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Bearing life

SKF Technology Fair - Caterpillar

May, 2007
Daniel R Snyder
Bearing life

Basic L10 rating life

• (C/P)p calculated according to ISO 281:1961 expressed in hours or millions of

SKF rating life

• The basic L10 rating life modified in accordance with ISO 281:2007 to account for
operating conditions, contamination and a fatigue stress limit

Service life
• The actual life of a bearing in service before it fails

Specification or design life

• The life specified by an authority based on hypothetical load and speed data.
Generally the required basic L10 rating life based on experience
Bearing life

• Bearing selection is usually based on required bearing life

• Bearing life is based on rolling contact fatigue modeling
• Bearing life calculation models are developing in step with
bearing improvements and modeling technologies
How a bearing supports load

Load between the shaft and the housing is transmitted through the
small contacts of the rolling elements and the rings
Elastic contact ellipse
Hertzian contact theory

compressive stresses

Subsurface shear z
Reversing orthogonal shear stress

τ0 ~ 0.5·σmax


τyz z0 ~ 0.5·b

~ +0.25·σmax

~ -0.25·σmax z
Sub surface fatigue

Subsurface fatigue will be initiated at maximum subsurface

shear stress near an inclusion
Pure rolling and sliding

Rolling Sliding
Lundberg-Palmgren life model (1947)

1 τ 0c
ln = C1 ⋅ N ⋅ h ⋅V
e Adopted by ISO in 1962
(V = a ⋅l ⋅ z0 )
S z0 Lundberg-Palmgren
Fatigue Model
C1 = "operating conditions" constant
S = probability of survival
N = number of stress cycles
τ0 = maximum orthogonal shear stress amplitude
z0 = depth to τ0 (stressed volume)
a = major contact ellipse half width
l = length of over rolled perimeter
31 10 7
Constants were empirically determined: c = 3 e = 9 h = 3
Simplified L-P model

• L10 - Life that 90% of a

sufficiently large group of Adopted by ISO in 1962.
Currently basis for ISO 281,
apparently identical bearings
ABMA Standards 9 and 11.
can be expected to attain or
• C - Dynamic load rating for 1
Million revolutions life
L10 = ⎜ ⎟
• P - Equivalent dynamic bearing
• p = 3 for ball bearings
• p = 10/3 for roller bearings
Life equations apply to all bearing types
Load ratings (ISO281, ABMA St’d 11)

Basic load rating

• radial roller bearings

C = f i ×l
( eff
cos α )
7 /9
Z 3 / 4D
29 / 27

• leff = effective length of roller/raceway contact

• Dw = roller diameter
• Z = number of rollers/row
• i = number of rows of rollers
Equivalent dynamic bearing load

• Fr - actual radial load
• Fa - actual axial load
• X - radial load factor for
the bearing
• Y - axial load factor for the
Radial load ratings based on simple 180
degree distribution of load among
balls/rollers effected by nominal clearance.
Reliability factor

Reliability Ln a1

90 L10 1.00
⎛C ⎞ 95 L5 0.62
Ln = a1 ⋅ ⎜ ⎟
⎝P⎠ 96 L4 0.53

97 L3 0.44

98 L2 0.33

99 L1 0.21
Modern life model

Ioannides-Harris (1985)

n ⎛ τ − τ c ΔV ⎞
ln =
∑ ln
ΔS i
≈ N e
∑ ⎜ i

i ⎟

1 i ⎝ ⎠
„ Discrete analysis of the stress field
„ Fatigue Limit => Volume at risk
„ Fatigue Stress Criterion
Mathematical formulation comparison

Lundberg - Palmgren Fatigue Life Theory

1 N τ0 V e c

ln ≈ h
S z0

Theory for modern bearings (IH Life Method) b

1 c ΔV
ln ≈ N (σ − σ u )

ΔS z0h
New ISO 281:2007
Subsurface stress region

1 n 1 n
ln = ∑ ln ≈ N ∑ τ i −τ u ΔVi
e c

S 1 ΔSi i

EHL pressures and stresses
SKF rating life

⎛C ⎞
L n m = a 1 a S K F L1 0 = a 1 a S K F ⎜ ⎟
⎝ P ⎠

a = ƒ ( Film thickness, contamination level, stress limit,…)

Internal load distribution

Each rolling element has a different load, and

deflection, but the total bearing must be in
equilibrium or sum of forces and moments equal “0”
Bearing life calculation models

Predictions must cover important effects from realistic

operating conditions

Two levels of prediction sophistication

• Simplified models (suitable for standardization and
manufacturer’s catalogs)
• Advanced models requiring computer analysis
SKF catalog method to calculate bearing life
Life Factor aSKF



κ = 4

a SKF 0.45




0.005 0.01 0.02 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.5 1 2 5
η c P u /P
Current life calculation approach

• Presence of a fatigue limit stress; under lower stresses, no

fatigue failure occurs (similar to structural steel components)
• Risk of fatigue calculated for each volume element
• Potential to use failure-initiating stress criterion different from
maximum orthogonal shear stress range 2τ0
• Ability to include all effects to the stress field, i.e., hoop
stresses, material processing, etc.
Bearing life

Bearing design Operating

(manufacturing) conditions

Current life models

Matrix Material
Historical evolution

1947-1962 L10 = (C/P)p Lundberg/Palmgren(SKF), ISO 281

1962 L10 = a23 (C/P)p SKF
1967 L10 = a2 a3 (C/P)p ISO (operating conditions)
1982 C = bm Cold SKF (DGBB=1.3,SRB=1.15)
1984 Fatigue Stress Limit SKF (ASME/STLE paper)
1989 L10 = aSKF (C/P)p SKF (fatigue load limit, Pu)
1990 C = bm Cold ISO (1.3 DGBB, 1.15 SRB)
2000 axyz ISO Life mod.factor(ISO281-2)
2001 aSLF Acta Polytechnica Scadinavica
2002 aSLF ASME Bearing Guide
2003 aDINMOD DIN ISO281 Addendum 1 and 4
2006 Lnm = aSKF (C/P)p Modified kappa, friction factors
2007 aISO ISO281:2007

• Introduction to SKF simulation tools

• SKF Bearing Beacon
• SKF Bearing Beacon example
• From fatigue life to system performance
Why would SKF develop Simulation tools?

Traditional testing/experimental analysis are too costly and

results are often inconsistent:
• Difficult to make measurements inside the bearing
• Difficult to design accurate test / test rigs
• Difficult to reproduce test data
• Insight needed in product quality and its relation to the application
• Improvement needed with the noise and vibration levels in rolling bearing
SKF proprietary simulation tools


SKF bearing beacon


Engineering DIMSTAB

What is SKF Bearing Beacon?
What is SKF Bearing Beacon?

• A state-of-the-art simulation tool for static and modal analysis

of rolling bearings and rolling bearing applications
• For Application Engineers, to support customers and sales with
advice on bearing performance in bearing applications

Easy-to-use graphical interface

• Bearing data from online product life cycle database
• Locally installed – allowing demonstration at customer site
• Animation capabilities
• Easy report generation
• (Quasi) static analysis
• Modal analysis on assemblies

Available components:
• Shafts
• Bearings
• Gears
• Springs / Dampers
• Mass / Inertia bodies
• Customer housings

Available boundaries:
• Forces
• Displacements
• Rotation speeds
• Wheel loads
SKF Bearing Beacon example
Example – excavator final drive bearing analysis

Excavator final drive

• Bearing stiffness to sustain sealing capacity
• Bearing fatigue life
Model details

• Spindle shaft
• Two bearings
Angular Contact Ball Bearings (ACBB)
Taper Roller Bearings (TRB)
• Sprocket
Excavator final drive bearing analysis


• Basic rating fatigue life 5000

• Bearing equivalent load based 4000
• Complex load sharing is accounted for 2000

(not valid to use static hand calculations) 1000

• DIN ISO 281 fatigue life Basic Rating DIN ISO SKF Afc

• Rolling element load based

(loads & moments, clearance,
misalignment on load,
centrifugal loads)
• Lubrication effects 200000

(viscosity and cleanliness) 150000

100000 TRB
• SKF advanced fatigue life 50000

• Contact pressure based 0

(misalignment effect on edge stresses) Basic Rating DIN ISO SKF Afc

• Lubrication effects
Application evaluation

Bearing selection – ACBB vs. TRB solution ACBB

Application evaluation

Application condition influences

• Mounting conditions (fit tolerances)
• Operating temperatures
Combined calculated AFc fatigue life


• Lubricant type 100000


• Lubricant cleanliness AFc life [h] 60000

• Bearing preload


• Etc.. 0
60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95
Temperature [C]
Analyses animation

Besides static analysis also modal analysis is available

From fatigue life to system
From fatigue life to system performance

Successful fatigue life methods!

Less than 1% of bearings fail due
to sub-surface fatigue
Make sure to cover all factors!
From fatigue life to system performance

Housing deformations
System performance

Wind turbine gearbox experiencing a torque reversal

From fatigue life to system performance

Noise and vibration analysis Testing

Problem solving
Product design/optimization

Lubrication analysis

Virtual simulation Unitized solutions

Materials / surfaces
General Session:
Bearings 101

Presented to Caterpillar Inc.

Presented by Mark Cutler, Arnoud Reininga, Dan Snyder
General Session: Bearings 101

Bearings 101

Damage Analysis Bearing Life

SKF Bearing Inspector

Application Review
SKF Bearing Beacon
Damage Analysis – SKF Bearing

2007-05-18 ©SKF Slide 52 [Code]

SKF [Organisation]
Bearings 101 – Damage Analysis

Bearing Failures – Symptoms

• Excessive Heat

• Excessive Noise
• Excessive Vibration

• Damaged bearing supports (due to bearing spinning)

• Lubrication leakage

• Increase in required power/torque

• Equipment shutdown
Bearings 101 – Damage Analysis

Misalignment Electric arcing

Loading Dirt and moisture contamination
• Inadequate Brinelling

• Excessive • False brinelling due to

Lubrication vibration when bearing is
• Inadequate not rotating

• Excessive • Denting caused by impact

during transportation or
• Wrong type
installation of component
• Mixing (incompatibility)
Bearings 101 – Damage Analysis

Examples of Bearing Failures

• Foreign Particle Contamination

• Moisture Contamination

• Inadequate Lubrication
Bearings 101 – Damage Analysis

• SKF Bearing Inspector

• Show Video