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CHAPTER 2

Review of Related Literature

This chapter will present the studies and literature taken from books, PDF files, published

newspaper articles and journals which the researcher have gathered in order to provide information

regarding the lesson being studied.

The issue regarding the conditions of Overseas Filipino Workers in Kingdom of Saudi

Arabia. This bilateral agreement started in 2013 signed in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,

Ratified by the Republic of the Philippines side on July 2 2014 and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

side on November 5 2014.

Every year, an unknown number of Filipinos in Saudi Arabia are "victims of sexual abuses,

maltreatment, unpaid salaries, and other labor malpractices," because of Religion according to

John Leonard Monterona, the Middle East coordinator of Migrante, a Manila-based OFW

organization. Some Filipinos are attracted and transported to Saudi Arabia illegally, where they

are left stranded without work. Between January and August 2008, approximately 800 throughout

the country sought help at Migrante chapters, and 922 others were deported to the Philippines in

the first three months of 2008 after overstaying their visa requirements. At one point in early 2008,

103 Filipinos stranded in Jeddah lived in a tent camp under a bridge before being able to be

processed for deportation.


How is the working conditions of the Filipino in abroad?

Employment conditions abroad are relevant to the individual worker and their families as

well as for the sending country and its economic growth and well being. Poor working conditions

for Filipinos hired abroad include long hours, low wages and few chances to visit family. Women

often face disadvantages in their employment conditions as they tend to work in the elder/child

care and domestic.

These occupations are considered low skilled and require little education and training,

thereby regularly facing poor working conditions. Women facing just working conditions are more

likely to provide their children with adequate nutrition, better education and sufficient health.

There is a strong correlation between women's rights and the overall well being of children. It is

therefore a central question to promote women's rights in order to promote children's capabilities.

According to CNN, Duterte vows a better life to the OFW’s in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,

our Philippines president promised to pass the legislations that would really improve the OFW’s

lives more better than before. He visited Saudi Arabia comes amid reported cases of abuse or non-

payment of salaries of Filipinos by their employers. And on April 2017, some 105 Filipinos who

were granted amnesty by Saudi Arabia arrived in Manila.


How many population of the OFW’s in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia?

Saudi Arabia was the leading country of destination among OFW (25.4%). Other

destinations of OFWs were United Arab Emirates (15.3%), Kuwait (6.7%), Hong Kong (6.5%)

and Qatar (5.5%)

There are more female OFWs than male OFWs, The proportion of OFWs was higher for

females (53.7%) than males (46.3%). The largest proportion of OFWs belonged to age group 30

to 34 years comprising 21.7 percent of all OFWs, followed by those aged 25 to 29 years with 20.4

percent. Female OFWs were younger compared to male OFWs. Higher percentage (24.1%) of

female OFWs were in the age group 25 to 29 years, while the male OFWs were reported to have

higher percentage (19.8%) in age group 30 to 34 years. There were more male OFWs than female

OFWs in age group 35 years and over.


In 2017, The Philippine government has been able to send home around 13,000 overseas

Filipino workers (OFWs) from Saudi Arabia as part of massive repatriation efforts. Overseas

Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA) based on what chief Hans Leo Cacdac said in the

interview that this number covers the workers repatriated in a span of one year and two months.

And our president Rodrigo ROA Duterte was on a trip in the middle east and met Filipino migrant

workers and when he returned in the Philippines he brought 138 stranded OFW’s from Kingdom

of Saudi Arabia.

Related Interests