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Economié Factors ECONOMIC FACTORS IN HEAT TRANSFER EQUIPMENT DESIGN In selecting heat exchangers, the longest tube with the smallest practical diameter should be employed. This is not always possible because there are so many variables in the design of heat exchangers that should be considered prior to sizing it. Mechanical Considerations (1) Tube Length: The longer the tube Jength, the more economical the heat exchanger. This applies mostly to sensible type of heat transfer (baffled ex- changer), not to isothermal condensers or vaporizers. By using longer tubes with a baffled exchanger, the transfer rate will be increased and will result in less surface being required. (2) Tube Pitch: In a given diameter and 3/4 in. 0.0. tube, there could be 20% more tubes packed on 15/16 in. triangular pitch than on 1 in, square pitch. Also triangular pitch gives higher coefficient than square pitch. Square pitch is used when there is a problem of pressure drop or fouling service. ( lef I 4 (3) Type of Construction: The least expensive type of shell and tube heat exchanger is U-tube. In some services use of U-tube heat exchangers is not advisable. The heat exchanger designer is the man who should advise the type to be used for various services. (ref. baju 4 ) Process Considerations (1) Pressure Drop: In general, the higher the heat transfer coefficient, the smaller the unit will be, The heat transfer coefficient of a baffled heat exchanger is 0.65 directly proportional to 0.65 power Reynolds number, and the Uw Reynolds number is proportional to the velocity. The pressure Qo~ Vv" drop is directly proportional to the square of the velocity. AP~ it % From this we can assume that the greater the pressure drop used» Hus aP7 wus coefficient will be. This does not apply to isothermal condensers in the design of the heat exchanger, the higher the heat transfer or vaporizers. To properly evaluate the saving that can be achieved from using more pressure drop, the deductions for the increased head must be considered. (ef Fluid Side Selection: The question of which stream to put in the she1l side or tube side should be given careful consideration. Generally, the fluid with the highest viscosity at the operating temperature will give a higher transfer rate if put in the shell side. The shell side coefficient can be better controlled than the tube side by chang - ‘ing baffle pitch or cut. For high pressure service it is more economical to put the process fluid on the tube side, Temperature Approach: The most inefficient design results when there are small quantities of fluid, a small "MTD", and @ large temperature cross, where it is necessary to be in true‘ countercurrent flow using many shells in series. This is true of the feed-effluent type heat exchangers and gas-to-gas exchangers. ( {. page tren! ) page MTD: A large "MTD" generally results in @ poorly designed unit ("MTD" in