru is still in the safe level below the
national standards, especially for SO2 and NO2, while SPM sometimes exceeded the limit. An updated
estimation of automobile emission status has been prepared according to the recent number of
registered vehicles in the district from 2010 to 2015. Mysuru daily contributes about 2 Gg gas and
particulate pollutants consisting of 1.98 Gg CO2, 37.3 Mg CO, 20.6 Mg NOX, 14.5 Mg HC, and 3.2 Mg
PM, or total about 0.08% to the Indian road transport emissions in 2015.
Keywords: air quality status; automobile transportation; land use change; organic air pollutant; road
traffic pollution; vehicular emission

Air pollution consists of various compounds with different physical and chemical properties
and these may be generated from natural or anthropogenic sources. Some of the compounds are
harmful to human health as well as to animals and vegetation. They may also have effects on climate,
materials, and economical aspects (Singh and Deswal, 2017). WHO reported air pollution has
contributed to about 3 million and 7 million deaths worldwide in 2010 and 2012, respectively (WHO,
2017; 2013).
WHO focuses on four criteria air pollutants namely nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, and
particulate matter, particularly PM10 and PM2.5 particles (WHO, 2006). The focus on these four major
classical pollutants is nothing but to encourage and to make ease of all countries in conducting routine
monitoring of air quality status. The other pollutants may also have adverse effects. WHO has
evaluated 16 organic and 12 inorganic pollutants that may have risks to the human health (WHO,
Outdoor air pollution has become major problem in India since it is No. 5 in the country to
cause death. Indian cities today are among the most polluted areas in the world and it is estimated
that outdoor air pollution leads to approximately 670 000 deaths annually (TERI, 2015). Current
revised air quality standards set by Indian Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB, 2011) are too much
higher than the updated values provided in the WHO guidelines (WHO, 2006). Moreover, unlike other
countries, CPCB does not consider data from health-related studies when determining the permissible
limits on air quality standards (Balakrishnan et al., 2011).
The recent growing concern is air pollution due to automobile emissions. The transport
demand in India is now the second largest consumer of energy next to industry. The production and
domestic sales of vehicles is increasing over the year. Number of registered vehicles in India has
gradually increased. Recently, the vehicle population in India reached up to 210 million in 2015
(MRTH, 2017).
Road traffic contributes major share of around 73% towards total CO2 emissions from
transport sector. In Indian roads, CO2 emissions have increased from 208 million tons during 2005 to
391 million tons during 2015 (CPCB, 2010). The man’s contribution to air pollution keeps on
increasing due to industrialization and motorized transportation. There is a need to provide the
continuous, updated information related to vehicular air pollution status, particularly in the city of
Mysuru, hence we proposed this present study.

Materials and Methods

The Study Area
Mysuru is one of the important cities in south India. It is a heritage city and well-known as the
city of palaces. The location of the city is about 140 km southern part of state capital city, Bengaluru.

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Geographically, it lies at 76° 46’ E longitude and 12° 8’ N latitude and at elevation of 770 m above
mean sea level. The district has an area spread over 6307 sq km (DCOK, 2014). Mysuru district
administratively incorporates seven taluks namely Mysuru (MYS), Nanjangud (NJG), Tirumakudal
Narsipur (TNP), Hunsur (HSR), Heggadadevan Kote (HDK), Krishanaraja Nagara (KRN), and
Piriyapatna (PRP). In olden days, Mysuru was regarded as one of the cleanest in India. However,
nowadays due to rapid industrialization and commercialization, the pollution level in the city has
started increasing rapidly (Udayashankara et al., 2015).
Most of the residents in the city are delighted that Mysuru now becomes a booming city, but
not many people pay attention on transport planning and land use management. As population
increased and residential area is being decentralized, the land use of Mysuru region has changed
dramatically (Harish, 2013; 2012). Similarly, the use of private-owned vehicles was increasing
significantly due to the effect of high consumerism. Moreover, urban people of Mysuru are still
unaware that they are daily exposed to vehicular air pollution and it may cause problem to their health

Estimation of Vehicular Emissions

The daily emission estimate of a compound generated by automobiles is calculated merely
from vehicular aspects such as number of vehicles and distance traveled. It was estimated using the
following formula (Fauzie and Venkataramana, 2016; Kumari et al., 2013; Ramachandra and
Shwetmala, 2009; Goyal , 2007).
௡ ௡

‫ܧ‬௜ = ෍ ෍൫ܰ௜௝ × ݀௝ × ݂௝௞ ൯ (1)

௝ୀଵ ௞ୀଵ
where, subscripts i represent the location of study, j is the respective vehicle category, and k is the
respective emitted compound.
Ei = daily emission in location i (g or mg).
Nij = number of registered vehicle category j in location i.
dj = distance traveled by respective vehicle category j daily (km).
fjk = emission factor of compound k for vehicle category j (g/km or mg/km).

In this study, vehicles are differentiated into six categories namely two-wheelers (2W), three-
wheelers (3W), four-wheelers (4W), buses, light commercial vehicles (LCV), and heavy commercial
vehicles (HCV). Emission factors of different compounds were determined according to the different
types of vehicles. The factors were taken as average values of emission factors for Indian vehicles
measured by The Automotive Research of India (ARAI, 2008). Apart from emission factors of five
major conventional compounds namely carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxides of
nitrogen (NOX), total hydrocarbon (HC), and particulate matter (PM) that are expressed in g/km,
emission factors of other trace organic compounds like benzene (Bzn), 1,3-butadiene (Btd),
formaldehyde (Fmd), acetaldehyde (Acd), total aldehyde (TAd), and total polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons (PAH) were also measured and expressed in mg/km.
The emission estimates are calculated as per daily period. The distance traveled by vehicles
per a period of time is usually determined by the annual average value of vehicle utilization. For this
purpose, the annual utilization of vehicles should be converted into daily utilization; hence the values
of 17, 92, 35, 274, 173, and 158 km per day are used as assumptions to denote the daily distance
traveled by two-wheelers, three wheelers, four wheelers, buses, LCVs, and HCVs, respectively
(Harish, 2012; Ramachandra and Shwetmala, 2009).

Results and Discussion

Population Status and Projection
Mysuru will be the second largest city in the state of Karnataka in which it has 1 014 227
populations as per 2011 census (DCOK, 2014) or about 80% of taluk populations (Fig. 1a). The district
of Mysuru itself has a total population of 3 001 127 (2011). Recently, the distribution of population is
more congested in the city in which 1 245 413 persons are now living in densely urban area of the
district and the remaining 1 755 714 persons still settle in rural area. It means that almost half of the
district population lives in the overcrowding city. As the city is being well-connected to other less
developed taluks and districts surrounding the city through a branched national and state highways as
well as rail network, it is postulated that population in Mysuru city will grow rapidly due to faster rate
urbanization (Udayashankara et al., 2015).
The projected population is assessed using trend method based on working out the trend of
population growth experienced during the past by a statistical analysis (MUDA, 2016). It is assumed
that growth rates at the previous (2001) and existing decades (2011) would continue during the
upcoming decade (2021) up to the design period (2031). Population in future decade (2041) has also

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been projected. Figure 1b shows the increasing trend per each decade. The increasing growth of
population number in the existing and future status supporting by the high population density in the
city clearly explains that impacts of urbanization and population booming will become threatening
problem in future for the land use and environmental condition of Mysuru area.

Urban Transport Planning

The information regarding urban transport planning of Mysuru was collected from Mysuru
Urban Development Authority (MUDA). Urban city of Mysuru occupies a total area of 50 904 ha. The
existing land use pattern of the city shows that the residential area is now occupying 7881 ha or
15.48% of the total area. The dominant other uses are the traffic and transportation use that
accounting for 4141 ha (Prabhuraj et al., 2013).
The continuous development of infrastructures in Mysuru shows high important status of the
city in the region which attracts many people coming from other cities, either for business, educational,
commercial, or just for sight-seeing visit. The mixing up of different classes of vehicles and their
increase has had its remarkable effect on the speed and capacity of the road. The city road network
which was basically planned for slow moving vehicles and leisurely way of life has not been able to
cope up with the increase in vehicle population. The above factors have tremendously resulted in
overcrowding of the roads, traffic jams and delay to road users.
Recently, the existing road links in Mysuru city comprise a system of both grid and radial
pattern road network which emanate from the city center towards the other urban center in the region.
The grid pattern road network consists of arterial, sub-arterial, collector, and other important roads,
whereas the radial pattern road network comprises the three layer ring roads namely inner,
intermediate, and outer ring road including service road (MUDA, 2016). It was observed that business
trip or movement of freight among adjoining states using road vehicles usually crosses the city via
national and state highways. Therefore, the interstate traffic which has no purpose entering the city
can now use the outer ring road and the new proposed peripheral road links, in combination with the
new dedicated express highway, to allow fast movement and to avoid traffic congestions in the core of
the city (MUDA, 2016).

Vehicle Traffic and Distribution

The information regarding number of vehicles registered in Mysuru district was collected from
Road Transport Office (RTO) of Mysuru from 2010 to 2015. It is evident that number of registered
vehicles in Mysuru has been growing steadily from 2010 to 2015 (Table 1). According to the figure,
there is more than 130% increase in total vehicles registered in the district during five years, and this
was dominated by the personalized vehicles consisting of two-wheelers and four-wheelers. It may be
observed that number of two-wheelers grows at relatively faster rate than other vehicles. At this
growth, there will be a further increase in vehicular density in the upcoming years and it will have an
effect on the traffic conditions and on the public air quality.
Personalized modes of transport constitute the major proportion of vehicles in the city. Two-
wheelers hold the highest share at around 81%, followed by four-wheelers at 13% of total vehicle
number in the district. The growth of other types of vehicles including the three-wheelers and
commercial vehicles remains stable with only little increase. In contrast, buses showed a decreasing
share from 0.6% in 2012 to 0.2% in 2015. The transport mode in India reflects the same preponderant
share of two-wheelers at 73.5% of total vehicle population in 2015, followed by four-wheelers at
13.6%, and the similar lowest share of buses at only 1% (MRTH, 2017).
The high dependence of Mysuru residents on using personalized vehicles rather than public
transports could be bad sign for the city’s transport management. Even though Mysuru has already an
inter-city and intra-city suburban public transport system using bus albeit not very robust. Inefficiency
of the bus transport system, including less area covered by bus routes and less frequency of bus fleet,
as well as less comfortable travel quality offered, becomes a reason for the individual to prefer use
private vehicles rather than buses. Therefore, the mass rapid transit system is a good initiative for
reducing the dominance of private vehicles (Harish, 2013). However, in future if it is felt necessary,
Mysuru authority has planned to develop a monorail corridor connecting the city railway station to
many important places in the city (MUDA, 2016).

Air Quality Status

The air quality in Mysuru city has been monitored at two different in industrial area and
commercial area (Table 2). The trends in air quality shows that SO2 and NO2 concentrations were
observed within the permissible limits of 50 and 40 μg/m , respectively, and there were no much
variation in the monthly concentrations. Only PM10 concentration showed undulating trend and at
some particular events closed to or even exceeded the national standard that stands at 60 μg/m .
However, if referred to the updated WHO guidelines that require PM10 at 20 μg/m (WHO, 2006), the
PM status may cross far away from the allowable limit.

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Monthly variation of PM concentration at industrial area shows alternating trend of increase

and decrease. In summer and monsoon season from March to August, it showed significant decrease,
but then it increased by the post-monsoon and winter season from September to February. Similar
results were also found at commercial area. This confirmed that seasonal variations such as
temperature, rainfall, wind speed, etc. may affect the level of air pollution, especially the PM status.

Vehicular Emission Status

The two-wheelers, despite they run only 17 km per day, but because they have high number
in traffic and highest HC and TAd emission factors, emit highest quantity of HC, Fmd, and Tad (Table
3). The 2Ws also emit significant quantity of toxic CO and HC compounds. In Delhi the 2Ws are the
main contributor of CO emissions of about 61% (Goyal et al., 2013). Poorly maintained vehicles were
also likely to emit more CO. Another important reason is due to some models of 2Ws in India still use
two-stroke engine design and the population of such type may still be high, about 30% of total 2Ws
population in Delhi case (Kumari et al., 2013). The 2S engine allow more partial burning of fuels
instead of completely full burning, thus emit more CO and unburned HC. Emission factor
measurement conducted by ARAI (2008) suggested that 2S 2Ws generate CO 2 to 5 times and HC 4
to 5 times higher than such generated by the 4S types. Therefore, it is recommended for the
Government to consider the phasing out of the 2S engine vehicles (Harish, 2012).
The three-wheelers, due to their less number registered in the city, emit the lowest total
quantity of compounds. The 3Ws have less emission factors, less travel distance, and less fuel
consumption than buses; therefore, 3Ws contribute lesser emissions to the ambient air as compared
to buses. Similarly, the four-wheelers travel only short distance in a day. The 4Ws also have low
emission factors of certain pollutants, particularly the lowest in CO, HC, Fmd, Acd, TAd, and PAH.
Moreover, they also have the second low PM emission factor after the 2Ws. Because of their low
emission factors and short mileage, the 4Ws emit low quantity of traffic compounds to the atmospheric
air, particularly low emissions of HC, PM, Acd, and PAH.
Buses have the longest travel distance among others. Nonetheless, bus fleet number was the
lowest compared to other vehicles. Due to lowest number in the city traffic but longest mileage, buses
emit relatively less amount of HC and Btd, but relatively high amount of NOX and TAd. Moreover,
buses also emit considerable amount of CO2 and PM due to they use diesel engine with high fuel
capacity (>6000 cc) and high fuel consumption. LCVs also travel long distance in their daily journeys
and emit significant amount of pollutants to the roadway environment, about 400 Mg (or equal to 400
metric tons) per day in totals, particularly emit the highest quantity of trace organic compounds of Bzn,
Btd, and PAH. In addition, their CO2 and PM emissions are still considerably high. They only emit less
Acd and TAd.
HCVs emit the largest mass of CO, CO2, NOX, and PM compounds. About 40% of total CO
and CO2 emissions in the district were generated by HCVs, whereas emissions of NOX and PM by
HCVs are about 60% each. HCVs are also regarded as the biggest contributor of total traffic
emissions in Mysuru district, and among all pollutant composition CO2 holds the highest portion. This
is because diesel-fueled HCVs have the largest fuel consumption, thus the largest emissions of
automobile fuel combustion process. Diesel vehicles consume fuel about 300 metric tons per annum,
doubled the consumption of gasoline vehicles (Nesamani, 2010).
The current study very well explained that emission load of PAH was significantly higher
among other airborne organic pollutants, followed by such of TAd. High amount of PAH emissions to
the atmosphere has generated serious attention. CPCB has made a good initiative to include benzene
and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in its national standards (CPCB, 2011), as BaP is one of the widely-known
PAH compounds (WHO, 2000). It is also recommended to include the aldehydes as mandatory
parameter in the list of air quality standard and set for its allowable limit.
Biggest contributors of automobile PM emissions were the HCVs that use diesel power and
consume relatively more fuels. Fuel-wise emission analysis revealed that diesel is the main contributor
of NOX and PM emissions, while gasoline is the main contributor of CO and HC emissions. According
to US EPA, diesel vehicles contribute about 50% of the NOX and PM emissions to the ambient
environment (Goyal , 2007). In Delhi, HCV contributions to PM emissions are about 89% (Goyal et al.,
2013). The present study shows that diesel-fueled HCVs contribute nearly 60% to the mobile source
PM emissions in the city of Mysuru.
Total gas and particle emissions of automobile transport system in Mysuru district are about 2
Gg per day. This value consists of 1.98 Gg CO2, 37.3 Mg CO, 20.6 Mg NOX, 14.5 Mg HC, and 3.2 Mg
PM. These compound-wise values are certainly lower than the same of road traffic pollution measured
in other Indian metropolitan cities such as Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi, Jaipur, Kolkata, Hyderabad,
Mumbai, and Patna (Fig. 2). Bengaluru, for example, daily emitted 46.73 Gg CO2, 698 Mg CO, 486 Mg
NOX, 256 Mg HC, and 67 Mg PM, or total 48.2 Gg pollutants per day in 2015. In 2002, Delhi was the

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highest contributor of automobile emissions among all Indian cities, while Bengaluru was the second
at that time (CPCB, 2010).
The recent number of registered vehicles in India was obtained from the Road Transport Year
Book 2015 (MRTH, 2017). By analyzing the data, it can be estimated that pollution load from road
transport sector in all over Karnataka state are measured in the order of 208.56 Gg CO2, 3.23 Gg CO,
2.56 Gg NOX, 841.41 Mg HC, and 358.84 Mg PM, or total 216 Gg air pollutants per day, whereas in all
over India are measured in the order of 2.64 Tg CO2, 42.48 Gg CO, 32.23 Gg NOX, 11.35 Gg HC, and
4.61 Gg PM, or total 2.73 Tg air pollutants per day. By the current status obtained from the findings of
this study, it may be stated that Mysuru contributed roughly 0.08% to the Indian road transport
emissions and 0.95% to the road transport emissions in Karnataka state.

Annual average measurement of air pollutants including SO2, NO2, and PM conducted in the
industrial and commercial area of Mysuru city showed values within the national ambient air quality
standards, except for the PM quality that at some events approaching or even exceeding the
permissible limits. The concentration of pollutants varies with season, outdoor temperature, wind
speed, vehicular density, industrial and commercial activities, etc. Since there is still a probable
increase in urbanization, industrialization, and motorized transportation that may contribute towards
the emissions of pollutants, it is recommended for the local environmental authority to apply a stricter
air quality standard, especially for the PM, and to include more number of toxic organic and inorganic
pollutants to the list.
The study shows that the current growth of automobile number and emissions in Mysuru city
threatens the ambient air quality, especially the PM status. The outcome of the study confirmed that
diesel commercial vehicles are the biggest contributor to the emission of pollutants to the ambient air.
The vehicles’ emission factors, types of fuel, daily utilization of vehicles, and traffic density are among
the contributing factors to affect the quantity of emissions. There is also an ever increasing use of
personalized vehicles among the city residents. Therefore, an immediate proper planning in the
transportation system and reduction of air pollution emission should be taken to avoid the further
effects on the health status of the residents in the city.

Authors are thankful to the Karnataka State Pollution Control Board (KSPCB) and the Road
Transport Office (RTO) Mysuru for providing air quality and vehicle registration data, respectively.

 ARAI, 2008. “Emission factor development for Indian vehicles” as a part of Ambient air quality monitoring
and emission source apportionment studies. The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune.
 Balakrishnan, K., Ganguli, B., Ghosh, S., Sankar, S., Thanasekaraan, V., Rayudu, V.N., Caussy, H., HEI
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Environment & Forests, Government of India, Delhi.
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PROBES/136/2010. Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of
India, Delhi.
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Census Operations, Karnataka.
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Environ. Sci. 11(1), 78–86.
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wheelers and other commercial vehicles on the ambient air quality of Delhi. Centre for Atmospheric
Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi.
 Goyal, P., Dhirendra, M., Kumar, A., 2013. Emissions of criteria pollutants from vehicular traffic in Delhi ,
India. J. Environ. Res. Dev. 7(4A), 1693–1702.
 Harish, M., 2013. Urban transport and traffic management - For sustainable transport development in
Mysore city. Int. J. IT Eng. Appl. Sci. Res. 2(3), 86–92.
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Chem. 1(2), 227–233.
 Kumari, R., Attri, A.K., Panis, L.I., Gurjar, B.R., 2013. Emission estimates of particulate matter and heavy
metals from mobile sources in Delhi (India). J. Env. Sci. Eng. 55(2), 127–142.
 MRTH, 2017. Road Transport Year Book 2013-14 and 2014-15. Open Government Data (OGD) Platform
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Environ. 408, 1800–1811.

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1.4 3.0


1.2 Urban 2.5

0.2 0.5

0.0 0.0

MYS NJG TNP HSR HDK KRN PRP 2001 2011 2021 2031 2041
(a) (b)

Fig. 1. (a) Number of population in different taluks of Mysuru district as per 2011 census and (b) its projection up
to 2041 calculated by using trend method.

Table 1. Number of different types of vehicles registered in Mysuru district from 2010 to 2015.

Vehicle Total
2W 3W 4W Bus LCV HCV
type number
2010 25 891 296 5 873 207 799 316 33 381
2011 41 376 689 7 096 193 1 402 1 187 51 943
2012 46 876 550 8 191 353 1 655 1 399 59 024
2013 51 092 543 7 770 259 1 463 1 403 62 530
2014 61 188 571 8 611 170 1 375 1 542 73 457
2015 64 573 818 8 896 134 1 847 1 446 77 714
Total 290 995 3 466 46 437 1 315 8 541 7 293 358 049

Table 2. Annual average of SO2, NO2, and PM10 concentration (µg/m ) in Mysuru.

Industrial area Commercial area

SO2 NO2 PM10 SO2 NO2 PM10
2010 10.34 28.22 82.25 10.98 28.46 93.00
2011 11.04 22.00 95.50 11.07 23.79 98.83
2012 10.07 22.85 71.33 10.81 22.92 71.50
2013 10.70 22.33 61.83 10.71 22.96 57.42
2014 12.00 23.08 65.67 11.77 23.05 59.00
2015 10.56 22.24 37.19 11.57 23.17 58.57
standard 50 40 60 50 40 60

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Table 3. Daily emissions of different compounds released by different types of vehicle in Mysuru district in the year 2015.

Emissions, kg Emissions, g
1,3- Formal- Acetal- Total Total Emissions,
CO HC NOX CO2 PM Benzene kg
Butadiene dehyde dehyde Aldehyde PAH

2W 14 171 9 425 686 139 874 168 121 27 95 54 609 2 802 164 327

3W 919 581 125 26 894 50 22 2 8 10 201 316 28 569

4W 2 566 538 691 223 436 68 216 61 28 4 123 206 227 299

Bus 2 101 579 3 315 279 784 335 130 5 28 10 275 559 286 114

LCV 2 982 1 635 2 530 392 454 725 229 139 64 8 117 5 537 400 332

HCV 14 534 1 723 13 293 919 100 1 841 14 14 88 11 127 4 922 950 498

Total 37 273 14 480 20 641 1 981 542 3 186 732 247 311 97 1 452 14 343 2 057 139

oad transport pollution load (metric tons per day) in several Indian cities.
Fig. 2. Road

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