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By:  Atty.  Edwin  M.  Carillo  

About  the  Lecturer  

Atty.  Carillo  is  a  Senior  Partner  of  the  Firm  of  Creencia  Carillo  and  Velasco.  He  once  
served  as  member  of  the  College  of  Examiners  in  the  2011  Bar  Examinations  that  handled  
Legal   Ethics   and   the   Skills   Examinations   for   Trial   Memorandum.   He   is   a   professor   of   law  
and  bar  reviewer  teaching  courses  like,  Political  and  Constitutional  Law,  Land  Registration  
Law,  Administrative  Law,  Legal  and  Judicial  Ethics,  Trial  Technique,  and  Legal  Forms  and  
Writing  for  over  two  decades  now.  He  served  the  government  as  an  Assistant  Government  
Corporate  Counsel  of  the  Office  of  the  Government  Corporate  Counsel,  an  agency  attached  
to  the  Department  of  Justice.  
Preliminary  Statement  
Based  on  the  official  syllabus,  this  year’s  Bar  Examinations  shall  have  a  
portion  on  Practical  Exercises  as  part  of  the  exams  on  LEGAL  ETHICS.  While  
this   has   always   been   a   part   of   previous   Bar   Examinations,   this   portion   was  
removed  in  the  2012  Bar  examinations  after  it  gained  prominence  in  the  2011  
Bar  Examinations  when  the  Bar  Chairman  opted  to  insert  a  skills  examination  
on  a  predominantly  MCQ-­type  exam  that  year,  asking  the  candidates  to  draft  
both  a  legal  opinion  and  a  trial  memorandum.    
This   year’s   Bar   Exam   syllabus   on   Legal   Ethics   lists   the   following   for  
Practical  Exercises:  
A.  Quitclaims  in  Labor  Cases;;  
B.  Simple  Contracts  –  Lease,  Sale  of  Realty  or  Personal  property;;  
C.  Promissory  Notes;;  
D.  Verification  and  Certificate  of  Non-­Forum  Shopping;;  
E.  Notice  of  Hearing  and  Explanation  (All  levels);;  
F.  Affidavits  –  Loss,  Change  of  Name,  Judicial  Affidavits;;  and,  
G.  Notarial  Certificates  –  Jurat  and  Acknowledgement  
Although  admittedly  this  could  determine  the  success  of  a  candidate,  its  
importance,   unfortunately,   is   often   brushed   aside   mainly   because   of   the  
examinee’s   fatigue   or   his   eagerness   perhaps   to   go   home   and   join   the  
merriment   happening   outside   the   exam   site.   Since   about   an   hour   shall   be  
devoted  in  the  preparation  of  three  to  four  documents  listed  above,  one  must  
be  reminded  to:  
2018  P.E.  Quick  Reviewer   2    
Atty.  E.  M.  Carillo  
  a.  WATCH  THE  TIME.    Time  is  of  the  essence.  Consequently,  only  the  
minimum  requirements  of  the  law  must  be  reflected  in  drafting  the  required  
  b.  AVOID  FANCY,  LONG,  AND  NEEDLESS  WORDS.  Simple,  concise  
and  grammatically  correct  statements  are  hallmarks  of  effective  legal  writing.  
More  importantly,  they  save  you  precious  time;;    
  c.  AVOID  ERASURES  as  much  as  possible  because  they  reduce  the  
impressiveness  of  your  work.  To  avoid  erasures,  do  your  pre-­work  (answer  
outline)  using  the  questionnaire  you  received.  Remember  that  nothing  comes  
between  YOU  and  the  EXAMINER  other  than  your  written  work.  Thus,  your  
work  should  mirror  not  only  legal  aptitude  but  also  neatness;;  and,  
  d.  PUT  A  DATE  in  all  the  legal  documents  that  you  will  draft  as  
  The  patterns  of  legal  forms,  i.e.,  Business  Legal  Forms  or  Judicial  Legal  
Forms  would  be  useful  here.  Familiarize  yourselves  with  their  respective  
patterns  to  save  you  time  when  drafting  any  of  them  during  the  examinations.    
An  affidavit  is  a  sworn  declaration  of  facts  known  to  a  declarant  or  affiant.    It  consists  
of  the  following  parts:  the  Venue  of  Execution,  Title,  Person’s  Bona  Fides,  the  Oath,  
Statement,  the  Signature  and  the  Jurat.  (Code:  VeTiPe-­OSta-­SiJu)  Of  all  these  parts,  the  
jurat  is  most  important  as  this  is  the  certification  of  an  officer  that  the  statement  was  sworn  
before  him.  Section  6,  Rule  II  of  the  2004  Rules  on  Notarial  Practice  (RNP)  defines  a  jurat  
as  an  act  in  which  an  individual  on  a  single  occasion:  
(a)  appears  in  person  before  the  notary  public  and  presents  an  instrument  or  document;;  
(b)  is  personally  known  to  the  notary  public  or  identified  by  the  notary  public  through  
competent  evidence  of  identity  as  defined  by  these  Rules;;  
(c)  signs  the  instrument  or  document  in  the  presence  of  the  notary;;  and  
(d)  takes  an  oath  or  affirmation  before  the  notary  public  as  to  such  instrument  or  
document.  (This  means  that  the  declarant  vows  under  penalty  of  law  to  the  whole  truth  
of  the  contents  of  his  statement.  Note  also  that  the  elements  of  a  jurat  are  connected  by  
a  conjunctive  “and”.    As  such,  each  one  act  should  be  reflected  in  the  jurat.)  
2018  P.E.  Quick  Reviewer   3    
Atty.  E.  M.  Carillo  
Check  out  the  following  sample  of  an  affidavit:  
Republic of the Philippines)
City of Manila ) S.S.


I, FERNANDO K. ROCO, of legal age, married, residing at 505 V.G.

Cruz, Sampaloc, Manila, state under oath that:

1. I own a car described as follows:

Make: Toyota Corolla 1987; Motor: EMC14356C

Serial/Chassis: CDC042094, File: 2345567E
Reg. Cert.: 4567EC, Plate: PPA 863

2. This car is registered in my name before the Land Transportation

Office in 2014 for which I was issued a certificate of registration.

3. This registration certificate was among those destroyed on 14 June

2015 when my entire house was razed by fire.

Manila, 6 June 2017.


SSS ID 5467887878

SIGNED AND SWORN before me this 6 June 2017 at Manila after │
affiant exhibited to me his competent evidence of identity stated above. │

Notary Public for Manila │
Suite 212 Burke Building, Escolta, Manila │Jurat
Commission Serial 54342 │
Until Dec. 31, 2018 │
Roll of Attorney 38718 │
PTR 56789; 1-12-17; Manila │
IBP 24680 1-12-17 Manila │
Doc. 12; │
Page 8; │
Book II; │
Series of 2017. ┘

*The  passport  number  is  indicated  here  as  a  competent  evidence  of  identity  defined  
under  Section  12,  Rule  2  of  the  2004  RNP,  which  provides:    
2018  P.E.  Quick  Reviewer   4    
Atty.  E.  M.  Carillo  
SEC  12.  Competent  evidence  of  Identity  –  The  phrase  “competent  
evidence  of  identity”  refers  to  the  identification  of  an  individual  based  on:  
(a)  at  least  one  current  identification  document  issued  by  an  official  
agency  bearing  the  photograph  and  signature  of  the  individual;;  or  
(b)  the  oath  or  affirmation  of  one  credible  witness  not  privy  to  the  
instrument,  document  or  transaction  who  is  personally  known  to  the  notary  
public  and  who  personally  knows  the  individual,  or  of  two  credible  witnesses  
neither  of  whom  is  privy  to  the  instrument,  document  or  transaction  who  each  
personally  knows  the  individual  and  shows  to  the  notary  public  documentary  
This  statement,  jointly  executed  by  the  mortgage  parties,  is  used  only  in  chattel  
mortgage  contracts  signifying  that  their  agreement  is  valid  and  not  for  fraud.  The  absence  of  
this  affidavit  can  render  the  contract  void.  This  is  a  favorite  form  among  examiners,  as  it  will  
require  examinees  to  accomplish  four  (4)  forms  in  one  question,  namely:  

WE, the undersigned parties, under oath declare that:

1. We are the parties to the foregoing Chattel Mortgage; and,

2.   We executed said mortgage in good faith to secure a valid

obligation not for the purpose of fraud.

(SGD.) Mortgagor (SGD.) Mortgagee

4.  (JURAT)  
Another  common  sworn  statement  is  the  corporate  or  partnership  certification.  
Corporations  produce  resolutions,  which  may  be  certified  either  by  the  Corporate  Secretary  
or  by  the  Board  of  Directors  itself.  Such  certifications  are  known  as  the  Secretary's  
Certificate  or  Directors’  Certificate,  respectively.  In  case  of  the  latter,  the  Directors  who  
actually  took  part  in  the  deliberation  of  the  resolution  shall  sign  it.    In  the  case  of  
partnerships,  the  managing  partner  or  all  the  partners  execute  certifications.  Look  at  the  
sample  certificate  below.  
2018  P.E.  Quick  Reviewer   5    
Atty.  E.  M.  Carillo  

As corporate secretary, I certify that last 3 May 2014 the Board of

Directors of the All-Star Consumer Product Corporation met at its principal
office in Makati City and passed the following resolution which to date remains
effective without amendments:

"Resolved that the Corporation shall open and maintain a

current account with Piso Bank (Makati branch) and funds from
it could be withdrawn with the signature of the President and the
Treasurer only."

Makati City, 15 January 2017.


Corporate Secretary



Given  the  items  in  the  syllabus,  a  possible  problem  can  be  asked  in  this  manner:    

18. Bernardo B. Sales filed a complaint against Seize Tomorrow

Corporation (STC) and a number of its officers before the arbitration branch of
the National Labor Relations Commission, Regional Office IV located in
Calamba City, Laguna, docketed as NLRC Case RAIV 82345-07 for a number of
issues arising from the last company action against him. During the mandatory
conference between the parties, they amicably settled their differences such that
Bernardo shall receive PhP500,000.00 by way of financial assistance from STC in
exchange for his commitment not to do any act prejudicial to the interest of the
company, its branches, or its projects arising from or with respect to his previous
employment and his outright execution of a quitclaim against the same
company and officers. Draft the needed document.

And  the  answer  to  this  can  be  as  follows:  

Republic of the Philippines)
Calamba City, Laguna) S.S.


2018  P.E.  Quick  Reviewer   6    
Atty.  E.  M.  Carillo  
I, BERNARDO B. SALES, of legal age, married, and residing at 801
Naujan St., Calamba City, Laguna, hereby state under oath:

1. I acknowledge to my full and complete satisfaction that I have

received a PhP50,000.00, by way of financial assistance from Seize Tomorrow
Corporation (STC), holding office at Balut, Tondo, Manila.

2. I now admit that I have no further claim or cause of action against

STC, its officers or employees with respect to any matter incident to or arising
out of my previous employment. Consequently, I will institute no action with
respect to it even as I now release and forever discharge the company, its officers
and employees from any claim, cause of action, or any further obligation in
connection with it. I fully acknowledge that the consideration received is and
shall be the full and final settlement of any and all such claims.

3. Finally, I declare that I have read this document and the quitclaim
given is made willingly and voluntarily and with full knowledge of my rights
under the law.

SIGNED this 6 June 2017 in Calamba City, Laguna.



SIGNED AND SWORN before me this 6 June 2017 by affiant whom I

personally know.

Notary Public for Calamba City, Laguna
Suite 212 Burke Building, Calamba City, Laguna
Commission Serial 54342
Until Dec. 31, 2018
Roll of Attorney 38718
PTR 56789 1-12-18; Calamba City
IBP 24680 1-12-18 Calamba City
Doc. 6;
Page 4;
Book I;
Series of 2017.      
II.  DEED  FORMS      
A  Deed  indicates  the  unilateral  act  of  a  person  in  disposing  his  property  or  right  in  
favor  of  another  after  his  receipt  of  a  consideration.  The  transaction  is  terminated  by  the  
conveyance  of  the  thing  or  right.  A  typical  deed  has  the  following  parts:  Title,  
2018  P.E.  Quick  Reviewer   7    
Atty.  E.  M.  Carillo  
Announcement,  First  Party,  Consideration,  Act  or  Conveyance,  Second  Party,  Signature  
and  Acknowledgment.  (Code:TAF-­CAS-­SA)  Observe  these  parts  in  the  deed  below.  


I, PROCOPIO C. CRUZ, of legal age, married, and residing at 12 Apo St.,

Quezon City, for and in consideration of the sum of PHP100,000.00, hereby sell,
convey, and transfer on an “as is where is” basis my motor vehicle, more
particularly described as follows:

Make: Toyota Corolla 1987; Motor: EMC14356C

Serial /Chassis: CDC042094, File: 2345567E
Reg. Cert.: 4567EC, Plate: PPA 863

to RICARDO LIM, of legal age, married, and residing at 2 Bangkal St., Manila.

SIGNED this 8 July 2014 in Quezon City.


With my consent:

(SGD.) Helen Y. Cruz


If  the  act  or  conveyance  is  altered,  the  deed  could  be  converted  into  another  one.  
The  operative  statement  would  change  depending  on  what  the  examiner  demands  from  the  
examinee.  The  common  deeds  asked  in  the  bar  in  the  past  are  deeds  of  assignment,  
donation  inter  vivos,  easement  of  right  of  way,  real  estate  or  chattel  mortgage,  and  powers  
of  attorney.  
In  drafting  a  deed  of  donation  inter  vivos,  do  not  forget  the  acceptance  of  the  donee  
and  the  donor’s  declaration  that  he  reserved  sufficient  properties  for  himself  and  his  
creditors.    The  operative  statement  that  should  be  remembered  would  be  something  like  
"for and in consideration of my love and respect for CARMINA DE JOYA, I
do hereby transfer and convey by way of donation”

Check  out  the  following  operative  statements  for  the  following  specific  deeds:  
In  a  Deed  of  Repurchase  of  Land  sold  under  Pacto  de  Retro:  
2018  P.E.  Quick  Reviewer   8    
Atty.  E.  M.  Carillo  
  "for and in consideration of the amount of P1 million, do hereby
In  a  Deed  of  Assignment:  
  "for and in consideration of the sum of P50,000 do hereby ASSIGN,
In  an  Easement  of  Right  of  Way:  
  "for and in consideration of the sum of Pesos: One Million, do
hereby agree and permit Ramon Santos a permanent easement of right of
way over my above property not to exceed two meters wide"
In  Extrajudicial  Settlement  Among  Heirs:  
  "the parties hereby agree to divide and adjudicate among
themselves the above described property as follows"
In  drafting  an  agreement  using  a  contract  form,  you  must  remember  that  it  should  
contain  the  essential  requirements  of  object,  consideration,  and  consent.  The  peculiarities  of  
a  specific  contract  should  also  be  taken  into  consideration.  Using  a  contract  form  means  that  
you  must  show  the  parties’  respective  undertakings.  A  contract  usually  has  the  following  
parts:    Title,  Announcement,  Actors,  Recitals,  Agreement,  Conditions,  Signatories  and  
Acknowledgment.  (Code:  TAA-­RAC-­SA)  Observe  these  parts  in  the  contract  below.  



This Agreement is executed between:

TOMAS S. BALATAN, Filipino, of legal age, and residing at 1435

Mindanao Avenue, Quezon City;

- and -

JUAN N. BUELTA, Filipino, of legal age, and residing at 789 Craig St.,
Sampaloc, Manila.

Recitals (or Antecedents):

TOMAS owns a house and lot at the above given address and his
property requires the prompt installation of a deep well;
2018  P.E.  Quick  Reviewer   9    
Atty.  E.  M.  Carillo  
JUAN is engaged by the business of supplying and installing deep
wells to draw potable water and has expressed his willingness to service the
requirements of TOMAS under certain terms and conditions;

Consequently, in consideration of the terms and conditions stated

below, the Parties mutually agree as follows:

1. TOMAS shall pay JUAN the sum of Pesos: Forty Thousand

(P40,000.00) for both materials and labor cost payable as follows:

1.1. Upon signing this contract - - PhP15,000.00;

1.2. The balance shall be paid upon delivery to TOMAS of the

completely functional deep well utility.

2. JUAN warrants that the deep well it shall install and deliver to
TOMAS shall be free from hidden defects and against poor worksmanship.

3. JUAN assures TOMAS that the deep well shall yield the normal
volume of potable water for a standard family of six. Otherwise, the JUAN
undertakes to re-do the work at no cost to TOMAS. Should the project be
redone that will require installation of extra pipes of at least 12 feet long,
TOMAS shall defray the cost of the materials.

The deficiency of this contract shall be supplemented by the provision

of existing law.

17 August 2014, City of Manila.


Signed in the presence of:



  Note  well  that  deeds  and  contracts  forms  both  speak  of  agreements  and,  therefore,  
covered   by   the   civil   law   concept   of   contracts.   They   vary   in   templates   or   forms   used   as  
shown   above.   Deed   forms   are   unilateral   and,   therefore,   a   first   person’s   point   of   view   is  
utilized.  Contract  forms  demonstrate  bilateral  or  multilateral  acts  or  undertakings.    As  such,  
the  third  person’s  viewpoint  is  recommended  in  drafting  this.    
Section  1,  Rule  II  of  the  2004  RNP  defined  acknowledgment  as  an  act  in  which  an  
individual  on  a  single  occasion:  
2018  P.E.  Quick  Reviewer   10    
Atty.  E.  M.  Carillo  
(a)  appears  in  person  before  the  notary  public  and  presents  an  integrally  complete  
instrument  or  document;;  
(b)  is  attested  to  be  personally  known  to  the  notary  public  or  identified  by  the  notary  
public  through  competent  evidence  of  identity  as  defined  by  the  Rules;;  and,  
(c)  represents  to  the  notary  public  that  the  signature  on  the  instrument  or  document  
was  voluntarily  affixed  by  him  for  the  purposes  stated  in  the  instrument  or  document,  
declares  that  he  has  executed  the  instrument  or  document  as  his  free  and  voluntary  
act  and  deed,  and,  if  he  acts  in  a  particular  representative  capacity,  that  he  has  the  
authority  to  sign  in  that  capacity.  
Thus,  the  notary  public  speaks  in  this  part  of  the  deed  or  contract.  Take  a  look  at  the  
sample  below.  

The following personally appeared before me:

Name Passport No. Date/ Place Issued

1. Tomas S. Balatan CC123330 1-05-2002/ Baguio City
2. Juan N. Buelta JJ200345 1-17-2004/ Manila

They are known to me to be the same persons who executed the foregoing
contract and they acknowledged that their signatures prove their voluntary acts
for the purposes stated in the document.

SIGNED AND SEALED in Manila, 15 August 2016.

(SGD.) Juan C. Mendoza

Notary Public for Manila
Suite 212 Burke Building, Escolta, Manila
Commission Serial 54342
Until Dec. 31, 2017
Roll of Attorney 38718
PTR 56789; 12 Jan. 16; Manila
IBP 24680; 12 Jan. 16; Manila
Doc. 12;
Page 8;
Book II;
Series of 2016.
(Special   Requirement   in   Conveyance   of   Real   Property   pursuant   to   Act  
496,  as  amended)  

This  paragraph  should  be  added  before  the  notary  public’s  signature:  

This deed/contract relates to the sale of a parcel of land situated in

Quezon City consisting of two pages, including this where the acknowledgment
2018  P.E.  Quick  Reviewer   11    
Atty.  E.  M.  Carillo  
is stated and was signed by the parties and their witnesses in the left margin of
every page.
(Special  form  of  acknowledgment  for  notarial  wills)  


BEFORE ME, personally appeared:

Name Passport Nos. Date/ Place Issued

1. Tomas S. Balatan CC123330 1-05-2002/ Baguio City
2. Juan N. Buelta JJ200345 1-17-2004/ Manila
3. Enrique C. Abergas BB947556 4-23-2001/ Manila
4. Marivic J. Cabron DC234348 8-14-2000/ Manila

all known to me to be the same persons who signed the foregoing Will, the first as
Testator, and the last three as instrumental witnesses, and they respectively
acknowledged to me that they signed the same as their own free deed.

This will consists of two pages, including the page on which this
acknowledgment is written, and has been signed on the left margin of each and
every page of it by the testator and his witnesses, and sealed with my notarial seal.

16 August 2004, City of Manila.

(Notarial signature and notarial certificate)

(Special  form  of  acknowledgment  if  deed/contract  is  executed  by  a  

BEFORE ME, personally appeared:

Name Competent Evidence Date/ Place Issued

of Identification

1. Tomas S. Balatan, Passport CC123330 1-05-2002 / Baguio City

President of True All-
Star, Inc.

2. Juan N. Buelta, Passport JJ200345 1-17-2004 / Manila

President of Right Pak,
2018  P.E.  Quick  Reviewer   12    
Atty.  E.  M.  Carillo  
They are known to me to be the same persons who executed the foregoing
contract on behalf of the corporations they represent and acknowledged to me
that the same is their voluntary acts and that of the corporation being

City of Manila, 17 August 2004.

(Notarial Signature and Certificate)

*Based  on  Section  1,  Rule  II  of  the  2004  Notarial  Rules,  only  individuals  can  be  
parties  in  the  acknowledgment  process.  Corporations  cannot  take  part  in  the  process  even  if  
they  are  the  real  party  to  the  contract  or  deed.    If  a  corporation  is  a  party  to  the  contract,  its  
representative  must  act  for  it  and  must  so  indicate  in  the  acknowledgment  that  he  acts  in  
such  representative  capacity.  Unless  required,  It  is  advisable  to  simply  refer  in  the  drafted  
deed  or  contract  the  specific  authority  of  the  corporation’s  representative.  
*The  absence  of  an  acknowledgment  will  not  render  the  contract  or  deed  void  except  
when  the  law  requires  that  a  contract  be  in  some  form  in  order  that  it  may  be  valid  or  
enforceable  like  acts  and  contracts  which  have  for  their  object  the  creation,  transmission,  
modification  or  extinguishment  of  real  rights  over  immovable  property;;  sales  of  real  property  
or  of  an  interest  in  it  which  under  the  law  must  appear  in  a  public  instrument.  An  
acknowledgment,  therefore,  in  these  special  cases  is  a  must.    
Again,  given  the  released  syllabus,  a  possible  problem  that  can  be  asked  is  -­  -­    
22. Ricardo Gonzales, who resides at 1340 Amihan Road, Paseo de
Encantadia, Cainta, Rizal, asked his friend Ernesto Roman for a PhP1.5 million
loan and promising to pay him in full, without further amortizations, on year
two from the date he executes the note with 12% interest per annum. Ernesto
agreed but imposes the condition that if the amount will not be paid in full on
the second year as promised, forcing him to litigate to collect the loan he gave,
he would sue only in Manila where he resides. Draft the parties’ document
without the notarial certificate.

The  Answer:  
Promissory Note

For value received in the amount of PhP1,500,000.00, I RICARDO C.

GONZALES, of legal age, married, and residing at 1340 Amihan Road, Paseo
de Encantadia, Cainta, Rizal, do hereby promise to pay Ernesto G. Roman, of
legal age, single and residing in 2345 Zafiro Street, San Andres Bukid, Manila,
the full amount that I received above plus interest of 12% per annum exactly on
the second year from the date of this note.
2018  P.E.  Quick  Reviewer   13    
Atty.  E.  M.  Carillo  
In case of litigation arising from or in connection with this note, the
venue for trial shall be competent court of the City of Manila to the exclusion of
all others and an amount equivalent to 25% of the total claim shall be due and
demandable as attorney's fees.

SIGNED this 9 June 2017, in Manila.


With my consent:




Ricardo C. Gonzales, whom I personally know, appeared before me this

9 June 2017. He executed the foregoing promissory note and acknowledged to
me that his signature on it proves his voluntary act for the purposes stated in it.

(Notarial certificate deleted)

A  typical  judicial  form  takes  a  single  pattern  and  has  the  following  parts:  (1)  Caption;;  
(2)  Title  (3)  Introduction;;  (4)  Body;;  (5)  Relief;;  (6)  Attorney’s  Box;;  and  (7)  Addenda.  (Code:  
Cap-­TIBRA-­A)  The  caption  sets  forth  the  name  of  the  court,  the  title  of  the  action  and  the  
docket  number  if  assigned.  (Cf.  Section  1,  Rule  7,  Rules  of  Court)  The  title  referred  here  is  
the  title  of  the  document,  either  complaint,  petition,  motion,  opposition,  answer,  reply,  etc.  
The  Introduction  presents  the  writing  party  to  the  reader.  The  Body  sets  forth  its  designation,  
the  allegations  of  the  party’s  claims  and  defenses  and  the  date  of  the  pleading.  The  Relief  
box  indicates  the  specific  relief  sought  by  the  party  including  the  general  prayer  for  further  
relief  as  may  be  deemed  just  and  equitable.  The  Attorney’s  box  indicates  the  name  and  
signature  of  the  lawyer,  his  office  address  (not  post  office  box),  his  Integrated  Bar  of  the  
Philippines  and  professional  tax  receipt  numbers.  The  latest  Supreme  Court  circular  also  
requires  the  inclusion  of  the  lawyer’s  roll  number.  A  counsel’s  failure  to  indicate  his  roll  
number  renders  the  document  a  scrap  of  paper.  An  unsigned  pleading  produces  no  legal  
effect.  A  lawyer’s  signature  is  a  certification  that:  he  has  read  the  pleading;;  to  the  best  of  his  
knowledge,  information,  and  belief,  there  is  a  good  ground  to  support  it;;  and  that  it  is  not  
interposed  for  delay.  The  Addenda  to  these  documents  usually  vary  depending  on  the  
judicial  form  being  drafted.  Observe  these  parts  from  the  samples  below.      
Rule  6  of  the  Rules  of  Court,  as  amended,  has  consistently  required  that  complaints  
be  concise  enough  to  contain  mere  ultimate  facts  of  a  plaintiff’s  cause/s  of  action.  The  body  
of  the  complaint  is  most  important.  In  Javelosa  vs.  Court  of  Appeals,  (G.R.  124292,  265  
2018  P.E.  Quick  Reviewer   14    
Atty.  E.  M.  Carillo  
SCRA  493  [1996]),  the  Supreme  Court  held  that  “what  determines  the  nature  of  an  action,  
as  well  as  which  court  or  body  has  jurisdiction  over  it,  are  the  allegations  of  the  complaint  
and  the  character  of  the  relief  sought.”  In  this  regard,  the  body  of  the  complaint  usually  has  
two  parts:  the  identity  of  the  parties  and  the  cause  of  action  (a  statement  of  the  right  of  the  
plaintiff  and  a  statement  of  the  defendant's  violation  of  such  right).  Note  that  in  Manchester  
Development  Corporation,  et  al.  vs.  Court  of  Appeals,  et  al.  (G.R.  75919,  7  May  1987),  the  
Supreme  Court  held  that  “all  complaints,  petitions,  answers  and  other  similar  pleadings  
should  specify  the  amount  of  damages  being  prayed  for  not  only  in  the  body  of  the  pleading  
but  also  in  the  prayer  and  said  damages  shall  be  considered  in  the  assessment  of  the  filing  
fees  in  any  case.  Any  pleading  that  fails  to  comply  with  this  requirement  shall  not  be  
accepted  nor  admitted  or  shall  otherwise  be  expunged  from  the  record.”    
The  addenda  in  a  complaint  are  the  verification  (when  required)  and  the  certification  
against  forum  shopping  (mandatory).    A  sample  complaint  is  provided  below.  
(1) Republic of the Philippines
National Capital Judicial Region
Branch 13, Manila


- versus - Civil Case: 5432

For: Unlawful Detainer



(3) Plaintiff, by counsel, states:

(4) The Parties

1. Pedro is a resident of 143 Vicente Cruz St., Sampaloc, Manila.

2. Jose, on the other hand, is a Filipino, married and resides at 789

Mayhaligue St. Binondo, Manila where he may be served with summons and other
court processes.

Cause/s of Action

3. The parties executed a lease contract on 28 August 2013 for Jose’s use of
a house and lot owned by Pedro located in Binondo. A copy of this contract is
attached as Annex A. Part of the agreement is the payment of monthly rent in the
amount of P15,000.00.
2018  P.E.  Quick  Reviewer   15    
Atty.  E.  M.  Carillo  

4. While initially Jose paid his obligation, he suddenly breached his

undertaking by not paying his rental beginning January 2014. Oral and written
demands to pay his obligation fell on deaf ears. To date, his unpaid obligation
ballooned to P120,000.00. A copy of the last demand letter urging him to pay his
arrears and vacate the premises is attached as Annex B, while a copy of his latest
unpaid billing is enclosed as Annex C.

5. Because of Jose’s unjustified refusal to heed his just demands, Pedro was
constrained to institute this suit, incur litigation expenses to be proved during trial
and retain the services of a lawyer for a fee of P40,000.00, all of which he deserves
to be reimbursed.

(5) Relief

ACCORDINGLY, Pedro asks that judgment be rendered ordering Jose and

all other persons acting on his behalf to:

1.   Vacate the house and lot subject of this complaint;

2.   Pay plaintiff the sum of P120,000.00 as unpaid rentals with legal
interest from the date the complaint is filed; and,
3.   Pay him litigation expenses and attorney’s fees of P40,000.00.

Other reliefs just and equitable are also asked for.

Manila, 7 August 2014.


Counsel for Plaintiff
Suite 1234 Richmond Tower
E. Rodriguez Avenue, Quezon City
Roll of Attorney 35677
IBP 14344; 1-19-14; Quezon City
PTR 867765; 1-20-14; Quezon City
MCLE Compliance Cert 11; 5-10-14


VERIFICATION/CERTIFICATION.  Verifications  are  required  only  in  cases  provided  for  
by  the  Rules  of  Court  and  other  circulars.  (Cf.  Section  4,  Rule  7,  1997  Rules  on  Civil  
Procedure).  The  revised  rules  on  summary  procedure  for  instance  require  that  all  pleadings  
be  verified.  (Cf.  Section  3  (B)  (II),  Revised  Rules  on  Summary  Procedure)    
Certifications  against  forum  shopping  are  necessary  in  complaints  or  other  initiatory  
pleadings  (Cf.  Section  5,  Rule  7,  1997  Rules  on  Civil  Procedure).  A  counsel  cannot  certify  
2018  P.E.  Quick  Reviewer   16    
Atty.  E.  M.  Carillo  
against  forum  shopping;;  it  should  be  the  plaintiff.  A  certification  against  forum  shopping  by  
counsel  is  a  defective  certification.  It  is  clearly  equivalent  to  non-­compliance  with  the  
requirement  under  the  rules  and  constitutes  a  valid  cause  for  dismissal  of  the  complaint  or  
petition.  (Cf.  Far  Eastern  Shipping  Company  vs.  Court  of  Appeals,  et  al.,  G.R.  130068,  1  
October  1998)  If  the  plaintiff  is  a  corporation,  it  should  be  signed  by  its  authorized  officers.    
Failure  to  comply  with  this  requirement  could  be  a  cause  for  dismissal  of  the  action  but  only  
upon  motion  and  hearing.  The  defect  is  not  curable  by  amendment.  (Cf.  Barroso  v.  Ampig,  
Jr.,  328  SCRA  530)  Since  verifications  and  certifications  against  forum-­shopping  are  
required  to  be  under  oath,  they  are  usually  combined  to  avoid  a  repetitive  process.    See  the  
sample  below:  

I, Pedro Labo, plaintiff in the above-entitled case, state under oath that: (1) I
have read the above complaint and the facts stated in it are true and correct to the
best of my knowledge and/or based on authentic documents made available to
me; (2) I have not commenced any action or filed any claim involving the same
issues in any court, tribunal or quasi-judicial agency and, to the best of my
knowledge, no such other action or claim is pending in them; and (3) if I should
learn that the same or similar action or claim has been filed or is pending after its
filing, I shall report that fact within five days from notice to the court or where the
complaint or initiatory pleading has been filed.

Manila, 7 August 2014.



II.  MOTIONS  (Cf.  Rules  15  and  16,  Rules  of  Court,  as  amended)  The  Body  of  a  motion  
usually  has  two  parts:  the  ground  for  the  motion  and  the  argument  in  support  of  the  motion.  
Motions  can  either  be  litigated  or  non-­litigated.  

Sample  Motion  1  (Litigated)  



Defendant Jose B. Linaw (Jose), by counsel, moves to dismiss the

complaint filed by Pedro C. Labo (Pedro) on the sole ground that the venue of
the litigation is improperly laid.


The contract between the parties declares that in case litigation

becomes inevitable, “all cases shall be brought before the proper court of Pasig
2018  P.E.  Quick  Reviewer   17    
Atty.  E.  M.  Carillo  
City to the exclusion of all others.” By filing the complaint before this court in
Manila, a place obviously convenient to Pedro, he violates the clear tenor of his
agreement with Jose. Consequently, a prompt dismissal of the case becomes


ACCORDINGLY, Jose asks that Pedro’s complaint be dismissed


Other reliefs just and equitable are also prayed for.

[Explanation of Service: Due to constraints in distance and time, a copy

of this motion shall be served by registered mail.] (Required  under  Section  11,  
Rule   13,   Rules   of   Court,   as   amended.   A   violation   of   this   requirement  
“may   be   cause   to   consider   the   paper   as   not   filed.”   See:   Solar   Team  
Entertainment,   Inc.   v.   Hon.   Helen   Bautista   Ricafort,   et   al.   G.R.   132007,   5  
August  1998)  

7 March 2017, Quezon City for Manila.

(Attorney’s Box)

(Notice of Hearing) – See Below


Sample  Motion  2  (Non-­litigated)  



Plaintiff Pedro C. Labo (Pedro), by counsel, states:

1. The Court scheduled a hearing on 20 March 2017 at 8:30 o’clock in the


2. Unfortunately, on that date and time, the undersigned counsel has

committed to attend another case entitled: Labo vs. Bawi (Civil Case 23456) before
the Regional Trial Court of Manila, Branch 42, the schedule of which was set
prior to this.

ACCORDINGLY, Pedro asks that the hearing set on 20 March 2017 be

cancelled and moved to a later date preferably on 8 July 2017 or any date
convenient to the Court and the adverse party.

[Explanation of Service: Due to constraints in time and distance, a copy

of this motion shall be served by registered mail.]        
  Manila, 12 March 2017.
2018  P.E.  Quick  Reviewer   18    
Atty.  E.  M.  Carillo  

(Attorney’s box)

(Notice of Hearing)- See below

The  Rules  of  Court  requires  that  the  notice  should  be  directed  to  the  parties  (counsel  
included)  NOT  TO  THE  CLERK  OF  COURT.  Otherwise,  the  motion  shall  be  considered  a  
sham  or  a  mere  scrap  of  paper  (Cf.  Mesina,  et  al.  vs.  Court  of  Appeals,  G.R.110946,  24  
October  1994).    Moreover,  the  rules  provide  that  the  motion  day  and  time  be  on  Friday  at  
2:00  o’clock  in  the  afternoon.  While  in  actual  practice  this  rule  is  usually  observed  in  the  
breach,  you  are  expected  to  conform  strictly  to  this  requirement  as  a  Bar  examinee.  Motions  
are  either  litigated  or  not.  Non-­litigious  motions  are  those  that  may  be  acted  upon  by  the  
Court  without  further  argument  like  a  motion  to  reset  or  a  motion  for  postponement.  All  other  
motions  are  litigated  and  should  be  acted  upon  after  due  hearing.  Check  the  sample  notice  



Notice and Copy furnished:


Counsel for the Defendant


Due to the non-litigious character of the foregoing motion, please submit

the same to the Court for its immediate consideration and approval.  
(or  if  litigated  motion)  
Please note that the undersigned counsel shall submit the foregoing
motion for the Court’s resolution on 9 June 2017, Friday, at 2:00 o’clock in the


2018  P.E.  Quick  Reviewer   19    
Atty.  E.  M.  Carillo  
Judicial  Affidavits  are  sworn  statements  of  facts  that  take  the  place  of  direct  
testimonies  of  witnesses  and  identify  and  authenticate  their  documentary  or  object  evidence  
in  the  case.  The  earlier  discussions  on  ordinary  affidavits  apply  here.  A  sample  judicial  
affidavit  is  presented  below.    


I, JORGE B. REYES, of legal age, Filipino, holding office at Lexicon Building, John
Hay Special Economic Zone, 1088, 2600 Baguio City, under oath, state:

Preliminary Statement

Atty. Julie Anne T. Rabe examines me here. She holds office at the Dela Cruz Law
Office, 3rd Floor, Prestige Tower, Balara, Quezon City, the same place where she examines
me. I answer her questions fully conscious that I do so under oath and that I may face
liability for false testimony or perjury. Her questions are:

Affidavit proper that contains:

(a)   Numbered questions and answers, showing personal knowledge of the

facts that the witness is testifying on;

Q1. Do you know Sanchez Roman y Manresa, the defendant in this
A1. Yes, sir.

Q2. How did you know him?

A2. He asked if he could borrow money from me, sir.

Q3. Where did this happen?

A.3. At my house in Caloocan City.

Q4. When?
A4. On 22 May 2012, sir.

(b)   Questions and answers that elicit facts relevant to the issues; and,

Q5. What was your response to his loan request from you?
A5. I agreed to lend him the money he needed.
2018  P.E.  Quick  Reviewer   20    
Atty.  E.  M.  Carillo  
Q6. How much?
A6. He asked for PhP300,000.00.

Q7. Was your transaction in writing?

A7. Yes, sir. We executed a “Kasunduan” on 16 April 2008.

(c)   Questions and answers that identify the attached documentary and
object evidence and establish their authenticity in accordance with the
Rules of Court.

Q8: Where is this “Kasunduan” that you mentioned?
A8: This is the one, sir (handing over a document).

Q9: I am marking this “Kasunduan” as Exhibit A and the bracketed

signature above the name Sanchez M. Roman as Exh. A-1. Do you
know whose signature is this?
A9: Yes, sir, that of Sanchez M. Roman.

Q10: How do you know?

A10: I saw him sign it, as I was seated beside him when he did.

Q11: I am marking the signature above the name Jorge B. Reyes on this
document as Exh. A-2. Do you know whose signature is this?
A11: Yes, sir, that’s my signature.

Q12: I am attaching Exhibit A to your judicial affidavit to form part of

it. Do you confirm my action?
A12: Yes, sir.
SIGNED this 8 June 2017 in Quezon City.  
SSS ID 2454345569



I, JULIE ANNE T. RABE, of legal age, counsel for Plaintiff Onofre D. Manuel, attest
under oath, that I faithfully recorded the questions I asked Mr. Jorge B. Reyes and the
corresponding answers he gave me; and neither I nor any other person then present or
assisting me coached the witness regarding his answers.

SIGNED this 8 June 2017 in Quezon City.


2018  P.E.  Quick  Reviewer   21    
Atty.  E.  M.  Carillo  
Driver’s License NO9143-55667
Expires on 12-12-19


Final  Considerations    
Completing  a  required  document  for  practical  exercises  will  not  be  enough  if  your  
aim  is  to  submit  an  excellent  work.  Excellent  writing  needs  editing,  just  as  excellent  furniture  
needs  finishing  touches.  Here  are  some  editing  tips  that  you  can  apply  before  turning  over  
your  booklets  to  the  proctor:  
1.  Aside  from  avoiding  needless  words  to  save  on  time,  use  the  active  voice  instead  
of  the  passive  voice.  Passive  voice  is  indirect,  limp,  and  weak.  On  the  other  hand,  the  active  
voice  is  direct,  vigorous,  and  strong.  Sense  the  difference.      
Abel  was  killed  by  Cain.    (Passive)   Cain  killed  Abel.  (Active)  
2.  Use  the  right  connectives.  You  need  the  help  of  connectives  or  transitory  devices  
to  link  your  ideas  one  after  the  other  and  present  a  unified  thought.  You  cannot  assume  that  
your  reader  can  read  unspoken  tie-­ups  between  ideas.  Consider  the  following  useful  
Connective   Function  
And   Connects  two  ideas  of  the  same  
Besides,  what  is  more,  furthermore,  in   Adds  another  thought  to  the  first  
addition,  and  again  
First,  next,  then,  finally;;  meanwhile   Arranges  ideas  in  order  
Nearby,  above,  below   Arranges  ideas  in  space  
But,  still,  however,  on  the  other  hand,   Connects  two  contrasting  ideas  
nevertheless,  rather  
In  fact,  as  a  matter  of  fact,   Connects  the  first  idea  with  the  
second  one  that  points  it  up;;  the  
second  one  affirms  of  validates  the  
first  idea  
Therefore,  consequently,  accordingly   Connects  an  idea  with  another  that  
follows  from  it.  
In  short,  to  sum  up,  in  brief   Summarize  several  ideas  
3.  Avoid  legalese  and  old  English.    Legal  clichés  have  become  hackneyed  and  
weak.  To  non-­lawyers,  they  may  even  sound  pretentious,  unnatural  or  artificial,  if  not  
arrogant.    Phrases  and  words  like  to  wit,  instant  case,  aforesaid  complaint,  herein  method,  
thereat  and  theretofore  deserve  to  be  abandoned  in  favor  of  simpler  words.  
2018  P.E.  Quick  Reviewer   22    
Atty.  E.  M.  Carillo  
4.  Be  simple.    Some  have  the  mistaken  belief  that  they  will  sound  more  dignified  and  
lawyerly  if  they  use  polysyllabic  words  like  “accompanied”  or  “informed”  instead  of  “went  
with”  or  “told”,  respectively.  Your  written  work  will  have  the  same  tone  of  formality  and  
dignity  as  long  as  it  is  serious  and  thoughtful.  As  a  rule,  a  simple  familiar  word  that  means  
exactly  the  same  thing  is  the  better  choice.  
5.  Check  your  grammar.    In  presenting  answers,  ensure  that  the  subject  agrees  with  
the  verb.    Use  proper  tenses  and  punctuations,  too.  

Good  Luck  to  all  Barristers!