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( ( FLU OR PIPE STRESS ANALYST DESIGN GUIDE vdiReR tata a DESIGN GUIDES DESIGN CRITERIA FOR FIRED HEATER PAGE — L of 50 DATE 4-76 1.0 HEATER NOZZLE FORCE, MOMENT AND STRESS LIMITATION 1a 3.0 TYP! Pipe stress at the heater terminal shall be within the allowable stress range as designated by ANSI 531-3 (latest revision) for the material of construction. Moment on flanges shall not exceed those permitted in section 2.0 of the Stress Group Charts and Tables, to insure that leakage will not in the absence of vendors' limitations, forces shall be limited to 200 ibs. per inch of nominal pipe size, or 2000 lbs. which ever is jess. Cold spring may be credited in accordance with ANSI B31.3. Forces, nozzle deflections, and moments mutually agreed upon by Fluor and heater manufacturer. a. Forces, deflections and moments shall be transmitted to the heater vendor for their comment and approval at the earliest time possible. Preliminary layout and sketches can be used for this particular purpose. b. supporting steel for piping from heater shell or structure shall be reviewed, designed and approved by the heater manu- facturer. The loads on supports shall also be transmitted to the heater vendor during the early stage of the job. DES! AND LAYOUT The most important consideration in laying out heater piping is to use the heater tube as a flexible element to minimize the amount of flexibility required in the process piping. By locating the heater tubes in the most advantageous position, the length and number of fittings required in the process piping may be minimized. SOF HEATERS Basically there are three types of heaters. They are: 1. Box-type 2. Vertical 3. Helical coil FLUOR PIPE STRESS ANALYST DESIGN GUIDE wuwper 3-22 * DESIGN CRITERIA FOR FIRED HEATER PACE 2 DESIGN GUIDES DATE 4-76 3.1 Box-Type Heaters: A box-type heater is considered to be any heater in which the tubes are horizontal. There are numerous designs of box-type heaters. In this type of heater, it is possible to have locations or zones of different heat densities. The shock or shield tubes usually receive the highest heat density because they absorb both radiant and convection heat. Tubes in the radiant section of the furnace are called “radiant tubes. Qhe heat pickup in these tubes is mainly by direct radiation from the heating flame and incandescent refractories. The zone of lower heat density is the convection section. The tubes in this section are called "convection tubes." The heat pickup in the convection section is obtained from the combustion gases, primarily by convection. ‘The size and arrangement of tubes in a box-type heater are determined by the type of operation (crude oil distillation, cracking, etc.), the amount of heating surface required, and the flow rate through the tubes. Box-type heaters may be updraft or downdraft, with gas-or oil-fired burners located in the end or side walls, floor, roof, or any combin~ ation thereof. Auxiliary tubes are often inatalled in the convection section after the oil convection tubes, to preheat air for the burners or to generate or superheat steam for process and other uses. Vertical Heaters: The vertical heater is either cylindrical or rec tangular. The entire heatiny coil, or major portion, consists of vertical tubes. The radiant tubes are vertical, but the upper ends of these tubes may be in a convection zone where gas velocity is increased by restricting flow area. ‘The tubes in the convection section are always horizontal. In sone installations an oil economizer section or an air-heating section, or both, are used above the main vertical heating section. The auxiliary tubes in the oil economizer or air-heating sections may ‘be either horizontal or vertical, depending on the particular design. ‘Mie purpose of an oil economizer or air-heating section is to improve (the economy of operation. ‘The majority of vertical tube heaters are bottom-fired, with the stack mounted directly on top of the heater. Downdraft vertical heaters have also been used. any FLUOR PIPE STRESS ANALYST DESIGN GUIDE NUMBER 3.12 DESIGN CRITERIA FOR FIRED HEATER PAGE 3 DATE 4-76 Helical Coil Heaters: The helical coil heater is cylindrical in shape, with the radiant section surface in the form of a coil which spirals up the wall of the heater. Heaters of this type usually do not have a convection section; but, if included, the convection surface is in the form of a flat spiral or bank of horizontal tubes. ‘The stack is almost always mounted directly on the heater. 4.0 THE RADIANT SECTION LC DeEsiGN ¢ GuiDes 3.3 4a iC Consider the vertical heater first since it is the simplest of the three. All vertical heaters have vertical tubes in, the radiant section and horizontal tubes in the convection section if one is required. he tubes in the radiant section are arranged in even or odd numbers. Tubes are frequently added to reduce the height of the heater while elimination of a tube will increase the height of the heater. Even numbers of tubes will place the inlet and outlet nozzles at the same end of the heater. See Figure 4.2. Figure 4.1 Tube & Pass Arrangements