DEPARTMENT OF REAL ESTATE AND CONSTRUCTION THE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG

Course: Subject: Year/Semester: Topic: Name: UID: Date of Submission: Submitted to:

BSc(Surv) Construction IV (RECO2006) Year 2/Semester 2 Coursework Lai Cheuk Hang 2008263610 09th April, 2010 Dr. S.W. Poon

Investigate and appreciate the construction technology currently used in Hong Kong. You are required to select a topic for investigation.

Topic: Formwork

1

. ...12 Conclusion . . . ... . . ... . .. ... ...13 Reference . . .. .. ...13 2 ... .Content Introduction. .. . ... 11 Case study: The Belcher s ...5 Formwork systems .3 Construction method . 4 Formwork materials...8 Factors of choosing a formwork system ..

Case study of Hong Kong will also be investigated as an example of formwork construction. Concrete Formwork Systems 3 . 1 Awad S. 1 Concrete is molded into different size and shape according to the instructions. construction methods and comparisons will be examined in details. Hanna. The success of a construction project mainly depends on quality of formwork. The quality of concrete is determined by the quality of formwork materials and system employed.Introduction Formwork is defined as a temporary structure whose purpose is to provide support and containment fro fresh concrete until it can support itself. In this report.

After stripping a formwork. beams and slabs 6. Provide forms 5. This process is known as stripping forms.4 for walls. Formworks can be erected manually or by equipment. Hanna. This is important because the formwork has to be removed after concrete strength is developed. Place main reinforcement Stripping When concrete is placed and enough time is given.Construction method The detailed sequence of erecting a formwork varieswith situations. depending on the resources available for construction activities. The formwork has to be struck to continue construction activities. Repeat procedure 2. it should be cleaned and checked carefully. Erect scaffolding 3. it will be strong enough to avoid deflection by loads. Oil layer should also be added to steel forms to prevent rusting. 2 Logical sequencing of erecting formwork by Awad S. The agent can serve as a sealer to prevent moisture being absorbed by wood. A form release agent should be applied so as to prevent concrete from bonding with the formwork. Install reinforcement 4. The general sequence of erection is2: 1. Concrete Formwork Systems 4 . Forms can be reused if they are handled in proper ways.3. Set a template in place on floor slab to locate the column floor 2.

There is an increasing trend to use alternatives because of environmental concerns. materials are evaluated and their strengths and weaknesses are examined. Figure 1 Timber formwork (Retrieved from http://www. Figure 1 shows a timber formwork. 1. 2. They come from trees such as pines and firs.Formwork materials In this section.hk/CIVCAL/photos/AEB/small/p076. dimension lumber and timber.edu. and classified into three categories: Boards. while it is strong when grain is perpendicular to the support.jpg) Wood formworks are cheap and reusable. The concrete formwork made from plywood is called plyform. it requires labours to cut trees and supply woods. 5 . As shown in Figure 2 and 3 below.cityu. However. Plywood Plywood is made by combining thin layers of wood. it is weak when grain is parallel to the support. The strength of forms depends on orientations of plywood. Wood Wood or lumber is the most common material for construction in Hong Kong.

cityu.jpg) 6 .Figure 2 Weak orientation Figure 3 Strong orientation 3. Figure 4 shows a steel formwork.hk/CIVCAL/photos/harmony/small/hb031. Figure 4 Steel formwork (Retrieved from http://www. Steel Steel is another common material used for formwork construction.edu.The advantage of using steel forms is that concrete placed on steel forms has a smooth surface.

It can form flexible and complex shapes.4. Glass-Reinforced Plastic (GRP) The use of GRP has been increasing rapidly as it is light. 7 . highly reusable and rigid. Aluminium The use of aluminium is becoming more popular to construct lightweight formworks. Aluminium forms are approximately 50 percent lighter than steel forms. the major concern for using aluminium is corrosion. But the cost of GRP is relatively higher than other materials. However. 5.

Figure 5 shows a flying formwork in a multi-storey building construction. Flying formwork system Flying forms are erected and moved without stripping. Forms consist of wood materials such as plywood and timber and set up piece-by-piece in-situ.jpg) 8 . It is not durable as wood tends to have lower strength than metal. Conventional metal system Aluminium and steel are used for metal systems. Joists and stringers are made of metals and supported y scaffold-type shoring. Its operation is similar to conventional wood system. Wood system should be cleaned when it is stripped after concrete is placed.com/pages_products/products_images/adjust_truss2. The system is not economical as it is very labour intensive.Formwork systems Formwork systems can be categorized into horizontal and vertical formwork systems.efcoforms. beams and foundations. Figure 5 Flying formwork (Retrieved from http://www. The advantages of flying forms of are time-savingand not labour-intensive. Horizontal formwork systems are used to support horizontal concrete work such as slabs. 2. Conventional wood system This system is mainly used for formworks of slabs. 3. They are commonly used for multi-storey buildings with repetitive structures. 1.

Conventional wall formwork system The system is made of plywood to retain concrete until it develops enough strength to support itself. It is one of the most popular formwork systems because it is cost-effective and productive.The formwork is strippedonce the concrete strength is developed.jpg) Vertical formwork systems are used to support vertical structures such as columns and walls.uk/images/Abito-TForm-2006. Figure 6 shows a tunnel form construction. 1. Tunnel forming system Tunnel forming system is a modular formwork that consists of walls.4. ceilings and floors.org. Figure 6 Tunnel forming (Retrieved from http://www. Figure 7 shows a wood formwork system sketch.sustainableconcrete. It is suitable for repetitive projects such as hotels. Figure 7 Conventional wall formwork systems 9 .

Jump forms Where no floor is available to support wall formwork. Figure 8 shows a jump form system. jump form system is employed.2.jpg) 10 .cityu.edu. Figure 8 Jump form system (Retrieved from http://www.hk/CIVCAL/photos/concord/photo_2. It is commonly used in Hong Kong for constructing public housing estates as it is cost-effective.

Factors of choosing a formwork system There are myriads of factors for consideration before choosing a formwork system. They include: Architectural and structural designs Interior layout Headroom Speed of construction Accessibility to the site Number of reuse Capital Equipment availability Safety Experience 11 .

which is very important because the site is located in Pokfulam.Case study: The Belcher's The development situates on a sloped site in Pokfulam. Figure 9 and 10 show the conventional wood formwork system employed. The use of lifting equipment can also be minimized. Owing to the irregularity in the layout as well as the use of large amount of short-span slabs and shear walls. where slopes can be found easily. 12 . timber formwork should be chosen since it is operated manually. Figure 9 Irregular shapes of designs Figure 10 Conventional wood formworks in The Belcher s From my observation and knowledge. manual timber formwork system was adopted. wood formwork system is the most suitable system in this case. The architectural designs are quite complicated. In order to gain the benefit of flexibility.

London: E & FN Spon 13 .S. Correct selection of method lies on the unique nature of each project. Concrete Formwork Systems. 3. New York: Longman Inc. Michael P. New York: Marcel Dekker. A right formwork system can lead to success of a construction project. Hanna (1998). Lee (1997). Thus. (1024 words) Reference 1.W. Awad S. McAdam and G.Conclusion There are many formwork systems in construction industry. Formwork. Formwork A Practical Guide. P. 2. Hurst (1983). Inc. it should be chosen carefully.

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