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New Era University

College of Education

Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

Student’s motivation has always been an interesting research area for teachers,

school administrators and academicians. Success causes motivation and expectation

which also cause disappointments and fear of failure. Dornyei (2002) stated that the

learner’s enthusiasm, commitment and persistence were the key determinant of success

or failure. On the other hand, collaborative learning is an educational approach to

teaching and learning that involves groups of students working together to solve a

problem, complete a task, or create a product. According to Gerlach, "Collaborative

learning is based on the idea that learning is a naturally social act in which the participants

talk among themselves (Gerlach, 1994). It is through the talk that learning occurs."

The main characteristics of collaborative learning are: a common task or activity;

small group learning, co-operative behaviour; interdependence; and individual

responsibility and accountability (Lejeune, 1999). Collaborative learning is similar to, but

not the same as, cooperative learning.


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In cooperative learning the task is

divided vertically (i.e., members work more or less concurrently on different aspects of a

project), whereas in collaborative learning the task is divided horizontally (i.e., members

work together more or less sequentially on different aspects of a project) (Dillenbourg,

1999).

Proponents of collaborative learning claim that the active exchange of ideas within

small groups not only increases interest among the participants but also promotes critical

thinking. There is persuasive evidence that cooperative teams achieve at higher levels of

thought and retain information longer than learners who work quietly as individuals. The

shared learning gives learners an opportunity to engage in discussion, take responsibility

for their own learning, and thus become critical thinkers.

The focus of this study is to find why Grade-7 students in the New Era University

Integrated School are interested or motivated in collaborative learning in English in their

English language class and to reveal motivational factors that help students in achieving

good academic results in English.


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Theoretical Framework

The goal of this study is to find why Grade-7 students in the New Era University

Integrated School are interested or motivated in collaborative learning in English in their

English language class. This study used the theories developed as part of second

language acquisition by collaborative learning and motivation.

The diagram below the researcher employed is taken from the Human Motivation

by McClelland (1987).

Theoretical Framework

Figure 1.
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The theory of (learned) needs is one of the most ubiquitous and pragmatic in

personality and organizational scholarship. Developed by McClelland (e.g., 1961, 1975,

1985), needs theory contends that individuals are motivated by three basic drivers:

achievement, affiliation, and power. Winter (1992) argued that these needs not only

motivate individuals, but also include many of the most important human goals and

concerns.

Achievement Needs. McClelland’s (1961, 1985) need for achievement describes

a person’s drive to excel with respect to some established set of standards. Individuals’

achievement needs are satisfied when they are able to actualize their own purposes

relative to and regardless of the situations of others (Yamaguchi, 2003).

McClelland (1961, 1975, 1985) noted that individuals high in this dimension

differentiate themselves from others by their desire to perform at a more advanced level

than their peers. Students are learners who wants to attain success by learning and

experiences. Need for achievement plays an important role on the learner inner desire to

achieve/gain something. The stronger a student's’ desire to achieve things, the higher

possibility that they will perform an excellent job. High achievement needs motivate

individuals to seek relatively difficult vocations (McClelland & Koestner, 1992).


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Research indicated that individuals with high achievement needs are, generally,

more effective leaders (McNeeseSmith, 1999; Henderson, 1993, 1995). It can be applied

to education, wherein, if a teacher would show to his/her students how it will help them in

achieving what they need/desire.

This research contends that motivation on listening relates to achievement needs

such that those who want to maintain high marks and be considered credible leaders

must feel answerable for their performances in the future and that then seeking SLA

enhances the degree to which they can achieve.

Power Needs. The need for power denotes individuals’ desires to be influential.

This could manifest itself in attempts to make others behave, as one would like, or in a

manner that they might not have otherwise (McClelland, 1961, 1975, 1985)

Central to one’s need for power is gaining influence over others (McClelland,

1961, 1975, 1985; Robbins, 2003; Yamaguchi, 2003). Prior research indicated that

expression of power needs might have a mixed effect on how others are perceived

(McNeese-Smith, 1999; Henderson, 1993, 1995).


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For example, direct subordinates or learners/students member of the

group/organization often react negatively to student leaders or officers high in power

needs whereas teachers, school administrators and others more distal in the

organization view them more positively.

Affiliation Needs. The need for affiliation reflects the desire to have close, friendly,

relationships with others (McClelland, 1961, 1985; Robbins, 2003). Those high in this

dimension tend to spend considerable time seeking interactions with others (McClelland

& Koestner, 1992). Further, those with strong affiliation needs pursue team activities in

which interdependence and cooperation with others are paramount (Yamaguchi, 2003).

Affiliation needs have garnered relatively less critical scholarly attention than the other

two of McClelland’s needs theory (Robbins, 2003) but they still warrant discussion with

respect to motivation.

This research contends that motivation on collaborative learning relates to

affiliation needs such that those who are seeking interaction with others and spend time

in socialization. Most students are young learners and young adult/teenager learners who

have a priority on creating social relationship with their community especially in the

current generation. Thus, affect their learning motivation specifically in English class.

Most conversation/social interaction are through internet, apps, or web. They use one

common language, English. Students affiliation needs makes them to be interested to

SLA learning to fulfill their interaction needs.


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Conceptual Framework

This study focuses on Grade-7 students in the New Era University Integrated

School collaborative learning motivation to their English class. Motivation falls under

Affective Factors on which it is relating to or arising from feelings or emotions of someone.

In this paper, the researcher focuses on the collaborative learning motivation and why

students are motivated to their English class.

If the student is motivated to listen to English, she/he will reach the stage of learning.

Throughout this paper we will see what are the factors that can affect the students’

collaborative learning motivation in learning English Language.

Figure 1. Research Paradigm


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The paradigm (Figure 1) shows how the researcher conducted the study. Inputs

for the information about those areas were obtained from survey questionnaires given to

the respondents.

The output is generated from the review of related literatures and studies and the

synthesis of the gathered data. Through this, the researcher determined why Grade–7

Students in the New Era Integrated School interested or motivated on collaborative

learning to their English class or subject. Through the application of related literature and

studies and connected theory used in this research, further expanding the readers

comprehension on the motivation of the learners not just to listen but actively listen to

English in compliance to SLA.

Statement of the Problem:

This is a research on Why Grade-7 Students in the New Era Integrated School

Collaborative learning motivation to their English class conducted during the 1nd

semester of AY 2018-2019.

This study attempted specifically to answer the following questions:

1. What are the factors that motivate the students’ to perform collaborative activities?

2. What are the strategies used by the teacher to motivate the students in

collaborative learning?
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3. How effective are these strategies in

terms of:

a) students’ performance during instruction

b) students’ output

Assumptions

The researcher made the following assumptions:

1. There must be factors that influence the students to perform collaborative

activities.

2. The teacher must be using different strategies that motivate the students for

collaborative learning.

3. The teacher use strategies that thinks effective in terms of some areas of

students learning :

a) students’ performance during instruction.

b) students’ output
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SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The findings obtained from this study providing information about Grade–7

students’ collaborative learning motivation to their english teacher or english class.

This study was a significant endeavour in promoting the importance of listening to

acquire new concepts and information and be used in the future to their success.

The Students will be the main beneficiaries of the research. Within the

results, students would become more aware of what motivates them to perform

and understand what is discussed and how they can maintain their inner interest.

The Teachers, this information could be used as a guideline to develop

techniques to in order to improve students’ interest or motivation to activate their

collaborative skills. The study also helps teachers to better understand how to

motivate their students’ in collaborative learning and appropriate way for teaching

collaboration.

To Future Researchers, this may serve as bases for future related

researches focusing on the Motivation on collaborative learning of the students.

Scope and Limitations

This study focuses on Why Grade-7 students in the New Era Integrated School

collaborative learning motivation and in their English Language class or English teacher.
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The respondent, Grade 7 students in a

specific section and provided questioners to obtain the needed information. The selected

student were enrolled during the school year 2018-2019 at New Era Integrated School in

No. 9 Central Avenue New Era, Quezon City.

Definition of Terms

This section presents the definition of terms used in the study. The following terms

are defined to help the reader’s exactly understand the contents of this research. Some

definitions were operationally defined while some were conceptually defined based in the

use on the study.

Achievement behavior is defined as that behavior in which the goal is to develop or

demonstrate—to self or to others— high ability, or to avoid demonstrating low ability.

(Nicholls, 1984)

Affiliation was described as the tendency to receive gratification from harmonious

relationships and from a sense of communion. (Hill, 1987)

ESL is an acronym for English as a Second Language. English as a Second Language

(ESL),is an English language study program for non-native speakers. (ApplyESL.com)

Motivation as “the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviours.

Motivation is to know what makes people to work, whether it is performing a task, learning

a work method or anything.


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Methodology

1) Collaborative learning is helpful training for post-educational work.

 Strongly Disagree
 Disagree
 Undecided
 Agree
 Strongly Agree

Agree
6%
Disagree
16%

Strongly Disagree
78%

2) Overall, how positive were your collaborative learning experiences?

 Very Positive
 Positive
 Undecided
 Negative
 Very Negative
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10%

15%

Very Positive
Positive
75% Undecided

3) When working in collaborative learning groups or teams do you usually find yourself in
the position of leader?

 Yes
 No
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12%

Yes
No
88%

4) How easy or difficult has it been for you to communicate your thoughts or opinions to
the group?

 Very Easy
 Easy
 Unsure
 Difficult
 Very Difficult
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16%
27%
Very Easy
Easy
26%
Unsure
15%
Difficult
16%
Very Difficult

5) How easy or difficult has it been for groups you have worked in to agree on a time to
participate?

 Very Easy
 Easy
 Unsure
 Difficult
 Very Difficult
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10%

25%
Very Difficult
65% Difficult
Easy

6) In general, would you say groups that you have worked with have been very effective,
effective, not too effective, or not at all effective?

 Very Effective
 Effective
 Not too Effective
 Not at all Effective
 Don't Know

10%
10%
Very Effective
12% Effective
68%
Not at all Effective
Don't Know
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7) Overall, I really enjoy working


collaboratively with other students.

 Strongly Disagree
 Disagree
 Undecided
 Agree
 Strongly Agree

11%
20% Strongly Agree

69% Agree
Disagree

8) Collaborative learning has helped me understand true learning.

 Strongly Disagree
 Disagree
 Undecided
 Agree
 Strongly Agree

10%
5%
Strongly Agree
Agree
85% Disagree
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Conclusion

Collaborative learning is an enjoyable learning style, iyt gives the students will to

enjoy learning with their classmate, it is also makes the students learn from different

perspectives and problems that makes them think of a solution. Collaborative learning

makes the students critical thinkers and socialize with their peers, classmates, and finds

that helps them to boost their confidence in sharing their thoughts and ideas about a

certain topic.

Collaborative Learning is not always adequate in daily classroom practice. For

example, even though teachers organize different types of student groupings, they do not

always structure these group interactions to foster effective collaboration because of

culture differences. Collaboration has been applied in many classroom, mostly those have

bigger number of students, this has been used to promote learning from social learning.

Collaboration doesn’t make much sense when the end-goal of a project is that everyone

must learn exactly the same content. Collaboration thrives in environments where roles

are clearly defined. Whether a person is assigned a role, or a role is designated to meet a

need, it gives structure to the group. These roles give students an opportunity for growth

in two areas. The first is that they learn how to take ownership of a project. Without their

role, it will be hard or even impossible for the project to be completed successfully. Their

success equals group and project success. The second area is personal growth.

Collaborative learning should help students discover their own strengths as well as identify

areas that need work.