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Hydrology & Hydraulics

Catchment-Analysis with GIS:


Vector Data:
Land Use Analysis
Rainfall Interpolation
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Hydrology & Hydraulics

Land Use Data


Data Source
• raster data
landuse.asc
landuse_legend.txt
• 300 m resolution
• 44 classes
-> transformation
to polygons (vector data)
Live: files in ASCII-Editor

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Hydrology & Hydraulics

Rainfall Data
Data Source
• vector data
rainfall_stations.txt
• point locations
• excel sheet
rainfall time series

Live: files in ASCII-Editor

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Hydrology & Hydraulics

Land Use & Rainfall data


Raster or Vector Data analysis ?
• task: combination of land use and catchment data
-> raster data allows one information per cell
-> vector data can handle a set of thematic data
-> intersection methods are available for vector data
• task: transfer of rainfall station data to catchments
-> station location are point information
-> interpolation deals with vector and raster data
-> intersection methods are available for vector data
• application of vector data and raster data

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Hydrology & Hydraulics

Overview Lecture
Part 1: Vector Data – Short Introduction
Part 2: Vector Data – Analysis Methods
Part 3: Land Use Data Application
Part 4: Rainfall Station Application

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Part 1

Vector Data
Short Introduction

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Geospatial Data – Data Types

reference: IBM reference: Esri

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Vector Data
Geospatial Objects – Feature Classes
• point
• line
• polygon
• annotation (text)

• dimensions
• multipoints
• multipatches
reference: ESRI

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Vector Data
Application Example: River Var Catchment
• point -> stations
• line -> streams
• polygon -> catchments

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Hydrology & Hydraulics

OGC: Simple Feature Model

reference: OGC
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Simple Feature Class Definition


reference:
SFADocument

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Hydrology & Hydraulics

Application in GIS
• geospatial objects are implemented using the
SFM / GFM model and ISO 19107 / ISO 19109
• standardisation of geometric attributes
• standardisation of geometric methods
• GIS software (e.g. ArcGIS, QGis, MapWindow)
implements these attributes and methods in a
“user friendly” way on the user interface (GUI)

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Hydrology & Hydraulics

Vector Data
Properties
• representation of point based geospatial objects
• complex geometry and explicit topology
• transformation of coordinates is easy and
reversible, no lost of information
• scaling -> same as for coordinate transformation
• sophisticated geometric operations
• sophisticated analysis methods
• topological operations, simple network analysis
• suitable amount of data, complex data structure
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Hydrology & Hydraulics

Part 2

Vector Data
General
Analysis Methods
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Hydrology & Hydraulics

Selection
Methods to Extract a Sub-Set of Vector Data
• manually selection (mouse -> table, map)
• selection by location
• selection by attributes

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Hydrology & Hydraulics

Selection
Manually
• feature table

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Hydrology & Hydraulics

Selection
By Location
• geometric relation
• between two layers
• contain, within,
intersect, share,
centroid, touch, …

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Hydrology & Hydraulics

Selection
By Attributes
• SQL-Select based
statements

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Geometric GIS-Operations
Overlay Operations
• logical operations AND, OR, NOT, XOR

A AND B A NOT B
AxB A-B

A OR B A XOR B
A+B (A+B)-(AxB)

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Hydrology & Hydraulics

Geometric GIS-Operations
Overlay Operations in GIS
• Union A OR B
• Intersect A AND B
• Symmetrical Difference A XOR B
• Erase A NOT B
Adapted Operations in ArcGIS
• Identity
• Update
see http://help.arcgis.com/en/arcgisdesktop/10.0/help/index.html

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Overlay Operations
• Union (OR)
example:
radio cells
of several radio masts

reference: ESRI

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Overlay Operations
• Intersect (AND)
example:
double cover of more than one
radio cell

Result: Polygon Result: Line Result: Point

reference: ESRI

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Overlay Operations
• Symmetrical Difference (XOR)
example:
regions covered
by exactly one radio cell

• Erase (NOT)
example:
public/private areas in a city

reference: ESRI

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Overlay Operations
• Identity
example:
water protection area within
a city
(without spatial extension)

• Update
example:
new planting in a wood land
(with spatial extension)

reference: ESRI

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Aggregation Operations
• Dissolve (data management)
aggregates features with the same attribute
example: communities to states

reference: geoinformation

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Aggregation Operations
• Merge (data management)
aggregates/combines two feature sets towards one new set
example: catchments of two rivers

reference: ESRI

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Extraction Operations
• Clip (spatial extraction/selection)
example: extract a national park area
out of a general land use model

reference: ESRI

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Extraction Operations
• Split
example: city model -> split in districts

reference: ESRI

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Neighbourhood-Analysis (geometric)
• Buffer
creating a zone around a spatial object
several types: e.g. circle shape, rectangle shape, …

reference: ESRI

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Buffer Operation
Buffer Distance
• fixed global value
• value of an attribute
Combination / Shape
• with or without Dissolve method
• right/left/both, round/flat
Coordinate System
• geodetic (with distortion)
• Euclidian (without distortion)
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Triangulation
Triangulated Irregular Network
• basis: set of points
• triangulation -> Voronoi, Delaunay

• points, edges and triangles

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Part 3

Vector Data
Land Use - Catchment
Analysis
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Landuse Data
Data Source
• raster data
landuse.asc
landuse_legend.txt
• 300 m resolution
• 44 classes
-> transformation
to polygons (vector data)
Live: files in ASCII-Editor

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Hydrology & Hydraulics

Land Use Data


Land Use Analysis Task:
• distribution of land use / sub catchment
[km2] / sub catchment Tinee Upper Var Esteron Vesubie Lower Var
forest / semi-natural
agricultural
artificial surfaces
water bodies
wetlands

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Land Use Data


Analysis Concept:
• land use: classification -> 5 classes (join)
• land use: raster to vector transformation
• intersection land use - sub catchment
• selection of sub catchment - land use
combination
• statistics –> sum of selected area

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Land Use Data


Land Use: Classification

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Land Use Data


Land Use: Classification Join value <-> ID

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Land Use Data


Classification

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Land Use Data


Land Use: Transformation to Polygon

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Land Use Data


Land Use: Transformation to Polygon (without
join)

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Land Use Data


Land Use: Transformation to Polygon (with join)

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Land Use Data


Intersection land use - sub catchment

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Land Use Data


Selection Land Use – Catchment Combination
• one cell of the table, e.g. Forest SNA - Lower Var

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Land Use Data


Statistics –> sum of selected area

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Hydrology & Hydraulics

Part 3

Vector Data
Rainfall - Catchment
Analysis
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Hydrology & Hydraulics

Rainfall Data
Data Source
• vector data
rainfall_stations.txt
• point locations
• excel sheet
rainfall time series

Live: files in ASCII-Editor

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Hydrology & Hydraulics

Rainfall Data
Rainfall Data Analysis Task:
• area contribution rainfall station - sub catchment
station / sub catchment Tinee Upper Var Esteron Vesubie Lower Var
Carros
Levens
Roquesteron
Puget
Guillaumes
St Martin

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Hydrology & Hydraulics

Rainfall Data
Analysis Concept:
• point information -> Thiessen polygons
• Intersection Thiessen polygons- sub catchment
• selection of Thiessen polygons - sub catchment
combination
• statistics –> sum of selected area

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Rainfall Data
Thiessen Polygons:

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Rainfall Data
Intersection Thiessen Polygons – Sub Catchments

AND =

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Rainfall Data
Selection Station – Catchment Combination
• one cell of the table, e.g. Carros (ID 1) - Lower Var (ID 6)

area -> can be directly extracted from the table

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