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8. Calculate the mole fraction of toluene in the vapor phase which is in equilibrium with solution of benzene and toluene having
a mole fraction of toluene 0.50. The vapor pressure of pure benzene is 119 torr; that of toluene is 37.0 torr at the same
temperature.
𝑃0 𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑧𝑒𝑛𝑒 = 119 𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑟
𝑃0 𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒 = 37 𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑟 𝑃𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑧𝑒𝑛𝑒 = 𝑃0 𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑧𝑒𝑛𝑒 × 𝑋𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑧𝑒𝑛𝑒
𝑋𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒 = 0.50 = 119 × 0.50
𝑋𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑧𝑒𝑛𝑒 = 1 − 0.50 = 0.50 = 59.5

𝑃𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒 = 𝑃0 𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒 × 𝑋𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒


= 37 × 0.50
= 18.5

𝑃𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒
𝑋𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒 =
𝑃𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒 + 𝑃𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑧𝑒𝑛𝑒
18.5
=
18.5 + 59.5
= 0.237

9. At 50°C the vapor pressure of pure CS2 is 854 torr. A solution of 2.0 g of sulfur in 100 g CS 2 has a vapor pressure 848.9 torr.
Determine the formula of the sulfur molecule!
Answer :
𝐺 𝑆𝑥 = 2 𝑔 𝑃𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 𝑋𝑐𝑠2 . 𝑃°𝑐𝑠2
GCS2 = 100 g 𝑛 𝑐𝑠2
T = 50°C 𝑃𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = . 𝑃°𝑐𝑠2
𝑛 𝑐𝑠2 + 𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑙𝑓𝑢𝑟
𝑃°𝑐𝑠2 = 854 𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑟 100
𝑃𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 848.9 𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑟 848.9 = 100 76 2 .854
x=? +
76 𝑀𝑟
8489 100 2 100
( + )=
8540 76 𝑀𝑟 76
100 2
+ = 1.3237
76 𝑀𝑟
2
= 0.0079
𝑀𝑟
𝑀𝑟 = 253
253
Ar S = 32, then 𝑥 = = 7.9 ≈ 8
32
Thus, the formula of the sulfur molecule is S8.

10. If the radiator of an automobile contain 12 L of water, how much would be the freezing point be lowered by the addition of 5
kg Prestone (glycol, C2H4(OH)2)? How many kg of Zerone (methanol, CH3OH) would be required to produce the same
result? Assume 100% purity.
Answer :
V water = 12 L = G water = 12 kg ∆𝑇𝑓 = 𝑚 . 𝐾𝑓
G prestone = 5 kg = 5000 g 𝐺 1
∆𝑇𝑓 = . . 𝐾𝑓
Mr Prestone = 62 𝑀𝑟 𝑃
Mr Zerone = 32 5000 1
∆𝑇𝑓 = 𝑥 𝑥 1.86
Kf water = 1.86℃/𝑚 62 12
∆𝑇𝑓 = 12.5°𝐶
Thus, the freezing point will be lowered by −12.5℃
∆𝑇𝑓 = 𝑚. 𝐾𝑓
𝐺𝑧𝑒𝑟𝑜𝑛𝑒 1
∆𝑇𝑓 = . . 𝐾𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟
𝑀𝑟𝑧𝑒𝑟𝑜𝑛𝑒 𝑃
𝐺𝑧𝑒𝑟𝑜𝑛𝑒 1 Thus, to produce the same result, it requires 2.58 kg of Zerone.
12.5 = 𝑥 𝑥 1.86
32 12
12.5 𝑥 32 𝑥 12
𝐺𝑧𝑒𝑟𝑜𝑛𝑒 =
1.86
𝐺𝑧𝑒𝑟𝑜𝑛𝑒 = 2580.6 𝑔 = 2.58 𝑘𝑔