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• After completing this course, participant should be
able to:
– Appreciate the 3D printing technology especially in
education and engineering application
– Identify the current weakness of 3D printer, and
compensate with ‘clever’ 3D design
– Conduct simple 3D printer maintenance and
– Visualized the printing process while designing the object
– Tweak existing design
– Common tips, tricks and workaround for successful
– Successfully print a 3D object
8.00 AM -10.30 AM •Welcome and Introduction
•Basic concept, terminology and operation of 3D
10.30 AM -12.30 PM •Assembling a 3D printer.
2.30 PM -4.30 PM •3D printer basic printing software setting
•Hands-on: First print (Cube)
4.30 PM -5.00 PM •Assessing print quality/problem (if any)
•Limitation of 3D printer and its workaround
8.00 AM -10.30 AM •Basic 3D printer maintenance
•Common 3D print problem
10.30 AM -12.30 PM •Manipulating 3D design
•Hands-on: Second print (gears)
2.30 PM -4.30 PM •Assessing print quality/problem (if any)
•Manipulating 3D design
4.30 PM -5.00 PM •Discussion
Subtractive Additive
• is a form of Additive Manufacturing
– Process of joining materials to make an object
from 3D model Data; layer-by-layer process
• Digital Fabrication
– it takes a model a digital design -turn into real,
physical Object
• SLS (Selective Laser Sintering)
– technique that uses a laser as the power source to sinter powdered material
(typically metal), aiming the laser automatically at points in space defined by a 3D
model, binding the material together to create a solid structure.
• FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling)
– It is one of the techniques used for 3D printing. FDM works on an "additive" principle
by laying down material in layers; a plastic filament or metal wire is unwound from a
coil and supplies material to produce a part.
• SLA (Sterolithography)
– Rapid prototyping production parts in a layer by layer fashion
using photopolymerization, a process by which light causes chains of molecules to link
together, forming polymers.
• DLP (Digital Light Processing)
– is a similar process to stereolithography in that it is a 3D printing process that works
with photopolymers. The major difference is the light source. DLP uses a more
conventional light source, such as an arc lamp, with a liquid crystal display panel or a
deformable mirror device (DMD), which is applied to the entire surface of the vat of
photopolymer resin in a single pass, generally making it faster than SL.
• 3D printing is a form of additive
manufacturing technology where a three
dimensional object is created by laying down
successive layers of material (material
deposition). It is also known as rapid
prototyping, is a mechanized method
whereby 3D objects are quickly made on a
reasonably sized machine connected to a
computer containing blueprints for the object.
• Medical procedures
• Advances in research
• Product prototyping
• Historic Preservation
• Architectural Engineering Construction
• Advanced Manufacturing
• Food Industries
• Automotive
• Accessories
• Adopted 3D printing as a way to increase
• Reduce costs and speed up the process.
• 3D models of buildings can be easily created
and edited as plans develop – something that
used to take a significant amount of time to
• ‘Solve complex engineering problem’(?)
• The ‘extruder’ pull the ‘filament’ from the
spool, heats it up until it melts and ‘draw’ the
object layer by layer onto the ‘build
• PLA - PLA (Polylactic Acid) is one of the two most commonly
used desktop 3D printing materials (with the other being ABS).
It is the ‘default’ recommended material for many desktop 3D
printers, and with good reason - PLA is useful in a broad range
of printing applications, has the virtue of being both odourless
and low-warp, and does not require a heated bed

• ABS - ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) is another

commonly used 3D printer material. Best used for making
durable parts that need to withstand higher temperatures. In
comparison to PLA, ABS plastic is less ‘brittle.’ It can also be
post-processed with acetone to provide a glossy finish. When
3D printing with ABS filament a heated printing surface is
recommended, as ABS plastic will contract when cooled leading
to warped parts.

• Others – TPE, wood, magnetic, chocolate? Cell?

• Heated vs non heated
• Build plate (adhesive)
– Kapton tape
– Painters tape
– Glass
– Hair spray?
• a model is in STL format or a ‘printer specific’
gcode file
– Sketchup (require plugin), CAD software
– Download from internet (thingiverse, grab CAD)
• Print
3D printer is not as
straight forward as
the paper printer.
• Makerbot Makerware software
– Add object
– Move it around the build plate
– Rotate it around the build plate
– Scale it
– Change extruder (depend on printer)
– ‘combine’ objects
• Shell
– This is the outer layer of the object, more shell,
stronger the object. Depend on object e.g. Gear
might be better with more shell
– If using transparent filament, using more shell
reduces transparency
• Infill
– Determine the solidness of the object
– Can select the fill pattern (default is honeycomb)
• Extruder temperature
• Plate temperature
• Raft
– This helps object ‘stick’ better to the plate
– Waste materials and time
• Support
– Add support structure
– Waste materials and time
• Orientation
• The motor/moving mechanism
– Extruder (head) moves in the X-Y (sometimes also
Z axis). Build plate can move in Z axis or fixed.
– Movement are done by stepper motor, one for
each axis.
– Thus building a round object/face is more difficult
than straight/flat ones
• Temperature
– 2 temperature: extruder and build plate
– consideration:
• Material type
• Colour/brand?
• Build speed
• External temperature
• Adhesiveness
– Depend on temperature of plate
– Materials type
– Object shape?
– Object location on plate
• Add extra ‘mouse ears’ to long and narrow
• Overhangs and bridges
– You cannot print ‘on air’, and there’s gravity
– Requires ‘support’ structure
– 45 degrees rule
• Add custom support
• Different size, different rules
• Positioning the part on the build plate:
– Centre parts on the build surface: The closer a part is to the
centre of the build plate the less it will warp because the build
surface is levelled most accurately at its centre. In addition, the
heated build surface is cooler on the edges which increases
warping near the edge.
– Place parts directly on the platform: Make sure that the part is
positioned on the build plate itself. You can check this by
clicking on the “Move” button in MakerWare and making sure
the Z position is 0.
– Place parts close together: When parts are positioned close
together on the build platform, the printer head can move more
quickly between parts, reducing build time. Arranging parts too
close together can ruin multiple parts if one of the parts
detaches. Parts should be placed 5-15 mm apart.
• Amount of object to be printed at once
– Subjective
– Fast or safe?

• WARNING: Building multiple parts in the

same build can cause other parts to print
incorrectly if one of the part fails to print
correctly. It is best to limit the number of
parts per build and submit multiple jobs.
• Tolerance
Change filament
Levelling build plate
Cleaning clogged nozzle
1. Warping 7. Pillowing
2. Elephant Foot 8. Stringing
3. More First Layer Problems 9. Under-Extrusion
4. Layer Misalignment 10.Over-Extrusion
5. Missing Layers 11.Shifting Layers
6. Cracks In Tall Objects 12.Extrusion Temperature too High