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1.1.

What is the difference between the heliocentric theory and the


geocentric theory?
The difference between them is that the heliocentric theory says that the Sun is
the center of the Universe, while the geocentric theory says that the Earth is the
center of the Universe.

1.2. Which of them is older? What is wrong in both?


The geocentric theory is older than the heliocentric theory.
It is not true in both that either the Sun or the Earth are the center of the
Universe.

1.3. Who enunciated the geocentric theory? And the heliocentric theory?
The geocentric theory was enunciated by Ptolomy and the ancient Greeks.
The heliocentric theory was enunciated by Nicolas Copernicus.

1.4. What celestial body does the Moon orbit in every theory?
In both theories the Moon revolves around the Earth.

1.5. Which are the main components of the Universe?


The main components of the universe are nebulae, galaxies, stars, planets and
satellites.

1.6. Indicate the name of:


 Our galaxy ........................The name of our galaxy is The Milky Way
 Our star ............................The name of our star is The Sun.
 Our planetary system..........The name of our planetary system is The
Solar System.
 Our planet .........................The name of our planet is The Earth.
 Our satellite .......................The name of our satellite is The Moon.

1.7. Define:
 Universe :
Universe is all the matter, energy and space that exist.
 Star:
A star is a celestial body which emits its own light.
 Planet :
A planet is a celestial body which orbits a star.
 Satellite:
A satellite is a celestial body which orbits a planet.

1.8. What is the theory that explains the origin of the Universe?
The theory that explains the origin of the Universe is the Big Bang Theory.
How it do it?
According to the Big Bang Theory a giant explosion created the Universe.

2.1. Explain which is the main difference between:


 the inner and the outer planets

The inner planets are the four planets closest to the Sun,
while the outer planets are the four planets farthest from the Sun.
The inner planets are small and rocky planets,
while the outer planets are big and gaseous.
The inner planets have thick and light atmospheres,
while the outer planets have thick and dense atmospheres.
The inner planets have few satellites,
while the outer planets have many satellites.

 asteroids and comets


Asteroids are small rocky bodies
while comets are bodies of ice, dust and gas.
Asteroids are in the Asteroid Belt and the Kuiper Belt,
while comets come from the Oort cloud.

 planets and dwarf planets


Planets are big round rocky or gaseous bodies that are alone in their orbit,
while dwarf planets are small and round rocky bodies which have not cleared their
orbit around the Sun of other similar bodies.

2.3. Identify the following pictures:

It is Mars. It is Jupiter. It is a comet It is the Moon

2.2. What are the consequences of rotation and revolution of the Earth?
The consequence of the rotation of the Earth is the alternation of day and
night.
The consequence of the revolution of the Earth is the seasons.

Answer the following questions:


a. Why can not we see the Moon during the period of “New Moon”?
b. Which has more influence on tides, the Moon or the Sun? Why?
c. Why we always see the same side of the Moon?
d. When does an eclipse occur?

The following sentences are wrong . Correct them


a. The Moon takes more time during its revolution than during the rotation
b. When in a place of the Earth it has high tide, in the opposite place It has low
tide.
c. Last quarter is the phase of the Moon between Full and New Moon, when we
see the right side of the Moon illuminated
d. A solar eclipse occurs when the Earth pass between the Sun and the Moon

What is the name of our galaxy?


How many inner planets are there in our solar system?
Four
What is another name for the Earth?
The blue planet

Which planets have got rings?


a. Pluto, Jupiter and Neptune
b. Uranus, Mercury and Neptune
c. Saturn, Neptune and Uranus
The c-
What are comets made of?
Rock and ice
How long does the Earth take to complete one rotation?
24 hours
What is the direction of the Earth`s rotation?
It`s anticlockwise, west to East
How many ways does the Earth move?
Rotation and revolution
How long is one lunar orbit?
28 days
What projects a shadow onto the Moon during a lunar eclipse?
The Earth

What type of celestial body is Pluto?

Match the words and the explanations:


1 Planet a. Rocky bodies which are smaller than planets, irregular in
shape, which orbit around the Sun
2 Comet b. A celestial body orbiting the Sun on a very long
trajectory.
3 Asteroids c. A group of stars (ten or hundreds or thousands) eg. the
Milky Way.
4 Star d. Approximately the mean distance between the Earth and
the Sun.
5 Galaxy e. The distance covered by light in a year, (= 10 billion km).
6 Satellite f. Celestial body which continuously radiates energy into
the space around it (eg. the Sun).
7 U.A. g. A celestial body orbiting a star (eg. the Earth).
8 Light-year h. A natural body that revolves around a planet (eg. the
Moon).