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Vocabulary List Class Date: October ,

European Year of Volunteering

Publisher: Link & QR Code: hTf
Published: Vocabulary: words and expressions
Author: Anonymous

. designate [ ˈdez.ɪɡ.neɪt ] . youth [ juːθ ]

¶ ¶
(v.) to choose someone officially to do a particular job B (n.) young people, both male and female,
• She has been designated to organize the meeting. considered as a group

• Thompson has been designated (as/to be) team captain. • the nation’s disaffected youth

• Traditionally, the president designates his or her successor. • the youth of today

. European [ ˌjʊr.əˈpiː.ən ] . civic [ ˈsɪv.ɪk ]

¶ , , , , , , , ¶

(adj.) belonging to or relating to Europe or its people (adj.) of a town or city or the people who live in it

• European history • The opera house is a great source of civic pride.

• a European city • She felt it was her civic duty (= her duty as a person living in
the town) to tell the police.
. the European Union • The prime minister met many civic leaders, including the
¶ mayor and the leaders of the immigrant communities.
the organization, since , through which European
governments who choose to be members make . participation [ pɑːrˌtɪs.əˈpeɪ.ʃə n ]
decisions and agree on shared action in social and ¶
economic matters (n.) the fact that you take part or become involved in
. positive [ ˈpɑː.zə.t ̬ɪv ]
¶ . values
C (adj.) (of a medical test) showing that a person has ¶
the disease or condition for which they are being tested B the beliefs people have, especially about what is
• She tested positive for hepatitis. right and wrong and what is most important in life, that
control their behavior
• He’s HIV positive.
• family/moral/traditional values
• a positive pregnancy test
. cohesion [ koʊˈhiː.ʒə n ]
. contribution [ ˌkɑːn.trɪˈbjuː.ʃə n ]

(n.) the situation when the members of a group or
B (n.) something that you contribute or do to help society are united
produce or achieve something together with other
people, or to help make something successful • The lack of cohesion within the party lost them votes in the
• This invention made a major contribution to road safety.
• social/national cohesion
• All contributions (= articles to be printed) for the school
magazine should be received by August 1 .
• All contributions (= presents of money), no matter how
small, will be much appreciated.

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European Year of Volunteering

. opportunity [ ˌɑː.pɚˈtuː.nə.t ̬i ] . education [ ˌedʒ.əˈkeɪ.ʃə n ]

¶ ¶

B (n.) the chance to get a job B (n.) the process of teaching or learning, especially
in a school or college, or the knowledge that you get
• There are some great opportunities now for engineers
from this
trained in computer-aided design.
• She lectures in education (= the study of education) at the
• opportunities for young graduates
teacher training college.
• employment/job opportunities
• It’s a country that places great importance on education.
. involvement [ ɪnˈvɑːlv.mənt ] • As a child he received most of his education at home.

. environment [ ɪnˈvaɪ.rə n.mənt ]
(n.) a romantic or sexual relationship
¶ ,
• She spoke openly about her involvement with the former
prime minister. B (n.) the conditions that you live or work in and the
way that they influence how you feel or how effectively
. voluntary [ ˈvɑː.lə n.ter.i ] you can work
¶ , • As a parent you try to create a stable home environment.
(adj.) A voluntary organization is controlled and • The office is quite bright and airy - it’s a pleasant working
supported by people who give their time and money to it environment.
without being paid, and that exists to help other people
. consumer protection
• the voluntary sector

• The hospital has asked various voluntary organizations to
the protection of buyers of goods and services against
help raise money for the new operating room.
low quality or dangerous products and advertisements
that deceive people
. economic [ iː.kəˈnɑː.mɪk ]

. humanitarian [ hjuːˌmæn.ɪˈter.i.ən ]
(adj.) making a profit, or likely to make a profit ¶
• We had to close our London office - with the rent so high it C (adj.) (a person who is) involved in or connected
just wasn’t economic. with improving people’s lives and reducing suffering

. crisis [ ˈkraɪ.sɪs ] • The well-known humanitarian, Joseph Rowntree, was

¶ concerned with the welfare of his employees.

(n.) a sudden loss of confidence • The United Nations is sending humanitarian aid (= food and
supplies to help people) to the areas worst affected by the
• With inflation at 500 percent, the country faces a crisis of conflict.
• The prisoner has been released for humanitarian reasons.
. diverse [ dɪˈvɝːs ]
. aid [ eɪd ]

(adj.) very different from each other
(v.) to help someone to do something illegal or wrong
• We hold very diverse views on the topic.
• Three auditors were accused of aiding and abetting the men
charged with fraud.

. equal opportunity

the principle of treating all people the same, and not
being influenced by a person’s sex, race, religion, etc.
• The ad said “We are an equal opportunities employer.”

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European Year of Volunteering

. external [ ɪkˈstɝː.nə l ] . added [ ˈæd.ɪd ]

¶ ¶

B (adj.) of, on, for, or coming from the outside (adj.) extra
• This cream is for external use only (= it must not be put • She lost her job last week, and now added to that she’s
inside the body). pregnant again.
• Female kangaroos carry their young in pouches that are • He had the added disadvantage of being the only man
external to their bodies. present.
• the external walls of the house . added value

. relations
¶ an improvement or addition to something that makes it
worth more
B the way in which two people or groups of people
feel and behave toward each other • The printer’s added value makes it worth the extra cost.

• Britain enjoys friendly relations with Canada. . highlight [ ˈhaɪ.laɪt ]

• Relations between him and his new wife are rather strained. ¶

B (v.) to attract attention to or emphasize something

. empower [ -ˈpaʊr ]

• The spelling mistakes in the text had been highlighted in
(v.) to give someone official authority or the freedom to green.
do something
• The report highlights the need for improved safety.
• The first step in empowering the poorest sections of society is
making sure they vote. . engagement [ ɪnˈɡeɪdʒ.mənt ]
• This amendment empowers the president to declare an ¶
emergency for a wide range of reasons.
(n.) an agreement to marry someone
. reward [ rɪˈwɔːrd ] • an engagement party
¶ • They announced their engagement at the party on Saturday.
B (v.) to give someone a reward
. at local/national level
• He rewarded their kindness with hostility and contempt. ¶
• All his hard work was rewarded (= was made worth it) when relating to a particular area of the country/the whole of
he saw his book in print. the country
• The company rewarded him for his years of service with a • These sorts of policies are made at local level.
grand farewell party and several presents.
. as much as
. awareness [ əˈwer.nəs ] ¶
¶ , ,
C (n.) knowledge that something exists, or
• He as much as admitted that it was his fault.
understanding of a situation or subject at the present
time based on information or experience
. involved [ ɪnˈvɑːlvd ]
• Environmental awareness has increased dramatically over ¶
the past decade.
(adj.) not simple and therefore difficult to understand
• Public awareness of the problem will make politicians take it
seriously. • The plot of the film was too involved - I couldn’t understand
• an involved reason/excuse/argument

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European Year of Volunteering

. measure [ ˈmeʒ.ɚ ]

C (n.) amount
• His success was in some measure due to his being in the right
place at the right time.
• There was a large measure of agreement between the

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