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Final Exam Review Sheet - International Studies 11/Anthro 41a

Spring 2018

Final Exam –Mon., June 11, 2018 from 7:00 pm–9:00 pm

Please bring scantron form #F 288 and a couple of sharpened #2 pencils and an
eraser to the exam. Also bring your current UCI picture ID or a valid state picture
ID or a valid passport.

The professor will be holding extended office hours before the final exam from 5:00 pm – 6:30

READINGS - You are responsible for having completed all of the Broken Spear’s
book, Blaut’s ch. 4 and Weber’s chs. 1, 2, 3 & 5 (please be sure to read the Weber
summary posted online before reading the specific Weber chapters) for the final

Fall of Aztec & Incan Empires Led to an influx of enormous amounts of wealth into
Europe. Spain become first European “superpower”
with Emperor Charles I as its ruler. Disease is one of the
primary reasons that these American empires fell to the
Spanish conquistadors. Also, the Spanish were able to
make alliances with local groups (such as the
Tlaxcalans) who sent huge armies that gave the Spanish
a huge military advantage.

Hernando Cortez Leader of a Spanish group who left Cuba in search of a

route to China/India. (They thought Cuba was actually
in Southeast Asia). Cortez and his men arrived in
Mexico in 1519, the same year that a god, Quetzalcoatl,
was predicted to arrive in the Aztec astrological
calendar. The Aztecs thought Cortez might possible be
this god and sent him gifts. The Aztec Empire would
later be destroyed by Cortex and his Tlaxcalan allies (the
Tlaxcalans had an army of 149,000 and they hated the
Aztecs) after the Aztec population had been devastated
by European diseases.

Reasons for Aztec Conquest There are a number of reasons that the Aztec Empire fell
to the Spanish. Some of the key reasons include the fact
that due to the timing of Cortez’s arrival, the Aztec’s did
not initially attack him but rather gave him gifts of gold
and welcomed him into their capital (due to the
Quetzalcoatl legend). After Cortez and his men fled the
Aztec city, the Aztecs themselves lost over 75% of their
population due to European diseases. When Cortez
returned months later, he had a huge army of Tlaxcalans
who laid siege to the city for 80 days and starved many
of the remaining Aztecs.

Eurocentric Economy Blaut argues that with the conquest of the Americas,
Europe gains a huge economic advantage relative to
other parts of the globe. The global economic center
shifts from the Indian Ocean to Europe, especially as
Europe uses its American wealth to gradually take
control of the trade centers in the Indian Ocean region.

Ming Dynasty and Admiral Zheng He The Mongol (Yuan) Dynasty of China that had been
established by Kublai Khan in the 13th century was
overthrown about a century later by the Ming dynasty.
The Ming dynasty was found by a peasant rebel who
overthrew the Mongols in 1368 and became known as
the Hongwu Emperor. The early Ming emperors
generally rejected the negative view of merchants
promoted by Confucianism and expanded trade
throughout China and Asia during the late 1300s and
early 1400s. The Ming dynasty also established a huge
Chinese naval fleet that explored the Indian Ocean,
sailed to Africa and protected merchants from piracy
especially so under the leadership of Admiral Zheng He.
Due in part to the huge navy built by the Ming, China
became a global superpower at this time and maintained
the largest navy in the world in the early 1400s as well
as an enormous army. China also signed treaties and
created military and economic alliances with 36 other
kingdoms in thoughout SE Asia and around the Indian
Ocean during the reign of the second Ming Emperor
known as the Yongle Emperor. However, after the
deaths of Emperor Yongle and Admiral Zheng He the
Chinese navy fell into decline. The Ming dynasty,
facing ongoing struggles against the Mongols (who were
hoping to retake the throne) lost its focus on external,
international relationships. When The Portuguese and
other Europeans begin to appear and take colonies in the
Indian Ocean in the 1500s, the Ming dynasty no longer
maintained a significant navy that would have been able
to halt the growth of European colonialism in the region.

Protocapitalism to Capitalism Blaut argues that the new wealth from the Americas
allows Europe to develop a growing middle class who
will take political power for themselves and will
ultimately develop the feudal states of Europe into a set
of “capitalist” states.

Max Weber & Rise of Capitalism Unlike Blaut, Weber argues that the wealth flowing into
Europe from the American colonies was not enough in
itself to cause Europe to end feudalism and develop
“capitalism.” Instead, Weber argued that people in
Europe had to develop a set of moral ideas/beliefs
whereby they believed that it was acceptable to
overthrow the traditional rulers (kings, nobility, pope)
and insist that the middle classes hold political power.
Weber further noticed that the transition to capitalism
happened in Europe first in the Protestant nations, then
later in the Catholic nations. Therefore, Weber argues
there must be something about Protestant attitudes that
encouraged the development of capitalism.
Weber stated that it was the Protestants who first
started challenging the power of the traditional rulers
(popes, then kings and other nobility) and their beliefs
would pave the way for a new capitalist state system that
would replace the traditional feudal/tributary system.

Protestants – 3 Key Groups Protestants believe that the pope is not God’s
representative and “protest” the pope’s claim to
authority. Martin Luther produced the first wave of
Protestants. King Henry VIII of England created a
second wave of Protestants when he declared England
was no longer Catholic (became Anglican) and was not
subject to the pope’s authority so that he could divorce
his first wife. Henry VIII also became incredibly
wealthy by confiscating all church property for himself.
The third and most radical wave of Protestants was led
by John Calvin who claimed that not only Christians not
have to obey the pope but they could also disobey any
kings who were “ungodly.” John Calvin also claimed
that the rising middle class were God’s elect and they
had a right to hold political power. (Pietists refer to a
later movement among Lutherans that were more ascetic
and influenced by Calvinism than mainstream

The Habsburg Myths The Hapsburg (or Habsburg) family had a number of
religious and mystical claims about the special nature of
their family. They claimed to be descended from the
royal family of ancient Troy and from Julius Caesar and
Caesar Augustus. The Habsburgs claimed to be chosen
by God to prepare the way for the Kingdom of Heaven
and Christ’s Second Coming. They claimed their family
was destined to rule over all. Emperor Frederick III’s
personal motto was A.E.I.O.U. (Frederick was the
great-grandfather of Charles V). The family also
believed astrology supported their destiny to become a
family of global Christian rulers.

Martin Luther Posted the 95 Theses on his church door in

Wittenberg, Saxony on Oct. 31, 1517. His 95 Theses is
credited a marking the beginning of the Protestant
Reformation. This reformation was part of a process of
political and social change in Western Europe that would
eventually undermine feudalism and create modern
nation-states based on capitalist economic relationships.
Martine Luther was taken to trial in front of Emperor
Charles for his religious teaching at the Diet of Worms.
With help from the Duke of Saxony, Luther would
escape any punishment from Emperor Charles, but the
emperor would declare Luther to be an outlaw. Luther,
however, would continue to thrive and he developed a
large following both during his long life and afterwards.

Duke Frederick of Saxony The Duke of Saxony rescued Martin Luther from a
likely execution sentence from Emperor Charles at the
Diet of Worms (1521) - Luther had refused to recant his
criticisms of the Pope and the Catholic Church (his 95
Theses). Frederickaranged for bandits to “kidnap”
Luther and hide him form the emperor and the pope for
several years in Wartburg Castle. While in hiding,
Luther translated the New Testament portion of the
Bible into German and sent it out for mass publication
(which was illegal at the time).

Martin Luther’s Challenge Challenged the Sale of Indulgences and the Doctrine of
Transubstantiation. Emphasized Rationality over
Mysticism and Faith & Conscience instead of Rituals &
Sacraments. Luther challenged the supremacy and
power of the Pope over the Church and claimed that
every person could commune directly with God without
the need of clergy or priests. He claimed that study of
the Bible was the preferred way of learning about God.
Luther would be excommunicated from the Catholic
Church for his teachings. His followers would also be
expelled from the Catholic Church and become known
as "Lutherans."
(Luther translated the New Testament portion of the
Bible into German while hiding in Wartburg Castle).

Emperor Charles I & V 1500-1558 Emperor Charles I & V (he was known as Charles I in some parts of
Europe and Charles V in other parts of Europe) was a Holy Roman
Emperor and the most powerful European ruler in Western Europe since
the Fall of Rome in 476 AD - As defender of the Catholic Church,
Emperor Charles repeatedly tried to stop the Protestant Reformation
begun by Martin Luther in 1517. But Charles frequently found that
many of his princes sided with Luther against him. His aunt, Catherine
of Aragon, was the first wife of King Henry VIII of England. Charles V
put pressure on the pope not to approve Henry’s request to divorce
Catherine. However, Henry VIII divorced Catherine in 1532 without the
pope’s approval and split England from the Roman Catholic Church,
thus furthering the spread of Protestantism and forming the separate
Church of England (Anglican Church).
Emperor Charles abdicated the throne in 1556, shortly after signing
the treaty of Augsburg in 1555. He splits his empire and gives Spain, the
Netherlands and parts of Italy, The Philippines and the Spanish-
American colonies to his son, King Philip II of Spain, but the electors
award the eastern half of his empire to Charles' younger brother,
Emperor Ferdinand I.

Peasants’ War 1524 – 1526 This is the first major European uprising fueled by the Protestant
Reformation. Influenced by Luther’s teachings about authority, the
peasants rebelled against the nobility in many of the German provinces.
However, Luther himself does not support the peasants and urges the
German nobility to crush the rebellion. More than 100,000 German
peasants are killed.

Diet of Augsburg - 1530 Emperor Charles V tries to end Protestantism in the German states, but he
ultimately fails. He needs the help of the Protestant Princes to fight
Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Turkish ruler, who has invaded
Eastern Europe and has laid siege to Vienna.

Treaty of Augsburg – 1555 After decades of fighting with some of his own nobility over
Protestantism, Emperor Charles V finally grants religious tolerance to
Lutherana (but not Calvinists). This treaty largely resulted because
Emperor Charles suffered a military defeat at the hands of the French
King, Henry II, who was assisted by German Protestant princes who
were angry with Charles’s suppression of Protestants. The religious
freedom established by this treaty maintains relative peace in the Holy
Roman Empire until renewed religious fighting breaks out in 1618.

Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) In 1555 Emperor Charles had been force to sign the Treaty of Augsburg
guaranteeing religious tolerance to Lutherans. However, in the early
1600s, the Hapsburg emperors once again antagonized the Protestants in
the Holy Roman Empire by permitting the religious persecution of all
Protestants and destroying Protestant churches. These emperors once
again claimed that the Hapsburg family had been chosen by God to defend
the Catholic Church and to prepare the world for Christ's return. The
actions of these emperors caused powerful Protestants to react by forming
the Evangelical Union (led by Protestant noblity) who fought against the
Hapsburg Emperor and the other Catholic Princes who ha dformed their
own union known as the Catholic League. The Thirty Years war begins in
1618 in the Holy Roman Empire but soon spreads to include all of
Western Europe except for Great Britain, Scotland and Ireland. Even
Sultan Osman II of the Ottoman Empire became involved, giving support
to the Protestants and fighting against the Catholics at certain points
during the war. By 1627, The Hapsburg Emperor Ferdinand II had
outlawed all forms of Protestantism within his Empire. This war finally
ends with the signing of the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648. The power of
both the pope and the emperor are dramatically reduced by the conclusion
of this war. In some parts of Europe, up to two-thirds of the population
died during the war. Over seven million Europeans are killed by the time
this war is over. Disease in Europe including plague is also rampant
during the war years. Fifty percent of all men in the Holy Roman Empire
have died by the time this war ends. The Thirty Years’ War ultimately
leads to end of feudal system in much of Europe. The old feudal order is
replaced by “sovereign” nation-states. The emperor and pope lost most of
their political authority.

The Peace of Westphalia – 1648 The Peace of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years War and establishes a
“modern” system of nation-states, each with their own sovereign borders,
independent rulers and religious and national identity. This is the final blow to
the feudal system and the Holy Roman Emperor is now only a figurehead with
very little actual power. He only retains any real political power over his
homeland of Austria. Each region within the empire is now politically
autonomous and recognizes the emperor in name only. Also, the pope’s power
is drastically reduced both politically and economically with the formal
recognition of Protestant European nations who do not recognize the pope as
having any authority and no nation is obligated to pay taxes to the pope.

Mercantilism - Protocapitalism Banking, Trade, Finance, were growing during the Middle Ages and this
resulted in growth of the middle classes – However, there would be no
full-scale capitalism until the bourgeoisie gain political power for
themselves in the new capitalist nation-states (such as what happened in
The Dutch Republic).

Bourgeoisie New Rising Middle Class forms as a result of colonialism and the
conquest of the new World. (New wealth pours in from exploitation in
Americas and other colonies). Empowered by the teachings of John
Calvin, the bourgeoisie will eventually seek and fight for political power
in western Europe. The establishment of the Dutch Republic as well as he
English Civil War (Puritan Rebellion) led by Oliver Cromwell and the
Glorious Revolution of 1688 are prime examples of the bourgeoisies’
challenge to and overthrow of the feudal system. .

Fears about Money Death of a Miser – Images of Hell. Money appears to reproduce
“unnaturally”. Rise of middle class wealth challenges the traditional feudal
social order. The new wealth of the middle classes is viewed as immoral.
This new money is initially seen as evil and a threat to social morality and
stability. The charging of interest on loans is considered sinful/immoral.
The introduction of the use of the “zero” into European bookkeeping and
fears of zero as having devilish or evil connotations.

Henry VIII - (Anglican) Church of England The English King, Henry VIII (1491-1547), wants a
divorce from Catherine of Aragon. The pope, under
pressure from Emperor Charles V, refuses to grant the
divorce. (Catherine is the aunt of Charles V). Henry
divorces Catherine anyway in 1532 and, borrowing from
Martin Luther’s Protestant claims, creates a Church of
England that is free from the authority of the pope and
Henry places himself as the supreme head of this new
English Church. As a result, the English aristocracy
becomes incredibly wealthy because all the Catholic
Church’s lands, taxes and wealth throughout England now
become property of the English Crown.

King Edward VI (1537 – 1553) Edward VI comes to the throne in England at the age of 9 (in 1547)
after the death of his father, Henry VIII. Edward was the son of
Henry’s third wife, Jane Seymour. Edward kept England separated from
the Church of Rome and the pope’s power. Edward maintained his
father’s tradition by being recognized as the supreme head of the
Anglican Church. Edward died at the age of 15 and named his 17 year
old cousin, Lady Jane Grey, to succeed him. However, after ruling for
only 9 days Jane would be overthrown by Edward’s older half-sister,
Mary, and later executed at the Tower of London.

Mary I – (“Bloody Mary”) 1516-1558 After Henry VIII dies, his only son, Edward VI (son of Jane Seymour –
wife #3) becomes king. But Edward’s rule is short lived (1547-1553)
and after his death, Edward’s half-sister, Mary (the daughter of
Catherine of Aragon) uses military force to take the throne of England
in 1553. Mary has her cousin, Lady Jane Grey, beheaded for treason.
Mary marries the son of Emperor Charles V, Phillip II – King of Spain,
and together they reinstitute Catholicism in England. She is known as
“Bloody Mary” because of her religious persecution of Protestants in
Elizabeth I – 1533-1603 After Mary dies of cancer in 1558, her half-sister Elizabeth (daughter of
Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn – wife #2). Elizabeth reinstitutes
Protestantism in England. She reinstates the English royal prerogative as
supreme head of the Church of England. Although both the pope and
Phillip II of Spain make plans to forcibly reinstate Catholicism in
England, their plans are unsuccessful and England becomes a major
Protestant naval power during Elizabeth’s reign

Counter-Reformation Movements The Pilgrimage of Grace – Occurred in England in protest against

the closing of the monasteries caused by Henry VIII. Henry
killed the leaders.

The Spanish and Italian Inquisitions - These Inquisitions targeted

Protestants and tortured and killed them in an effort to stop the
spread of Protestant beliefs in Spain and parts of Italy

Dutch Republic – 1581 The Low Countries (largely consisting of today’s Netherlands and
Belgium) declared independence from the Spanish King Philip II (son of
Emperor Charles) with the "Act of Abjuration" declared on June 14,
1581. For the next six years, the Dutch searched for an alternative
monarch, even asking Elizabeth I of England to take the position as their
sovereign, but she declined (fearing Spanish retaliation). The "States-
General" then set up their own system of governance without any king or
monarch in 1587 and this confederation of states became a republic. .
The governance of the Dutch Republic was made up of both nobility and
the wealthy middle classes who formed a new ruling body known as the
"States-General." Both these groups were predominately Calvinists. The
republic was NOT a democracy but a meritocracy. The wealthy nobles
as well as capitalists passed laws promoting trade and business in their
mutual favor. The poorer classes were excluded from political power.
The first stock market in Europe was set up in the Dutch Republic. The
republic was clearly a modern capitalist, rather than a feudal, political
and economic system.

Spanish Armada - 1588 The Spanish Navy is sent to end Protestantism in England and the
Republic of the Netherlands. This armada is hit by a massive storm and
half of the fleet is sunk before it reaches the English and Dutch navies.
The surviving Spanish ships are defeated by Queen Elizabeth’s navy. As
a result, England becomes the most powerful naval force in Western
Europe and both England and The Dutch Republic remain Protestant and
free of Philip II’s rule.

“La Casta” System and Racial Inequality Mestizo – Castizo – etc., - As colonies were established in the
Americas, a new structure of inequality based on “race” emerged.
Persons with more European blood were considered socially and
legally superior to persons with more native American blood.
However, a person with even a tiny amount of African ancestry was
considered socially and legally inferior to all other groups. This idea
continued to flourish even after the decline of feudalism and became
part of the new structuring of ethnic identity and political worth that
was built into modern nation-states.

John Calvin – Calvinism John Calvin was born in France in 1509. He converted to the
Protestant beliefs as a young adult. Although he initially followed the
teaching of Martin Luther and the Lutheran Church, he eventually led
a new set of beliefs that became known as "Calvinism." Calvinism
promoted the following ideas which were not completely shared by the
Predestination – the “elect” of God – God has
preordained who will get into Heaven. Wealth is a sign of God’s
approval. Calvin’s ideas are very popular with the rising middle
classes (bourgeoisie) across Europe. Calvin settled in Geneva
Switzerland and became known as a major leader of the Protestant
reformation while living in that city. Followers of Calvin’s teaching
become known in England as “Puritans" and in France his followers
were known as "Huguenots." In other parts of Western Europe they
were generally referred to as Calvinists. The “Parable of the Talents”
was used by Calvin as a religious and moral justification for
accumulating large sums of wealth. Hard work and the
accumulation of wealth was viewed as a sign of God’s approval
(the “Protestant Ethic”). Calvin was NOT against the charging of
interest (usury) which had been considered sinful by most Christians
throughout the Middle Ages. Calvin also claimed that “ungodly
kings” should not be obeyed. (This notion began to lead to a popular
Protestant and Enlightenment view of “sovereignty by the people.”)
Calvinism spread rapidly across western Europe among the newly
rising middle classes and, according to the readings by Weber, were a
key force in shaping modern nation-states and their relationship to

Huguenots French Calvinists – They followed the teachings of John Calvin

and frequently challenged the power of the Catholic French
monarchy. Many Huguenots would flee France after thousands of
them became victims of a series of massacres known as the St.
Bartholomew’s Day Massacres approved by the French monarchy
This series of massacres began on Aug. 22, 1572 (St.
Bartholomew’s Day) the day after the wedding between King
Henry of Navarre (a Huguenot) and Princess Margot of France (aa
Catholic). The French Queen Mother, Catherine de Medici and her
son, the young King Charles IX of France, approved of the
massacre of thousands of Huguenots who had come to Paris for the
wedding of her Catholic daughter. This king-approved massacre
resulted in the death of thousands of Huguenots in Paris and
throughout France. Killings of Huguenots continued until October
3 of the same year. The pope sent a golden rose as sign of his
approval to the French King Charles IX and ordered that a “Te
Deum” or hymn of thanksgiving be performed. On hearing of the
Huguenot slaughter in France, King Philip II of Spain, son of
Emperor Charles, was said to have “laughed for the only time on
record.” Many of the surviving French Huguenots fled to The
Netherlands (where they would later help create the Dutch

Henri of Navarre - Henri IV of France. Henri of Navarre was famous for his Huguenot (French
Calvinist) beliefs and his marriage to the French Catholic
Princess Margot (Princess Marguerite de Valois) just prior
to the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre. Their marriage
was formally declared as the means to create peace between
Huguenots and Catholics in France, but tragedy followed.
This tragedy would become known as the St.
Bartholomew’s Day Massacre. Although Henry of Navarre
would be forced to renounce his Huguenot beliefs in favor
of Catholicism, he would eventually become King Henri IV
of France, he also issued the Edict of Nantes in 1598. This
edict allowed some protections for Huguenots in France but
favored Catholicism as the state religion. Ironically, Henry
IV would be murdered by a radical Catholic in 1610.
However, Henri IV’s grandson, Louis XIV (the so-called
“sun king”) would remove all Huguenot protection and
openly persecute them causing Huguenots to once again flee
Puritans and Pilgrims Puritans were unhappy with the Church of England (the Anglican Church). Even though
it is Protestant, the Church of England does not follow the teachings of John Calvin and it
is controlled by the English monarchy. Puritans, on the other hand, follow the teachings
of John Calvin and are unhappy with the monarchy’s power. Some Puritans, known as
Pilgrims, leave England, spend many years in the Dutch Republic and then finally settle
in North America in 1620 to establish their own colony (at Plymouth Rock) where the
Anglican Church cannot touch them.

English Civil War 1640 – 1659 Those Puritans who remain in England are unhappy with the rule of King
(Puritan Rebellion) Charles I. They want political power to go with their new economic power.
The Puritans, who are anti-King, go to war against the Anglicans who are pro-
king. Oliver Cromwell leads the Puritans to victory over the Anglican. The
Puritans take power in England and execute King Charles I (1649). Cromwell
rules as “Lord Protectorate” of England through the use of martial law (military
rule). Theater, alcohol, dancing and other worldly pleasures are forbidden to the
English public during the period of Puritan rule. The Protestant ethic becomes
law during this period. The English monarchy is eventually restored in 1660
when Charles II -son of the executed Charles I - is placed on the throne of
England and the Puritans lose their power over the nation.

Glorious Revolution 1688 – Rule of Bourgeoisie The English bourgeoisie strongly dislikes King James II of
England because he is Catholic. King James II gained the English
throne after his Protestant brother, King Charles II, died. The
English bourgeoisie gains political power and reshapes the nation-
state by inviting the Protestant princess Mary (who is the eldest
daughter of James II) and her Dutch husband William of Orange,
to bring a Dutch army and force James II off the throne. (In other
words, the daughter brings an army to remove her Catholic father
from the throne in order to place herself and her Dutch husband
on it). When Mary and the Dutch army arrived in England, King
James II was deserted by his own military who also disliked him
for being Catholic. James II fled to France. His daughter and her
husband took the throne. However, William and Mary’s powers as
king and queen of England are strongly limited by the Parliament
which is becoming increasingly controlled by the middle classes.
William and Mary are England’s first “constitutional monarchs”
which means that their powers are limited and controlled by laws
passed by the Parliament. A Bill of Rights is passed by
Parliament guaranteeing rights and the power to vote only to
wealthy, property owning, Protestant, English men.

Accumulation of Wealth Calvinists believe this was a sign of blessing or approval from
(John Calvin) God. The accumulation of wealth was a sign of being “God's
elect”. Those who work hard and make money are pleasing to God.
Those who are poor are lazy and immoral and will be punished by
God. This is the basis for what Weber refers to as “The Protestant

Max Weber – Weber’s book, The Protestant Ethic & The Spirit of Capitalism,
discusses the key issues mentioned below:

Protestant Work Ethic Calvinists believe that working and making money is pleasing
To God. Therefore they start working more (Lengthening of
Workweek). Dancing, sports, drinking music and other
distractions from work are considered sinful.

Piety and the Accumulation of wealth Although Calvinists believe making money is a way to serve God,
they also believe in being frugal and not wasting money on luxuries.
Therefore, they begin to accumulate large sums of wealth which they
believe is what God wants them to do

Protestant Discipline Work vs. Pleasure. Work is morally good and glorifying to God.
Making and accumulating money is a sign of God’s approval, but
don’t waste it on pleasure, luxury or other forms of sin. Calvinist
life centers around working and attending church.

Capitalism Bourgeoisie gains both political and economic power

Capitalist Laws –After taking power, the bourgeoisie favor the middle classes
and grant them political power, but continue to marginalize the lower classes
and women. First example of a European capitalist nation was the Dutch
Republic founded in 1581. Although it claimed to be a “republic,” the new
Dutch state only granted political power to wealthy white males. England
would do the same after the Glorious Revolution of 1688.

New Form of Nation-States Treaty of Westphalia 1648, national sovereignty, the end of the
tributary/feudal system, rise of individual, separate nation-states. National
religion declared for each individual state. Each nation was considered to have
permanent sovereign territories. Subjects were expected to be loyal to only one
government, the government who directly ruled over the nation in which they
lived. Each nation was associated with one single religion. These new nation-
states would become increasingly capitalist, mixing the interests if business and
finance with the interests of the state and political power would often
eventually be shared between the nobility and the bourgeoisie. Prime examples
of this would be the power of the States-General in the Dutch Republic and the
power of the English Parliament after the Glorious Revolution of 1688.

Please Be Sure to Complete All Assigned Readings for this Course!

Pre-Midterm Concepts
The Orient Express The European Miracle
History vs. Historiography
Myth of Tropical Nastiness Myth of Lazy Africa
Myth of Despotic, Arid Asia Myth of Temperate Europe
Criss-Cross Diffusion - Technology Myth of European Religious Unity
Myth of European Nuclear Family /Late European Marriages Myth of Rationality
Myth of European Technological Superiority - Myth of Advanced \European Society
Fall of Rome Byzantine Empire - Constantinople
Dark Ages/Medieval Period Baghdad – House of Wisdom
Cordoba Spain, Islamic Center in Europe Science and Learning in Islamic Empire
Mohammed Islam/The Koran
Cordoba, Spain Baghdad, Persia
Islamic Renaissance The House of Wisdom
The Crusades – Massacre in Jerusalem Saladin
The Great Chain of Being The Microcosmos//Macrocosmos
The Divine – The Celestial – The Terrestrial Humans reflect the cosmos
Astrology Influence of Planets and Stars
Feudal/Tributary System
King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella Columbus – 1492
The Divine Right of Kings Holy Roman Emperor Charles I & V
La Malinche Tenochtitlan – Emperor Montezuma
Quetzacoatl Legend Huitzilopochtli (Human Sacrifices)
Hernando Cortez (Cortes) Pedro de Alvarado
The Requerimiento Tlaxcala
Tezcoco Cholula Massacre
Massacre during Aztec Fiesta for Huitzilopochtli La Noche Triste (Night of Sorrows)
Smallpox Epidemic Seige of Tenochtitlan
Cuauhtemoc Surrenders – Aug. 13, 1521
Popes Sells Indulgences Purgatory
Indulgences used to build St. Peter’s Basilica & Sistine Chapel
The Reformation Martin Luther
95 Theses – Oct. 31, 1517 The Diet of Worms - 1521

Guiding Questions
These questions are designed to help you think about some of the key issues we have
covered in class and will be explored in the final exam.

• Explain the links between the rising of European middle classes, the Protestant
Reformation, Calvinism, the colonization of the Americas and the changes in political
power (from nobility to bourgeoisie) during the late 1500s and 1600s. How did these
events contribute to the rise of the modern-nation state and capitalism?
• How did the ideology of feudalism transform after the rise of the middle classes? What
sorts of new beliefs and ideals emerged to replace the old “Great Chain of Being?” (Thin
about Calvinist attitudes about moral worth and wealth). In what sense is the ideology of
political freedom or democracy at odds with the ideology of neoliberalism (or
• How did Calvinism promote economic success as a sign of moral virtue? Why did
Calvinists believe they should hold political power? How did this viewpoint contribute
to the rise of capitalist nation-states?
• How was the rise of capitalism tied to the rise of modern nation-states and the end of the
tributary system? How was capitalism tied to these new political formations? How did a
change in religious attitudes ultimately influence these political/capitalist changes? What
sort of new inequalities did (and does) capitalism tend to produce in nation-states?
• How were new kinds of inequality built into the newly formed capitalist "modern"
nation-states of the late 1500s and 1600s? How was this structured differently from the
inequalities found in feudalist or tributary systems? Did capitalism give political power to
everyone, or only those people who were considered “worthy” by virtue of their
economic positions? Why or why not?