Most importantlycomputer languages include conditional instructions. The first instruction is transferred from RAM into the control unit and interpreted by the hardware circuitry. suppose that the instruction is a string of bits that is the code for LOAD 10. programs are not just lengthy sequences of LOAD. essentially rules that say. otherwise do instruction y. The control unit then loads the contents of memory location 15 into the ALU and adds it to the number already there.BASIC COMPUTER ORGANISATION The operation of such a computer. is fetched. The next instruction. For instance. do instruction number x next. the instruction STORE 20 would store the sum in location 20. ³If memory location n satisfies condition a.´ This allows the course of a program to be determined by the results of previous operations²a critically important ability Diagram of basic computer operation . This instruction loads the contents of memory location 10 into the ALU. At this level the operation of a computer is not much different from that of a pocket calculator. of course. and arithmetic operations. In general. once a program and some data have been loaded into RAM. STORE. Finally. is as follows. say ADD 15.

Parts of computer operation  Unit  Output unit  Central processing unit o Storage unit o Control unit o Arithmetic & logical unit Input unit : Input devices are used to feed data into the computer. There are different kinds of input devices are  Keyboard  Optical input devices o Paper Tape Reader o Card reader o Bar code reader o Digitizer o Optical Mark Reader  Magnetic Input Devices o Magnetic Stripe Reader  Screen Input Devices o Touch Screen o Light Pen o Mouse  Analog Input Devices .

If different data formats are being exchanged.READY. There must be provision for generating interrupts and the corresponding type numbers for further processing by the processor if required Keyboard mouse Bar code readerMagnetic Stripe Reader Card reader touch screan . and the processor can communicate with I/O device through the interface. Handshaking should be implemented by the interface using appropriate commands like (BUSY.WAIT). the interface must be able to convert serial data to parallel form and vice-versa. The interface must have necessary logic to interpret the device address generated by the processor.Input/output interface : I/O Interface is required whenever the I/O device is driven by the processor.

y y y y Monitor Printer Projector Speakers Monitor printer Speaker touch screan projector .Output device Any peripheral that receives or displays output from a computer. Below is a listing of all the different types of computer output devices found on a computer. To the right is a picture of an inkjet printer and a good example of an outputdevice.

sometimes one-of-a-kind. and other types slower than RAM. but of a more permanent nature. It is the unit that reads and executes program instructions. Early CPUs were custom-designed as a part of a larger. Auxiliary storage (or auxiliary memory units) was also used to represent memory which was not directly accessible by the CPU (secondary or tertiary storage). The terms internal memory and external memory are also used . storage today more commonly refers to mass storage ² optical discs. design and implementation of CPUs have changed dramatically since the earliest examples. memory and storage were respectively called main memory and secondary storage (or auxiliary storage). Similarly. Storage unit Computer data storage. implements the basic computer model used since the 1940s. Computer data storage provides one of the core functions of the modern computer. refers to computer components and recording media that retain digital data used for computing for some interval of time. but they are processed so rapidly that we experience the results as the smooth operation of a program. a processor). but their fundamental operation remains much the same. that of information retention. The IC has allowed increasingly complex CPUs to be designed and manufactured to tolerances on the order of nanometers. Both the miniaturization and standardization of CPUs have increased the presence of these digital devices in modern life far beyond the limited application of dedicated computing machines. In contemporary usage. The instructions are very basic things like reading data from memory or sending data to the user display. The data in the instruction tells the processor what to do. and coupled with a central processing unit (CPU. Modern microprocessors appear in everything from automobiles to cell phones and children's toys. often called storage or memory. However. and is the primary element carrying out the computer's functions. This term has been in use in the computer industry at least since the early 1960s. computer. memory usually refers to a form of semiconductor storage known as random-access memory (RAM) and sometimes other forms of fast but temporary storage.Central processing unit The central processing unit (CPU) or the processor is the portion of a computer system that carries out the instructions of a computer program. [1] The form. It is one of the fundamental components of all modern computers. this costly method of designing custom CPUs for a particular application has largely given way to the development of mass-produced processors that are made for one or many purposes. forms of magnetic storage like hard disk drives. This standardization trend generally began in the era of discrete transistormainframes and minicomputers and has rapidly accelerated with the popularization of the integrated circuit (IC). Historically.

RAM Control unit The control unit is the circuitry that controls the flow of information through the processor. one of 16 possible logic operations can be performed . and juggles the output from these units to make sure they end up where they are supposed to go.The ALU relies on basic items to perform itsoperations. and coordinates the activities of the other units within it. manages scheduling the micro-instructions between the various execution units.such as comparing two operands and identifying where bits don't match. In general. decoding. since the control unit really implements this architecture. These include number systems.multiplication. subtraction. There are several ways to represent negative numbers.operands. multiplication and division are done by a series of adding or subtracting and shifting operations. and division) and logic operations. as it controls what happens inside the processor. instructions.Logic operations test various conditions encounteredduring processing and allow for different actions to betaken based on the results. It manages the translation of x86 instructions to RISC micro-instructions. In the logic unit. On a regular processor that executes x86 instructions natively. the ALU includes storage places for input operands. operands that are being added. it is the "brain within the brain". timing. The data required to performthe arithmetic and logical functions are inputs from thedesignated CPU registers and operands. data routingcircuits (adders/subtracters). The design of the ALU is obviously a critical part of the processor and new approaches to speeding up instruction handling are continually being developed . On a processor with a RISC core the control unit has significantly more work to do. The functions performed by the control unit vary greatly by the internal architecture of the CPU. The gates in these circuits are controlled by a sequence logic unit that uses a particular algorithm or sequence for each operation code. which in turn controls the rest of the PC. the control unit performs the tasks of fetching. managing execution and then storing results. and registers. The flow of bits and the operations performed on them in the subunits of the ALU is controlled by gated circuits. and shifted results. the accumulated result (stored in an accumulator). On one of these processors the control unit may be broken into other units (such as a scheduling unit to handle scheduling and a retirement unit to deal with results coming from the pipeline) due to the complexity of the job it must perform ARITHMETIC-LOGIC UNIT The arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) performs allarithmetic operations (addition. In the arithmetic unit. In a way.

these are called the "architectural registers". Processor registers are at the top of the memory hierarchy. manipulated or tested in some way (using machine instructions for arithmetic/logic/comparison) and then stored back into memory. but a CPU that implements the x86 instruction set will often contain many more registers than just these registers. but not all. Under this paradigm. and provide the fastest way for a CPU to access data. possibly at some different location. this specialized storage is not considered part of the normal memory range for the machine. Typically. The term is often used to refer only to the group of registers that are directly encoded as part of an instruction. For instance. and holding these frequently used values in registers improves program execution performance.Register In computer architecture. the IA-32 instruction set defines a set of 32-bit registers. Allocating frequently used variables to registers can be critical to a program's performance. as defined by the instruction set. modern computers adopt the so-called load-store architecture. More properly. This action (register allocation) is performed by a compiler in the code generation phase. . data is loaded from some larger memory ² be it cache or RAM ² into registers. A common property of computer programs is locality of reference: the same values are often accessed repeatedly.. Most. a processor register (or general purpose register) is a small amount of storage available on the CPU whose contents can be accessed more quickly than storage available elsewhere.

A processor often contains several kinds of registers. these are generally not architectural registers): o Memory buffer register o Memory data register o Memory address register o Memory Type Range Registers (MTRR) . o Instruction registers store the instruction currently being executed. that can be classified accordingly to their content or instructions that operate on them: y y y y y y y y y y y y User-accessible Registers . model-specific registers (also called machine-specific registers) store data and settings related to the processor itself. Registers related to fetching information from RAM. known as the accumulator. or pi. General purpose registers (GPRs) can store both data and addresses. Program status word (PSW). sometimes called a stack register. and other ways in various machines. and status register (aka processor status word). Control and status registers . In some architectures. but they have also been implemented using individual flip-flops. exist.The most common division of user-accessible registers is into data registers and address registers. is used implicitly for many operations. thin film memory. Special purpose registers ( SPR ) hold program state. i. a collection of storage registers located on separate chips from the CPU (unlike most of the above. Constant registers hold read-only values such as zero. o Some processors contain registers that may only be used to hold an address or only to hold numeric values (in some cases used as an index register whose value is added as an offset from some address). they are combined Data/Address registers. one.It has three types. they usually include the program counter (aka instruction pointer). A wide variety of possible addressing modes.e.Categories of registers Registers are normally measured by the number of bits they can hold. they can also correspond to specialized hardware elements. they cannot be expected to remain standard between processor generations. others allow registers to hold either kind of quantity. stack pointer. Conditional registers hold truth values often used to determine whether some instruction should or should not be executed. for example. Because their meanings are attached to the design of a specific processor. a special data register. In some older and low end CPUs. o A stack pointer. Address registers hold addresses and are used by instructions that indirectly access memory. Data registers are used to hold numeric values such as integer and floating-point values. In embedded microprocessors. Multiple Data). Vector registers hold data for vector processing done by SIMD instructions (Single Instruction. Program counter. Floating point registers (FPRs) store floating point numbers in many architectures. high speed core memory. instruction registers. Registers are now usually implemented as a register file. is the name given to a register that can be used by some instructions to maintain a stack. used to specify the effective address of an operand.. an "8-bit register" or a "32-bit register".

. Note that the stack pointer (ESP) is counted as an integer register on x86-compatible processors. The minimum number of registers required to evaluate an expression tree is known as the Strahler number. Register usage The number of registers available on a processor and the operations that can be performed using those registers has a significant impact on the efficiency of code generated by optimizing compilers.Some examples Architecture Integer Double FP registers registers 8 16 16 16 128 32 32 32 3 8 16 4 16 128 32 32 32 0 0 0 16 x86 x86-64 IBM/360 Z/Architecture Itanium UltraSPARC POWER Alpha 6502 PIC microcontroller 1 AVR microcontroller 32 ARM 16 The table shows the number of registers of several mainstream architectures. Similar caveats apply to most architectures. even though there are a limited number of instructions that may be used to operate on its contents.

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