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International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Research

ISSN: 2455-4685
Volume 1; Issue 1; January 2016; Page No. 04-06

Phytochemical and Antibacterial Studies on Peperomia Pellucida (L.) H.B.K.
Kalaiarasi V, Johnson M, Janakiraman N, Sivaraman A
Centre for Plant Biotechnology, Department of Botany, St. Xavier’s College (Autonomous), Palayamkottai, Tamil Nadu, India.

The present study was aimed to find out the phytochemical composition and antibacterial potential of Peperomia pellucida (L.)
H.B.K. against the fish pathogens. Preliminary phytochemical constituents of P. pellucida were analysed using the standard
procedure described by Harborne. The bacterial pathogens Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were
isolated from diseased tilapia and their identity was confirmed using the standard procedure. Antibacterial screening was carried out
by agar well diffusion method against the selected pathogens viz., Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids and phenolic groups. Among the five different extracts, the
ethanolic extract exhibited maximum degree of inhibition followed by acetone and chloroform. Ethanolic extract showed the
maximum degree of zone of inhibition against P. aeruginosa (14 mm) followed by B. subtilis (13 mm) and E. coli (10 mm). The
present study results may direct to the discovery of new antibacterial compounds for treating various infections.

Keywords: Peperomia pellucida, Phytochemistry, Anti-bacterial.

Introduction identified and confirmed by conventional microbiology
Peperomia pellucida (L.) H.B.K. (Piperaceae) is a small procedure [13]. Stock cultures of Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia
multipotent herb and employed to treat abdominal pain, fever, coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were grown in nutrient
head ache, eczema, abscesses, acne, boils, colic, fatigue, gout, broth at 30 °C and were sub-cultured and maintained in nutrient
proteinuria, renal and skin disorders and rheumatic joint pain broth at 4 °C. Antibacterial screening was carried out by agar
. It is a popular cough suppressant, emollient and diuretic in well diffusion method [14] against the fish pathogens Bacillus
Guyana and the Amazon [2]. In Philippines, the decoction of P. subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
pellucida is used to decrease uric acid levels and to treat renal Cultures were received in nutrient broth and incubated at 37 0C
problems. P. pellucida (Silver bush) is very effective in the for overnight. The diluted bacterial culture was spread
treatment of hypertension [3, 4]. Pulakmajumder [5] reported the throughout the nutrient agar medium using sterile cotton swab
occurrence of carbohydrates alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and the wells were formed with the help of cork borer. Plant
steroids and triterpenoids in stem of P. pellucida. Various samples were poured with various concentrations (25, 50 and
studies have validated the versatile pharmacological properties 100 µg/ml) separately and incubated at 37 0C for 24 h.
of P. pellucida [6-8]. Xu et al. [9] extracted anticancer Antibacterial activity was calculated by measuring the
metabolites peperomins from P. pellucida. With this diameter of zone of inhibition in millimeter. Penicillin was
knowledge, the present study was aimed to find out the used as positive control.
phytochemical composition and antibacterial potential of the
medicinally important plant P. pellucida. Results
Phytochemical screening of different extracts of P. pellucida
Materials and Methods revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids and phenolic
Peperomia pellucida (L.) H.B.K. was collected from the groups and the results were illustrated in Table 1. Aqueous
natural habitats of Nagercoil, Tamil Nadu, India and identified extracts of P. pellucida showed the occurence of alkaloids,
using the Flora of Madras Presidency. The plants were cut into steroids and phenolic groups. Acetone and ethanolic extracts
small pieces, shade dried at room temperature for 15 days and of P. pellucida demonstrated the presence of alkaloids and
powdered using mechanical homogenizer. 5 g of powdered phenolic groups. Petroleum ether and chloroform extracts of P.
plant material was extracted separately in the ratio of 1:6 at pellucida confirmed the existence of steroids only. Flavonoids,
room temperature using various solvents viz., petroleum ether, saponins, anthraquinones and aminoacids failed to show their
chloroform, acetone, ethanol and water with regular shaking occurrence in any one of the five extracts tested.
for 72 h. The extracts were filtered through Whatmann No.1 The results of the antibacterial activity of ethanolic,
filter paper. It was transferred to glass container and kept at 4 chloroform, acetone, petroleum ether and aqueous extracts of
C before use. P. pellucida were tabulated in Table 2. Among the five
The preliminary phytochemical constituents of different different extracts, the ethanolic extract exhibited maximum
extracts of P. pellucida were qualitatively analysed using the degree of inhibition followed by acetone and chloroform. The
standard procedure [10]. The bacterial pathogens Bacillus results of various extracts were compared with the standard
subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were antibiotic disc penicillin. Amikacin showed positive result
isolated from diseased tilapia [11, 12]. The bacteria were against all the three pathogens. The 100 µg/ml of P. pellucida


Bacillus subtilis. IJCP 2011.) HBK (Piperaceae). Arrigoni Blank MF. The results of the present phytochemical study revealed the presence of alkaloids. Garcia EA. . pellucida against E. coli (5 Table 1: Preliminary Phytochemical studies on different extracts of P. Plant steroids are known to be important for their cardiotonic. pellucida extract was demonstrated to possess antibacterial of Peperomia pellucida (L. Amadi BA. The 100 µg/ml of P. subtilis . [18] . . using agar-well diffusion method and reported that E. coli. + + + Phenolics . . The 5. H. pellucida petroleum ether extracts exhibited (12mm) and P. pellucida Zone of Inhibition (mm) Organisms Petroleum ether Chloroform Ethanol Acetone Aqueous Amikacin (30 µg/ml) 25 50 100 25 50 100 25 50 100 25 50 100 25 50 100 E. antispasmodic and bacterial effects [17]. In the present study also. J. aeruginosa (14 mm) followed by B. Prod. subtilis and P. + + + Table 2: Antibacterial activity of P. aeruginosa and E. pellucida subtilis (13 mm) and E. antiallergic. subtilis (10 mm) followed by E. The inhibition against E. Li N. pellucida failed to show the inhibition against P. Accra. 4 6 14 3 5 11 . [23] studied the 7. the composition and disturb cytoplasmic membranes [21].. subtilis (10 mm) followed by E. Adeyemi O. The present treatment of infectious diseases. Ekor M. aeruginosa and could be used in the slow and steady state recovery from the diseases. subtilis and E. J Nat present study supplemented the previous observations. . The antimicrobial 4. . 8(6). Gandhi Institute of Pharmacy. antidiabetic. Phenolic phytochemicals have antioxidative. 2006. investigation also support the claims by local practitioners of steroids and phenolic groups. aeruginosa in ethanolic extract. 2002. Ayitey-Smith E.B. 2:12-19. steroids and phenolic compounds which will increase the Kerala. Int. aeroginosa (11 mm). Appl. . antimicrobial. coli. Alkaloids. Yang QR. aeruginosa Fitoterapia 2001. Anslem A. pellucida. Trikaripurkasarajod. Oliveira RL. 69:247-250. These secondary metabolites are plant extracts are novel spectrum antibacterial agent against E. antioxidant and antitumour activity of Bangladesh 1998. coli (13 mm) followed by B. Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh. therapeutically used in various Indian medicine which give coli. Department of Pharmacognosy. chloroform extracts illustrated the maximum zone of inhibition pellucida acetone extract exhibited the highest zone of against B. 6. 1. antimutagenic Health Care. inhibition against P. Natl. . Proteus mirabilis and P. 77-78. 5 7 10 3 5 13 3 5 12 2 4 10 25 P. Akure. . coli 8. Asiatic Society insecticidal. aeruginosa only and failed to aqueous extracts demonstrated the maximum zone of show the inhibition against B. . Hence the results of the Bioactive compounds from Peperomia pellucida. Egbebu AC. 206. Adedeji A. folkloric usage to treat hypertension and renal problems. 2:79-81. oils degrade the cell wall interact with Printing and Finishing. coli. P. coli . Antibacterial activity P. largest phytochemical groups in plants has amazing effect on humans and this has led to the development of powerful pain References killer medications including anti-asthmatic and anti. Seed germination. Xu S. Aqueous extracts of P. 2. inhibition against B. . Prospect and Scope of Plant Medicine in anticarcinogenic. 16]. Assessment of the displayed the highest susceptibility in water extract followed effect of aqueous extract of pawpaw (Asimina triloba) root by P. Aziba PI. pellucida was tested against E. activity of Peperomia pellucida aerial parts in mice. pellucida Secondary metabolites Petroleum Ether Chloroform Acetone Methanol Aqueous Steroids + + . India. aeruginosa and we observed the zone of inhibition against the 9. 72:57-58. pellucida confirmed that the secondary metabolites.K. Akinnibosun et al. 5    . Wang MW. Nature Power. The 100 µg/ml of P. Christian Approach to Herbal activities of phenolic compounds may involve multiple modes Medicine. 2 8 . antimicrobial. 1 3 7 3 6 10 3 6 13 1 2 5 21 B. 1989. Mendes SS. inflammatory [15. on organ weights and liver functions of albino rats.) and used for analgesic. pellucida the zone of inhibition against P. of action. Pulakmajumder. Bacillus subtilis and P. Bojo AC. Asia Life activity against Staphylococcus aureus. For example. coli [22]. Pocsidio GN. Analgesic antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extract of P. aeruginosa . Ghani A. aeruginosa. Sci. 1994. 3(1):35-44. coli (10 mm). P. 2006. + Alkaloids . subtilis 100 µg/ml of P. phenology and plant that can work on the nervous system of the human body antiedematogenic activity of Peperomia pellucida (L. Alkaloids are chemical constituents from Antoniolli AR. Rajiv results of the present study confirmed the presence of alkaloids. 100 µg/ml of P. Zhou CH. Ibegbulen CO. and anti-inflammatory properties [19. 3. . Ghana University Press. B. 24 Discussion Conclusion Plants are rich source of medicinal properties in the name of The antibacterial efficacy of P. Ning MM. 2006. 20]. Don Bosco Training Centre. 29.ethanolic extracts showed the maximum degree of zone of mm). coli (7 mm). Sci. Silva PDA. three bacteria with varied diameters. which is one of the ethno medicine in the therapeutic efficacies of P. BMC Pharmacol. School of PTP.

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