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TEACHING EXPOSITORY TEXT STRUCTURE: A STRATEGY TO IMPROVE

READING COMPREHENSION OF GRADE VI - AIR PUPILS OF HIBAO-AN


ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

An Action Research Proposal

By

ALEX B. BRIGOLI

I. CONTEXT AND RATIONALE

Reading comprehension is the ability to process text, understand its meaning,

and to integrate it with what the reader already knows (Grabe, 2009). Because reading

is an integral part of education, teachers spend hours of instructional review every day to

improve reading comprehension of pupils. Studies have shown that reading

comprehension level has a positive correlation on the academic performance of pupils

on other subjects (Chege, 1999) (Cimmiyoti, 2013).

Researchers determined that the ability to comprehend a text or construct

meaning from a passage is a practice of a highly complex and highly developed set of

skills and abilities (Texas Educational Agency, 2002). In other words, reading

comprehension is a skill that can be learned and developed overtime. The teacher as

reading instructor is a role model of a reader for students, demonstrating what it means

to be an effective reader and the rewards of being one (Day and Bramford, 1998).

Educators have a wide range of teaching strategies to improve reading

comprehension. In the 1980’s, researchers advocated the use of reciprocal teaching in

which the teacher explicity gives instruction on how to decode a passage. Some

teachers teach visual imagery to improve understanding while others employ multiple

strategies to aid in reading comprehension. Yet in spite of these strategies, reading

comprehension difficulties is still a challenge especially with expository texts (Roehling

et.al., 2017) .
Expository texts is one of the two major types of writing which is meant to inform,

analyze, and/or explain a topic. In contrast with the narrative form which is fictional in

nature, expository texts contain non-fictional information commonly found in textbooks,

newspapers and articles. Expository text is classified into five broad categories which

differ in structures: description, sequential, compare/contrast, cause/effect and

problem/solution.

Experts argue that teaching expository text structures helps readers with their

comprehension of the text (Meyer, 1985). This method is explicitly teaching the pupils

the formats or structures of each kind of expository text through a graphic organizer.

Signal words or phrases commonly associated with the structure are also included in the

instruction to facilitate the identification of the exposition. According to studies, text

features can help readers locate and organize information in a text which aids

comprehension ( Akhondi et. al., 2011).

Tompkins (1998) suggested a three-step pattern to teach expository texts

structure: introducing an organizational pattern, giving students opportunities to work on

the text, and writing paragraphs. Akhondi et. al. ( 2011) elaborated this pattern by adding

that expository text structures should be taught in order from description and finishing

with compare and contrast as prescribed by most textbooks. They also advocated the

use of graphic organizers as a springboard to learn the different structures of the

expository text.

In the Philippines, expository text writing is introduced formally in the

intermediate grades. The lessons however are quite limited and the structures are not

explicitly discussed. Most pupils can read a textbook or an article but unable to

distinguish the type of expository writing therein. The need for an effective reading

program with expository structure for our elementary pupils cannot be underscored.
Dr. Yolanda Quijano then head of the DepEd’s Bureau of Elementary Education,

said in an interview in 2007 that poor NAT performance is attributed to the reading

problems of the Filipino students. In a survey conducted by the Functional Literacy,

Education and Mass Media Survey (FLEMMS) in 2008, revealed that the number of

Filipinos, aged 10-64 years old who do not understand what they read has grown to 20.1

million. A Philippine reading Inventory (PHIL-IRI) Test result from elementary schools in

the Division of Manila in 2003-2004, revealed that over one third of the graduating

elementary pupils are “frustrated” readers.

To address these problems, the researcher believes that teaching expository text

structures can help in improving the level of comprehension of his pupils. However, there

is a dearth of studies in the Philippine setting about the use of expository structure in

reading comprehension of Filipino pupils. This lack of related studies in the Philippines of

this method is the primary driving force of the researcher to contribute on studies

regarding this teaching strategy with the hope of more Filipino teachers will adopt this

method.

II. ACTION RESEARCH QUESTIONS

This is a research manuscript that tries to assess the impact of teaching

expository text structure on the reading comprehension of Grade VI-Air pupils of Hibao-

an Elementary School. Specifically, the researcher seeks answers to the following

questions:

1. What is the level of reading comprehension of Grade VI –Air pupils before expository

text structure was introduced?


2. Is expository text structure effective in improving the reading comprehension of

Grade VI - Air pupils of Hibao-an Elementary School?

3. Is expository text structure effective in improving reading comprehension of pupils at

the frustration level?

4. Is expository text structure effective in improving reading comprehension of pupils at

the instructional level?

5. Is expository text structure effective in improving reading comprehension of pupils at

the independent level?

6. Is there a significant difference in the reading comprehension of Grade VI-Air pupils

before and after expository text structure was used?

III. PROPOSED INNOVATION, INTERVENTION AND STRATEGY

This study offers important insights concerning the use of expository text

structure to improve pupil’s reading comprehension. There is, unfortunately, a dearth of

studies which takes into account the use of expository text structure as part of classroom

instruction and as a meta-cognitive tool to improve comprehension. Understanding the

effect expository text structure teaching in the reading comprehension of pupils will

provide us with vital information on what still needs to be accomplished.

This study aims to address the problem of Grade VI – Air students of Hibao-an

Elementary School in understanding expository texts and articles. The subjects in these

studies are under the advisory of the researcher who conducts their remedial reading

classes at 11 o’clock in the morning. Expository structures will be taught during the

remedial lessons.
The data in this study can be used as a reference tool for our school planning

team to incorporate teaching expository text structures in every intermediate grade-level

to improve reading comprehension. Teachers must teach the structures of expository

texts to students with reading materials. Remedial reading sessions will be constantly

evaluated as to the performance of pupils in reading comprehension. The use of text

structures should be extended to not only to expository texts but to narrative texts as

well for the primary grades.

IV. ACTION RESEARCH METHODS

A. Participants and/or other sources of data

Purposive sampling will be employed in this study. The subjects chosen are the

34 Grade VI – Air pupils of Hibao-an Elementary School. They will be classified to three

reading level category according to the Philippine Reading Inventory (Phil-Irri):

frustration, instructional and independent.

B. Data Gathering Methods

This study will employ the A-B-A research design. The A in this design will be

establishing a series of baseline prior to the intervention. A baseline data will be

collected through the PHIL-IRI Pre-test for Silent Reading in English and Filipino. The

English passage will be read at 11:00 to 11:30 am during their Remedial Class.

Administration of test will follow thereafter after reading of each passage. The same

process will be observed in the administration of test for the Filipino passage. This

process of reading and testing will be repeated four times for both English and Filipino.

Ten days will be allotted on this stage, the establishment of baselines.

After the baseline has been established, the researcher will orient the pupils

about the different expository texts structure using a graphic organizer. The researcher
will use the method advised by Akhondi et. al. (2011) in teaching expository text

structures. The first week will be about the structure of descriptive expository texts

including its signal words. Exercises with graphic organizers will be part of the activity.

Each week , different structures will be discussed in the same manner. Another five

weeks will be allotted for this activity. After the introduction of the structures each week,

the researcher will give additional exercises with mixed structures. Another five weeks

will be allotted. This is B part of the design which is the intervention stage. The last A is

the result stage when the PHIL-IRI Post Test Silent Reading in English and Filipino will

be administered on separate days. Another 10 days will be required for the

administration of test.

C. Ethical Issues

In the conduct of this study, two steps shall be taken to ensure that the rights of

the participants will be respected:

1. The result of this study will not have any bearing on the grades of the participants.

2. Test papers will be checked by the researcher ensuring secrecy of scores of the

pupils.

D. Data Analysis Plan

The study is delimited to the 34 pupils of Grade Six – Air chosen through

purposive sampling. The teaching of expository text structures will be done daily for 10

weeks at their remedial class at eleven o’clock in the morning. The researcher will adopt

a quantitative approach to the study. The scores of the pupils will undergo a Wilcoxon

signed rank test to determine any significant difference from the baseline and end result.
V. ACTION RESEARCH WORK PLAN AND TIMELINE

Research Procedure Time Frame Inclusive Dates Outcomes


INITIAL STAGE
Formulating research problem 2 weeks September 1 to Completed
Gathering related literature 14, 2018 research
Drafting of Proposal proposal
Identification of participants 1 week September 17 to List of Pupils
Orientation of pupils 21, 2018
Selection of books 3 weeks September 24 to Books,
Preparation of graphic October 12, 2018 English
organizers Passages
Filipino
Passages,

IMPLEMENTATION STAGE
Establishing baseline data 10 weeks October 15, 2018 Teaching
Conduct of teaching of to January 15, Graphic
expository text structures 2018 organizers
FINAL STAGE
Gathering of results 4 weeks January 15 to Completed
Interpretation through statistics February 15, 2019 action research
Drafting of summary and
conclusion
Printing of Final Report 3 weeks February 15 to Submission of
Submission of Final Report March 15, 2019 research
VI. COST ESTIMATES

Cost Estimates
QTY UNIT PARTICULARS Unit Total Cost
Cost
10 ream Bond paper short 180.00 1,800.00
1 cartridge Epson Ink, Black 300.00 300.00
1 cartridge Epson Ink, Yellow 300.00 300.00
1 cartridge Epson Ink, Cyan 300.00 300.00
1 cartridge Epson Ink, Red 300.00 300.00
40 set Photocopy of Reading Passages (English) 1.00 80.00
40 set Photocopy of Reading Passages (Filipino) 1.00 80.00
40 set Photocopy of Test Paper (English) 1.00 80.00
40 set Photocopy of Test Paper (Filipino) 1.00 80.00
34 pax Snacks/incentives for participants 200.00 6,800.00
3 pax Snacks for editors 100.00 300.00
1 pax Statistician fee 1000.00 1000.00
1 pc USB Flash Drive 300.00 300.00
6 pcs Pocket wifi load 300.00 200.00
Notarial Fee 200.00 200.00
Travel Expenses 3,0000.00
TOTAL 14, 220
VII. PLANS FOR DISSEMINATION AND UTILIZATION
The primary concern of this study is to improve the reading comprehension of

Hibao-an Elementary School pupils by teaching expository text structures. Text

structures guide pupils to identify the type of passage and focus on salient points of the

passage they are reading subsequently leading to better reading comprehension and

content retention.

The table shows the action plan on how to utilize this research for a school-wide

reading program.

ACTION PLAN PROGRAM ON DISSEMINATION OF TEACHING EXPOSITORY TEXT


STRUCTURE TO IMPROVE READING COMPREHENSION PUPILS OF HIBAO-AN
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
Objectives Strategies Persons Target Dates MOV
Involved

1. Obtain initial Use of Phil-IRI Teachers June - July Phil-IRRI


scores of pupils materials results
in reading
comprehension.
2. Orientation of Meeting with Teachers July Scheduled
Expository Text teacher- Researcher SLAC Session
Structure in advisers
remedial SLAC sessions
reading
3. Teaching of
expository text
structure

-Orientation of
pupils on -Taught text
expository text structures to Pupils,
structure pupils Teachers August Result of
comprehension
-Finding - Accessible check
suitable graded graded-readers
readers for
grade level - Regular
comprehension
- Regular check
conduct of
rubrics-guided
reading
VIII. REFERENCES

Akhondi, M., Malayeri F. and Samad, A. STRUCTURE TO FACILITATE READING


COMPREHENSION. The Reading Teacher. 2011

Chege, E., READING COMPREHENSION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH ACADEMIC


PERFORMANCE AMONG STANDARD EIGHT PUPILS IN RURAL MACHAKOS.
Kenyatta University, September 1999.

Cimmiyotti, C., IMPACT OF READING ABILITY ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AT


THE PRIMARY LEVEL. Dominican University of California, May 2013.

Day, R. and Bamford, J.,1998. EXTENSIVE READING IN THE SECOND LANGUAGE


CLASSROOM. Cambridge University Press.

Grabe, W. 2009. READING IN A SECOND LANGUAGE:MOVING FROM THEORY TO


PRACTICE. Cambridge University Press.

Meyer, B. 1985. SIGNALING THE STRUCTURE OF TEXT. Educational Technology


Englewood Cliffs, NJ

Roehling J., Herbert, M., Nelson., J., and Bohaty, J., TEXT STRUCTURE STRATEGIES
FOR IMPROVING FOR IMPROVING EXPOSITORY READING COMPREHENSION.
The Reading Teacher. May 2017

Sherwood, L. 2015. HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY: FROM CELLS TO SYSTEMS. Cengage


Learning

Texas Education Agency, COMPREHENSION INSTRUCTION. 2002

Tompkins, G.E. (1998). LANGUAGE ARTS: CONTENT AND TEACHING STRATEGIES


Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.

https://definitelyfilipino.com/blog/reading-comprehension-of-students/

https://mlephil.wordpress.com/2010/10/02/20m-filipinos-can-read-but-cannot-
understand/
IX. APPENDICES