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TEACHING EXPOSITORY TEXT STRUCTURE: A STRATEGY TO IMPROVE

READING COMPREHENSION OF GRADE VI - AIR PUPILS OF HIBAO-AN
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

An Action Research Proposal

By

ALEX B. BRIGOLI

I. CONTEXT AND RATIONALE

Reading comprehension is the ability to process text, understand its meaning,

and to integrate it with what the reader already knows (Grabe, 2009). Because reading

is an integral part of education, teachers spend hours of instructional review every day to

improve reading comprehension of pupils. Studies have shown that reading

comprehension level has a positive correlation on the academic performance of pupils

on other subjects (Chege, 1999) (Cimmiyoti, 2013).

Researchers determined that the ability to comprehend a text or construct

meaning from a passage is a practice of a highly complex and highly developed set of

skills and abilities (Texas Educational Agency, 2002). In other words, reading

comprehension is a skill that can be learned and developed overtime. The teacher as

reading instructor is a role model of a reader for students, demonstrating what it means

to be an effective reader and the rewards of being one (Day and Bramford, 1998).

Educators have a wide range of teaching strategies to improve reading

comprehension. In the 1980’s, researchers advocated the use of reciprocal teaching in

which the teacher explicity gives instruction on how to decode a passage. Some

teachers teach visual imagery to improve understanding while others employ multiple

strategies to aid in reading comprehension. Yet in spite of these strategies, reading

comprehension difficulties is still a challenge especially with expository texts (Roehling

et.al., 2017) .

and/or explain a topic. This method is explicitly teaching the pupils the formats or structures of each kind of expository text through a graphic organizer. analyze. 1985). The need for an effective reading program with expository structure for our elementary pupils cannot be underscored.. newspapers and articles. . Most pupils can read a textbook or an article but unable to distinguish the type of expository writing therein. In the Philippines. al. Experts argue that teaching expository text structures helps readers with their comprehension of the text (Meyer. al. expository texts contain non-fictional information commonly found in textbooks. In contrast with the narrative form which is fictional in nature. cause/effect and problem/solution. compare/contrast. Signal words or phrases commonly associated with the structure are also included in the instruction to facilitate the identification of the exposition. Akhondi et. and writing paragraphs. According to studies. ( 2011) elaborated this pattern by adding that expository text structures should be taught in order from description and finishing with compare and contrast as prescribed by most textbooks. sequential. giving students opportunities to work on the text. They also advocated the use of graphic organizers as a springboard to learn the different structures of the expository text. Expository text is classified into five broad categories which differ in structures: description. The lessons however are quite limited and the structures are not explicitly discussed. 2011). Tompkins (1998) suggested a three-step pattern to teach expository texts structure: introducing an organizational pattern. Expository texts is one of the two major types of writing which is meant to inform. expository text writing is introduced formally in the intermediate grades. text features can help readers locate and organize information in a text which aids comprehension ( Akhondi et.

revealed that over one third of the graduating elementary pupils are “frustrated” readers. the researcher believes that teaching expository text structures can help in improving the level of comprehension of his pupils.1 million. Dr. the researcher seeks answers to the following questions: 1. II. In a survey conducted by the Functional Literacy. aged 10-64 years old who do not understand what they read has grown to 20. there is a dearth of studies in the Philippine setting about the use of expository structure in reading comprehension of Filipino pupils. Specifically. Education and Mass Media Survey (FLEMMS) in 2008. What is the level of reading comprehension of Grade VI –Air pupils before expository text structure was introduced? . To address these problems. revealed that the number of Filipinos. ACTION RESEARCH QUESTIONS This is a research manuscript that tries to assess the impact of teaching expository text structure on the reading comprehension of Grade VI-Air pupils of Hibao- an Elementary School. However. A Philippine reading Inventory (PHIL-IRI) Test result from elementary schools in the Division of Manila in 2003-2004. said in an interview in 2007 that poor NAT performance is attributed to the reading problems of the Filipino students. This lack of related studies in the Philippines of this method is the primary driving force of the researcher to contribute on studies regarding this teaching strategy with the hope of more Filipino teachers will adopt this method. Yolanda Quijano then head of the DepEd’s Bureau of Elementary Education.

The subjects in these studies are under the advisory of the researcher who conducts their remedial reading classes at 11 o’clock in the morning. Is there a significant difference in the reading comprehension of Grade VI-Air pupils before and after expository text structure was used? III. Expository structures will be taught during the remedial lessons. a dearth of studies which takes into account the use of expository text structure as part of classroom instruction and as a meta-cognitive tool to improve comprehension. . Understanding the effect expository text structure teaching in the reading comprehension of pupils will provide us with vital information on what still needs to be accomplished. INTERVENTION AND STRATEGY This study offers important insights concerning the use of expository text structure to improve pupil’s reading comprehension. Is expository text structure effective in improving reading comprehension of pupils at the independent level? 6.2. unfortunately. There is. Is expository text structure effective in improving reading comprehension of pupils at the frustration level? 4. PROPOSED INNOVATION. This study aims to address the problem of Grade VI – Air students of Hibao-an Elementary School in understanding expository texts and articles.Air pupils of Hibao-an Elementary School? 3. Is expository text structure effective in improving reading comprehension of pupils at the instructional level? 5. Is expository text structure effective in improving the reading comprehension of Grade VI .

Remedial reading sessions will be constantly evaluated as to the performance of pupils in reading comprehension. Administration of test will follow thereafter after reading of each passage. Teachers must teach the structures of expository texts to students with reading materials. The A in this design will be establishing a series of baseline prior to the intervention. the establishment of baselines. After the baseline has been established. The use of text structures should be extended to not only to expository texts but to narrative texts as well for the primary grades. IV. Ten days will be allotted on this stage. The English passage will be read at 11:00 to 11:30 am during their Remedial Class. Participants and/or other sources of data Purposive sampling will be employed in this study. instructional and independent. The same process will be observed in the administration of test for the Filipino passage. The researcher . B. A baseline data will be collected through the PHIL-IRI Pre-test for Silent Reading in English and Filipino. The data in this study can be used as a reference tool for our school planning team to incorporate teaching expository text structures in every intermediate grade-level to improve reading comprehension. They will be classified to three reading level category according to the Philippine Reading Inventory (Phil-Irri): frustration. This process of reading and testing will be repeated four times for both English and Filipino. the researcher will orient the pupils about the different expository texts structure using a graphic organizer. ACTION RESEARCH METHODS A. The subjects chosen are the 34 Grade VI – Air pupils of Hibao-an Elementary School. Data Gathering Methods This study will employ the A-B-A research design.

The last A is the result stage when the PHIL-IRI Post Test Silent Reading in English and Filipino will be administered on separate days. al. (2011) in teaching expository text structures. The researcher will adopt a quantitative approach to the study. the researcher will give additional exercises with mixed structures. Another five weeks will be allotted. After the introduction of the structures each week. Data Analysis Plan The study is delimited to the 34 pupils of Grade Six – Air chosen through purposive sampling. The result of this study will not have any bearing on the grades of the participants. The first week will be about the structure of descriptive expository texts including its signal words. The scores of the pupils will undergo a Wilcoxon signed rank test to determine any significant difference from the baseline and end result. 2. Each week . two steps shall be taken to ensure that the rights of the participants will be respected: 1. Another five weeks will be allotted for this activity.will use the method advised by Akhondi et. This is B part of the design which is the intervention stage. D. C. The teaching of expository text structures will be done daily for 10 weeks at their remedial class at eleven o’clock in the morning. different structures will be discussed in the same manner. Ethical Issues In the conduct of this study. Test papers will be checked by the researcher ensuring secrecy of scores of the pupils. . Exercises with graphic organizers will be part of the activity. Another 10 days will be required for the administration of test.

2018 English organizers Passages Filipino Passages. 2019 action research Drafting of summary and conclusion Printing of Final Report 3 weeks February 15 to Submission of Submission of Final Report March 15.V. Preparation of graphic October 12. ACTION RESEARCH WORK PLAN AND TIMELINE Research Procedure Time Frame Inclusive Dates Outcomes INITIAL STAGE Formulating research problem 2 weeks September 1 to Completed Gathering related literature 14. 2018 Teaching Conduct of teaching of to January 15. Graphic expository text structures 2018 organizers FINAL STAGE Gathering of results 4 weeks January 15 to Completed Interpretation through statistics February 15. 2019 research . IMPLEMENTATION STAGE Establishing baseline data 10 weeks October 15. 2018 Selection of books 3 weeks September 24 to Books. 2018 research Drafting of Proposal proposal Identification of participants 1 week September 17 to List of Pupils Orientation of pupils 21.

Yellow 300.00 TOTAL 14.00 80.00 300.00 40 set Photocopy of Test Paper (English) 1. COST ESTIMATES Cost Estimates QTY UNIT PARTICULARS Unit Total Cost Cost 10 ream Bond paper short 180.00 80.00 1 pc USB Flash Drive 300.VI.00 200.00 1 pax Statistician fee 1000.00 300.00 200. 220 . Black 300.00 300.00 Travel Expenses 3. Red 300.00 1 cartridge Epson Ink.800.00 40 set Photocopy of Test Paper (Filipino) 1.00 300.00 3 pax Snacks for editors 100.00 40 set Photocopy of Reading Passages (Filipino) 1.00 1 cartridge Epson Ink.00 40 set Photocopy of Reading Passages (English) 1.00 Notarial Fee 200.00 1 cartridge Epson Ink.00 1000.00 34 pax Snacks/incentives for participants 200.800.00 300.00 6.00 1.00 80.00 6 pcs Pocket wifi load 300. Cyan 300.0000.00 1 cartridge Epson Ink.00 80.00 300.

Regular comprehension . ACTION PLAN PROGRAM ON DISSEMINATION OF TEACHING EXPOSITORY TEXT STRUCTURE TO IMPROVE READING COMPREHENSION PUPILS OF HIBAO-AN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL Objectives Strategies Persons Target Dates MOV Involved 1. Obtain initial Use of Phil-IRI Teachers June . Researcher SLAC Session Structure in advisers remedial SLAC sessions reading 3.Accessible check suitable graded graded-readers readers for grade level . structure pupils Teachers August Result of comprehension -Finding . The table shows the action plan on how to utilize this research for a school-wide reading program.VII. 2. Teaching of expository text structure -Orientation of pupils on -Taught text expository text structures to Pupils. Orientation of Meeting with Teachers July Scheduled Expository Text teacher. PLANS FOR DISSEMINATION AND UTILIZATION The primary concern of this study is to improve the reading comprehension of Hibao-an Elementary School pupils by teaching expository text structures.Regular check conduct of rubrics-guided reading . Text structures guide pupils to identify the type of passage and focus on salient points of the passage they are reading subsequently leading to better reading comprehension and content retention.July Phil-IRRI scores of pupils materials results in reading comprehension.

M. G. J. May 2017 Sherwood. Cimmiyotti. 2002 Tompkins. 1985. Meyer. NJ: Merrill.com/2010/10/02/20m-filipinos-can-read-but-cannot- understand/ . Educational Technology Englewood Cliffs.com/blog/reading-comprehension-of-students/ https://mlephil. COMPREHENSION INSTRUCTION. J. Grabe.. https://definitelyfilipino. Dominican University of California. W.E. 2009.VIII. EXTENSIVE READING IN THE SECOND LANGUAGE CLASSROOM. 2011 Chege. Cambridge University Press. READING IN A SECOND LANGUAGE:MOVING FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE. M. and Bohaty. Cambridge University Press. READING COMPREHENSION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG STANDARD EIGHT PUPILS IN RURAL MACHAKOS. May 2013.1998. Day. and Bamford. The Reading Teacher. TEXT STRUCTURE STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING FOR IMPROVING EXPOSITORY READING COMPREHENSION. (1998). 2015. The Reading Teacher. A. C. STRUCTURE TO FACILITATE READING COMPREHENSION. Kenyatta University. Cengage Learning Texas Education Agency.. SIGNALING THE STRUCTURE OF TEXT. Malayeri F.. B. LANGUAGE ARTS: CONTENT AND TEACHING STRATEGIES Upper Saddle River... Nelson. Herbert. NJ Roehling J. L..wordpress. REFERENCES Akhondi.. September 1999... J. R. and Samad. E. HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY: FROM CELLS TO SYSTEMS. IMPACT OF READING ABILITY ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AT THE PRIMARY LEVEL.

IX. APPENDICES .