lfZkmfZm^kbZel

Birkhäuser – Publishers for Architecture
Baseí · Berííh · Bosloh
axel ri t t er
lfZkmfZm^kbZel
in architecture, interior architecture and design
Thís book does hol make reíerehce lo exíslíhc pal-
ehls, recíslered desíchs, lrade marks elc. lí such
reíerehce has beeh omílled, lhís does hol síchííy
lhal lhe producl or lhe producl hame ís hol pro-
lecled. The creal humber oí díííerehl maleríaís
ahd producls mehlíohed íh lhís book made íl ím-
possíbíe lo carry ah íhveslícalíoh íhlo lhe possíbíe
exíslehce oí lrademark proleclíoh íh every case.
Accordíhcíy, íh lhe íhleresls oí uhííormíly, lhe lexl
makes ho use oí lrademark symboís such as ® or
TM. The use oí lhe copyríchl symboí (©) has beeh
íímíled lo lhe píclure credíls.
Translation Faymohd Feal, Aííord
Graphic design, layout and cover Míríam Bussmahh, Berííh
Cover idea, image research and selection Axeí Fíller, Bad Neuehahr ÷ Ahrweííer
Editor Ahdreas Muííer, Berííh
Copyediting and proofreading Míchaeí Wachhoíz, Berííh
Thís book ís aíso avaííabíe íh a Cermah íahcuace edílíoh
(l8BN·13: 978·3·7643·7326·9, l8BN·10: 3·7643·7326·1).
A ClF calaíocue record íor lhís book ís avaííabíe írom lhe Líbrary oí Cohcress,
Washíhcloh D.C., U8A
Bíbííocraphíc íhíormalíoh pubííshed by Díe Deulsche Bíbííolhek
Díe Deulsche Bíbííolhek íísls lhís pubíícalíoh íh lhe Deulsche
Nalíohaíbíbííocraííe; delaííed bíbííocraphíc dala ís avaííabíe íh lhe
lhlerhel al <hllp://dhb.ddb.de>.
Thís work ís subíecl lo copyríchl. Aíí ríchls are reserved, whelher lhe whoíe or parl
oí lhe maleríaí ís cohcerhed, specííícaííy lhe ríchls oí lrahsíalíoh, repríhlíhc, re·use
oí íííuslralíohs, recílalíoh, broadcaslíhc, reproduclíoh oh mícroíííms or íh olher ways,
ahd slorace íh dala bahks. For ahy kíhd oí use, permíssíoh oí lhe copyríchl owher
musl be oblaíhed.
© 2007 Bírkhäuser ÷ Fubííshers íor Archíleclure, F.O.Box 133, CH·4010 Baseí, 8wílzeríahd
Farl oí 8príhcer 8cíehce - Busíhess Medía
Fríhled oh acíd·íree paper produced írom chíoríhe·íree puíp. TCF ~
Fríhled íh Cermahy
l8BN·13: 978·3·7643·7327·6
l8BN·10: 3·7643·7327·X
www.bírkhauser.ch
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Fhosphorescehl íhk, ohe oí lhe smarl maleríaís
mehlíohed íh lhís book, has beeh used íh lhe
príhlíhc oí lhe cover. The craphíc reíhlerprels a
1970s waíípaper molíí wílh ah oplícaí 3D·eííecl
ahd al lhe same líme resembíes lhe moíecuíar
slruclure oí a maleríaí. For more íhíormalíoh oh
lhe eííecl oí phosphorescehce, whích ís parlícu-
íaríy vísíbíe íh a dark ehvírohmehl, see p. 118 íí.
preface
trends and developments
innovative materials and products
smart materials
SHAPE-CHANGING SMART MATERIALS
thermostrictive smart materials
THERMAL EXPANSION MATERIALS (TEM) / EXPANSION MATERIALS (EM) >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
THERMOBIMETALS (TB) >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS (SMA) >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
electroactive smart materials
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMERS (EAP) >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
COLOUR- AND OPTICALLY CHANGING SMART MATERIALS
photochromic smart materials
PHOTOCHROMIC MATERIALS (PC) >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
thermochromic and thermotropic smart materials
THERMOCHROMIC/-TROPIC MATERIALS (TC, TT) >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
electrochromic and electrooptic smart materials
ELECTROCHROMIC/-OPTIC MATERIALS (EC, EO) >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
ADHESION-CHANGING SMART MATERIALS
photoadhesive smart materials
TITANIUM DIOXIDE (TiO
2
) >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
7
10
26
43
45 PROPERTY-CHANGING SMART MATERIALS 46
47
47
53
59
66
66
72
73
73
80
80
89
89
98
100
100
\hgm^gml
6 | íhhaíl
LlCHT·EMlTTlNC 8MAFT MATEFlAL8
photoluminescent smart materials
FLUORESCENCE >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
PHOSPHORESCENCE >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
electroluminescent smart materials
INJECTION ELECTROLUMINESCENCE | LIGHT-EMTTING DIODES (LED) >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
THICK FILM ELECTROLUMINESCENCE | ELECTROLUMINESCENT MATERIALS (EL) >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
POLYMER/SMALL MOLECULE ELECTROLUMINESCENCE |
ORGANIC LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES (OLED) >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
ELECTFlClTY·CENEFATlNC 8MAFT MATEFlAL8
photoelectric smart materials
DYE SOLAR CELLS (DSC) >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
thermoelectric smart materials
THERMOELECTRIC GENERATORS (TEG) >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
piezoelectric smart materials
PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMICS/POLYMERS (PEC, PEP) >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
ENEFCY·EXCHANClNC 8MAFT MATEFlAL8
heat-storing smart materials
PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS (PCM) >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
MATTEF·EXCHANClNC 8MAFT MATEFlAL8
gas/water-storing smart materials
MINERAL AD-/ABSORBENTS (MAd, MAb) >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
ABSORBENT/SUPERABSORBENT POLYMERS (AP, SAP) >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
sources, íííuslralíoh credíls
109 ENERGY-EXCHANGING SMART MATERIALS 110
111
111
118
125
125
130
135
142
143
143
148
148
154
154
164
165
165
173 MATTER-EXCHANGING SMART MATERIALS 174
175
175
182
188
Time and time again utopians, futurologists and even some politicians have developed scenarios
of how the world of tomorrow will look. In the past they have seldom been proved right. Much
of what they foresaw just never happened as they said it would. In particular this applies to the
timeframes envisaged, which are usually too brief, and to the frequent predictions for worldwide
omnipresence of the phenomena.
Buildings and life in our buildings have changed over the last 25 years. Apart from a few excep-
tions, it is not spectacular buildings and housing types that define our times, it is above all the
changes in building technology and automation. Through the development of innovative materi-
als, products and constructions, the move to endow buildings with more functions, the desire
for new means of expression, and ecological and economic constraints, it is now possible to
design buildings that are clearly different from those of previous decades.
We are standing at the threshold of the next generation of buildings: buildings with various de-
grees of high technology, which are extremely ecological in their behaviour through the intelli-
gent use of functionally adaptive materials, products and constructions and are able to react
to changes in their direct or indirect surroundings and adjust themselves to suit.
This creates new tasks for the designers and planners of these buildings, who must ensure that,
in achieving what is technically feasible, sight is not lost of the well-being of the occupants and
they are given the opportunity of self-determination. To do this in the design process requires
knowledge and integration of as many of these parameters as possible. The central role of
technology and automation of processes must not lead to people being deprived of their right
to make decisions; they must be given the opportunity to step in when the need arises to have
things how they would like them.
That all too sensitive adaption processes are not always advantageous can be seen with the
1987 Institut du Monde Arabe (IMA) building in Paris by Jean Nouvel, which was fitted with a
multitude of mechanical photo-shutters to control light transmission: people inside the building
found the repeated adaption sequences a nuisance. They took place all the time, at short inter-
vals and sometimes even under a heavily overcast sky. To cure the problem, the control was
made less sensitive and the number of possible switching processes reduced.
Energy and matter flows can be optimised through the use of smart materials, as the majority
of these materials and products take up energy and matter indirectly or directly from the envi-
ronment. This approach does not entail any other related requirements, for example as would
arise through conventionally networked automation products. Currently the use of smart mate-
rial is made necessary by the wish for more automation, for compact materials and products
reacting to sensors and actuators and the increasing global demand on expensive energy sourc-
es and raw materials.
Depending on the future popularity of use of smart materials and the visible effects on our
buildings, our picture in relation to our built environment will change from what we are used to
seeing as architecture. Metropolises like Tokyo, which is undergoing a continuous and rapid
change of appearance in some districts, show that people are capable of living with permanent
architectural change.
“The whole is more than the sum of its parts.”
(Aristotle, *384 BC)
This book is suitable for students, practitioners and
teaching staff active in the fields of architecture, design
and art: for all who are open to innovative technology, on
the look out for new materials and products of use in
the future or for those who just wish to be inspired. Criti-
cism, suggestions and ideas relating to this publication
are expressly welcomed. The author would be delighted
to receive information about new materials at:
info@ritter-architekten.com
The author has been involved in the development and
application of smart materials and adaptive and kinet-
ic structures in the fields of experimental architecture
and innovative design for more than ten years. In addi-
tion to his activities as a freelance architect and de-
signer, the author has published articles on the subject
and presented invited lectures.
ik^_Z\^
8 | preíace
8marl maleríaís ís a reíalíveíy hew lerm íor maleríaís ahd producls lhal have chahceabíe prop-
erlíes ahd are abíe lo reversíbíy chahce lheír shape or coíour íh respohse lo physícaí ahd/or
chemícaí íhííuehces, e.c. ííchl, lemperalure or lhe appíícalíoh oí ah eíeclríc ííeíd. Noh·smarl
maleríaís have ho such specíaí properlíes, semí·smarl maleríaís are holabíe íor lheír abíííly, íor
exampíe, lo chahce lheír shape íh respohse lo ah íhííuehce ohce or a íew límes. Wílh smarl
maleríaís lhese chahces are repealabíe ahd reversíbíe.
8emí·smarl maleríaís ahd smarl maleríaís are whal we míchl caíí íuhclíohaí maleríaís. The
lerm ¨maleríaí¨, as íl ís used here, íhcíudes subslahces írom whích íhlermedíale producls cah
be made, as weíí as lhe ceheríc maleríaís lhemseíves. The lerms ¨íhleríor archíleclure¨ ahd
¨archíleclure¨ have beeh used íh píaces bul eísewhere ¨archíleclure¨ cah be read lo cover
bolh.
8marl maleríaís are oíleh descríbed as adaplíve or íhleííícehl maleríaís. Whíísl mosl oí lhe
smarl maleríaís khowh loday may aíso be descríbed as adaplíve maleríaís because oí lheír
properly lo adíusl lhemseíves, lhe descríplíoh ¨íhleííícehl maleríaís¨ ís lo be cohsídered as
coííoquíaí. Thís descríplíoh ís íhcorrecl as íhleííícehce aíso has assocíalíohs wílh compuler
scíehce, ahd lhe maleríaís ahd producls khowh lo dale are hol ceheraííy suílabíe or uhlíí how
have hol beeh used íh such a cohlexl.
A chahce íh ohe properly oí smarl maleríaís may oíleh be accompahíed by chahces íh olher
properlíes. Cerlaíh pholochromíc compouhds (FC) chahce coíour reversíbíy íh respohse lo ííchl
ahd lo lemperalure chahces. Ahd íhverseíy íl may be lhe case lhal severaí properlíes chahce
al ohce aíler slímuíalíoh by a síhcíe íhííuehce. For exampíe, machelorheoíocíc ííuíds (MFF) uh-
der lhe íhííuehce oí a machelíc ííeíd, íh addílíoh lo chahcíhc lheír ííow properlíes, aíso chahce
lhe eíeclrícaí, lhermaí, acouslíc ahd oplícaí properlíes oí lheír suspehsíohs al lhe same líme.
8ome smarl maleríaís aíso exhíbíl lhe íhverse behavíour by makíhc chahces íh bolh díreclíohs.
Fíezoeíeclríc smarl maleríaís are abíe lo ceherale eíeclríc charces írom lhe eííecl oí compres-
síoh or lehsíoh ahd íh reverse chahce lheír shape oh appíícalíoh oí ah eíeclríc ííeíd. ll ís occa-
síohaííy possíbíe lo combíhe severaí maleríaís or producls wílh smarl properlíes locelher lo
creale compíex chahce behavíours.
The use oí maleríaís wílh chahcíhc properlíes ís hol ah íhvehlíoh oí moderh límes. From earíí-
esl híslory mah has poured hol waler over wood lo íhduce íl lo sweíí ahd spííl rock. Fíhe cohes,
íhleslíhes ahd íohc bíohde humah haír have beeh used lo íhdícale moíslure íh lhe aír ahd as
aclualors íh aír humídíy cauces. The chahce íh íehclh oí lwo díííerehl melaís íoíhed lo ohe ah-
olher was used írom lhe becíhhíhc oí lhe íhduslríaí revoíulíoh íh lhermoeíeclríc swílches.
The íoííowíhc physícaí ahd chemícaí íhííuehcíhc varíabíes may acl as lrícceríhc slímuíí íor
chahces íh smarl maleríaís:
Wílh specíaí lhahks lo:
The publisher
and the following people
Dr. Aíexahder Kraíl, Dr. Karí·Heíhz Heckher,
Cesímal CmbH, Berííh, Cermahy
Dr. Arho 8eebolh, Frauhhoíer lhslílul íur Ahcewahdle
Foíymeríorschuhc (lAF), Folsdam·Coím, Cermahy
Froí. Chríslíha Kubísch, Hoppecarleh, Cermahy
Erhard Kíeíh, Caíeríe Kíeíh, Bad Muhslereííeí,
Cermahy
Euh 8ook Lee, Korea
Dr. Cerhard 8pah, 8AM ÷ 8pah ahd Mayrhoíer KEC,
Wallehs, Auslría
Dr. Harlmul 8chuberl, OKEF·Chemíe CmbH, Cermahy
Froí. Dr. Norberl Hampp, Fhííípps·Uhíversíläl,
Marburc, Cermahy
Dípí. Masch.·lhc. ETH Falríck Lochmaller, Eídce·
hossísche Maleríaípruíuhcs·uhd Forschuhcsahslaíl
(EMFA), Dubehdorí, 8wílzeríahd
Fulh Hahdschíh, Zurích, 8wílzeríahd
and the following companies
Deulsche 8leíhzeuc Cremer & Breuer AC,
8chwarzehíeíd, Cermahy
C.B.C. Lld., Oxíordshíre, Ehcíahd
James Fobíhsoh Lld., Huddersííeíd, Ehcíahd
Mícropeíl CmbH, Freíburc, Cermahy
Novaíed AC, Dresdeh, Cermahy
Fl Ceramíc CmbH, Lederhose, Cermahy
Fríhz Oplícs CmbH, 8lromberc, Cermahy
Taíyo Europe CmbH, Muhích, Cermahy
9 | preíace
LIGHT, UV LIGHT
The vísíbíe ahd uílravíoíel parl oí eíeclromachelíc radíalíoh.
TEMPERATURE
The lhermaí slale oí a physícaí syslem, e.c. a body.
PRESSURE
The ralío oí íorce lo area.
ELECTRIC FIELD
The ííeíd íh lhe vícíhíly oí ah eíeclríc charce.
MAGNETIC FIELD
The ííeíd íh lhe vícíhíly oí a machel or movíhc eíeclrícaí charce, e.c. a wíre carryíhc ah
eíeclríc currehl.
CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT
The presehce oí cerlaíh chemícaí eíemehls ahd/or compouhds, e.c. waler.
The chapler oh lrehds ahd deveíopmehls íhlroduces lhe subíecl ahd cíves a íírsl íook íhlo ííeíds
olher lhah archíleclure, whíísl íhhovalíve maleríaís ahd producls cíve ah overvíew oí currehl
deveíopmehls íh maleríaí research ahd producl deveíopmehl. lh order lo make lhe díslíhclíoh
lhey are compared wílh olher íhhovalíve hoh· ahd semí·smarl maleríaís.
The maíh parl oí lhe book deaís wílh lhe díííerehl lypes oí smarl maleríaís, usíhc descríplíohs
comprísíhc combíhalíohs oí adíeclíves maíhíy írom lhe Creek. For exampíe, ah íhííuehce such
as ííchl has beeh expressed as ¨pholo¨ ahd a chahcíhc properly such as coíour as ¨chromíc¨.
lh lhe above case lhe íuíí descríplíoh ís ¨pholochromíc smarl maleríaís¨. The íííuslralíohs ahd
íecehds are hormaííy reíerred lo írom lop íeíl lo bollom ahd lheh írom lop ríchl lo bollom. The
íííuslralíohs íh lhe íhlroduclíoh lo lhe íhdívíduaí croups oí smarl maleríaís are hormaííy lakeh
írom lhe proíecls presehled íh lhe respeclíve croup.
lh lhe sequehce ahd dívísíoh oí lhe smarl maleríaís showh here some specíaí poíhls had lo be
lakeh íhlo accouhl. Cíassííícalíoh íh accordahce wílh íhííuehcíhc íaclors ahd chahcíhc proper-
líes does hol make lhíhcs absoíuleíy cíear, as wílh some smarl maleríaís chahces may be lríc-
cered by lwo, lhree or more díííerehl íhííuehces or íh olher cases slímuíalíoh by a síhcíe íhííu-
ehce cah resuíl íh severaí properlíes chahcíhc al lhe same líme. Thereíore lhe maleríaís have
beeh díííerehlíaled oh a case by case basís írom lhe poíhl oí víew oí lheír ímporlahce íh lhe
cohlexl oí reaíísed or íulure archílecluraí appíícalíohs. The maleríaís choseh oííer ah overvíew
oí lhe smarl maleríaís mosl suílabíe al lhe currehl líme íor use íh archíleclure, íhleríor archí-
leclure ahd desích.
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Maleríaís ahd producls used íh lhís ííeíd íhcíude lhose lhal cah be recycíed or are mahuíaclured
írom wasle. lh mahy cases lhís ís al lhe deveíoper's owh rísk, as usuaííy ho cohslruclíoh ap-
provaí has beeh crahled. Fíre saíely or loxícíly or bolh are oíleh lhe maíh cohcerhs lhal make
íl more díííícuíl íor lhese maleríaís ahd producls lo become eslabííshed íh hormaí use.
Ah exampíe oí how a buíídíhc cah lrahsíorm mechahícaí ehercy íhlo eíeclrícaí ehercy ís lhe
proíecl Hybrid Muscle by lhe Frehch archílecls F&8íe.: a 3 l couhlerweíchl píaced íh a buíídíhc
was raísed by a whíle buííaío ahd províded ehouch eíeclrícíly írom a dyhamo·eíeclríc ceheralor
íor lhe ííchlíhc, a íaplop ahd a leíephohe syslem.
There are aíso a íew íhslahces where lhe ehercy comes írom humahs, íor exampíe by cohverlíhc
lheír movemehls íhlo eíeclrícaí ehercy; lhís couíd be duríhc sporl or whíísl waíkíhc. A currehl
íhlerprelalíoh aíohc lhe ííhes oí lhís lheme ís províded by lhe archílecl Mílcheíí Joachím wílh
hís ídea oí a ííoalíhc íílhess sludío. The sporlíhc muscíe power oí lhe peopíe usíhc lhe cym ís
cohverled by suílabíe meahs íhlo eíeclrícaí ehercy ahd used lo dríve lhe RiverGym NY, whích ÷
sheílered acaíhsl lhe wealher by a lrahsparehl proleclíve cupoía ÷ ís abíe lo chahce íls sur-
rouhdíhcs acaíh ahd acaíh.
Two works by lhe aulhor, Dynaf l e x p01 ahd Anthrogena, show lhal ehercy oblaíhed írom peopíe
cah be used díreclíy lo chahce lhe ceomelry oí archíleclohíc space íh a pureíy mechahícaí way.
Dynaf l e x p01 ís a weíchl·cohlroííed íoad·bearíhc slruclure, whích íhcreases íh íehclh íh re-
spohse lo lhe verlícaí deííeclíoh oí parls oí lhe slruclure, caused by peopíe waíkíhc over íl (see
eíeclrícíly·ceheralíhc smarl maleríaís, pp. 162 íí. [1|). By cohlrasl, íh Anthrogena, íh addílíoh
lo spreadíhc íh wídlh íh respohse lo íoad, lhe slruclure deíorms ahd ís slabííísed by lhe lrahsíer
oí voíumes oí aír.
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Depehdíhc oh lheír ceocraphícaí ahd lopocraphíc íocalíoh, buíídíhcs are subíecl lo ahd musl
somelímes be prolecled írom varíous almospheríc, íocaí ahd ahlhropoíocícaí íhííuehces. 8eíí·
cíeahíhc maleríaís have beeh deveíoped íor lhís purpose ahd are íhcorporaled íhlo buíídíhc eíe-
mehls such as rooí lííes, membrahes ahd íhlo íacades íh order lo keep lhem permahehlíy cíeah.
8eíí·heaííhc coalíhcs ahd seaís have beeh deveíoped lhal reseaí lhemseíves íh lhe evehl oí
damace lo reslore lheír proleclíve eííecl ahd make coslíy repaírs uhhecessary. Híchíy resíslahl
maleríaís ahd coalíhcs are aíso beíhc deveíoped, íor exampíe usíhc hahomelre·scaíe parlícíes,
lo creale suríaces wílh parlícuíaríy hích scralch·, íraclure· or heal·resíslahce (see p. 42 ahd lí-
lahíumdíoxíde (TíO
2
), pp. 100 íí.). These deveíopmehls are oí parlícuíar íhleresl íor buíídíhcs
lhal have lo wílhslahd exlreme cíímalíc cohdílíohs ahd/or are expecled lo remaíh íh use íor a
very íohc líme.
ARCHITECTURE
Trehds ahd deveíopmehls emerce al díííerehl rales íh
lhe ííeíd oí archíleclure, depehdíhc oh lhe commercíaí
ahd poíílícaí cohdílíohs, ceocraphíc íocalíoh, haluraí·
ahlhropocehíc ehvírohmehl, ahd lechhoíocícaí ahd íí-
hahcíaí possíbííílíes. lhhovalíve maleríaís have a recur-
ríhc ahd crucíaí roíe lo píay here.
Hybrid Muscle wílh harhessed
whíle buííaío: F&8íe. archílecls. |
Víew írom oulsíde. | lhleríor víew.
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11 | lrehds ahd deveíopmehls
Aírshíp hahcar Morphyt nt íh lhe cíosed slale, rear víew. | Fíah oí hahcar. | Víew
írom above oí a modeí oí lhe weíchl·cohlroííed íoad·bearíhc slruclure Anthrogena. |
8íde víew. | RiverGym NY íh aclíoh. | 8everaí RiverGyms NY oh lhe New York
skyííhe.
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Archíleclure cah be desíched lo chahce or be chahced íh specíííc ways. lhslead oí loíeralíhc
or couhleraclíhc íhvoíuhlary chahces íh buíídíhcs caused by haluraí ahd/or ahlhropoíocícaí íh-
ííuehces, some archílecls are seekíhc lo use lhese eííecls as a íormaí eíemehl íh lheír proíecls.
lh recehl years more work has beeh dohe oh so·caííed adaplíve buíídíhc ehveíopes, whích, íh
lhe ídeaí case, are abíe lo reacl lo lheír ímmedíale ahd adíacehl surrouhdíhcs íh a mahher quíle
uhííke earííer slruclures. Depehdíhc oh lheír desích ahd sehsory syslems, ahd lheír passíve ahd
aclíve slruclures ahd compohehls, lhey are abíe lo reacl reversíbíy lo lheír surrouhdíhcs over
a íohc períod oí líme. Thís lask requíres maleríaís ahd producls wílh reversíbíe properlíes.
Froperly·delermíhíhc paramelers reíevahl lo archíleclure lhal cah be desíched as chahcíhc
or chahceabíe íhcíude:
SHAPE COLOUR/APPEARANCE SOUND (NOISE) ODOUR (SCENT)
SHAPE
For varíous reasohs íl may be worlhwhííe ahd heípíuí íor lhe shape oí a parl or lhe whoíe oí a
buíídíhc lo have lhe capacíly oí beíhc chahced or chahcíhc ílseíí. 8o·caííed cohverlíbíe rooís,
í.e. rooís capabíe oí íoídíhc or wílh seclíohs lhal sííde over ohe aholher, ahd cohsíslíhc oí slííí
ahd/or ííexíbíe suríace·íormíhc cohslruclíohs, have beeh íhcreasíhcíy used síhce lhe 1970s as
lemporary wealher proleclíoh íh lhe íorm oí rooííhc íor sladía or swímmíhc pooís. Ah íhhovalíve
cohcepl íor a pheumalícaííy cohverlíbíe rooí was deveíoped by lhe aulhor as parl oí a desích
íor ah aírshíp hahcar íh whích lhe hahcar was covered wílh a bívaíehl íoad·bearíhc slruclure
cohsíslíhc oí a lhree·íayer íhííalabíe membrahe. Wheh lhe hahcar ís cíosed, a sííchl overpres-
sure slabíííses lhe buíídíhc skíh, usíhc lhe príhcípíe oí a pheumalíc slruclure. To opeh lhe
hahcar, aír ís íhlroduced íhlo lhe íhílíaííy ííal voíds íh lhe membrahe so lhal lhe íhííaled voíds
become pressurísed arches lo lake over lhe íoad·bearíhc roíe. The cohlraclíoh oí lhe hahcar
skíh oh íííííhc wílh aír opehs lhe cale.
U8·Amerícah dECOí Archílecls deveíoped ah íhleraclíve kíhelíc waíí, lhe Aecís Hyposuríace.
A humber oí pheumalíc reaclíve aclualors were buííl íhlo a basíc slrucluraí írame. The aclua-
lors were mechahícaííy cohhecled lo a suríace made up oí rows oí díacohaííy dívíded, movabíe
lííes oh lhe oulsíde oí lhe slruclure. The waíí reacls lo varíous slímuíí such as ííchl, souhd ahd
movemehl. 8pecíaí soílware causes lhe suríace lo chahce spalíaííy. The spohlaheous move-
mehls oí lhe lííes cíve ah aímosl haluraí·íookíhc símuíalíoh oí movíhc waves, amohc olher
eííecls.
Aegis Hyposurface íh aclíoh. | opposite: CycleBowl
12 | lrehds ahd deveíopmehls
13 | lrehds ahd deveíopmehls
CycleBowl | Dufttunnel al lhe ¨Car Cíly¨ íh
Woíísburc.
COLOUR/APPEARANCE
Feíalíveíy hích cosl ahd íhadequale íohc·lerm slabíííly meah lhal seíí·aclíhc coíour·chahcíhc
maleríaís are slííí seídom used íor exlerhaí suríaces. The sílualíoh ís díííerehl íhsíde buíídíhcs,
where lhere have aíready beeh a humber oí díííerehl appíícalíohs; lhese are descríbed íh more
delaíí íh lhe seclíohs beíow.
Oplícaííy swílchabíe íayers íh buíídíhc ehveíopes cah be desíched lo províde bolh a lemporary
prívacy screeh ahd cohlroííed darkehíhc oí a room. lh addílíoh lo specííícaííy sehsílíve malerí-
aís lhal swílch írom opaque lo lrahsparehl al cerlaíh lemperalures or wheh ah eíeclríc ííeíd ís
appííed, lhere have aíso beeh varíous mechahícaí syslems deveíoped íh lhe pasl. Ohe syslem
capabíe oí exerlíhc a varyíhc íhííuehce oh lhe lrahsparehcy oí lhe oulsíde skíh oí a buíídíhc ís
lhe ETFE ííím waíí oí lhe CycleBowl, whích archílecls Aleííer Bruckher oí 8lullcarl, Cermahy,
deveíoped íor Expo 2000 íh Hahover. The lrípíe·íayer píííows each compríse lhree sheels; ohe
wílh a posílíve príhl, ohe wílh a hecalíve príhl ahd ohe íeíl lrahsparehl. Uhder pheumalíc coh-
lroí lhe príhled míddíe sheel couíd be pressed acaíhsl lhe reverse·príhled ouler sheel or acaíhsl
lhe uhpríhled íhher sheel lo make lhe íacade appear ííal al cerlaíh límes ahd lhree·dímehsíohaí
al olhers. Furlhermore, lhe íhlerhaí space couíd aíso be seaíed overhead acaíhsl suhííchl by
pheumalícaííy cohlroííed íhííalabíe lubes íhlecraled íh lhe rooí.
SOUND (NOISE)
There are allempls lo make cohslruclíohaí eíemehls such as waíís ahd wíhdows souhd·íhsuía-
líve by lhe aclíve superímposílíoh oí souhd waves. Ah arrívíhc souhd wave ís ahaíysed ahd lheh
heulraíísed by lhe sehdíhc oul oí ah opposíle souhd wave. For lhís a píezoeíeclríc souhd coh-
verler cah be used (see píezoeíeclríc ceramícs/poíymers, pp. 154 íí.).
ODOUR (SCENT)
Mahuíaclurers íh Chíha have succeeded íh deveíopíhc maleríaís wílh embedded scehls, whích,
wheh used as ííoor coveríhcs ahd waíked oh, are abíe lo reíease scehl moíecuíes íhlo lhe room
aír. Ah accessíbíe scuíplure wílh ah exlerhaí skíh cohsíslíhc compíeleíy oí rows oí polled íra-
crahl píahls was crealed by Dahísh/lceíahdíc·borh bul Cermah·domícííed arlísl Oíaíur Eííassoh
íh hís work Dufttunnel íor lhe ¨Car Cíly¨ íh Woíísburc 2004. The lhree ííhked luhheí seclíohs
are kepl cohlíhuousíy rolalíhc lo adequaleíy suppíy lhe píahls wílh haluraí ííchl ahd lo íhlehsííy
lhe eííecl oí lhe scehl. The íracrahl píahls are repíaced every síx weeks wílh hew ohes duríhc
lhe períod oí díspíay íh lhe summer mohlhs oí Apríí lo 8eplember.
A íurlher possíbíííly íor usíhc odours íh archíleclure ís íh lhe area oí períume markelíhc.
14 | lrehds ahd deveíopmehls
15 | lrehds ahd deveíopmehls
bgm^eeb`^gmZk\abm^\mnk^
The TRON Intelligent House, lhe íírsl buíídíhc we wouíd cohsíder íhleííícehl by loday's slahd-
ards, was desíched íh 1988 by Keh 8akamura íh Níshí Azuba, Japah. Coslíhc 1 bííííoh yeh al
lhal líme, lhe íuííy aulomaled buíídíhc cohlaíhed a lolaí oí 380 compulers, whích were hel-
worked wílh lhe TFON archíleclure. Aíí exlerhaí íhíormalíoh receíved, íor exampíe, írom leíeví-
síoh, radío ahd leíephohe, ahd aíí íhlerhaí íhíormalíoh, exchahced íor exampíe vía ah audíovís-
uaí syslem, couíd be caííed up oh mohílors íhslaííed íh every room.
Teh years íaler íh 1998, Bííí Cales had a smarl house buííl, whích, wílh lhe heíp oí íhlecraí
sehsors ahd assocíaled soílware, ís capabíe oí recochísíhc peopíe ahd, depehdíhc oh user
preíerehces, produces a chahce íh lhe ehvírohmehl, so lhal, íor exampíe, wheh a persoh ehlers
a room a íavouríle ímace ís díspíayed oh a mohílor.
A cohsorlíum oí severaí Frauhhoíer lhslílules ahd prívale compahíes coordíhaled by lhe Frauh-
hoíer lhslílule íor Mícroeíeclrohíc Círcuíls ahd 8yslems (lM8) deveíoped lhe InHaus, whích was
erecled íh 2001 íh Duísburc, Cermahy. lh addílíoh lo deveíopíhc ahd helworkíhc lhe lechhícaí
equípmehl, lhe proíecl's purpose ís lhe íhlecralíoh oí lhís equípmehl íhlo a moderh·home
aeslhelíc, ercohomy, comíorl ahd íííeslyíe. The 8marlerWohhehNFW íhílíalíve, whích ís cur-
rehlíy Europe's íarcesl aclíve smarl·íívíhc proíecl, wííí creale 1000 pííol homes íh Norlh Fhíhe·
Weslphaíía, acaíh wílh lhe parlícípalíoh oí severaí Frauhhoíer lhslílules.
lh príhcípíe, íhleííícehl buíídíhcs cah aíso be crealed lhrouch lhe use oí smarl maleríaís. These
buíídíhcs wouíd requíre slruclures capabíe oí receívíhc ahd processíhc a muílílude oí compíex
dala, preíerabíy íhvoívíhc eíeclrícaí syslems. lí such a slruclure remaíhs depehdehl oh a símpíe
maller oí slímuíus ahd reaclíoh, lheh a syslem cahhol be descríbed as íhleííícehl.
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Decoralíve eíemehls cah lake oh olher íuhclíohs, íor exampíe íh order lo achíeve weíchl reduc-
líoh or lo aííow víews íhlo a space by removíhc lhe hecalíve íorm írom a suríace. Furlher íuhc-
líohs are lhose oí soíar proleclíoh or a prívacy screeh, oíleh íh lhe íorm oí príhled or sahd·
bíasled cíass suríaces. lh lhís cohlexl lhere are a humber oí díííerehl eííecls lhal cah be crealed
by lhe use oí hew lypes oí coíour·chahcíhc ahd oplícaííy swílchabíe maleríaís ahd producls.
For exampíe, íhílíaííy severe·íookíhc, mohochrome suríaces cah be suddehíy ehíívehed by lhe
eííecl oí cerlaíh slímuíí. Thís may be lhrouch lhe use oí a lrahsparehl, moíslure·sehsílíve paíhl
appííed over cerlaíh areas lo reveaí a pallerh wheh raíh íaíís upoh íl.
Ohe such use ís demohslraled by lhe aulhor's 1995 work hydrophil-hydrophob. By appíyíhc a
ííquíd, sííícohe·based, lrahsparehl dampprooííhc acehl lo cerlaíh parls oí lwo casl·slohe pah-
eís, íl was possíbíe lo produce lhe desíred cohlraslíhc ííchl·dark eííecl.
hydrophil-hydrophob II (2006) beíore
ahd aíler lhe eííecl oí waler.
m^qmbe^]^lb`g
lh earííer límes lexlííes ceheraííy had ohíy ohe or lwo permahehl properlíes. Today more ahd
more lexlííes wílh chahcíhc properlíes are beíhc deveíoped, í.e. lhey cah chahce lhemseíves íh
respohse lo ohe or more íhííuehcíhc íaclors. Thís ís made possíbíe by maleríaís ahd lheír prod-
ucls wílh íhherehl seíí·chahcíhc properlíes, so·caííed smarl maleríaís. These smarl maleríaís
may be aíready avaííabíe, hewíy íhlroduced oh lo lhe markel, or lhey may be hewíy deveíoped
producls. They cah be used oh lheír owh or íh combíhalíoh wílh hoh·smarl or semí·smarl
maleríaís.
The íoííowíhc seclíoh deaís wílh lexlííe desích ohíy íh reíalíoh lo cíolhíhc, as lexlííes used íor
archílecluraí purposes are descríbed íh lhe maíh parl oí lhís book.
lh addílíoh lo humerous experímehlaí desích proíecls, recehl years have seeh lhe emercehce
oí varíous lexlííe maleríaís íh íuhclíohaí cíolhíhc, íhcíudíhc so·caííed íhleííícehl cíolhíhc. 8ome
exampíes oí cíolhíhc, aíready avaííabíe or al lhe prololype slace, reííeclíhc lhese lrehds íh
whích smarl maleríaís píay a maíor roíe are descríbed beíow. 8ome oí lheír properlíes ahd
specíaí quaíílíes cah aíso be used íor archílecluraí purposes, be íl íh lhe íorm descríbed here
or íh a díííerehl modííícalíoh.
DIRT-REPELLENT CLOTHING INCORPORATING NANOPARTICLES
8EMl·8MAFT MATEFlAL8
To prolecl suíls írom waler or slubborh slaíhs such as kelchup ahd coííee, Bucallí, a Cermah
mahuíaclurer oí hích·príced meh's cíolhíhc, made lhem írom a specíaí íabríc lhal dísposes oí
dírl by meahs oí a seíí·cíeahíhc eííecl due lo íhcorporaled hahomelre·scaíe parlícíes.
SHAPE-CHANGING CLOTHING INCORPORATING SHAPE-MEMORY ALLOY (SMA)
8MAFT MATEFlAL8
The llaííah cíolhíhc compahy Corpo Nove, lhrouch íls spíh·oíí íírm Crado Zero Espace, mahu-
íaclured a íohc·síeeved shírl oul oí a íabríc íhcorporalíhc a shape·memory aííoy (8MA), íh lhís
case, Nílíhoí. Depehdíhc oh how íl has beeh preprocrammed, lhe íabríc íorms ílseíí íhlo díííer-
ehl shapes íh respohse lo lhe ambíehl lemperalure. The shírl wílh lhe hame Oricalco roíís up
íls owh síeeves. Wheh lhe room lemperalure exceeds a cerlaíh vaíue, lhe íabríc íh lhe síeeves
íorms íoíds ahd lhe síeeves shorleh íh íehclh. The shírl cah aíso be compressed íhlo íls smaííesl
possíbíe voíume, íor exampíe íor lrahsporl. By aííowíhc íl lo reach a preprocrammed lempera-
lure, e.c. by lhe íhlroduclíoh oí warm aír írom a haírdryer, íl recaíhs íls orícíhaí shape.
DESIGN AND ART
Texlííes, aulomobííes ahd íurhílure have lo salísíy hích
requíremehls beíore lhey ehler seríes produclíoh. How-
ever, hew, íhhovalíve maleríaís ahd producls cah some-
límes be íhlroduced more quíckíy íh lhese íhduslríes
lhah íh archíleclure, ahd eveh more so lhah íh lhe coh-
slruclíoh ííeíds. lh cerlaíh círcumslahces, maleríaís
ahd producls lesled íh lhese olher ííeíds cah aíso be
modíííed lo be used íh archílecluraí appíícalíohs. ll ís
hol uhusuaí íor arlísls, wílh lheír sehsílívíly ahd píeas-
ure íh experímehlalíoh, lo be lhe íírsl lo use íhhovalíve
maleríaís ahd producls, ahd deveíop some uhusuaí ap-
píícalíohs íor lhem.
8eíí·cíeahíhc suíls íor meh. | opposite: Oricalco
shírl: compíele víew. | Foídíhc shorlehs lhe
síeeves. | Cíose·up pholocraph oí lhe lexlííe.
16 | lrehds ahd deveíopmehls
17 | lrehds ahd deveíopmehls
COLOUR-CHANGING CLOTHING WITH THERMOCHROMIC DYES
8MAFT MATEFlAL8
Fouhded íh llaíy as ah íhleraclíve desích cohsuílahcy ahd research íaboralory, Cule Círcuíl has
deveíoped ahd mahuíaclured severaí chahceabíe cíolhíhc lexlííes, íhcíudíhc lhe skírl Skirteleon,
whích cah chahce íls coíour ahd pallerh depehdíhc oh lhe aclívílíes ahd mood oí lhe persoh
wearíhc íl. lh lhe morhíhc al work, lhe skírl ís bíue; by íale aílerhooh, íor exampíe wheh meelíhc
íríehds, ah ahímaí molíí appears; ahd íh lhe evehíhc al a reslaurahl íl lakes oh ah eíecahl Japa-
hese pallerh.
LIGHT-EMITTING CLOTHING INCORPORATING ELECTROLUMINESCENT CABLE (EL CABLE)
8MAFT MATEFlAL8
Cule Círcuíl's bíack, Vícloríah·íhspíred KineticDress reacls lo lhe physícaí aclívíly oí lhe wearer.
ll has a pallerh oí eíeclroíumíhescehl ríhcs lhal respohd lo lhe íhlehsíly oí body movemehls
by emíllíhc díííerehl íhlehsílíes oí ííchl. Wheh lhe wearer ís íhvoíved íh peaceíuí aclívílíes such
as readíhc, lhe carmehl íooks bíack. Leísureíy movemehl, such as waíkíhc, produces sííchlíy
íííumíhaled bíue ríhcs. Wílh more slrehuous movemehl, such as dahcíhc, lhe ríhcs become íuííy
íííumíhaled.
CLIMATE-REGULATING CLOTHING INCORPORATING SHAPE-MEMORY POLYMER (SMA)
8MAFT MATEFlAL8
Aholher producl írom Crado Zero Espace ís a íealher íackel wílh severaí íuhclíohaí íayers. The
appíícalíoh oí ordíhary cícarelle paper lo lhe íealher ehabíes lhe íealher ílseíí lo be kepl ex-
lremeíy lhíh. The íackel aíso has a moíslure· ahd heal·recuíalíhc cíímalíc membrahe made írom
a shape·memory poíymer (8MF), whích cohlroís lhe permeabíííly lo perspíralíoh ahd ííow oí
heal, íh respohse lo body lemperalure. A seríous search íor archíleclohíc uses oí 8MFs ís cur-
rehlíy uhderway.
CLIMATE-REGULATING CLOTHING INCORPORATING PELTIER ELEMENTS (PE)
8MAFT MATEFlAL8
The same compahy aíso deveíoped aclíveíy cooííhc uhdercíolhes íor racíhc car drívers. The uh-
derwear íhcorporales Feílíer eíemehls (FE), whích cah be cohslrucled ííke lhermoeíeclríc ceh-
eralors (TEC) (see lhemoeíeclríc ceheralors (TEC), pp. 148 íí.), bul uhííke TECs lhey are abíe
lo cohverl eíeclríc currehl íhlo heal ahd coíd. A símííar aclíveíy cooííhc lexlííe was deveíoped
al lhe Uhíversíly oí Míhho íh Forlucaí. Here as weíí, lhe cooííhc eííecl ís based oh lhermoeíec-
lríc cohversíoh.
Skirteleon skírl: cíose·up pholocraph
oí lhe lexlííe wílh lhe ahímaí molíí
vísíbíe. | KineticDress duríhc varíous
aclívílíes. | Cíose·up pholo·craph oí
lhe lexlííe wílh íííumíhaled ríhcs
made írom EL cabíes.
18 | lrehds ahd deveíopmehls
19 | lrehds ahd deveíopmehls
Jackel wílh moíslure· ahd heal·recuíalíhc
cíímale membrahe. | Aclíveíy cooííhc
T·shírl. | Absolute Frontier íackel. |
No-contact íackel.
SCENT-CHANGING CLOTHING INCORPORATING CYCLODEXTRINS
8EMl·8MAFT MATEFlAL8
To prevehl lhe buííd·up oí odour, íabrícs íor cerlaíh suíls made by Bucallí, Cermahy, íhcorpo-
rale hoh·loxíc haluraííy absorbehl cycíodexlríhs, whích lake up smoke, sweal or íal íh lheír hy-
drophobíc hoííow íhleríors.
SUPERINSULATIVE CLOTHING INCORPORATING AEROGEL
NON·8MAFT MATEFlAL8
For exlreme coíd, Corpo Nove desíched lhe Absolute Frontier íackel, whích uses lhe lhermaííy
íhsuíalíve maleríaí aeroceí. Deveíoped aíready íh 1930, aeroceí ís lhe besl heal·íhsuíalíve male-
ríaí avaííabíe oh lhe markel, secohd ohíy lo vacuumísed producls. lh lhe hear íulure we couíd
see cíolhíhc ohíy 3 mm lhíck beíhc adequaleíy íhsuíalíve dowh lo ÷50°C. Aeroceí ís aíso used
íh archíleclure, íor exampíe as a heal·íhsuíalíve maleríaí belweeh cíass pahes.
DEFENSIVE CLOTHING WITH ELECTRON-EMITTING TEXTILES AND LEDs
8MAFT MATEFlAL8
The No-Contact íackel desíched by lhe U8·Amerícah compahy oí lhe same hame ís íhlehded lo
deíehd lhe wearer acaíhsl allack. Frímarííy markeled íor lhe proleclíoh oí womeh, lhe wearer
íírsl aclívales lhe íackel wílh a key. Ah LED íels lhe wearer khow lhís has beeh dohe. lh lhe evehl
oí ah allack, lhe wearer presses a cohlroí bulloh íh eílher oí lhe síeeves lo reíease a puísalíhc
eíeclrícaí currehl oí íow amperace bul al a voílace oí 80,000 voíls, whích ííows lhrouch lhe
suríace oí lhe íackel. The íackel creales vísuaí ahd audíbíe eíeclríc arcs belweeh lhe shouíders
ahd coííar lo warh oíí ah approachíhc allacker.
COMMUNICATING CLOTHING WITH INTEGRATED MP3 PLAYER
8EMl·8MAFT MATEFlAL8
A íackel wílh ah íhlecraled MF3 píayer has beeh deveíoped by lhííheoh íh cohíuhclíoh wílh sys-
lem parlhers. Thís ís ah exampíe oí so·caííed wearabíe eíeclrohícs. Earííer eíeclrohíc compo-
hehls couíd hol be íuííy íhlecraled íhlo cíolhíhc because lhey wouíd be rehdered hoh·íuhclíohaí
by washíhc. Here lhe compahy deveíoped a soíulíoh íh whích aíí íour compohehls (audío·chíp,
power moduíe, mícrophohe ahd cohlroís) oí lhe syslem were íuííy ehcapsuíaled lo prolecl lhem
acaíhsl moíslure, ahd had hích·quaííly, adequaleíy resíslahl seaís. Fíhe wíres were woveh íhlo
lhe íabríc lo lrahsíer lhe eíeclrícaí síchaís. The power was suppííed al íírsl írom íílhíum·íoh
poíymer recharceabíe balleríes, whích íh lhe íaler seríes produclíoh phase wouíd be repíaced
by lhermoceheralor chíps (see lhermoeíeclríc ceheralors (TEC), pp. 148 íí.). These chíps wouíd
ceherale ah eíeclríc currehl wílh ah oulpul oí more lhah 1.0 µW/cm ahd a voílace oí 5 V/cm
írom lhe smaíí lemperalure díííerehce belweeh skíh ahd cíolhíhc. lh mosl cases lhís ís ade-
quale íor íow power compohehls such as sehsors ahd mícrochíps. However, up lo how ho prod-
ucls íhcorporalíhc lhermoceheralor chíps have beeh brouchl oh lo lhe markel.

COMMUNICATING CLOTHING INCORPORATING BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY
8EMl·8MAFT MATEFlAL8
Ohe suílabíe lechhoíocy íor commuhícalíhc over a díslahce ís Bíueloolh, whích Cule Círcuíl
írom llaíy íhcorporaled íh íls 2004 F+R Hugs shírl syslem íh order lo lrahsmíl dala aboul coh-
lacl evehls. The syslem, aíready avaííabíe loday, cohsísls oí a shírl equípped wílh Bíueloolh,
sehsors ahd aclualors, a mobííe phohe ahd specíaí soílware. Cohlacl wílh lhe appropríaleíy
coíoured sehsílíve areas oh lhe shírl creales eíeclríc voílaces; lhese are pícked up by lhe sys-
lem's mobííe leíephohe ahd lrahsmílled by radío, íh lhe íorm oí eíeclromachelíc waves, lo lhe
mobííe leíephohe parlher oí lhe wearer's choíce; lhere acaíh lhey are cohverled, by aclívalíoh
oí lhe aclualors íh lhe parlher's shírl, íhlo símííar movemehls.
LIGHT-EMITTING HANDBAG INCORPORATING ELECTROLUMINESCENT FILM (EL FILM)
8MAFT MATEFlAL8
The Cermah compahy BFEE produced a hahdbac wílh ah íhleríor ííchl cohsíslíhc oí a lhree·
dímehsíohaí, deíormabíe íumíhescehl ííím (EL ííím), whích was deveíoped by Bayer, Cermahy,
ahd a 8wíss eíeclrohícs specíaíísl. The uhííorm íeveí oí ííchl emílled over ah area ííchls up lhe
íuíí íhleríor oí lhe hahdbac.
F+R Hugs shírl syslem | Hahdbac wílh aclívaled EL ííím íílled
oh lhe síde: víews írom oulsíde ahd íhlo lhe bac. | Jackel wílh
íhlecraled MF3 píayer ahd olher eíeclrohíc compohehls.
20 | lrehds ahd deveíopmehls
21 | lrehds ahd deveíopmehls
Senso: coíour chahces possíbíe wílh EL íííms. | Maybach 62: the
íhlecraí eíeclrolrahsparehl pahoramíc rooí víewed írom lhe íhsíde. |
Mini Concept: víew oí lhe dashboard ahd lhe scehl oulíel hozzíe
íhlecraled íhlo lhe A·píííar.
Znmhfh[be^]^lb`g
Aulomobííe desích, whích has díslíhcuíshed ílseíí líme ahd líme acaíh lhrouch parlícuíaríy íh-
hovalíve, somelímes speclacuíar deveíopmehls, cah lake lhe credíl íor a humber oí hew smarl
maleríaís worlhwhííe mehlíohíhc lhal couíd aíso be oí íhleresl íor archílecluraí appíícalíohs.
Varíous prololypes ahd seríes produclíoh vehícíes íh whích smarl maleríaís have beeh used ahd
íhhovalíve cohcepls reaíísed are descríbed beíow.
COLOUR-, SOUND- AND SCENT-CHANGING AUTOMOBILE WITH
ELECTROLUMINESCENT FILMS (EL FILMS) AND SCENT GENERATOR
8MAFT MATEFlAL8
Ah aulomobííe wílh a humber oí sehsory abííílíes was deveíoped by lhe 8wíss desích ahd coh-
cepl powerhouse Fíhspeed íh cohíuhclíoh wílh severaí syslem parlhers. The Senso modeí, pre-
sehled al lhe 2005 molor show íh Ceheva, has a syslem íor deleclíhc ahd íhííuehcíhc lhe emo-
líohaí slale oí lhe dríver. The posílíve slímuíí emahalíhc írom lhe vehícíe are íhlehded lo make
lhe dríver dríve more saíeíy. The aulomobííe has a bíomelríc walch, whích measures lhe dríver's
puíse, ahd a mobííe eye camera, whích records hís drívíhc behavíour. Ah ohboard compuler
evaíuales lhe coííecled dala ahd oííers lhe dríver díííerehl vísuaí, acouslíc ahd oííaclory slímuíí,
depehdíhc oh hís currehl slale oí míhd: a lolaí oí íour LCD mohílors ahd íhleríor ííhíshes whích
cah be íííumíhaled íh díííerehl coíours creale orahce ííchl lo excíle, bíue lo caím ahd creeh
pallerhs íor lhe evehíy baíahced slale. The íhleríor ííhíshes are made írom eíeclroíumíhescehl
íííms (EL íííms) ahd cíve oíí a uhííorm area ííchl. As smarl suríace lechhoíocy lhís was lheír
íírsl appíícalíoh íh ah aulomobííe (see lhíck ííím eíeclroíumíhescehce/eíeclroíumíhescehl ma-
leríaís (EL), pp. 130 íí.); specíaííy composed lohes are píayed as acouslíc supporl lo lhe dríver
ahd scehls are reíeased lhrouch lhe vehícíe vehlííalíoh syslem, eílher ah íhvícoralíhc cílrus·
crapeíruíl or a caímíhc vahííía·mahdaríh (see p. 41).
OPTICALLY CHANGING AUTOMOBILE WITH ELECTROOPTICAL COMPONENTS
8MAFT MATEFlAL8
lh lhe íuxury modeí cíass, lhe Maybach 62 has lhe oplíoh oí beíhc íílled wílh ah íhlecraí eíec-
lrolrahsparehl pahoramíc rooí, whích swílches reversíbíy belweeh lrahsparehl ahd opaque lo
províde soíar proleclíoh or lo darkeh lhe íhleríor.
SCENT-CHANGING AUTOMOBILE WITH SCENT GENERATOR
8EMl·8MAFT MATEFlAL8
A sophíslícaled scehl cohcepl was deveíoped as parl oí a sludy íor ah eslale versíoh oí lhe
Míhí, lhe Mini Concept, whích how has beeh buííl íhlo a humber oí varíahls: a mohílor mouhled
cehlraííy oh lhe dashboard cah díspíay a humber oí díííerehl drívíhc sceharíos, each assocíaled
wílh a specíííc scehl. A devíce íh lhe ehcíhe comparlmehl íhlroduces lhe scehl íhlo lhe vehícíe
íhleríor lhrouch a vehlííalíoh oulíel oh lhe dríver's síde.
_nkgbmnk^]^lb`g
As íurhílure used íhsíde rooms ís exposed lo ho or ohíy sííchlíy demahdíhc cíímalíc cohdílíohs,
much íess expehsíve maleríaís ahd producls cah be used.
COLOUR-CHANGING FURNITURE WITH THERMOCHROMIC DYES
8MAFT MATEFlAL8
Coíour·chahcíhc íurhílure ís reíalíveíy easy lo produce by usíhc lexlííes wílh lhe appropríale
properlíes. lh lhe lwo chaírs tictac, a work desíched ahd ímpíemehled al lhe lhleraclíve lhslí-
lule íh 8wedeh as parl oí lhe 8TATlCl proíecl, lhe lop suríaces used íor deposílíhc ílems are
equípped wílh víoíel ahd red lemperalure·sehsílíve coíour·chahcíhc íabríc. Al hormaí room
lemperalures lhe suríace ís mohochrome, whíísl above a cerlaíh lemperalure, depehdíhc oh
lhe lhermochromíc compohehls used, a coíour chahce occurs. Thís couíd be caused by cohlacl
wílh hol suríaces or by warm room aír.
LIGHT-EMITTING FURNITURE INCORPORATING PHOSPHORESCENT GLAZE
8MAFT MATEFlAL8
Cíass labíes lhal íumíhesce íh lhe dark have beeh deveíoped by lhe íhleríor ahd producl desích-
ers Cruppe FE, based íh Coíoche, Cermahy. A lop coal oí phosphorescehl cíass·ceramíc paíhl
slores dayííchl ahd arlííícíaí ííchl ahd reíeases íl acaíh íh darkhess. The lop coal, whích cah be
appííed by a humber oí díííerehl processes íhcíudíhc screeh príhlíhc, ís baked lo creale a
slrohc bohd belweeh lhe cíaze ahd lhe cíass suríace.
LIGHT-EMITTING FURNITURE INCORPORATING LUMINATING FABRIC
8EMl·8MAFT MATEFlAL8
The llaííah compahy Lumíhex has a íumíhalíhc lexlííe íh íls rahce oí producls. ll ís a composíle
íabríc made írom cohvehlíohaí lhreads ahd ííchl·cohduclíhc lhreads, ahd cah be íííumíhaled íh
díííerehl coíours. Arlííícíaííy crealed ííchl ís cohducled lo each separale lhread ehd oí lhe ííchl·
cohduclíhc parl oí lhe íabríc ahd reííecled al lhe íhher suríaces so lhal lhe maíor proporlíoh
oí ííchl ís re·emílled. Ohe possíbíe use íor lhese íumíhalíhc lexlííes couíd be as coveríhc íor
seals.
tictac chaírs, wílh areas oí
coíour chahce.
22 | lrehds ahd deveíopmehls
23 | lrehds ahd deveíopmehls
8eals wílh díííerehl coíours oí íumíhalíhc ííchl·
cohduclíhc íabrícs. | Lumíhescehl cíass labíe
by day ahd al híchl.
Zkm
There are mahy íhslahces oí lhe use oí specíaí, hew ahd íhhovalíve maleríaís, producls ahd
smarl maleríaí appíícalíohs íh lhe ííeíd oí arl. ll ís hol uhusuaí íor arlísls, wílh lheír sehsílívíly,
lheír íeeííhc íor socíaí íssues, íhdívíduaí ahaíysís ahd píeasure íh experímehlalíoh, lo search oul
íhlereslíhc melhods oí expressíoh hol prevíousíy expíoíled.
COLOUR-CHANGING ART USING SILVER NITRATE
8EMl·8MAFT MATEFlAL8
By lhe slarl oí lhe 1970s, lhe Cermah arlísl 8ícmar Foíke was aíready experímehlíhc ahd
paíhlíhc wílh maleríaís lhal were capabíe oí chahcíhc lhemseíves. lh severaí oí hís earííer píc-
lures he used varíous pholocraphíc maleríaís such as ííchl·sehsílíve sííver hílrale, whích lurhs
bíack over líme wheh subíecled lo ííchl. Thís process was hol reversíbíe. For Foíke lhe auloho-
mous crealíoh oí lhese píclures was ah íhlereslíhc phehomehoh, because he couíd hol íoresee
al lhe oulsel whal lhe ííhaí eííecls wouíd be (aíler [2|). lh addílíoh lo hoh·reversíbíe sííver hílrale
lhe arlísl aíso experímehled wílh reversíbíe, lemperalure· (see lhermochromíc/·lropíc malerí-
aís (TC, TT) p. 80) ahd moíslure·sehsílíve paíhls.
COLOUR-CHANGING ART USING COBALT CHLORIDE PAINTS
8MAFT MATEFlAL8
For lhe XLll Bíehhaíe íh Vehíce, llaíy, íh 1986, Foíke covered lhe íhsíde oí lhe cohch oh lhe pa-
víííoh oí lhe Federaí Fepubííc oí Cermahy wílh a hycro·/hydrochromíc paíhl cohsíslíhc oí a
waler·bouhd cobaíl chíoríde soíulíoh. The paíhl chahced íls coíour, depehdíhc oh lhe decree oí
aír humídíly, írom íavehder·bíue (uhsaluraled slale) lhrouch purpíe ahd rose·red oh lo red
(saluraled slale).
LIGHT-EMITTING ART USING PHOSPHORESCENT PAINT
8MAFT MATEFlAL8
The Schattenwand mit Blitzelektronik compíeled by lhe Cermah arlísl Kohrad Luec íh 1968 ís
a very earíy arlíslíc work íh whích phosphorescehl paíhl was used. Wheh lríccered by a ííashcuh,
lhe lhree·parl, 200 cm x 341.50 cm screeh was excíled ahd phosphoresced. lí obíecls or peo-
píe passed belweeh lhe screeh ahd lhe ííashcuh, lhey wouíd remaíh as shadows íor a
momehl.
Fhosphorescehl maleríaís slííí íhspíre a creal humber oí arlísls lo use lhem íor paíhlíhcs ahd
íhslaííalíohs. Fhosphorescehl paíhls do hol aíways have lo be appííed over lhe whoíe oí a sur-
íace. Thís ís showh by lhe íhslaííalíoh Tips, sel up íh 1998 by lhe New York arlísl 8haroh Loudeh.
For her íhslaííalíoh, Loudeh used sleeí wíre lo weave ah ehormous humber oí suílabíy lrealed
dehlaí colloh píucs íhlo a lhree·dímehsíohaí carpel·ííke lexlure, ah ídea lhal couíd cohceívabíy
be adapled íhlo a íacade desích. Uhder ííchl, lhe 150 cm x 400 cm íhslaííalíoh íooks ííke a soíl,
whíle carpel wílh yeííowísh ahd bíack íhcíusíohs; íh lhe dark lhe bíack parls dísappear ahd lhe
ímpressíoh ís ohe oí a íumíhalíhc meadow.

Hygrowall: ríchl haíí oí lhe cohch wílh appííed
hycro·/hydrochromíc paíhl íh lhe uhsaluraled
slale (íavehder·bíue) ahd lhe aímosl saluraled
slale (rose·red). | opposite: Tips: overaíí víew by
day ahd al híchl. | Cíose·up pholocraph by day
ahd al híchl.
24 | lrehds ahd deveíopmehls
25 | lrehds ahd deveíopmehls
Depehdíhc oh lheír characleríslícs, lheír slruclure ahd olher properlíes, maleríaís ahd sub-
slahces loday cah be ceheraííy díííerehlíaled as íoííows:
RECYCLABLE MATERIALS
These maleríaís are mahuíaclured maíhíy írom crushed ahd cíeahed wasle. Uhíess lhe raw
maleríaí ís sorled íh advahce lo separale oul lhe vaíuabíe íraclíohs, lhe resuílíhc producls
are usuaííy oí íower quaííly lhah lhe orícíhaííy used maleríaís.
BIODEGRADABLE MATERIALS
Maleríaís, e.c. írom vecelabíe slarches, lhal are decomposed ahd compíeleíy brokeh dowh
by mícroorcahísms íívíhc íh lhe soíí.
BIOMATERIALS
Fíaslícs ahd olher maleríaís made írom rehewabíe sources. Ohe currehl research íocus, íor
exampíe, ís lhe use oí specíaí CO
2
·cohsumíhc baclería íh lhe produclíoh oí bíodecradabíe
píaslícs.
NONVARIABLE MATERIALS
These maleríaís are íarceíy uhaííecled by physícaí ahd chemícaí íhííuehces, e.c. chahces íh
ambíehl lemperalures. Ohe such maleríaí ís lhe melaí aííoy lhvar.
FUNCTIONAL SUBSTANCES
A ceheraí lerm íor mohoíuhclíohaí ahd muílííuhclíohaí subslahces.
SMART MATERIALS
Beíohc lo lhe íuhclíohaí subslahces. These maleríaís, subslahces ahd producls have chahce·
abíe properlíes ahd are abíe lo reversíbíy chahce lheír shape or coíour íh respohse lo physícaí
ahd/or chemícaí íhííuehces, e.c. ííchl, lemperalure or lhe appíícalíoh oí ah eíeclrícaí ííeíd.
They cah be díííerehlíaled íhlo hoh·smarl maleríaís, semí·smarl maleríaís ahd smarl
maleríaís.
HYBRID MATERIALS
These maleríaís are mahuíaclured by combíhíhc al íeasl lwo díííerehl compohehls, e.c. bío-
íocícaí wílh syhlhelíc compohehls.
FUNCTIONALLY GRADIENT MATERIALS
Composíle maleríaís wílh craduaííy mercíhc íayers. Thís resuíls íh a cohlíhuous chahce íh
maleríaí properlíes.
NANOMATERIALS
Maleríaís made írom hahomelre·scaíe subslahces. They cah be used as coalíhcs or íh pro-
ducl mahuíaclure, íor exampíe.
The íoííowíhc seclíoh híchííchls severaí recehl lrehds íh maleríaís ahd producls, some oí whích
are oí parlícuíar íhleresl íh lhe ííeíd oí archíleclure bul al límes aíso íh olher areas oí desích
aclívíly such as producl desích, íor exampíe.
bgghoZmbo^fZm^kbZelZg]ikh]n\ml
There are a creal humber oí maleríaís ahd producls
currehlíy beíhc deveíoped lhal are cíose lo markel íh-
lroduclíoh or aíready avaííabíe. 8ome have beeh deveí·
oped specííícaííy íor use íh lhe ííeíd oí archíleclure;
olhers were orícíhaííy íhlehded íor use íh producl de-
sích, e.c. íh lexlííes or aulomobííes, ahd are ohíy oííered
lo archílecls sporadícaííy or hol al aíí lhrouch lheír usu-
aí producl suppííers. lí archílecls are íh lhe posílíoh lo
íhcorporale lhese maleríaís ahd producls díreclíy or íh
modíííed íorm íhlo lheír works, lheh a ííood oí hew, íh-
lereslíhc possíbííílíes íor buíídíhc desích ahd cohslruc-
líoh cah ehsue. Crealíve archílecls especíaííy deveíop
lheír owh íhhovalíve maleríaís ahd producls íor specíííc
appíícalíohs, or lhey deveíop hew appíícalíohs ahd lhe
assocíaled maleríaís ahd producls, whích lhey subse-
quehlíy arrahce lo have mahuíaclured. Thus hol íhíre-
quehlíy lhe archílecl may be lhe desícher, deveíoper
ahd mahuíaclurer.
]nkZ[e^fZm^kbZelZg]ikh]n\ml
Ohe approach lo makíhc buíídíhcs íhsehsílíve lo cerlaíh exlerhaí íhííuehces, íor exampíe so lhal
lhey cah wílhslahd exlreme cohdílíohs, ís lo use parlícuíaríy durabíe (resíslahl) maleríaís ahd
producls. Aholher approach ís lo use maleríaís ahd producls, al límes eveh cohslruclíohs, lhal
are abíe lo repaír lhemseíves, chahce lheír íuhclíohs or slrehclheh lhemseíves. Exampíes oí
such maleríaís ahd producls íhcíude:
DURABLE (RESISTANT) NON- AND SEMI-SMART MATERIALS
Ohe exampíe ís spíder síík, a maleríaí lhal above aíí ís assocíaled wílh íulure lexlííes ahd dís·
líhcuíshes ílseíí by specíaí eíaslícíly ahd slrehclh. Aíler decades oí research íl ís how capabíe
oí beíhc mahuíaclured syhlhelícaííy íh adequale quaííly ahd íh íarce, í.e. ecohomícaííy víabíe,
quahlílíes. Cahadíah ahd U8·Amerícah scíehlísls were lhe íírsl lo succeed íh ísoíalíhc spíder
cehes ahd íhserlíhc lhem íhlo ceíís írom hamslers ahd cows. Nowadays coals are used whose
míík yíeíds syhlhelíc spíder proleíh. Markeled uhder lhe commercíaí hame oí Bíosleeí, ohe oí
lhe uses oí lhís síík ís íh buííel·prooí vesls. The mahuíaclure oí syhlhelíc spíder lhreads íh íarce
bíoreaclors cah be lraced back lo a Cermah research leam who íírsl ídehlíííed ahd lrahsíerred
lhe spíder cehe, so ímporlahl lo lhe produclíoh oí síík, íhlo bacleríaí ceíís. lh addílíoh lo lhe
use oí arlííícíaííy crealed síík íh lexlííes, appíícalíohs íh lhe ííeíds oí paper ahd cohslruclíoh
maleríaís are beíhc lesled; here síík couíd be used as reíhíorcemehl. ll wouíd be cohceívabíe
lo cohslrucl ímpacl· or buííel·prooí lexlííe buíídíhc ehveíopes, íor exampíe, lo be used as rooís
íor sporlíhc arehas ahd olher slruclures.
SELF-HEALING NON- AND SEMI-SMART MATERIALS
As lhís ís a reíalíveíy youhc area oí research, lhere are ohíy a íew maleríaís ahd producls avaíí-
abíe wílh lhís íuhclíoh. The creal polehlíaí íor use oí lhese producls ahd lhe ahlícípaled eco-
homíc success meah lhal work oh hew ahd íurlher deveíopmehls ís ohcoíhc íh mahy díííerehl
íhduslríes.
Depehdíhc oh reusabíííly ahd reproducíbíííly, lhere are syslems íh whích lhe seíí·heaííhc pro-
cesses may be reversíbíe or hoh·reversíbíe.
8eíí·heaííhc hoh·smarl maleríaís, íor exampíe ceolexlííes wílh behlohíle (see míheraí ad·/ab-
sorbehls (MAd, MAb), pp. 175 íí.) cah be cíassed as smarl maleríaís ahd wííí be deaíl wílh íh
lhe maíh seclíoh oí lhís book. Here ohíy syslems wílh íímíled smarl properlíes wííí be dís-
cussed. A cood exampíe are lhe seíí·heaííhc píaslícs lhal are beíhc deveíoped al lhe Uhíversíly
oí líííhoís (UlUC), U8A. The syslem ís descríbed by lhe uhíversíly's researchers as ah ¨aulo-
homíc heaííhc syslem¨ or ¨seíí·heaííhc syslem¨. ll cohsísls oí a shape·cívíhc epoxy poíymer
malríx, íh whích evehíy díslríbuled calaíysls ahd mícrocapsuíes ííííed wílh a heaííhc medíum
are embedded. lí a break íh lhe epoxy poíymer occurs, lhe heaííhc medíum cohlaíhed íh lhe
mícrocapsuíes lhal have beeh íraclured ís reíeased ahd lhe síle oí lhe break ís ííííed. Cohlacl
wílh lhe calaíysl resuíls íh poíymerísalíoh: lhe íraclure ís lheh permahehlíy seaíed.
27 | íhhovalíve maleríaís ahd producls
8eíí·heaííhc paíhl ís especíaííy íhlereslíhc lo lhe aulomobííe íhduslry because wílh lhís syslem
líhy scralches, such as lhose occuríhc duríhc a vísíl lo lhe car wash or oíí·road drívíhc, are au-
lomalícaííy seaíed. To achíeve lhís, a híchíy eíaslíc resíh ís used, whích spreads ílseíí oul evehíy
over lhe suríace ahd seaís smaíí hoíes. The íírsl produclíoh ííhe use oí such a paíhl has recehlíy
beeh ímpíemehled by a Japahese aulomobííe mahuíaclurer oh ah oíí·road vehícíe. lh lhe hear
íulure lhe use oí lhís maleríaí ís ííkeíy lo be exlehded lo scralch·prohe ílems such as exlerhaí
mírrors ahd bumpers.
lh archíleclure íl wouíd be possíbíe lo use such maleríaís íor exampíe íor hích·cíoss suríaces
íh hahdraíí ahd baseboard areas where ohíy sííchl scralch damace ís expecled ahd compíele
paíhled suríaces are desíred, bul have hol beeh íeasíbíe so íar.
Mahy peopíe are uhaware oí lhe íacl lhal ohe oí lhe reasohs hísloríc slruclures such as Fomah
aqueducls or Colhíc churches have íasled so íohc are lhe íhherehl seíí·heaííhc properlíes oí
lhe bíhder used. Thís seíí·heaííhc eííecl ís evídehl íh ohe parlícuíar 18lh cehlury brídce íh
Amslerdam; here waler díssoíves oul lhe caícíle írom lhe porous cíay brícks ahd lrahsporls íl
íhlo ahy cracks, where íl permahehlíy seaís lhem [3|. The so·caííed seíí·heaííhc cohcreles loday
have ííbres added lo lhem lhal break al a parlícuíar íoad ahd reíease ah eííeclíve ííííer. A hew
approach presehlíy beíhc examíhed al lhe Deííl Uhíversíly oí Techhoíocy, Nelheríahds, ís lhe
addílíoh oí caícíle·íormíhc baclería lo cohcrele.
SELF-REINFORCING NON- AND SEMI-SMART MATERIALS
A reíalíveíy hew area oí research ís examíhíhc lhe possíbííílíes oí maleríaís wílh seíí·reíhíorcíhc
properlíes, whích couíd aíso be oí íhleresl íor íulure buíídíhc cohslruclíoh. For exampíe, lhe
Techhícaí Uhíversíly oí Cíauslhaí, Cermahy, has carríed oul research oh seíí·reíhíorcíhc poíy-
mers based oh poíypropyíehe (FF). The researchers íouhd oul lhal ¨ah axíaííy slraíhed FF, sur-
rouhded by a readííy ííowabíe FF lo íorm a lwo·compohehl FF, exhíbíls a díííerehl behavíour
wheh slraíhed or subíecled lo lemperalure eííecls¨ compared wílh ordíhary poíymers [4|.
Techhoíocy by UlUC: schemalíc represehlalíoh oí lhe cohslruc-
líoh ahd íuhclíohíhc oí lhe ¨aulohomíc heaííhc syslem¨. |
8pecíaííy shaped maleríaí sampíe íor lesl purposes. | 8EM
pholocraph oí a brokeh mícrocapsuíe. | Cíose·up pholocraph oí
lhe ¨aulohomíc heaííhc syslem.¨ | Embedded mícrocapsuíes.
28 | íhhovalíve maleríaís ahd producls
\aZg`^Z[e^(\aZg`bg`fZm^kbZelZg]
ikh]n\ml
Sensitive and reactive materials, products and constructions are required to help buildings re-
act dynamically to various influences for reasons of stability and energy absorption, for exam-
ple. Variable/changing materials and products can be of use in this context. They are capable
of changing their properties themselves or their properties being changed by external influ-
ences such as the effect of light, temperature, force and/or the application of an electrical field.
These influences may lead to changes directly without conversion, or indirectly with conversion.
For example, a force may, without conversion into any other form of energy, produce reversible
plastic or elastic changes in materials or products, or a temperature increase may be converted
into force, which in turn produces irreversible plastic changes in the shape of materials or
products.
These materials and products can be divided into different groups depending on their ability to
change their properties or have them changed by outside influences.
SHAPE-CHANGING NON- AND SEMI-SMART MATERIALS
Depending on the material, its thickness and final required shape, tools and machinery are
normally required to deform solid metal sheets in three dimensions. Conventional metal can
only be deformed using relatively little force if the metal is woven or stamped in advance into
a more reshapable structure. Expanded metal is one such material, but it can only be deformed
in three dimensions to a limited extent.
A relatively new perforated sheet made from aluminium behaves in a different way. It can be
easily worked by hand, stretched or upset. In this example, a pattern of Y-shaped holes (in the
Formetal product) allows the material to be easily deformed in three dimensions.
Heat-shrinkable materials in the form of film or sleeves are among those materials and pro-
ducts that change their shape plastically and irreversibly in response to increased temperature.
Examples of their use include the manufacture of packaging and cable sleeves to protect items
from moisture and hold them in position.
Under certain circumstances it is worthwhile using materials or products that partially or fully
dissolve after a preset period of time or at the end of their useful lives. They could be temporary
materials used for example during the manufacture of a component and then decomposed later
by some external influence; or components in their own right that decompose themselves after
they are no longer in use. Although these processes are not reversible, they promise a variety
of interesting applications in architecture.
Lamp in the shape of a bear, yellow plastic body with a shaped
Formetal perforated sheet. | Audi-Kreationsei in a pavilion at the
Volkswagen “Car City” in Dresden, skin made from Formetal. |
Sections of heat-shrinkable sleeve before and after heat
treatment.
29 | innovative materials and products
Maleríaís ahd producls wílh lhe properly oí decomposílíoh have beeh maíhíy deveíoped wílh
lhe aím oí wasle prevehlíoh. 8o·caííed bíodecradabíe maleríaís are deveíoped ahd brouchl oh
lo lhe markel íor a rahce oí appíícalíohs, e.c. íor use as packace íííííhcs, packacíhc, íasl·íood
culíery elc. For such uses, maleríaís based oh míheraí oíís are processed íhlo poíyeslers; vece-
labíe·based maleríaís íhlo slarches, poíyíaclíc acíds, ceííuíose acelales; ahd lhe míxlures mah·
uíaclured írom lhem íhlo slarch bíehds amohc olhers. These producls are compíeleíy brokeh
dowh by bacleríaí or íuhcaí allack.
lh cohlrasl lo lhe above lhere are aíso maleríaís lhal decompose oh cohlacl wílh waler aíohe.
The producls made írom lhem íhcíude coíd, warm ahd hol waler decradabíe íííms, whích cah
be íurlher processed íhlo bacs ahd coíd waler decradabíe ííeeces. Foíyvíhyí aícohoí (FVAL)·bas·
ed íííms were íhlroduced as delercehl packacíhc íh 1961. Today lhey are aíso used as lempo-
rary slíííehíhc íhserls íor lexlííes lhal are lo be slílched e.c. wílh íííícree pallerhs, whích íh lurh
are íaler removed by washíhc. Or lhey are used íh producl areas where lheír cohlehls are íhlehd·
ed lo be reíeased by cohlacl wílh waler. lh archíleclure lhey couíd be used as lemporary pro-
leclíve packacíhc íor smaíí moíslure·íhsehsílíve cohslruclíoh eíemehls. The proleclíve packa-
cíhc ís desíched lo decompose íh cohlacl wílh hol waler aíler lrahsporl lo síle, bul hol wílh
raíhwaler.
lh addílíoh lo lhe above, lhere ís a íurlher íorm oí dísíhlecralíoh ahd decomposílíoh lhal has
hol beeh suííícíehlíy íhveslícaled ahd deveíoped al lhe momehl ahd couíd have a roíe íh lhe íu-
lure: lhe use oí maleríaís íílled wílh a specíaí swílch lo lríccer lhe decomposílíoh process aíler
a períod oí líme ahd/or íh respohse lo a parlícuíar slímuíus. ll wouíd be possíbíe lo use cehe
lechhoíocy here lo modííy cohvehlíohaí maleríaís íh ah appropríale way.
COLOUR- AND OPTICALLY CHANGING NON- AND SEMI-SMART MATERIALS
8uríaces lhal chahce coíour depehdíhc oh lhe ahcíe oí víew are hol smarl maleríaís bul are oí
íhleresl íh lhe ííeíd oí archíleclure. These lypes oí maleríaí íhcíude dyes wílh specíaí·eííecl
pícmehls.
Díchroílíc ahd hoíocraphíc oplícaí maleríaís ahd producls made írom lhem are íurlher exam·
píes. Díchroílíc maleríaís ahd producls have lhe abíííly lo appear lo chahce coíour wheh víewed
írom díííerehl ahcíes. Thís eííecl ís caused by lhe ííchl íaíííhc upoh lhem beíhc decomposed
íhlo reííecled ahd lrahsmílled radíalíoh speclra. Díchroílíc ííílers appííed lo cíazíhc are oí par-
lícuíar íhleresl lo archílecls. These ííílers cohsísl oí syslems oí perhaps 10 lo 20 aílerhaleíy
íow· ahd hích·reíraclíhc íayers oí varíous lhíckhesses. The lypícaí lhíckhess oí lhese íayers ís
belweeh 45 hm ahd 110 hm. The íayers are appííed usíhc lhe 8oí·Ceí process. Thereíore lhey
are suílabíe íor appíícalíoh oh suríaces curved íh lwo dímehsíohs, bul oh suríaces ahd bodíes
wílh lhree·dímehsíohaí curvalure íl ís hol usuaííy possíbíe lo achíeve ah adequaleíy eveh
coalíhc.
Biophan ííím made írom poíyíaclíc acíd (FLA). í
8ushí caleríhc díshes made írom Maler·Bí
(slarch maleríaí).
30 | íhhovalíve maleríaís ahd producls
Eííecl paíhl oh bodíes wílh smoolh, spherícaí suríaces (Coíorslream:
Lapís 8uhííchl, Tropíc 8uhríse). | Corrucaled sheel wílh eííecl paíhl
(Coíorslream). | Eííecl paíhl oh ah obíecl wílh ah írrecuíaríy shaped
suríace (Xíraíííc Cosmíc Turquoíse).
31 | íhhovalíve maleríaís ahd producls
Díchroílíc ííílers oh cíass, appííed íh a ríchl ahcíe lo a whíle paper
subslrale lo make lhe reííeclíoh ahd lrahsmíssíoh coíours vísíbíe. l
Díchroílíc ííílers oh cíass lube seclíohs. | Delaíís oí HoíoFro.
32 | íhhovalíve maleríaís ahd producls
Lobby oí lhe Copehhaceh Opera House wílh lhree chahdeííers.
The cíass suríaces are coaled wílh díchroílíc ííílers. | Víew írom
beíow íhlo ohe oí lhe lhree cíass bodíes.
33 | íhhovalíve maleríaís ahd producls
Facade wílh hoíocraphíc cíazíhc: Augenfeuer,
Míchaeí Bíeyehberc. | opposite: Augenfeuer.
34 | íhhovalíve maleríaís ahd producls
35 | íhhovalíve maleríaís ahd producls
Berííh·domícííed arlísl Oíaíur Eííassoh, workíhc wílh A. F. Møííer ahd Chaslíhe McKíhhey oí lhe
Møííer Fouhdalíoh, desíched a 2.9 m díameler, spherícaí chahdeííer made írom 1480 lríahcíes
oí íamíhaled saíely cíass íílled wílh díchroílíc ííílers íor lhe Copehhaceh Opera House. Three
oí lhese obíecls were íhslaííed íh 2004 íh lhe opera house íobby.
Orícíhaííy used lo dírecl ííchl lhrouch oplícs, hoíocraphíc oplícaí eíemehls (HOE) were íurlher
deveíoped al lhe lhslílule oí Líchl ahd Cohslruclíoh Techhoíocy al lhe Coíoche Uhíversíly oí
Appííed 8cíehces íh Cermahy as a polehlíaííy hew meahs oí díreclíhc ííchl lhrouch cíass ía-
cades. The resuíls oí lhís research províded lhe basís íor a hew compahy lhal specíaííses íh
lhe mahuíaclure oí lrahsparehl proíeclíoh suríaces capabíe oí showíhc vídeo proíeclíohs wílh
dayííchl bríchlhess. Ah ímporlahl parl oí HoíoFro ahd Hoío8ích, lhe íaller beíhc a varíahl de-
ríved írom HoíoFro whích ís used lo díspíay permahehl craphícs, ís a hoíocraphíc ííím embed-
ded belweeh lwo lrahsparehl subslrales (e.c. cíass or FMMA) oh whích a muílílude oí lhese
HOEs are appííed cíose lo ohe aholher usíhc a specíaí process.
lh addílíoh lo some pureíy arlíslíc appíícalíohs, Hoío8ích has aíready íouhd uses íh lhe ííeíd oí
archíleclure. Workíhc wílh lhe lhslílule oí Líchl ahd Cohslruclíoh Techhoíocy, lhe Coíoche·
based arlísl Míchaeí Bíeyehberc used lhís producl íh 2000 íh lhe íacade oí a hew exlehsíoh lo
lhe Cermah Fesearch Fouhdalíoh (DFC) íh Bohh. The 5 m x 13 m work Augenfeuer cohlaíhs
craphícaí eíemehls íh varíous coíours, lheír oplícaí presehce ahd coíour depehdíhc oh lhe ahcíe
oí víew ahd soíar posílíoh. Díííraclíoh ahd íhleríerehce oí lhe ííchl íaíííhc oh lhe hoíocraphíc
íayer creale lhe ííve coíours red, orahce, yeííow, creeh ahd bíue.
Oí íurlher íhleresl íh lhís cohlexl are hew lrahsparehl cohslruclíoh eíemehls lhal cohsísl oí a
muílílude oí passíve íííumíhalíhc píaslíc ííbre oplíc cabíes íhlerííhked oh ah írrecuíar basís. lh
lhís way lhe píaces where ííchl íaíís ahd ís emílled are hol posílíohed díreclíy over ohe aholher,
whích meahs lhal ííchl ahd shadow appear íh olher lhah lhe expecled píaces. These eíemehls
couíd be íhlecraled íh lhe íorm oí bíocks or paheís íhlo íacades.
opposite: 8how room (X·Box) wílh ííbre oplíc cabíe
paheís (8ehsíTííe) íhlecraled íhlo lhe labíes. | Cíose·up
pholocraph. | Varíous lrahsparehl ahd coíoured ííbre
oplíc cabíe paheís (8ehsíTííe).
36 | íhhovalíve maleríaís ahd producls
37 | íhhovalíve maleríaís ahd producls
VISCOSITY-CHANGING SEMI-SMART AND SMART MATERIALS
These smarl maleríaís íhcíude maleríaís ahd producls lhal are abíe lo reversíbíy chahce lheír
ííow properlíes íh respohse lo ohe or more slímuíí, íor exampíe lhe íhííuehce oí mechahícaí
ehercy (e.c. lehsíoh) or lhe appíícalíoh oí ah eíeclrícaí ahd/or machelíc ííeíd.
Thíxolropíc ííuíds (TF), eíeclrorheoíocíc ííuíds (EFF) ahd machelorheoíocíc ííuíds (MFF) are oí
íhleresl íor archílecluraí appíícalíohs, bul so íar lhere have beeh íew ímpíemehlalíohs. TFs íor
exampíe are míxlures oí waler ahd sahd lhal ííqueíy wheh subíecl lo abrupl movemehls. Uhííke
EFFs ahd MFFs ho cohversíoh oí lhe íhlroduced ehercy lakes píace, hehce lhey are cohsídered
as semí·smarl maleríaís.
EFFs are slabíe suspehsíohs oí míhule, eíeclrícaííy poíarísabíe parlícíes íh a hoh·eíeclrícaííy
poíarísabíe carríer ííquíd. By appíyíhc ah eíeclrícaí ííeíd, lheír víscosílíes cah be íhííhíleíy varí-
abíy ahd reversíbíy chahced íh míííísecohds. The suspehsíohs ceheraííy cohsísl oí míheraí or
sííícoh oíís.
lh cohlrasl, MFFs are slabíe suspehsíohs oí míhule, machelícaííy poíarísabíe parlícíes íh a
hoh·machelíc carríer ííquíd. By appíyíhc a machelíc ííeíd, lheír víscosílíes as weíí cah be íhíí·
híleíy varíabíy ahd reversíbíy chahced íh míííísecohds. lh addílíoh lo rheoíocícaí behavíour, lhe
eíeclrícaí, lhermaí, acouslíc ahd oplícaí properlíes oí lhe suspehsíohs chahce al lhe same líme.
They cohsísl oí míheraí or syhlhelíc oíís, waler or cíycoí, íh whích are suspehded up lo 20 ³ lo
40 ³ oí e.c. íroh parlícíes wílh a díameler oí 3 lo 10 mícrohs.
lh bolh ííuíds lhe parlícíes are rahdomíy díslríbuled íh lhe carríer ííquíd. Wheh subíecled lo ah
eíeclrícaí or machelíc ííeíd, lhey íorm íohc chaíhs capabíe oí carryíhc mechahícaí íoads lo a
crealer or íesser exlehl, whích cah be lheh deíormed or brokeh by oulsíde íhííuehces.
¨8marl Dampíhc 8lralecíes íor 8eísmíc Froleclíoh oí Urbah 8lruclures¨, a proíecl headed by
B. F. 8pehcer, Froíessor al lhe Uhíversíly oí líííhoís, ahd mahaced by lhe U8·Amerícah·Japahese
Urbah Earlhquake Dísasler Mílícalíoh Fesearch lhílíalíve, cohcehlraled oh lhe deveíopmehl oí
shock absorbers íhcorporalíhc MFFs íor use íh hoh·mííílary buíídíhcs. The resuíl was a íarce·
scaíe seísmíc shock damper, lwo exampíes oí whích were mahuíaclured íor íhslaííalíoh íh lhe
hew Níhoh·Kacaku·Míraíkah buíídíhc íh Tokyo Bay, Japah. The dampers were íhcorporaled as
ah íhlecraí compohehl oí lhe maíh íoad·bearíhc slruclure by a íever mechahísm beíow a V·
shaped bracíhc belweeh lhe 3rd ahd 5lh ííoors. Bolh dampers are ohíy a shorl heíchl oíí lhe
ííoor ahd are lhereíore cohvehíehl lo íhspecl, easy lo maíhlaíh ahd, íí hecessary, repíace.
lh lhe evehl oí horízohlaí movemehl oí lhe buíídíhc íhduced by seísmíc movemehls oí lhe
Earlh's suríace, lhe lwo bracíhcs díspíace lhe píslohs íh lhe dampers by meahs oí lhe íever
mechahísms lo províde lhe desíred shock dampíhc eííecl íh lhe adaplíve syslem.
lííuslralíoh oí lhe eíeclrorheoíocíc eííecl
(comparabíe lo lhe machelorheoíocíc eííecl). |
Techhoíocy by Lord: lypícaí MFF. | Varíous
producls íhcorporalíhc MFFs. | 8maíí shock
absorber íhcorporalíhc MFF. | Techhoíocy by
Fíudícoh: Frololypes oí aclualíhc ahd
posílíohíhc dríves íhcorporalíhc EFFs.
38 | íhhovalíve maleríaís ahd producls
Large-scale seismic shock damper: V·shaped bracíhc íormíhc parl
oí lhe maíh íoad·bearíhc slruclure wílh lhe íever mechahísm.
39 | íhhovalíve maleríaís ahd producls
Lumíhalíhc lexlííe wílh a pallerh íh varíous coíours. l
Lumíhalíhc lexlííe as a bííhd.
40 | íhhovalíve maleríaís ahd producls
LIGHT-EMITTING NON- AND SEMI-SMART MATERIALS
Nol aíí ííchl·emíllíhc maleríaís ahd producls cah be cíassed as smarl maleríaís. Ah ímporlahl
críleríoh íor lhís ís lhal mosl oí lhe avaííabíe ehercy, e.c. íh lhe íorm oí ííchl or eíeclríc currehl,
ís used íh lhe emíssíoh oí coíd ííchl. Cohsequehlíy, maleríaís ahd producls lhal emíl a íarce
amouhl oí heal íh addílíoh lo ííchl are hol cíassed as smarl maleríaís.
A reíalíveíy hew deveíopmehl íh lhís cohlexl are íumíhalíhc lexlííes íh whích proíeclors are íh-
corporaled lo íííumíhale ííchl·cohduclíhc ííbres. The ííchl sources íh lhe proíeclors are sodíum
vapour íamps, whích deveíop a íol oí heal.
MATTER-EMITTING NON- AND SEMI-SMART MATERIALS
lh addílíoh lo lakíhc íh maller (see maller·exchahcíhc smarl maleríaís, pp. 174 íí.), íor exampíe
by lhe adsorplíoh or absorplíoh oí subslahces (compohehls), whích cah be used íor room aír
ímprovemehl amohc olher íuhclíohs, lhe reíease oí maller by cerlaíh subslahces may aíso be
desírabíe. Aparl írom lhe hormaí ahd permahehl exchahce oí subslahces belweeh room or
íurhíshíhc suríaces ahd lhe room aír, cerlaíh olher maleríaís lhal cíve oíí scehls wheh louched,
healed or due lo olher íhííuehces are aíso oí íhleresl. These maleríaís íhcíude paíhls, oíleh íh
lhe íorm oí íhks, cohlaíhíhc mícroehcapsuíaled scehls. They cah be appííed by screeh príhlíhc
oh paper, cardboard ahd olher suílabíe suríaces. As lhey become exhausled over a períod oí
líme, lhey cahhol be cohsídered lo be smarl maleríaís.
ELECTRICITY-GENERATING MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
8ííícoh·based soíar ceíís are lhe maíh lype oí eíeclrícíly·ceheralíhc maleríaís ahd producls lhal
have íouhd praclícaí appíícalíohs, some íh lhe ííeíd oí archíleclure. Thíh·ííím ahd orcahíc soíar
ceíís are reíalíveíy hew deveíopmehls. lh addílíoh lo lhese, dye soíar ceíís (D8C), lhermoeíeclríc
ceheralors (TEC) ahd syslems based oh píezoeíeclríc maleríaís are avaííabíe íor varíous uses
ahd are deaíl wílh íh lhe maíh parl oí lhís book.
Hybríd poíy·smarl syslems lhal cohsísl oí soíar ceíís wílh íhlecraled ííchl·emíllíhc díodes
(LED) are aíso oí íhleresl here. They ceherale eíeclrícíly by day, used by lhe syslem lo províde
ííchl duríhc lhe híchl.
41 | íhhovalíve maleríaís ahd producls
Solare Schiller-Zitat-Tafel (8oíar 8chíííer
quolalíoh board) oh lhe cíly waíí íh Marbach am
Neckar, Cermahy, cohsíslíhc oí híhe moduíes
1.20 m x 1.20 m | Techhoíocy by 8harp:
Kalsurací píahl al híchl | ldea íor a membrahe
lhal uses hahoííílralíoh lo keep a dweíííhc
poííulahl·íree: You’ve Gotta Have Faith,
Dahíeí Feíosí, 2005.
HYBRID MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
By combíhíhc íhdívíduaí maleríaís lo íorm hybríd maleríaís ahd producls, hích·power muluaííy
ehhahcíhc syslems, ííke lhe soíar ceíí·LED syslem descríbed above, cah be crealed. 8ome íh-
suíalíoh syslems lhal íuííy achíeve lheír exlraordíhary properlíes ohíy wheh combíhed wílh
olher maleríaís are oí íhleresl íor archílecluraí appíícalíohs. These producl lypes íhcíude va-
cuum íhsuíalíoh paheís (VlF), whích are aíready oh lhe markel, ahd lhe yel·lo·be·íhlroduced
swílchabíe lhermaí íhsuíalíoh (8Tl) deveíoped al lhe Bavaríah Appííed Ehercy Fesearch Cehlre
(ZAE Bayerh) íh Cermahy. The íaller producl ís based oh VlF lechhoíocy wílh lhe addílíoh ahd
íhlecralíoh oí a melaí hydríde, whích chahces lhe lhermaí cohduclívíly oí lhe paheís íh re-
spohse lo lhe lakíhc·up ahd reíease oí smaíí quahlílíes oí hydroceh.
NANOMATERIALS AND NANOPRODUCTS
The deveíopmehl ahd mahuíaclure oí maleríaís ahd producls írom hahomelre·scaíe subslahces
has opehed up possíbííílíes íor hew ahd íhhovalíve íuhclíohs. These íhhovalíohs íhcíude íayers
oí hahoparlícíes whích cah make cíazíhc especíaííy waler·repeííehl or speclrum·seíeclíve, or
paíhls ahd píaslícs exlremeíy scralch·resíslahl. Cíazíhc cah íhcorporale suílabíy lhíh díchroílíc
íííler íayers. Nahoparlícíes cah aíso be used íh cypsum waííboard lo ímprove room aír quaííly.
Exampíes oí hahoparlícíes used here are lílahíum díoxíde (TíO
2
) ahd zeoííle (see míheraí ad·/
absorbehls (MAd, MAb), pp. 175 íí.). lh a símííar cohlexl, membrahes wílh hahomelre·scaíe
pores are currehlíy beíhc deveíoped lo be used as parl oí íacades wílh lhe abíííly lo cíeah poí-
íuled cíly aír.
Aílhouch lhe possíbííílíes oí lhese hahomelre·scaíe subslahces seem uhíímíled, lheír use has
hol beeh lolaííy wílhoul opposílíoh. There are cohcerhs aboul lheír polehlíaííy hazardous eí-
íecls oh heaílh, whích have beeh raísed by research íhlo exlremeíy smaíí parlícíes.
Aholher deveíopmehl are lhe so·caííed poíymorphíc smarl maleríaís based oh procrammabíe
mechahícaí uhíls. Theír míhule síze oí ohíy a íew hahomelres, lheír abíííly lo chahce lheír ceo-
melry ahd recohíícure lheír ííhks wílh ohe aholher meahs lhey cah lake up a wíde rahce oí
physícaí ahd oplícaí slales. Ohe oí lhese poíymorphs ís lhe vísíohary smarl maleríaí Utility Fog,
cohceíved by J. 8lorrs Haíí al lhe becíhhíhc oí 1990s. The Utility Fog cohsísls oí a muílílude
oí rouhd hahomelríc robols, so·caííed hahobols, wílh cohheclíhc arms ahd descríbed by 8lorrs
Haíí as íocíels. By cívíhc lhem leíescopíc arms lhal cah arlícuíale ahd cohhecl íh díííerehl ways,
lhe íocíels wouíd be abíe, accordíhc lo lhe scíehlísl, lo símuílaheousíy creale caseous, ííquíd
ahd soííd maleríaís wílh varíous reversíbíe properlíes.
Amohc lhe orcahísalíohs currehlíy workíhc oh lhe reaíísalíoh oí lhís lechhoíocy ís lhe lhslílule
íor Moíecuíar Mahuíacluríhc íh Faío Aílo, U8A, as ís demohslraled by lhe work oí Jaílhah
Kochar. Kochar, who, ííke Dahíeí Feíosí, ís a sludehl al lhe Fulure 8ludío oí lhe Fhode lsíahd
8chooí oí Desích, Frovídehce, U8A, worked uhder Froí. Feler Yeadoh ahd íooked íhlo lhe pos-
síbíe dahcers Ulíííly Foc míchl presehl. He ehvísíohed a sceharío íh whích a cíahl Ulíííly Foc
dome proleclíhc Lower Mahhallah írom hecalíve almospheríc eííecls íaíís ahd coííapses.
42 | íhhovalíve maleríaís ahd producls
Tííes parlíaííy coaled wílh hydrophobíc hahomelre·scaíe parlícíes
lo creale craphícs ahd characlers whích appear íh reaclíoh
lo moíslure: Hydrophobic Nanotiles, Feler Yeadoh, 2004. | Foíy·
morphíc smarl maleríaí cohsíslíhc oí hahomelre·scaíe rod
eíemehls: nBot Nanorobotic Environments, Feler Yeadoh, 2005. |
8ímuíalíoh oí a coííapsed Utility Fog dome above lhe íower parl
oí Mahhallah lsíahd. | 8íabs oí debrís ahd píeces oí lhe Utility
Fog as polehlíaí backdrop íor ah uhdercrouhd lhealre croup:
Dystopic Scenarios, Jaílhah Kochar, 2005.
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MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
45 | thermal expansion materials (TEM) / expansion materials (EM)
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Shape-changing smart materials include materials and products that are able to reversibly
change their shape and/or dimensions in response to one or more stimuli through external in-
fluences, the effect of light, temperature, pressure, an electric or magnetic field, or a chemical
stimulus. Among these, there are materials and products that are able to change their shape
without changing their dimensions, and other materials and products that retain their shape
but change their dimensions. Some are also able to change both parameters at the same
time.
The inherent properties of these smart materials depend on the different principles behind their
deformation. Depending on the distribution and arrangement of the sensitive components and
a basic geometric shape, changes may take place in all dimensions to equal or unequal extents.
Smart materials that have a single active sensitive component generally expand or contract
evenly; the same applies to smart materials that are composed of a passive component, e.g.
the carrier material (matrix), and an evenly distributed active component. If on the other hand
the passive and active components are unevenly distributed, for example if two differently sensi-
tive components are arranged in layers one on top of the other, then the material or product
will deform on one side only.
The currently available shape-changing materials can be differentiated according to their trig-
gering stimuli as follows
PHOTOSTRICTIVE SMART MATERIALS
Excited by the effect of light (electromagnetic energy).
THERMOSTRICTIVE SMART MATERIALS
Excited by the effect of temperature (thermal energy).
PIEZOELECTRIC SMART MATERIALS
Excited by the effect of pressure or tension (mechanical energy).
ELECTROACTIVE SMART MATERIALS
Excited by the effect of an electric field (electrical energy).
MAGNETOSTRICTIVE SMART MATERIALS
Excited by the effect of a magnetic field (magnetic energy).
CHEMOSTRICTIVE SMART MATERIALS
Excited by the effect of a chemical environment (chemical energy).
Thermostrictive, piezoelectric, electroactive and chemostrictive smart materials are those that
are currently of the greatest interest in the field of architecture, due to their availability, pre-
dicted long-term stability and other factors. Assuming successful further development and
market placement, the near future could see other smart materials gaining in importance, in-
cluding photostrictive and magnetostrictive ones. Piezoelectric smart materials are discussed
elsewhere (see piezoelectric ceramics/polymers (PEC, PEP), pp. 154ff.)
laZi^&\aZg`bg`lfZkmfZm^kbZel
Documentation Centre at the Former Concentra-
tion Camp, Hinzert: inner ring structure with
kinetic cladding transmitting variable amounts
of light, outer ring structure made from
transparent thermal insulation | BalnaeNY:
variously deformed sauna walls with EAP,
projecting into the street space
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^qiZglbhgfZm^kbZel!>F"7fZm^kbZel
Thermal expansion materials (TEM) are materials with a coefficient of thermal expansion that
is markedly positive or negative or one that is almost zero. They are referred to accordingly as
positive thermal expansion materials (PTEM), negative thermal expansion materials (NTEM)
and zero thermal expansion materials (ZTEM).
Expansion materials (EM) classed as PTEMs are suitable for use as pressure-controlling media,
e.g. to operate piston-controlled working elements (linear actuators). Depending on the mate-
rial, the phase change may have different effects. Some materials undergo a continuous change
in volume in response to a continuous change in temperature, whilst other EMs undergo a dis-
continuous, sudden (i.e. at particular points) volume change in response to a continuous tem-
perature change. Certain EMs can also be used as latent heat storage. They are called phase
change materials (PCM) (see phase change materials (PCM), pp. 165ff.).
Thermometers were one of the first applications of gaseous and liquid EMs. Galileo Galilei is
credited with inventing the first temperature gauge (1592-98), which used an air-filled glass
bulb, the extended open end of which was immersed in coloured water. The enclosed air ex-
pands depending on the prevalent air temperature and determines the height of the column of
water. By the middle of the 17th century, liquid media such as ethyl alcohol and mercury were
also in use. The sprinkler system invented by American Henry S. Parmalee in 1874 first used
fusible links, which melted under thermal load and triggered the release of the extinguishing
water. Glass ampoules containing thermally sensitive EMs were later developed for this role. For
a period of several decades EMs have been used as pressure media in working elements.
Materials and components generally used include among others:
ALKANES (EXPANSION WAX)
n-alkanes, paraffin oils, paraffin waxes.
ALCOHOLS
Glycerine.
OTHERS
Tetrachloroethylene, 1.3-dioxolane.
THERMOSTRICTIVE SMART MATERIALS >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
Thermostrictive smart materials have inherent proper-
ties that enable them to react to ambient temperature
changes by reversibly changing their shape and/or di-
mensions. The temperature changes may have a pas-
sive effect by which the material continually adjusts its
internal thermal state to its natural surroundings
through its surface. They may also have an active effect,
for example by heating or cooling. Active heating may
be either direct heating by the application of an electri-
cal field or indirect heating by heat conduction or
radiation.
In the field of architecture the following thermostric-
tive smart materials among others are currently of
interest:
THERMAL EXPANSION MATERIALS (TEM)/EXPANSION
MATERIALS (EM)
THERMOBIMETALS (TB)
SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS (SMA)
Other thermostrictive smart materials are:
THERMOBICOMPOSITE MATERIALS
SHAPE MEMORY POLYMERS (SMP)
SHAPE MEMORY FOAMS
SHAPE MEMORY CERAMICS
BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS WITH SHAPE MEMORY EFFECT
47 | thermal expansion materials (TEM) / expansion materials (EM)
48 | shape-changing smart materials
The following EMs are among those of interest in architecture:
N-ALKANES C10 TO C18
Colourless hydrocarbons, liquid at +20°C, are used for EM working elements at low
temperatures.
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, many years of practical use, can be
used in low temperatures (–16°C to +40°C), insensitive to mechanical vibrations,
maintenance-free, long replacement life.
Major leakages may be hazardous to ground water, may convert or break down into water
and carbon dioxide on contact with air or oxygen, inflammable gases may form in contact
with air.
PARAFFIN OIL, PARAFFIN WAX
Depending on the state, colourless to whitish-yellow hydrocarbons, liquid to solid at +20°C;
used for EM working elements with continuous linear or discontinuous sudden (i.e. at
particular points) expansion behaviour.
Can be used in medium to high temperatures (0°C to +180°C), paraffin waxes solid at
+20°C cannot liquidise in the presence of air. Otherwise as above.
As above.
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Since their first use in a thermometer, expansion materials (EM) have been developed into a
wide range of products and brought on to the market for a wide range of applications. Com-
paratively sluggish reaction times have resulted in the EM working elements being increasingly
replaced in some sectors with quicker and more precisely reactive working elements, for exam-
ple with electrorheologic fluids (see p. 38). New, previously unexploited possibilities are appear-
ing for some applications, including some in the field of architecture.
EMs in glass ampoules are still used today as components in sprinkler systems. Another appli-
cation is as a working medium in EM working elements, e.g. for operating valves, controlling
gases and liquids. The main areas of use are in automobile construction and building technical
services, e.g. in heating thermostats. EM working elements are sometimes used as actuator or
positioner drives in greenhouses and building facades in energy-autonomous, decentralised
room ventilation systems.
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Sprinkler ampoules during manufacture |
Sprinkler ampoules filled with coloured
thermally sensitive EMs. | Sprinkler heads with
ampoules.
EM working elements with elastomeric insert
and PTC thermistor. | Operation of EM working
elements | Typical dimensions.
EM working elements:
ACTUATOR OR POSITIONER DRIVES (LINEAR ACTUATORS)
These devices generally consist of a pressure-resistant vessel filled with an EM that
expands on being heated to displace an actuating piston outwards. The piston moves back
either under the action of a return spring or an external force. Architectural applications
may require longer travel distances and therefore greater actuating forces than drives in
the automobile industry or building technical services. They have been developed and
manufactured in various sizes and with different container materials for a variety of
functions. Their rather sluggish reaction times are normally adequate for many
applications.
Various assemblies with different actuator or positioner drives can be constructed by fitting
different add-on pieces such as connecting plates and/or lever mechanisms, or by the
incorporation into passive components of varying complexity.
Create continuous, almost linear, or discontinuous, sudden movements depending on the
EM used, relatively long actuator path (here the lifting range for positioning components)
compared with e.g. piezoelectrically operated actuator and positioner drives, relatively
compact construction, no electricity supply required, not noisy, relatively inexpensive.
Relatively sluggish reaction times compared with e.g. piezoelectrically operated actuator
and positioner drives, can be damaged if the thermal load significantly exceeds the
operating range.
ACTUATOR AND POSITIONER DRIVES (LINEAR ACTUATORS) WITH PTC THERMISTORS
(POSITIVE TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT THERMISTORS)
EM working elements fitted for direct heating: they have an electrically heated positive
temperature coefficient (PTC) thermistor manufactured from doped polycrystalline ceramic
with barium titanate (see piezoelectric ceramics/polymers (PEC, PEP), pp. 154ff.).
Otherwise as above.
No heat-conducting medium required, which leads to quicker response times and
possible reduced size, can be thermally or electrically controlled, can operate at different
electrical voltages (low voltage), relatively better thermal overload resistance compared
with purely thermally controlled actuator and positioner drives.
Electricity supply required for PTC thermistors.
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49 | thermal expansion materials (TEM) / expansion materials (EM)
stroke*
working
piston
elastomeric insert
expansion material
electrical connection
housing
thermistor (PTC)
electrical
connection
* the working piston stroke
is dependent on the electrical
heating
Assemblies of working elements with EM:
ACTUATOR AND POSITIONER DRIVES WITH LEVER MECHANISM
EM working elements fitted with a lever mechanism to amplify the travel distance and an
integrated reset spring to return the actuator piston. Otherwise as for actuator and
positioner drives.
Relatively long travel paths, quicker response times compared with conventional actuator
and positioner drives, special connections can be fitted. Otherwise as for actuator and
positioner drives.
Can be damaged if the thermal expansion is constrained. Otherwise as for actuator and
positioner drives.
General recommendations: To guarantee the proper functioning of the EM working elements
over a long period, the thermal load must not significantly exceed the specified operating range
(normally 12 K to15 K) as the excessive expansion of the EM could destroy the elements. De-
pending on the installed heat-transmitting medium or the surrounding environment, the pres-
sure-resistant vessel can be made of brass, aluminium, stainless steel or copper. Several EM
working elements can be fitted in parallel and/or series to increase the capacity when used as
an actuator or positioner drive.
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Other than the already mentioned use in sprinkler ampoules, expansion materials (EM) have
also been used for decades as heating thermostat components. For some years now, automatic
ventilation units have been available that open and close at certain temperatures to allow en-
closed rooms to be ventilated. They usually work by raising or lowering some part of the roof
or may be designed as special ventilation elements in building facades.
Although the idea might seem obvious, there has been no use of EMs in conjunction with auto-
matically guided systems to form adaptive, mechanical, light-directing or shade-creating
systems.
Two projects where thermo-, or light- and thermosensitive EM working elements are used as
actuator or positioner drives to manipulate architectonic structures are outlined below.
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Products currently used in architecture
include:
RAW OR END PRODUCTS:
WORKING ELEMENTS with EMs Assemblies
with working elements with EMs
50 | shape-changing smart materials
full stroke
zero
position
current on
current off
time
51 | thermal expansion materials (TEM) / expansion materials (EM)
Self-Constructing Tower: illustration. | Sketch showing possible
positions. | Model in bad and in changeable weather. | opposite:
Time-stroke graph.
Peter Linnett, Toby Blunt, Great Britain
Kinetic room installation for the Bath Festival |
Bath, Great Britain (1996)
Although it remains to be built, the kinetic three-dimensional
installation called Self-Constructing Tower, designed in Scot-
land in 1996 by Scottish artist Peter Linnett together with
architect Toby Blunt for the Bath Festival, shows how EM
working elements, described by the designers as thermohy-
draulic actuators, could be used in shape-varying room-
forming structures.
The installation was planned for a site on the bank of the
River Avon: placed on the wall coping above an arched win-
dow of a derelict warehouse, the three-part moving structure,
insect-like in the proportions of its body, was designed to
react automatically to its immediate environmental sur-
roundings and unfold or close up like a flower, depending on
wind, sun, air temperature and water level.
The EM working elements were designed to operate in three
axes arranged around a central node. Each of the two pro-
jecting, carbon-fibre, 6m long aerofoil elements would
change its position by means of temperature-reactive actu-
ating processes: on mild days the structure would unfold up
to a height of 15m, whilst during cold nights or bad weather
it would retract into the window arch.
For safety reasons it was necessary to specify a clear area
of at least 20m around the structure. In place of this dy-
namically reactive tower the visitors to the Bath Festival were
presented with a simple structure without EM working
elements.
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Monosmart material | Monosmart application
Shape-changing smart materials:
EM WORKING ELEMENTS (LINEAR ACTUATORS)
Temperature-dependent kinetic structure
Axel Ritter, Germany
Kinetic facade for a documentation and meeting centre on the former
SS Special Camp/Concentration Camp at Hinzert | Germany (2004)
An architectural competition for the planned construction of a new
documentation and meeting centre on the site of the former concentration
camp at Hinzert, Germany, was held in 2004.
The circular shape of the existing 1986 memorial and parts of the route the
visitors take, clearly sets them apart from the right-angled geometry of the
former concentration camp buildings. The architect adopted this rounded
shape as the main design and organisation principle of his dynamic reinter-
pretation. His design creates a structure based on four rings, embracing one
another, some conically tapering and cut at an angle. The two outer rings
contain the library and conference room whilst another takes the form of a
three-storey glass cylinder inserted into the rings to create two exhibition
areas with quite different atmospheres. The partly open space included be-
tween them acts as a foyer.
The walls forming the foyer consist of a circular, frameless glass facade
construction with an outside cladding which is kinetic, transmits variable
amounts of light and has diagonally divided panels that pivot to open to
varying degrees. Thin film solar cells are used with PTC thermistors in the
EM working elements to allow the cladding automatically to control the
amount of light inside the building. To limit thermal effects and to ensure
that light alone is the controlling stimulus, the EM working element housings
are enclosed individually in thermal insulation. At the same time the indi-
vidual corners of the dynamic facade slabs, moving outwards over a large
area in response to light, are suggestive of “barbed wire” and “threat.” Solar
cells and collectors on the roofs complete the energy concept.
Documentation Centre at the Former Concentration Camp, Hinzert: perspective side
view. | Perspective overhead view/plan. | Detail of kinetic facade, partially open.
52 | shape-changing smart materials
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Monosmart materials | Polysmart application
Shape-changing smart materials:
EM WORKING ELEMENTS (LINEAR ACTUATORS) WITH
PTC THERMISTORS
Electricity-generating smart materials:
THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS
Light- and temperature-dependent kinetic structure
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Thermobimetals (TB) are laminated composite materials and consist of at least two compo-
nents, usually bands or strips, made from metals with different thermal expansion coefficients,
which are permanently bonded to one another, for example by plating. The component with the
lower coefficient of thermal expansion is called passive, the one with the higher coefficient ac-
tive. Depending on the way the temperature changes over time, the components used and their
geometries, the composite takes up a curved shape and can be used for various applications
and purposes.
The terms used in Europe to describe TBs refer to the composition of the active component al-
loy, whilst the Americans refer to that of the passive component.
TBs are relatively old smart materials and have been around since the beginning of the indus-
trial revolution. Today they are mainly used in measurement and control systems, e.g. as ther-
mostats, and with electrical control as components in mechatronic systems.
As passive components they include:
ALLOYS
Iron-nickel (Invar), nickel-cobalt-iron (Superinvar)

As active components they include:
ALLOYS
Iron-nickel-manganese, manganese-nickel-copper, iron-nickel-manganese and copper
TBs can be made corrosion-resistant by plating with chrome and copper, and their electrical
conductivity improved for active heat gain by incorporating a layer of copper between the two
components.
Components for the manufacture of TBs should possess good platability, hot and cold ductility,
a high melting point, a high modulus of elasticity (Young’s modulus), high strength and predict-
able behaviour. Furthermore, a certain range of divergent behaviour regarding the melting point,
modulus of elasticity and strength of components should not be exceeded. Specific dimen-
sional relationships are to be maintained.
TB strips with nickel-cobalt-iron (Superinvar)
as the passive component and manganese-
nickel-copper as the active one.
53 | thermobimetals (TB)
The following component combinations are among those of interest in architecture:
NICKEL-COBALT-IRON (SUPERINVAR) WITH MANGANESE-NICKEL-COPPER
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, many years of practical use, excellent
thermal sensitivity, wide range of applications, can be made resistant to rusting and
other corrosion effects by additional rolled-on layers, can also be made in small
quantities.
Relatively expensive compared with component combinations without e.g. Superinvar as
the active component
NICKEL-COBALT-IRON (SUPERINVAR) WITH IRON-NICKEL-MANGANESE AND COPPER
Suitable for applications using direct electrical heating. Otherwise as above.
As above.
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Many years of market presence and continuous further development, particularly in relation to
the manufacture of complicated shapes and assemblies, have meant that today complex prod-
ucts made of thermobimetals (TB) are manufactured, mostly for specific applications. TBs may
be produced as raw, intermediate and end products depending on the number of process steps
and the intended purpose.
TBs currently available as raw material products include:
TB bands:
SIMPLE STRIPS, U-PROFILE CURVED STRIPS
They can be installed as clamped at one or both ends.
Can be used as actuator or positioner drives to create continuous, almost linear move-
ment, medium movement capacity, can be used in various ways as a variable force spring,
relatively inexpensive compared with other control elements. Otherwise as for alloys
above.
Relatively sluggish reaction times compared with other actuator or positioner drives.
Otherwise as for alloys above.
REVERSE STRIPS
They can also be installed as clamped on one or both ends.
Can achieve relatively longer straight-line movements compared to e.g. TB creep-action
discs. Otherwise as above.
As above.
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Simple strips with different shapes and
component combinations. | Spirals with
corrosion-resistant chromium coating. |
Helix.
54 | shape-changing smart materials
SPIRALS, HELICES
They can be installed as clamped at one end.
Spirals, helices
They can be installed as clamped at one end.
As above.
Parts made from TBs:
CREEP-ACTION DISCS
They can be used singly, or in series to amplify the effect, held in position at their centres
or in a sleeve.
Can be used as actuator or positioner drives for creating continuous linear movements.
Otherwise as above.
As above.
SNAP-ACTION DISCS
They can be installed in the same way as creep-action discs.
Can be used as actuator or positioner drives for creating continuous and sudden (at
preset points) linear movements. Otherwise as above.
As above.
STAMPED PARTS
They can be clamped in various ways depending on shape and function.
Complex two-dimensional shapes possible, three-dimensional shapes can be produced by
folding. Otherwise as above.
As above.
ASSEMBLIES WITH TBs: BANDS, PARTS MADE FROM TBs AND OTHER MATERIALS
Can be installed in the same way as stamped parts.
Special connections and complex three-dimensional shapes can be fabricated. Otherwise
as above.
Relatively expensive compared with bands and parts made from TBs. Otherwise as above.
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Snap-action discs. | Creep-action discs with
corrosion-resistant copper coating.
55 | thermobimetals (TB)
General recommendations for use: to ensure a long replacement life the products should not
be loaded up to their limits. The application of an additional rolled-on layer of stainless steel
should be applied as a means of preventing rust and other corrosion phenomena, depending
on the expected environment and the component combinations. Several TB elements can be
arranged in series and/or in parallel to increase the performance capacity especially when used
as actuating elements.
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As an extension of their usual scope of applications, thermobimetals (TB) can also be used di-
rectly in architecture. This applies in particular to their use for actuation, control and regulation,
and as spring and compensation elements. So far, however, few applications in architecture
have become known or documented. Automatically opening and closing ventilation flaps have
been developed and installed in greenhouses and for use as self-closing fire protection flaps.
Currently, a self-actuated clamping mechanism based on TBs for use with less expensive fire
protection doors is being developed. The clamping mechanism prevents the door from warping
and releasing combustion gases into other parts of the building. It should also be possible to
develop self-actuating air intake and exhaust openings for facades, which would react to outside
temperatures, but so far no practical solutions have been implemented.
A possible architectural application of a polyreactive mechanomembrane, which could be fur-
ther developed for large-scale use as part of a weather-sensitive building envelope, is outlined
below.
Products currently in use in architecture or likely to
become relevant in the future include:
RAW OR END PRODUCTS:
TB BANDS
PARTS MADE from TBs
ASSEMBLIES with TBs
INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS:
ACTUATOR or POSITIONER DRIVES MADE from or
incorporating TBs
CONTROL and REGULATING ELEMENTS made from or
incorporating TBs
SPRING ELEMENTS with variable/varying spring force
made from or incorporating TBs
COMPENSATING ELEMENTS made from or incorporating
TBs
56 | shape-changing smart materials
Axel Ritter, Germany
Weather-sensitive kinetic building envelope | Germany (1997)
The development of the polyreactive mechanomembrane, a bionically in-
spired membrane with weather-sensitive components, demonstrates how, in
future constructions, building envelopes can be made to resemble highly
complex mechanical systems.
In his design approach based on a technical implementation of the model
of the human skin as a building envelope, the author has analysed its anat-
omy and characteristics, especially its ability to change. The following abili-
ties, in particular, of the human skin to react to outside influences looked
promising for a building envelope and appeared capable of being adapted
and technically implemented, given appropriately reactive structures and
the use of smart materials: the ability to reversibly deform in three dimen-
sions by expanding in response to direct mechanical load or by active con-
traction of the skin muscles, the ability to change colour by going brown or
reddening and the ability to regulate temperature by actively exuding liquid
and exploiting the resulting cooling effect of evaporation. Like the reactions
of the skin and the connected nerve systems, the reactions of the technical
membrane would be determined by the weather.
The membrane was to have an adequate elastic matrix to resist mechanical
loads, be able to change colour in response to changes of temperature and
humidity in the surrounding air, and regulate its own temperature like its
natural role model by taking up or exuding the required moisture through
the membrane in the form of rainwater.
The construction of a technology demonstrator was to prove the feasibility
of such a membrane and its suitability for daily use. The effectiveness of the
mechanical processes involved is ensured by acrylic glass balls of various
diameters, which accommodate all the different functional units and other
autonomic reactive components. For this, modular units with six balls have
been developed, which, in combination with three variously arranged pro-
jecting support arms, form three-dimensional structures and are flexibly
joined to one another by elastic bands.
57 | thermobimetals (TB)
Polyreactive mechanomembrane: building elements. | opposite: Assembly with EM
working element: actuator and positioner drive with lever mechanism.
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Monosmart materials | Polysmart application
Shape-changing smart materials:
COLOUR INDICATOR BALLS WITH THERMOBIMETAL AND
HYGROBICOMPOSITE SPIRAL SPRINGS (TB, HB)
Weather-dependent kinetic colour-changing structure
58 | shape-changing smart materials
Each module consists of two balls with openings to take in water, which are
kept apart by a tension spring. They contain a strip filter to separate rain
water; on the bottom two silicone hoses are connected, the rearmost one of
which flows into a larger water storage ball carried on a moving support arm.
A transpirator ring of water-absorbing porous ceramic material is mounted
on a base plate around each one, from which a further laterally connected
support arm extends and carries a colour indicator ball. One half of the 40
colour indicator balls is fitted with TB spiral springs and a composite mate-
rial that is sensitive to air humidity. The other balls are fitted with TB spiral
springs only, which displace the colour and colour filter surfaces in response
to temperature and air humidity and thus indicate the energy and constitu-
ent states of the surrounding air.
A TB spiral spring attached to the underside of each base plate reacts to
temperature by bringing a connected wick, which ends in a water storage
ball, into contact with the transpirator ring and thus initiates the evapora-
tion process.
On the outside, to protect the mechanical structure and enclose the
building, the membrane has a flexible, fine-meshed textile covering
membrane with a narrow opening in its rainwater inlets near each water
receiving ball. The outside structure is changed in response to the weight
of the water storage balls by means of pairs of V-shaped spring steel
hairs that are attached on their inside to the water storage balls and on
their outside project through the textile membrane. The hairs are able to
stand out or contract depending on the energy state, thus imitating the
changing surface structures of the human skin.
Main details of a technology demonstrator:
Length 1.25m (max.)
Height 1.25m (max.)
Width 0.30m (max.) to 0.24m (min.)
Number of external covering membranes 1
Number of water reception balls 42
Number of water storage balls 42
Number of colour indicator balls 40
Number of TB spiral springs 60
Number of hygrobicomposite spiral springs 20
Number of pairs of hairs 21
Number of transpirator rings 42
Polyreactive mechanomembrane: colour indicator ball on support arm |
Module tied in by two elastic bands | Overall view, rear side.
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Shape memory alloys (SMA), also called shape memory metals or memory metals, consist of
at least two different metallic elements and have the property, after a thermomechanical treat-
ment, to take up, reversibly and temperature-dependent, a shape they were given earlier. This
effect relies on a repeatable phase change between two crystal structures. Above a critical
temperature the metals have a hard, high-strength, austenitic crystal lattice structure, below
this temperature it changes to a soft, easily deformable, martensitic crystal lattice structure.
The crystal structures were named after the materials scientist Sir William Chandler Roberts-
Austen (1843 to 1902) and the metallurgist Adolf Martens (1850 to 1914) respectively.
There are three different memory effects:
THERMAL MEMORY EFFECT (ONE-OFF EFFECT, ONE-WAY EFFECT):
If a shape memory alloy component is permanently mechanically deformed in the low
temperature phase (martensite) and then heated above the transformation temperature,
the crystal structure changes to form austenite, and the component takes up its original
shape and retains that original shape even after subsequent cooling.
THERMAL MEMORY EFFECT (REPEATABLE EFFECT, TWO-WAY EFFECT):
In contrast to the one-time effect, here the component returns to the original shape on
subsequent cooling. If the return to the original shape on cooling is caused by the action
of an outside force, for example a spring or a weight, this is called an external (extrinsic)
two-way effect; if it is caused by thermomechanical treatment of the component, it is
called an intrinsic two-way effect.
MECHANICAL MEMORY EFFECT (SUPERELASTICITY, PSEUDOELASTICITY):
Some shape memory alloys are about 20 times more elastic at constant temperature than
conventional metals. This is due to the mechanical change of the crystal structure.
The phenomenon of the shape memory effect was discovered in a gold cadmium alloy at the
beginning of the 1930s by Swedish researcher Arne Ölander. The same effect was noticed in a
copper-zinc alloy in 1956. In 1961 the strongest shape memory effect up to this day was dis-
covered by the American Naval Ordnance Laboratory in a nickel-titanium alloy, which was given
the commercial name of Nitinol to reflect the names of its constituent elements and its place
of discovery.
Phase change between high
temperature phase (austenite)
and low temperature phase
(martensite). Deformation is
reversed through warming.
59 | shape memory alloys (SMA)
c
o
o
l
h
e
a
t
deform
t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
austenite
martensite
60 | shape-changing smart materials
Materials and components in use include:
BASIC ALLOYS
Nickel-titanium (NiTi, e.g. Nitinol), copper-zinc-aluminium (CuZnAl), iron-platinum (FePt),
gold-cadmium (AuCd)
Alloying with other elements like copper or iron allows various properties to be influenced,
such as the transformation temperature, the hysteresis range, the strength of the effect,
long-term stability and mechanical properties of the alloy. If for example gold, hafnium or
zircon is added to nickel-titanium alloys, then this produces alloys with higher transforma-
tion temperatures, such as are necessary for example to meet the safety requirements of
the automobile industry. (after [5])

The following alloys are among those of interest in architecture:
NICKEL-TITANIUM (NiTi, E.G. NITINOL)
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, many years of practical use, wide
range of applications, strong shape memory effect, better tensile strength and elongation
at break compared with other SMAs, specific properties can be achieved by additional
alloy elements, can also be supplied in small quantities.
Relatively expensive compared with TB alloys.
COPPER-ZINC-ALUMINIUM (CuZnAl)
Relatively easy to machine compared with nickel-titanium alloys. Otherwise with the
limitations as above.
Weaker shape memory effect, poorer tensile strength and elongation at break compared
with nickel-titanium alloys. Otherwise as above.
laZi^f^fhkrZeehrl!LF:"7ikh]n\ml
Shape memory alloys (SMA) have lost none of their fascination since their discovery. In conjunc-
tion with the increased interest in smart materials, the possibilities presented by shape mem-
ory effects are bringing out ideas from a wide range of professions on how SMAs could be used
in everyday products.
++
−−
++
−−
Among the first users of SMAs was NASA, who developed a satellite dish that folded out under
the influence of solar radiation. Today SMAs are used in air and space travel as decoupling
mechanisms and tube connectors, e.g. for fuel pipes in satellites. Other fields of application
include medicine, where stents are used to widen blood vessels, microsystem technology, meas-
urement and control technology, electrical and automobile engineering. They have also found
their first uses in the consumer goods sector and in functional textiles (see p. 16). In household
electronic appliances these alloys are already replacing some TB components.
Plastics have also been developed that display similar behaviour when stimulated by light or
temperature changes. Future research is likely to involve light-stimulated shape memory plas-
tics (memory polymers), in particular in medical devices.
No market-ready products with SMAs have been developed for use in architecture yet, although
the number of designs involving smart materials produced by universities has been on the in-
crease for years. The following is an overview of the currently available semifinished products.
Raw or end products made from SMAs currently available include:
Wires and rods made from SMAs
FULL-SECTION SMA WIRES AND RODS
Nickel-titanium alloy wire is available in diameters of approx. 0.018mm to 5mm from
stock, copper-zinc-aluminium alloy wire in diameters of approx. 1mm upwards. They can
be clamped at one or both ends, installed as endless, and weaved manually or mechani-
cally, depending on the diameter and mesh size.
Depending on the shape memory effect they can be used as actuating and positioning
drives to provide continuous, almost linear or discontinuous, sudden movements, can
be used as active components in drives to create rotational movements and in textiles,
as elastic elements/components and as structural components, relatively long actuator
paths compared with piezoelectrically operated actuating and positioning drives; may
have bending-, tension-, compression-, torsion- and shape-changing properties, silent.
Otherwise as for alloys above.
Relatively sluggish reaction times compared with e.g. piezoelectrically operated actuating
and positioning drives. Otherwise as for alloys above.
++
−−
SMA springs with superelasticity and corrosion-
resistant chromium coating. | SMA springs with
two-way effect.
61 | shape memory alloys (SMA)
62 | shape-changing smart materials
SMA HOLLOW WIRES AND RODS (TUBES)
Nickel-titanium alloy tubes are available in diameters of approx. 0.200mm to 4.520mm
from stock.
Quicker reaction times than full-section wires and rods, suitable for carrying liquids,
which can provide additional or all of the heat stimulus. Otherwise as above.
As above.
SMA SPRINGS
Are available as compression or tension springs in the dimensions listed above for wires
and rods, can be clamped at one or both ends, guided through their centres or enclosed in
a sleeve.
As above.
As above.
SMA bands and sheets:
SMA BANDS AND STRIPS
Nickel-titanium alloy bands are available in thicknesses of approx. 0.013mm to 0.410mm
from stock, can be clamped at one or both ends, used individually or in layers for multipli-
cation of the effect, guided through their centres or enclosed in a sleeve.
As above.
As above.
SMA SHEETS
Nickel-titanium alloys are available in thicknesses of approx. 0.200mm to 1.000mm and
sizes of up to < 95.000mm x 400.000mm from stock, can be clamped at one or both
ends or can be installed as circumferentially restrained.
Can be used as active components in self-healing and self-shaping surface-forming
components, for example cladding. Otherwise with the limitations as above.
Shape recovery performance is limited by geometry, only available in relatively small
diameters. Otherwise with the limitations as above.
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++
−−
++
−−
++
−−
Technology by EADS: hook and loop fastener
with nickel-titanium alloy hooks; normal state
closed, open after the effect of heat.
Special shapes in SMAs:
SMA CLAMPS AND STENTS
Clamps and stents can be designed and manufactured to suit specific requirements. They
can be installed and clamped in various ways depending on geometry and use; they can
also be manufactured using laser cutting machines.
Complex two- and three-dimensional geometries can be created. Otherwise as above.
Relatively expensive compared with standard shapes. Otherwise as above.
Currently available or developed SMA intermediate and end products include:
SMA variable connection devices:
HOOK AND LOOP FASTENERS
A technology demonstrator for a hook and loop fastener with nickel-titanium alloy hooks
was designed and manufactured by the Corporate Research Centre (CRC) of EADS in
Ottobrunn, Germany. It can be attached as strips or patches on stiff components and
textiles, either mechanically, e.g. by sewing, or by adhesive.
Can be used to create reversible, complex, multi-dimensional connections, connections
can be separated perpendicularly with no force and reformed again, can be used on
various substrates in a number of ways. Otherwise as for nickel-titanium alloys above.
Relatively expensive compared with conventional hook and loop fasteners, for as yet only
at the technology demonstrator stage. Otherwise as for nickel-titanium alloys above.
The alloys perform differently depending on their composition, for example with respect to the
number of possible change cycles and their corrosion resistance. Nickel-titanium alloys have
somewhat better long-term stability than for example copper-zinc-aluminium alloys. All prod-
ucts should not be loaded up to their limits. Several components can be fitted in parallel and/or
series to increase their performance especially when used as actuating or positioning drives.
++
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++
−−
Products currently in use in architecture and likely
to become more relevant in future include:
RAW OR END PRODUCTS:
SMA WIRES, RODS, TUBES
SMA BANDS and SHEETS
SPECIAL SHAPES in SMAs
SMA ASSEMBLIES
INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS:
TUBE CONNECTION ELEMENTS MADE from SMA
with one-way effect
ACTUATING and POSITIONING DRIVES made from
or incorporating SMAs
CONTROL and REGULATING ELEMENTS made from
or incorporating SMAs
SPRING ELEMENTS with variable spring force made
from or incorporating SMAs
HOOK and LOOP FASTENERS made from SMAs
TEXTILES with SMA threads
Construction membranes with a tensegrity structure
of SMA wires
PASSIVE STRUTS made from SMAs with
pseudoelastic behaviour in bridges
63 | shape memory alloys (SMA)
64 | shape-changing smart materials
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There are various possible uses of shape memory alloy (SMA) products in architecture. The type
of shape memory effect determines their particular suitability. Already established in the auto-
mobile industry, tube connection elements made from SMAs with one-way effect could be used
in the future in the construction of skeletal building elements such as lattice beams. On the
grounds of cost they will be limited initially to relatively light constructions with small diameter
members.
It would be feasible to install the previously described hook and loop fasteners as temperature-
sensitive, variable connection elements in conjunction with changeable roofs, or changeable
textiles for interiors, in order to allow them to have different light transmission properties at
the contact points, e.g. transparent, opaque etc.
In Italy, a bridge has been built with passive struts made from SMAs with pseudoelastic proper-
ties. The SMA members are intended to attenuate any seismically induced forces in the
structure.
In 1995 Anja-Natalie Richter, then a student at the Bartlett School, London, developed a smart
membrane which integrated SMA wires into a tensegrity structure to create a room-forming,
geometrically changing assembly. 2003 saw the first functioning technology demonstrators of
textiles with interwoven SMA wires that were specifically designed for use as room dividers or
curtains.
Construction membranes with a
tensegrity structure of SMA
wires (Nitinol): smart membrane,
Anja-Natalie Richter.
Yvonne Chan Vili, Great Britain
Textiles with SMA for use in rooms | Great Britain (2003)
These structures are intended to be functional and have high
aesthetic appeal: textiles with SMA threads for use in build-
ing interiors.
Yvonne Chan Vili has designed and manufactured several
technology demonstrators in various patterns and colours.
The professor at the School of Design at the University of
Leeds used textiles woven from conventional threads and
incorporated parallel strands of SMA wires at a few places
in the surface for her Shape Memory Interior Textiles. This
type of arrangement gives the temperature-sensitive wires
adequate space for contraction while creating more or less
pronounced linear or irregular structures, depending on the
temperature.
This produces functional textiles suitable for black-out or
privacy coverings for vertical, inclined or horizontal window
and door openings, or as components of room divider and
wall cladding systems.
Earlier forms included among others a curtain that could be
installed inside a building in front of a roof window. For this
curtain, a textile to allow temperature-dependent control of
the amount of admitted light was produced with SMA wires
and several horizontally running elongated openings. The
openings would change their effective width throughout
the day in response to room temperature and degree of
folding.
Shape Memory Interior Textiles: various designs of textiles
incorporating SMA threads. | Actual application as a curtain. |
Possible use as room divider.
65 | shape memory alloys (SMA)
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Monosmart material | Monosmart application
Thermostrictive smart materials:
TEXTILES WITH SMA
Temperature-dependent kinetic structures
66 | shape-changing smart materials
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Electroactive polymers (EAP) are polymers that are able to change their shape under electric
stimulation. If the shape change is caused by electrostatic forces produced by electrical charg-
es, the materials are called electronic EAPs, and if due to diffused ions, ionic EAPs. Electronic
EAPs include dielectric EAPs; ionic EAPs include conductive polymers (CP).
Among the dielectric EAPs developed in recent years are conventional polymer films (acryl-
based), which are designed to be stimulated by an electrical field like a flexible capacitor and
therefore are coated on both sides with an elastical, electrically conductive layer of, for example,
graphite powder. “After the application of an electrical voltage, the capacitor becomes electri-
cally charged and the electrostatic attraction forces of the electrodes press the elastic polymer
film together in the through-thickness direction, which causes it to expand laterally together
with the coating. As soon as the capacitors are short-circuited, the electrostatic forces of the
electrodes disappear and the elastic film contracts back to its original shape.” [6]
EAP-based actuators that curve, expand or contract can be created through the appropriate
choice of geometry, form of restraint and construction.
By the use of repeated layering in their construction, through the principle of winding and by
combination, a wide variety of active, adaptive structures, including bender actuators, can be
produced (see piezoelectric ceramics/polymers (PEC, PEP), pp.154ff.).
The development of EAPs goes back to 1880 and Röntgen’s experiments with an elastic band.
The band, which was fixed at one end and attached to a weight at the other, shortened when an
electric charge was applied by an electrical field. In 1925 followed the development of electret,
a piezoelectric polymer which reacts to a direct current electrical field (see piezoelectric ceram-
ics/polymers (PEC, PEP), pp. 154ff.). Later followed the development of polymers that could
react to chemical, thermal, pneumatic, optical or magnetic influences. As early as 1949 the
first polymers were stimulated by contact with acidic and alkaline solutions to contract and ex-
pand; they were based on Katchalsky’s research into collagen filaments. EAPs were first con-
sidered insignificant because of their low output, and it was only in the last 15 years with the
use of new materials and increasing success that they became of interest as smart
materials.
Materials and components generally used include among others:
ELECTROACTIVE SMART MATERIALS >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
The inherent properties of electroactive smart materi-
als allow them to reversibly change their shape in re-
sponse to neighbouring electrical fields.
The following electroactive smart materials are
currently of interest to architects:
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMERS (EAP)
Other electroactive smart materials not discussed in
detail here include:
ELECTROSTRICTIVE PAPERS
ELECTROSTRICTIVE CERAMICS
ELECTROSTRICTIVE GRAFT ELASTOMERS
Electrostrictive ceramics include unpolarised lead-mag-
nesium-niobate (PMN), which is also used in compo-
nents in piezoelectric ceramics (PEC) (see piezoelectric
ceramics/polymers (PEC, PEP), pp. 154ff.)
Schematic representation of the construction and functioning of an actuator
made from dielectric elastomer film with electrodes applied to both sides
(electronic EAP).
short-circuited activated
electrode
electrode
elastomer
film
Acryl-based dielectric film.
Electronic EAP components:
DIELECTRIC EAP
Organic dielectric elastomer film: e.g. acryl-based or silicon-based.
Inorganic electrodes made from electrically conductive particles: e.g. graphite, carbon
black.

Ionic EAP components:
ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS (CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS, CPS)
Organic conductors: e.g. polypyrrol-based (e.g. PPy-CF
3
SO
3
, PPy-TFSI).
Other electronic EAPs include:
FERROELECTRIC POLYMERS
Electrostrictive graft elastomers
Other ionic EAPs include:
IONIC POLYMER GELS (IPG)
Electrorheological fluids (ERF) (see p. 38)
The following component combinations are among those of interest in architecture:
ACRYL-BASED COMPONENTS WITH GRAPHITE
Commercially available, acryl-based transparent films coated on both sides with graphite
as electrodes.
Relatively simple to produce through the use of commercially available components,
performance can be multiplied by multi-layering and winding (increased activation
forces), relatively large changes of shape possible (expansions of up to 380%), wide
range of uses.
Not available in large quantities, relatively high activation voltage (kV) required, film is
hygroscopic.
PPy-CF
3
SO
3
Polypyrrol-based conductive composite polymer.
Larger movement capacity than with TFSI as component, performance can be multiplied
by layering or winding, wide range of uses.
Not available in large quantities.
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67 | electroactive polymers (EAP)
68 | shape-changing smart materials
PPy-TFSI
Polypyrrol-based conductive composite polymer.
Greater flexibility than can be achieved with CF
3
SO
3
as component, performance can be
multiplied by layering or winding, wide range of uses.
Not available in large quantities.
^e^\mkhZ\mbo^iherf^kl!>:I"7ikh]n\ml
Products incorporating electroactive polymers (EAP) are being developed all over the world. At
the moment, dielectric EAPs require a very high voltage for activation (kV). One possible solu-
tion to this could be a future reduction in film thickness.
In the past, EAPs were mainly developed for trials and demonstrations because of their rela-
tively large deformations and small actuation forces. Among these were trials in which bender
actuators clamped on one side and incorporating EAPs were used as windscreen wiper blades.
By combining several bender actuators it was furthermore possible to make gripping actuators.
In recent years they have also been used in trials of artificial muscles. Future applications of
EAPs are likely to include adaptive wing sections and elastic tubes that are able to change their
local diameters.
In order to use EAPs as actuating and positioning drives (linear actuators, bender actuators)
or as components of assemblies, existing products will have to be suitably adapted and will
therefore have completely new properties. Actuating and positioning drives based on fibres,
films, coils and composites are among the earlier types of devices that can be deformed along
their longitudinal axes by electrical stimulation. If the selected EAP itself does not have a shape
restoration effect, it can be provided by the addition of one or more components with this effect.
Several of these basic components can be arranged in parallel or series to multiply their per-
formance. The glued or mechanical bond between the components transmits forces and is
permanent.
EAPs may be produced as raw, intermediate and end products, depending on the number of
process steps and the intended purpose.
++
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Technology by EMPA: Technology
demonstrator of inflated dielectric
elastomer film with electrodes
attached on both sides (balloon
actuator, electronic EAPs), not
activated and activated. |
opposite: Technology by EMPA:
Technology demonstrator of a
rocker driven by two EAP muscle
pairs and able to perform
mechanical work by alternately
lifting two metal balls. | Robot
with several linear actuators
incorporating dielectric EAPs
arranged in parallel, participating
in an arm-wrestling competition at
the SPIE Symposium (EAPAD)
2005 in San Diego. | Wound linear
actuator (“artificial muscle”) with
dielectric EAPs.
Raw material or end products made from EAPs which have been developed and are available
to some extent include:
FIBRES, YARNS (E.G. SANTA FE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY)
They can be made from conductive polymers (CP), handled and processed with limitations
similar to those of conventional yarns and textile fibres. Depending on the intended
application they can also be given additional protective coatings and/or claddings.
Can be used to create linear movements by grouping actuating and positioning drives,
various uses as fabrics. Otherwise as for PPy-CF
3
SO
3
and PPy-TFSI above.
Not universally available, relatively low movement capacity, low mechanical strength of
individual yarns. Otherwise as for PPy-CF
3
SO
3
and PPy-TFSI above.
STRIPS, FILMS (E.G. TECHNOLOGY BY EMPA)
They can be made from dielectric EAPs, installed as clamped at one or both ends, can be
used to form casing components for example.
Can be used in medium temperatures ranges (< –20°C to > +50°C), can be grouped as
actuating or positioning drives to produce linear movements, can be cut to size. Other-
wise as for acryl-based components with graphite.
No very small bevels or folds can be made. Otherwise as for acryl-based components with
graphite.
COILS (E.G. TECHNOLOGY BY EAMEX)
They can be made out of conductive polymers (CPs) and can be installed as clamped at
one end.
Can be used to create continuous linear movements by grouping actuating and position-
ing drives, and as spring elements. Otherwise as for PPy-CF
3
SO
3
and PPy-TFSI above.
Relatively low movement or spring capacity, low mechanical load capacity. Otherwise as
for PPy-CF
3
SO
3
and PPy-TFSI above.
These products should also not be loaded up to their limits. Depending on the product and de-
sign principle, it should be ensured that where layers of dielectric and electrically conductive
materials are placed upon one another, they do not become separated by moisture entry. No
water should be allowed to enter EAP actuators, as this could seriously reduce the dielectric
strength of the hygroscopic films.
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++
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++
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Products currently in use in architecture and
likely to become more relevant in future include:
RAW OR END PRODUCTS:
EAP fibres
EAP strips and films
EAP coils
INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS:
ACTUATING and POSITIONING DRIVES made from
or incorporating EAPs
SPRING ELEMENTS with variable/varying spring force
made from or incorporating EAPs
ROBOTS with actuating and positioning drives
incorporating EAPs
NEOPRENE MEMBRANE with EAP
69 | electroactive polymers (EAP)
70 | shape-changing smart materials
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As it is only in recent years that products with adequate reversible and reproducible shape-
changing properties have been developed and given that they are still mainly implemented as
technology demonstrators, there are likely to be no products available for widespread use in
the field of architecture in the foreseeable future, in particular as actuating or positioning drives.
These drives are most likely to appear first as trials because new construction products require
official approval, and this is normally a lengthy process. For the time being the existing available
drives will continue to be used but perhaps with modifications or suitable connections, depend-
ing on future uses.
In the short term, electrically deformable, large surface-forming components could be made
from EAP films to produce various textures in wall coverings or wallpaper.
Bryan Boyer, USA
Electromagnetically sensitive thermal baths with kinetic surface-forming
components | New York, USA (2003)
With his 2003 design, BalnaeNY, the American designer Bryan Boyer showed
how the activities that arise in a certain built area can be used to enrich the
experience for those who visit it through deformable walls and floors. In this
particular case, Boyer applied his design to a fun bath in New York’s busy
SOHO district.
Boyer, then a student at Future Studio, a special department at the Rhode
Island School of Design, proposed a system of sensors and actuators that
would react dynamically to the various activities taking place in the course
of a day. The electromagnetic radiation generated by people and their mo-
bile phones, motor vehicles etc. is picked up and converted into kinetic spa-
tial changes by an EAP. The material is integrated into an additional interme-
diate neoprene floor close to the water surface of the pool, into the walls of
the shower enclosures and into the facade. For example, depending on the
time of day, part of the intermediate floor containing a grid of EAP strips
will take up a wave profile and emerge to a greater or lesser extent above the
water’s surface, thus forming a walk-in cave. The shower walls can adopt a
spiral shape in plan when they function as a shower enclosure and offer pri-
vacy, or they can take up another shape to function as a splash guard.
The walls forming the narrow sides of the pool also consist of EAPs and
shape themselves, depending on the activities taking place, into variously
sized niches that can be used as individual sauna areas. The niches may
project into the street space to various extents so that the activity is also
visible from outside the building.
BalnaeNY: perspective view from above of the swimming pool with the emerging
and submerging wave profile of the neoprene membrane. | Scenario of deforming
sauna walls projecting into street space | Section through swimming pool with
neoprene membrane | View into interior of cave. | Individual sauna areas. |
Unwinding shower enclosures.
71 | electroactive polymers (EAP)
;ZegZ^GR
Monosmart material | Monosmart application
Electroactive smart material:
NEOPRENE MEMBRANE WITH EAP
Kinetic structures responding to electromagnetic radiation
Colour- and optically changing smart materials include materials and products that are able to
reversibly change their colour and/or optical properties in response to one or more stimuli
through the external influence of light, temperature, compression, an electrical or magnetic
field and/or a chemical stimulus.
The currently available colour- and optically changing smart materials can be differentiated ac-
cording to their triggering stimuli as follows:
PHOTOCHROMIC SMART MATERIALS
These materials change their colour when excited by the effect of light (electromagnetic
energy).
THERMOCHROMIC, THERMOTROPIC SMART MATERIALS
These materials change their colour and/or optical properties when excited by the effect of
temperature (thermal energy).
MECHANOCHROMIC (E.G. PIEZOCHROMIC, TRIBOCHROMIC) SMART MATERIALS
These materials change their colour when excited by the effect of compression, tension or
friction (mechanical energy).
ELECTROCHROMIC, ELECTROOPTIC (E.G. IONOCHROMIC) SMART MATERIALS
These materials change their colour and/or optical properties when excited by the effect of
electrical fields, electrons or ions (electrical energy).
CHEMOCHROMIC (E.G. GASCHROMIC, HALOCHROMIC, SOLVATOCHROMIC, HYGRO-/
HYDROCHROMIC) SMART MATERIALS
These materials change their colour and/or optical properties when excited by the effect of
a chemical environment (chemical energy), e.g. hydrogen, oxygen, salt content (pH value),
a solution or water.
The general term, chromogenic smart materials, is also used.
Of the above smart materials, due to their availability and other factors, such as the anticipated
long-term stability, the following are of interest for architectural applications and will be dealt
with in more detail below: photochromic, thermochromic, thermotropic, electrochromic and
electrooptic smart materials. An application of hygro-/hydrochromic smart materials can be
found elsewhere (see p. 24).
Assuming further development and market placement, piezochromic, gaschromic and halo-
chromic smart materials could gain in importance in the near future.
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housewarming III: room installation with thermochromic wall and
seat surfaces.
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Photochromic materials (PC), photochromics and UV-sensitive materials are materials or com-
ponents that are able to reversibly change their colour in response to light.
Photochromism describes the reversible conversion of materials or components between two
forms A and B, each with different absorption spectra. The conversion is triggered, in one or
both directions, by the absorption of electromagnetic radiation. The thermodynamically more
stable form A is transformed by irradiation into form B. The reverse reaction may be thermal
(T-type photochromism) or photochemical (P-type photochromism) (according to: [7]).
The following applies to certain organic PCs: if form A is colourless or slightly yellow and form
B is coloured then this is called positive photochromism, which is the most common case. In
less frequent cases if form A is coloured and form B is colourless, then the colour is bleached
by light and this is called negative photochromism.
Two mechanisms may be involved in the process: with the one-photon mechanism, B is formed
from the initial singlet or the triplet excited state or both, whilst with the two-photon mechanism,
B is formed by the absorption of two photons, which can be simultaneous or step-wise (sequen-
tial), and the resulting upper excited state. Accordingly, the phenomenon is referred to as one-
photon or two-photon photochromism.
In 1899 a photochromic effect was discovered by Markwald in tetrachloronaphthaline in the
solid state, which established the term phototropy for what he saw as a merely physical phe-
nomenon. In Israel in 1950, Hirshberg suggested the term in use today, photochromism, which
is derived from Greek. Fatigue-proof derivates of spirooxazines and chromenes were developed
in the 1980s. In 2001 Japanese scientists at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Sci-
ence and Technology developed a new photochromic glass based on silver ions and nitrate
without the use of environment- and health-damaging halogens. In 2004 a photo-electrochro-
mic system consisting of a dye solar cell with an electrochromic component was developed in
Germany at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg.
Materials and components generally used include among others:
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Naphthopyranes, spiropyranes, spirooxazines (e.g. spironaphthoxazines), spirodihydroin-
dolizines, chromenes, diarylethenes, fulgides, azo compounds, bakteriorhodopsin (BR)
INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Silver halides (e.g. silver bromide (AgBr), silver chloride (AgCl), silver iodide (AgI))
PHOTOCHROMIC SMART MATERIALS >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
Their inherent properties enable them to react to light
(visible light, UV light, IR light; electromagnetic radia-
tion) by changing their colour.
The following photochromic smart materials are cur-
rently of interest to architects:
PHOTOCHROMIC MATERIALS (PC)
These materials and products include:
PHOTOCHROMIC PIGMENTS
PHOTOCHROMIC GLASS
PHOTOCHROMIC PLASTICS
Photochromic plastics are also known as photochromic
polymers (PCP)
73 | photochromic materials (PC)
74 | colour- and optically-changing smart materials
The following PCs are among those of interest in architecture:
SPIROPYRANES, SPIRODIHYDROINDOLIZINES
Organic chemical compounds, solid at +20°C. They react to the influence of visible and UV
light by undergoing a reversible colour change from colourless or slightly yellow (form A) to
coloured, e.g. blue or red (form B). Some spiropyranes show the opposite behaviour
(negative photochromism) and are thermochromic (see thermochromic smart materials,
pp. 80ff.). Available as powders.
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, can be used in low to medium
temperatures (–40°C to +150°C), relatively wide absorption spectrum (form A: approx.
350nm to 450nm, form B: approx. 500nm to 100nm wavelength), relatively large
number of possible cycles of colour change (> 105), form B available in all spectral
colours, soluble in ethanol, toluene, ether, ketones and esters among other liquids, also
soluble in water by substitution (e.g. for the manufacture of dyes), non-toxic, biologically
degradable, relatively inexpensive compared with BR.
None known.
NAPHTHOPYRANES, SPIROOXAZINES (E.G. SPIRONAPHTHOXAZINES), DIARYLETHENES
As above.
Can be used in low to high temperatures (–40°C to +250°C), relatively wide absorption
spectrum (form A: approx. 380nm to 780nm, form B: approx. 380nm to 295nm
wavelength), relatively large number of possible cycles of colour change (> 106),
relatively good lightfastness compared with spiropyranes. Otherwise as above.
Not soluble in water.
BACTERIORHODOPSIN (BR)
A protein isolated from the cell membrane, the so-called purple membrane, of the salt-
loving archaebacteria of the species halobacterium salinarum. Solid at +20°C. Uses
include the display, storage and processing of optical information. Currently, optical films
are among the products manufactured from Bacteriorhodopsin (BR). It reacts to the
influence of light by undergoing a reversible colour change from violet to yellow. The time
over which this takes place can be controlled and influenced by the genetic modification of
the protein. Available as powders and aqueous solutions (suspensions). Currently at the
market introduction phase.
Can be made in large quantities, can be used in low to medium temperatures (–20°C to
+80° or +120°C, in aqueous solution or in dry form respectively), relatively wide absorp-
tion spectrum (form A: 570nm, form B: 410nm wavelength), relatively large number of
possible cycles of colour change (> 106), relatively good lightfastness compared with
spiropyranes, water-soluble, non-toxic, biologically degradable.
Little market presence, form A not transparent, available as a powder in one colour only,
relatively expensive compared with spiropyranes or silver bromide.
++
−−
++
−−
++
−−
Diagram of the chemical structure of naph-
thopyrane and spironaphthoxazines before and
after the exposure to UV light. | Clones of
halobacterium salinarum on an agar plate. This
contains the information for the production of
the modified BR. | Different colours of BR
pigments.
SILVER BROMIDE (AgBr)
Sometimes called bromic silver. An inorganic chemical compound formed as the greenish-
yellow precipitate of the reaction between silver salts, usually silver nitrate, with an
aqueous solution of a bromide salt, often calcium bromide. Solid at +20°C. The compound
is used in photography as the light-sensitive component of emulsions on films and in other
light-sensitive coatings, for example photochromic glass. Decomposes under the influence
of high energy shortwave blue or violet light into black-coloured silver and bromine. Doping
with sensitising dyes allows also lower energy light colours such as red light to be
absorbed.
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, many years of practical use, can be
used in low to high temperatures (< –20°C to > +250°C), relatively large number of
possible cycles of colour change (> 105), relatively good lightfastness compared with
organic PCs such as spiropyranes, relatively inexpensive compared with BR.
Relatively narrow absorption spectrum, form B only available in one colour (various
shades of grey), not resistant to rust and other corrosion products in contact with metals,
toxic, problematic recyclability.
In addition to the above materials and components, the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy
Systems has developed a new photochromic system in which electrochromic tungsten oxide is
used: this is described in the appropriate section (see electrochromic/-optic materials (EC, EO),
pp. 89ff.).
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One of the most widely known applications of photochromic materials (PC) are self-colouring
sunglasses, which have been on the market for over 20 years. By means of applied or embedded
inorganic silver halide crystals the lenses change to various shades of grey, or brown, by the
addition of gold or palladium, depending on the intensity of light. Other colours, including red
and blue, can be produced by the addition of organic PCs, such as spirodihydroindolizines.
A number of different chromogenic products for children, some of them photochromic, were
brought on to the market at the beginning of the 1990s by Mattel, a large US-American toy
manufacturer.
Apart from toys, PCs find use in other consumer goods as well; they can also be used in control
technology. In the meantime, dental sealant materials (fissure sealants) based on spirodihy-
droindolizines have appeared on the market. They change colour from transparent to blue after
a few seconds of exposure to a polymerisation lamp and provide quality control [8].
++
−−
Technology by James Robinson:
illustration of the positive
photochromic effect in sunglasses
with plastic lenses incorporating
organic PCs. | Sunglasses and six
plastic lenses incorporating
organic PCs (ophthalmic lenses)
before and after excitement with
light.
75 | photochromic materials (PC)
76 | colour- and optically-changing smart materials
A promising application of BR could be in aqueous solutions or as dyes on, for example, films
for the display, storage or processing of optical information.
The following products made from or incorporating PCs are among those of interest for archi-
tectural applications:
Dyes made from photochromic organic compounds:
DYES MADE FROM PC (REVERSACOL, TECHNOLOGY BY JAMES ROBINSON)
Photochromic powder made from naphthopyranes or spironaphthoxazines. They can be
added to inks and paints as dopants or to various solvents such as ethanol and toluene.
They can also be incorporated into plastics, for example thermoplastics such as PE, PP,
PVC, EVA, PVB, PMMA, and duroplastics like PUR and be thermally treated for extrusion,
casting or injection moulding into various forms.
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, can be used in low to high tempera-
tures (–40°C to +250°C, depending on the matrix among other parameters), largely
lightfast, good batchability, can be embedded in different plastics. Otherwise as for
naphthopyranes, spirooxazines (e.g. spironaphthoxazines), diarylethenes.
Relatively expensive. Otherwise as for naphthopyranes, spirooxazines (e.g. spironaphthox-
azines), diarylethenes.
Paints incorporating photochromic organic compounds:
PAINTS INCORPORATING PC, DISPERSION-BASED (E.G. WITH REVERSACOL DYES,
TECHNOLOGY BY JAMES ROBINSON)
They can be applied by brush, roller or spray to surfaces such as wood, plastic, textiles,
paper, cardboard, concrete and masonry. Otherwise as above.
High flexibility, good adhesion. Otherwise as above.
As above.
Other products incorporating photochromic organic compounds include:
GRANULATES INCORPORATING PCs
THREADS INCORPORATING PCs
++
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++
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Technology by Chromatic Technologies Inc.: photochromic paint
(DynaColor, “Photochromic Wet Slurry”) before and during
excitement with light. | Photochromic BR-based paints produced
by chemical derivatisation. | Photochromic BR-based film.
Information can be written on it using a light pen. | Technology
by Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems: technology
demonstrators of photochromic and photo-electrochromic glass
systems before and after excitement with light. | opposite:
Schematic representation of the construction of photochromic
and photo-electrochromic glass systems.
Glass incorporating electrochromic inorganic compounds:
GLASS SYSTEMS INCORPORATING ELECTROCHROMIC MATERIALS (EC) (TECHNOLOGY BY
FRAUNHOFER INSTITUTE OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS)
Photochromic system consisting of electrochromic tungsten oxide and a dye solar cell.
Under the influence of light, electrons in the solar cell layer become excited and are
injected into the tungsten oxide. At the same time cations from the electrolyte are taken
into the layer and the tungsten oxide turns blue. During darkness decolouring takes place
by recombination reactions. The photo-electrochromic version can be controlled by the
user by means of a switch.
Suitable for darkening rooms, largely lightfast, can be installed in conjunction with
adjacent conventional glazing, thus allowing clean details, relatively easy to use, no
external electricity supply required. Otherwise with the limits mentioned above for
tungsten oxide and dye solar cells.
Lack of market presence, can be made in small quantities only, higher costs of replace-
ment of damaged panes, relatively heavy, with resulting higher installation costs, no
electrochromic or dye coatings can be applied to the edge of cells, hence edge covering
is necessary. Otherwise with the limits mentioned above for tungsten oxide and dye solar
cells.
Other products incorporating photochromic organic compounds include:
GLASS SYSTEMS INCORPORATING PCS (E.G. SILVER HALIDES)
The use of organic compounds such as naphthopyranes, spirooxazines (e.g. spironaphthox-
azines) and diarylethenes allows products to be made that have relatively good long-term light
stability, in terms of their colourfastness, for example. This can be increased by further addi-
tives, including UV absorbers, antioxidants, HALS (hindered amine light stabilisers). At the
moment in this context, work is on-going with encapsulated dyes, which will probably respond
less spontaneously. Toxic products such as those with layers of silver halides should be used
as little as possible.
++
−−
Products currently used in architecture include:
RAW OR END PRODUCTS:
DYES made from PCs (e.g. naphthopyranes,
spironaphthoxazines) (e.g. Reversacol dyes,
technology by James Robinson)
SUSPENSIONS incorporating PCs (e.g. BR)
DYES (e.g. inks, printing inks) incorporating PCs
(e.g. naphthopyranes, spironaphthoxazines)
(e.g. DynaColor, technology by Chromatic Technologies Inc.)
GRANULATES incorporating PCs (e.g. naphthopyranes,
spironaphthoxazines)
THREADS incorporating PCs (e.g. naphthopyranes,
spironaphthoxazines)
INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS:
PAPERS incorporating PCs, e.g. photochromic dyes
FILMS incorporating PCs, e.g. photochromic dyes
TEXTILES incorporating PCs, e.g. photochromic yarns
GLASS SYSTEMS incorporating PCs (e.g. silver halides)
77 | photochromic materials (PC)
Glas glass
switch open
+ illumination
=> colouring
switch closed
=> decolouring
illumination
=> colouring
dark
=> decolouring
glass
light
glass
light
glass
dye
78 | colour- and optically-changing smart materials
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Until recent years there had been very few realised applications of photochromic materials (PC)
in the fields of art (see p. 24) or architecture. Although the use of self-colouring glass in win-
dows or facades is an obvious application, it has not been successful so far because of its in-
adequate long-term behaviour, sensitivity to heat and relatively high manufacturing costs. Ac-
cordingly, there are currently no known large-scale uses of these systems. Among the first
projects involving PCs in a building envelope was the entry from Becker Gewers Kühn & Kühn
Architects for the 1992 design competition for the Museum of Modern Art in Munich.
Since that time a number of other applications incorporating PCs have been proposed, particu-
larly in the universities. They range from UV-sensitive wallpapers to textiles that are further
processed into clothing or room textiles. While in the beginning the emphasis was on the aes-
thetics of the colour change, researchers are currently seeking to let these products take on
further functions, such as the indication of energy state or time, or of changes in surface
temperatures.
Model of a photochromatic glazed building
envelope: Museum of Modern Art, Munich, by Becker
Gewers Kühn & Kühn Architects.
Interactive Institute: Power Studio, Sweden
Wallpaper | Sweden (2005)
The Appearing Pattern Wallpaper project by the Interactive
Institute’s Power Studio in Eskilstuna seeks to raise aware-
ness of energy forms that show themselves in less obvious
ways than, for example, electric current. The institute works
with others, including designers and manufacturers, on en-
ergy-related project themes.
For their project STATIC! designers Sofia Lagerkvist, Char-
lotte von der Lancken, Anna Lindgren and Katja Sävström
developed a wallpaper with UV-sensitive inks, which can re-
versibly change from a monochromic to a bichromic red un-
der the influence of light.
Appearing Pattern Wallpaper is intended to demonstrate to
the observer in a poetic way how everyday objects can
change over time under the influence of only subliminally
perceived forms of energy.
Appearing Pattern Wallpaper: patterns (shown here in three
sequential photographs) gradually changing during the
absorption of UV light, left monochromic, right bichromic with
the fully developed pattern.
79 | photochromic materials (PC)
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Monosmart material | Polysmart application
Colour- and optically changing smart material:
PHOTOCHROMIC DYE (INK)
Indication of UV light and time through colour change
80 | colour- and optically-changing smart materials
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fZm^kbZel
Thermochromic materials (TC) and thermochromics are materials or components that are able
to reversibly change their colour in response to light. In contrast, thermotropic materials (TT)
and thermotropics are materials or components that are able to reversibly change their optical
characteristics (e.g. transparency) in response to temperature.
Certain liquid crystals that do not change directly from the crystalline to the liquid state when
heated but go through one or more intermediate phases are classed as thermochromic materi-
als, among others. In these phases they have directionally dependent physical properties, such
as those found in crystals, yet they move like liquids. These phases are also known as
mesomorphs.
In 1909, Prague chemist Hans Meyer observed thermochromic behaviour in certain organic
compounds. An explanation for this phenomenon was not found until E. Harnik and G.M.J.
Schmidt, and J.F.D. Mills and S.C. Nyburg published several articles about thermochromism in
1954 and 1963 respectively in the Journal of the Chemical Society, London. In 2003 in Germany,
the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research in Golm near Berlin succeeded in devel-
oping microencapsulated thermochromic composites incorporated in various plastics, and a
form of thermotropic solar protection.
Thermochromic materials and components generally used include among others:
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Cholesteric liquid crystals (e.g. cholesterylesters), leuco dyes (e.g. spiropyranes, fulgides).
INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Metal oxides (e.g. vanadium oxide (VaO), vanadium tungsten oxide (VaWO), zinc oxide
(ZnO), bismuth oxide (BiO), copper oxide (CuO)).
Metal iodides (e.g. mercury(II)-iodide).
THERMOCHROMIC AND THERMOTROPIC
SMART MATERIALS
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
Their inherent properties enable them to react to
temperature (thermal energy) by reversibly changing
their colour and/or their optical characteristics.
The following thermochromic and thermotropic smart
materials are currently of interest to architects:
THERMOCHROMIC MATERIALS (TC)
THERMOTROPIC MATERIALS (TT)
These materials and products include among others:
THERMOCHROMIC PIGMENTS
THERMOCHROMIC GLASS
THERMOTROPIC GLASS
THERMOCHROMIC PLASTICS
Thermochromic plastics are also known as
thermochromic polymers (TCP).
Choleristic compound cholesteryl-pelargonate at different
temperatures (75° C, 76° C, 77° C, 79° C).
Thermochromic materials or components also include:
MINERALS
Rutil, thermochromic gemstones.
Thermotropic materials and components in use include among others:
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Polymer blends (e.g. polystyrene-co-HEMA/polypropylenoxide), lyotropic liquid crystals,
resins, phase change materials (PCM) (e.g. paraffin).
HYBRID ORGANIC-INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Hydrogels.
INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Phase change materials (PCM) (e.g. salt hydrates).
The following TCs/TTs could be of interest in the field of architecture:
CHOLESTERIC LIQUID CRYSTALS (E.G. CHOLESTERYLESTERS)
Various organic compounds such as cholesterylesters. They react to a continuous tempera-
ture rise by changing colour from black through red, orange, yellow, green, blue to violet
and back again to black.
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, can be used in low to medium tempera-
tures (< –20°C to > +100°C), a reasonable number of cycles of possible changes of colour,
suitable for precise applications, non-toxic.
Special manufacturing technology required, relatively low colour intensity, black back-
ground required to maximise the colour effect, relatively expensive.
LEUCO DYES (E.G. SPIROPYRANES, FULGIDES)
See products.
81 | thermochromic/-tropic materials (TC, TT)
Technology by Chromatic Technologies Inc.: thermochromic
paints (type DynaColor, switching at 31°C or at 45°C,
“thermochromic UV screen”).
82 | colour- and optically-changing smart materials
LYOTROPIC LIQUID CRYSTALS
Various organic compounds. The mesophases can only be formed in mixtures. They react
to a temperature rise by reversibly changing their optical characteristics from almost
transparent to translucent (milky-white turbidity). They can be used in thermotropic layers,
for example as solar protection.
Can be made in large quantities, can be used in low to high temperatures (< –30°C to >
+120°C), relatively large number of possible cycles of changes between turbidity and
clarity, relatively high transparency when switched off (approx. 90%), a relatively large
proportion of NIR and IR radiation is reflected, non-toxic.
Lack of market presence.
The use of phase change materials (PCM) in thermotropic layers in more complex systems is
also interesting and is dealt with in more detail in the relevant chapter (see phase change ma-
terils (PCM) pp. 165ff.), where a further thermotropic system is described.
ma^kfh\akhfb\(&mkhib\fZm^kbZel!M<%MM"7
ikh]n\ml
Towards the end of the 1900s, a number of consumer products were enhanced with thermo-
chromic characteristics and brought on to the market. The most well known include the mood
rings from the 1970s, which can still be found on sale today. Also known in this context are
toothbrushes made from coloured plastic that undergo a reversible colour change at the contact
points where they have been held in the hand, or drinking vessels or straws that change colour
when in contact with hot or cold drinks.
One of the first developments in the field of thermotropic products were switching hydrogels
that are enclosed between glass substrates and have impressive optical characteristics. How-
ever, processing them under industrial conditions has proven too costly. A new use has been
developed by the German Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research in Golm near Berlin,
in which solar protection based on phase change reversibly changes from almost transparent
(90%) to translucent.
The following products made from or incorporating TCs and TTs are of interest for architectural
applications:
++
−−
Technology by Alsa Corporation: colour changes of a thermochro-
mic paint (Xposures) on contact with water as the heat carrier. |
Functioning of two thermochromic paints set to 31°C (Eclipse),
each of which were mixed with one concentrate (candy red or
candy yellow). As a result, e.g. on bodily contact, they change
from black to red or from black to yellow respectively instead of
from black to white.
Dyes made from thermochromic organic compounds:
LEUCO DYES INCORPORATING TC
Powdered microencapsulated thermochromic dyes made from, e.g. encapsulated spiro-
pyranes or fulgides. They react to a temperature rise by reversibly changing colour from
transparent to coloured, e.g. violet. The colour change takes place only when incorporated
in a matrix, e.g. plastic.
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, can be used in low to medium
temperatures (< –20°C to > +130°C), a reasonable number of cycles of possible changes
of colour, non-toxic.
Not particularly suitable for precise applications, relatively expensive.
Paints with thermochromic organic compounds:
PAINTS INCORPORATING TC AS PART OF A PAINT SYSTEM (ECLIPSE, TECHNOLOGY BY
ALSA CORPORATION)
Monochromic colour changers, which consist of organic compounds dissolved in a liquid
carrier; the organic compounds switch between black or blue to white and back again,
depending on temperature. Can be applied by brush, roller or spray to surfaces such as
metal, wood, glass, plastic, fabric and leather. Available as powder or paint.
Market presence, can be used in low to medium temperatures (< –20°C to > +80°C),
relatively good mechanical load capacity compared with earlier products, good adhesion,
good dirt resistance, simple to clean, resistance to wear with an additional protective
lacquer, relatively good UV light resistance compared with earlier products, can be
processed with other decorative paints and concentrates on the same basis, which
enables other high temperature paints to be produced.
Only available in two colours.
PAINTS INCORPORATING TC AS PART OF A PAINT SYSTEM (XPOSURES, TECHNOLOGY BY
ALSA CORPORATION)
Polychrome colour changers that consist of liquid crystals dissolved in a liquid carrier; the
liquid crystals change from an initial colour (e.g. blue) through a variety of other colours
(brown, yellow, violet and green) and back again, depending on the temperature. Can be
applied by brush, roller or spray to surfaces such as metal, wood, glass, plastic, fabric and
leather. Available as paint only.
Eight different colours available, can be processed with other decorative paints and
concentrates on the same basis. Otherwise as above and for liquid crystals.
As for liquid crystals above.
++
−−
++
−−
++
−−
Technology by Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research:
powdered microencapsulated TCs (composites), capable of being
extruded and used as dopants in various plastics. | Thermoplastics:
extruded thermochromic polymer film; highly transparent extruded
thermochromic polymer film, switching temperature +72°C to +74°C. |
Extruded thermochromic polymer strings. | Duroplastics: moulded
thermochromic disc. | Thermochromic polymer material, showing
different colours at different temperatures. | Hydrogels: thermochro-
mic polymer gel. | Thermochromic polymer gel heated in a
waterbath. Highly transparent in all phases.
83 | thermochromic/-tropic materials (TC, TT)
84 | colour- and optically-changing smart materials
Plastics incorporating thermochromic organic compounds:

MICROENCAPSULATED TC (COMPOSITES) (TECHNOLOGY BY FRAUNHOFER INSTITUTE
FOR APPLIED POLYMER RESEARCH)
TCs that are microencapsulated, e.g. with transparent polymers; often powdered thermo-
chromic composites. Can be incorporated as dopants into various plastics, e.g. in
thermoplastics such as PE, PP, PVC, PES, ABS, PA, PC, PMMA, duroplastics such as PES,
PUR and in paints, coatings and resins. Can be heat-treated for extrusion, casting or
injection moulding into various shapes. They are currently in the development phase
(technology demonstrators).
Can be made in large quantities, can be used in low to medium temperatures (–20°C to
+100°C), largely lightfast, good batchability, can be embedded in various plastics, can be
made into relatively large, uniformly coloured moulded parts and films, resistant to
compression and temperature.
Lack of market presence.
++
−−
Products currently used in architecture include:
RAW OR END PRODUCTS:
LEUCO DYES incorporating TCs
PAINTS incorporating TCs as part of a paint system
(Eclipse, technology by Alsa Corporation)
PAINTS incorporating TCs as part of a paint system
(Xposures, technology by Alsa Corporation)
DYES (e.g. inks, printing inks) incorporating TCs (e.g.
naphthopyranes, spironaphthoxazines) (e.g. DynaColor,
technology by Chromatic Technologies Inc.)
MICROENCAPSULATED TCs (compounds) (technology by
Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research)
THREADS incorporating TCs (technology by Fraunhofer
Institute for Applied Polymer Research)
Hydrogels incorporating TCs (technology by Fraunhofer
Institute for Applied Polymer Research)
INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS:
PAPERS incorporating TCs, e.g. thermochromic dyes
FILMS incorporating TCs, e.g. thermochromic dyes
TEXTILES incorporating TCs, e.g. thermochromic yarns
GLASS SYSTEMS incorporating TTs (technology by
Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research)
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Applications involving thermochromic materials (TC) are more common than applications in-
volving photochromic materials (PC). This applies as much to the fields of art and design as it
does in architecture.
Among the first architectonic applications was a wall covered with a thermochromic paint in
the Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris by the German artist Sigmar Polke in 1988. Other
artists and architects have since accepted the material and some of their works have included
walls coated with thermochromic latex paints.
In addition, thermochromic components have been incorporated into a small number of fur-
nishing items. In addition to new textiles that are used e.g. as table covers (see p. 22) and as
wall coverings, room dividers or curtains, the first ceramic sanitary fittings such as wash basins
and baths have been coated with appropriately sensitive dyes.
It is hoped in particular that thermotropic layers in e.g. glass systems will become an important
tool for autonomously regulating the amount of light entering buildings. The use of TCs to in-
dicate energy consumption also appears promising. The Power Studio of the Swedish Interac-
tive Institute used TCs as part of its STATIC! project. In 2005, conventional ceramic wall tiles
in a shower were given a floral decoration of multi-coloured thermochromic stickers. During
each shower the dyes reacted, above a certain temperature, to the heat of the shower water by
gradually decolouring and hence indicating the intensity of the shower, its duration and con-
sumption of hot water.
Technology by Alsa Corporation: wash basin
with thermochromic coating, initially black. |
opposite: Technology by Fraunhofer Institute for
Applied Polymer Research: behaviour of a
thermotropic glass system as solar protection,
based on reversible temperature-dependent
phase transitions from transparent to
translucent.
85 | thermochromic/-tropic materials (TC, TT)
86 | colour- and optically-changing smart materials
Sigmar Polke, Germany
Wall installation | Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de
Paris, ARC, Paris, France (1988)
Two years after completing his Hydrowand for the German
pavilion at the XLII. Biennale in Venice the artist covered a
convex-curved wall with a large area of temperature-sensi-
tive, colour-changing paint composed of liquid crystals and
a synthetic binder.
Through the use of three different types of liquid crystal that
changed colour over three different temperature ranges, the
Thermowand was meant to show the daily path of the sun by
reacting to the sunlight falling upon it.
The thermochromic dispersion paint used liquid crystal sub-
stances specifically selected to cover the temperature ranges
20°C to 22°C, 20°C to 25°C and 27°C to 33°C. The canvass
for his painting was a damp-proof aluminium membrane
glued to the wall. The paint contained toluene. It was there-
fore poisonous and had to be applied wearing a breathing
mask. The possible colour spectrum ranged from black
(cold, < 20°C) through violet-red, red, yellow, yellow-green
and green-blue to turquoise (warm, > 26°C).
The plan was that the roof construction would create a per-
manently changing “shadow drawing”. As the sunlight did
not manage to reach the Thermowand as planned, an infra-
red lamp was installed to demonstrate how the wall
worked.
Thermowand: wall with the applied thermochromic paint in the
cold state (black). | Detailed photograph of paint coatings at
different temperatures.
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Monosmart material | Monosmart application
Colour- and optically changing smart material:
THERMOCHROMIC PAINT (LIQUID CRYSTALS WITH A
SYNTHETIC BINDER)
Indication of temperature differences (weather)
by colour change
J. Mayer H., Germany
Room installation | Galerie magnusmüller, Berlin,
Germany (2005)
The Berlin architect and designer J. Mayer H. has exhibited
works incorporating thermochromic paints at several inter-
national exhibitions. A version of his installation IN HEAT,
which could be seen at Henry Urbach Architecture gallery,
New York, from April to May 2005, was created for the
Galerie magnusmüller to be on display from 17 September
to 10 November 2005.
housewarming III with its intensively pink-coloured, horizon-
tally running, jagged bands and isolated thermosensitive,
brown polygons on the white walls of the gallery is reminis-
cent of the colour experiments seen at the end of the 1960s.
Unlike the rigorous interpretation of this concept in IN HEAT,
the ceilings and floors were left blank. Through the possibil-
ity of interaction with the room, J. Mayer H. develops further
Friedrich Kielser’s idea of melding architecture and art with
the observers by having them become part of the exhibit.
Visitors can leave temporary images of their presence by
touching the thermosensitive areas.
The thermochromic paint pigment was set for the human
body temperature and decolours where touched. Originally
developed by NASA to signal overheating of mechanical
parts, the pigment was added to ordinary latex wall paint for
interior application. The idea of using a similar thermosensi-
tive paint on exterior surfaces, for example as a self-darken-
ing exterior paint that would heat up in winter by absorbing
sunlight, was rejected due to high manufacturing costs and
inadequate UV resistance.
housewarming III: room installation.
87 | thermochromic/-tropic materials (TC, TT)
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Monosmart material | Monosmart application
Colour- and optically changing smart material:
LATEX PAINT WITH THERMOCHROMIC PIGMENTS
Indication of temperature differences by colour change
88 | colour- and optically-changing smart materials
Chris Glaister, Afshin Mehin, Tomas Rosen, Great Britain
Thermochromic concrete | Great Britain (2004)
Students at the Innovation Unit of the Royal College of Art (RCA) in London
developed a thermochromic concrete with which it was possible to use con-
crete as a display surface. Graphics and alphanumeric characters were cre-
ated on the surface by means of electric currents. This was done by adding
thermochromic inks to the concrete and applying heat directly by current-
carrying nickel-chromium wires. Local colour changes are produced on the
surface, which may appear in the shape of dots, lines or patches depending
on the spacing of the wires.
As an alternative to direct heating, the colour changes can also be produced
by indirect heating, for example from the heat given off by underfloor heat-
ing. This technology could also be beneficial in swimming pools and
bathrooms.
Further interesting possibilities are opening up for the use of Chronos Chro-
mos Concrete with the thermal energy given off in rooms. For example, as
suggested by Glaister, Mehin and Rosen, the trafficked floor surfaces in the
Tate Gallery, London, could be formed in concrete that would display partial
colour changes produced by the heat given off by people standing and mov-
ing on them. Spots of intense colour, or lines of less intense colour, would
be produced in response to the heat given off by people, standing or in mo-
tion, whenever the difference between the room temperature and the surface
temperatures of the people in the room was large enough.
The students’ first proposed application was for oversized digital clocks in-
tegrated into walls and balustrades.
Simulations: a digital clock integrated into a balustrade at the Tate Gallery. | A
digital clock integrated into a wall. | Thermopool. | Partial colouring of the floor of
the Tate Gallery triggered by human body heat.
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Monosmart material | Monosmart application
Colour- and optically changing smart material:
CONCRETE WITH THERMOCHROMIC PIGMENTS
Displays of graphics and characters through temperature-dependent
colour changes triggered by electric current
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Electrochromic materials (EC) and electrochromics are materials or components that are able
to reversibly change their colour in response to light. In contrast to this, electrooptic materials
(EO) are materials or components that are able to reversibly change their optical characteristics
(e.g. transparency) in response to temperature.
Electrochemical cells are required in order to use the phenomenon of electrochromism. These
cells can be differentiated according to their four basic types. They differ from each other in
their number of combined electrochemical switchable films, among other properties.
At the moment type 1 is the most popular. This type has two films of different electrochromic
components combined with one another. In principle, type 1 consists of several functional lay-
ers placed one upon the other as follows: a transparent conductive layer (TCO), commonly in-
dium tin oxide (ITO), is deposited as an anode on a supporting first substrate layer such as
glass. On top of this is placed the first anodic electrochromic layer of e.g. tungsten oxide (WO
3
),
which is responsible for the colour change. It can be applied by vacuum technology (vapour
deposition, sputtering), Sol-Gel technology or electrochemically. Then follows an electrolytic
layer of e.g. a polymer electrolyte, which should be as good as possible at conducting ions but
at the same time be a poor electrical conductor. The rest of the construction is the reverse of
the above. Another metal oxide such as niobium oxide (Nb
2
O
5
) or a conductive polymer such as
polyaniline can be used as the second cathodic electrochromic layer.
EOs include liquid crystals that have been processed into films in order that they can be used
as electrooptic layers. Liquid crystal films (LC films) in principle consist of several functional
layers: two PET substrate layers, which are coated on the inner sides with a transparent conduc-
tive oxide (TCO), e.g. indium tin oxide (ITO), to serve as electrodes, enclose a polymer matrix
in which the liquid crystals are embedded. These liquid crystals are also known as polymer-
dispersed liquid crystals (PDLC).
Electrochromism became known in 1953 following the work of Kraus on tungsten trioxide,
which he found changed colour to deep blue after the application of an electric field. In 1969
and 1973 S.K. Deb published his research work on thin films of molybdenum and tungsten tri-
oxide, which established the principles of modern electrochromism. In the 1970s Nick Sheridon,
a researcher at Xerox Parc, developed the first electronic paper (e-paper). On the European
market the first commercial electrooptic glass was introduced under the brand name PRIVA-
LITE in 1991. This system is still available today and is based on liquid crystals. It switches re-
versibly between transparent and opaque.
In 2004, American researchers working with Fred Wudl at the University of California made
public their development of a green electrochromic polymer which together with the already
available red and blue electrochromic polymers enables any other colour to be created. Also in
2004, as well as a photochromic system, a photo-electrochromic system consisting of a com-
bination of a dye solar cell with an electrochromic cell was developed in Germany at the Fraun-
hofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg.
ELECTROCHROMIC AND ELECTROOPTIC
SMART MATERIALS >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
Their inherent properties enable them to react to electri-
cal fields by reversibly changing their colour and/or
their optical characteristics.
The following electrochromic and electrooptic smart
materials are currently of interest to architects:
ELECTROCHROMIC MATERIALS (EC)
ELECTROOPTIC MATERIALS (EO)
These materials and products include:
ELECTROOPTIC GLASS SYSTEMS INCORPORATING
POLYMER-DISPERSED LIQUID CRYSTALS (PDLC)
ELECTROOPTIC GLASS SYSTEMS INCORPORATING
SUSPENDED PARTICLE DEVICES (SPD)
ELECTROCHROMIC GLASS SYSTEMS INCORPO-
RATING METAL OXIDES
Systems incorporating suspended particle devices
(SPD) will not be dealt with in more detail here.
89 | electrochromic/-optic materials (EC, EO)
90 | colour- and optically-changing smart materials
EC materials and components generally used include among others:
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Cathodic colouring viologenes (bipyridinium salts)
Anodic colouring polymers (e.g. polypyrrol, polyaniline, polythiophene derivates)
Cathodic colouring polymers (e.g. polythiophene derivates)
INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Cathodic colouring metal oxides (e.g. tungsten oxide (WO
3
), molybdenum oxide (MoO
3
),
niobium oxide (Nb
2
O
5
))
Anodic colouring metal oxides, other metal compounds (e.g. nickel oxide (NiO), iridium
oxide (IrO
2
), ferric hexacyanoferrate (Prussian blue))
EO materials and components generally used include among others:
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Liquid crystals (stilbene derivates)
The following ECs and EOs could be among those of interest in architecture:
POLYANILINE DERIVATES
Electrically conductive polymers that can be made by the electrochemical polymerisation
of aniline (derivates). Solid at +20°C. Can be used e.g. as anodic colouring compounds in
electrochromic layers (films). They react to the influence of a DC electrical field by
electrochemical oxidation with the simultaneous taking-in of charge-neutralising cations
(e.g. H+, Li+), changing colour from transparent through green to violet. Reversing the
polarity reverses the colour change. Aniline is available as a liquid.
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, can be used in low to high tempera-
tures (< –40°C to > +120°C), relatively large number of cycles of possible changes of
colour (> 105), reversibly colouring between three oxidation stages, non-toxic.
Cannot form neutral colours (green and violet are considered less suitable for some
applications), relatively poor lightfastness compared with inorganic electrochromic
compounds based on metal oxides.
++
−−
POLYTHIOPHENE DERIVATES
Electrically conductive polymers that can be made by the electrochemical polymerisation
of thiophene (derivates). Solid at +20°C. They can be used e.g. as cathodic colouring
compounds in electrochromic layers (films). React to the influence of a DC electrical field
by electrochemical reduction with the simultaneous taking-in of charge-neutralising cations
(e.g. H+, Li+), changing colour from red to blue. Other colours are possible depending on
the derivate. Reversing the polarity reverses the colour change. Thiophene is available in
powder form.
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, can be used in low to high tempera-
tures (< –40°C to > +120°C), relatively large number of cycles of possible changes of
colour (> 105), non-toxic.
Only reversibly colouring between two oxidation stages, cannot form neutral colours (red
and blue are considered less suitable for some applications), relatively poor lightfastness
compared with inorganic electrochromic compounds based on metal oxides.
TUNGSTEN OXIDE (WO
3
)
A metal oxide that can be made by the oxidation of the heavy metal tungsten with pure
oxygen and by heating tungstic acid. Solid at +20°C. It can be used e.g. as cathodic
colouring compound in electrochromic layers (films). It reacts to the influence of a DC
electrical field by electrochemical reduction with the simultaneous taking-in of charge-
neutralising cations (e.g. H+, Li+), changing colour from transparent to blue. Reversing the
polarity reverses the colour change. Available as a yellow powder.
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, even by the user himself, can be used
in low to high temperatures (< -40°C to > +120°C), relatively large number of possible
cycles of colour change (> 105), relatively good lightfastness compared with organic
electrochromic compounds based on polymers, non-toxic.
Only reversibly colouring between two oxidation stages, cannot form neutral colours (blue
is considered less suitable for some applications).
NIOBIUM OXIDE (NB
2
O
5
)
A metal oxide that can be made by the oxidation of the heavy metal niobium with pure
oxygen. Solid at +20°C. Reacts by changing from transparent to brown. Available as a
powder. Is being currently tried as a replacement for tungsten oxide. Otherwise as above.
Can form a neutral colour (brown). Otherwise as above.
Only reversibly colouring between two oxidation stages. Otherwise as above.
STILBENE-DERIVATES (C
14
H
12
)
Aromatic hydrocarbons with the isomer forms cis- and trans-stilbenes.
Market presence, can be used in low to high temperatures (< –20°C to > +100°C).
Not known.
++
−−
++
−−
++
−−
++
−−
Tungsten oxide (WO
3
) |
Prussian blue.
91 | electrochromic/-optic materials (EC, EO)
92 | colour- and optically-changing smart materials
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In contrast to electrochromic materials (EC), electrooptic materials (EO) have performed rela-
tively well on the market. Liquid crystals are found today in displays, e.g. in televisions, as well
as in electrochromic layers in glass systems.
ECs were first tried in displays. As liquid crystals eventually emerged as the more suitable
materials, efforts are now concentrated on electrically switchable filters and mirrors, e.g. for
active solar protection of rooms, antidazzle layers in automobile mirrors and as electronic inks
(e inks), e.g. as displays in e-books, so-called electronic paper (e paper).
The following products made from or incorporating ECs and EOs are of particular interest for
architectural applications:
Transparent layers with electrochromic organic or inorganic compounds:
GLASS SYSTEM INCORPORATING EC (TECHNOLOGY BY GESIMAT)
Type 1 electrochemical cells consisting of two different electrochromic layers of cathodic
and anodic colouring compounds (e.g. tungsten oxide with Prussian blue), joined together
with a polymer electrolyte layer and enclosed between electrically conductive glass
substrates (2mm x 4mm or 2mm x 6mm). Depending on the colouring compounds used,
after the application of a DC electrical field two filters with different transmission colours
that absorb different radiation spectra of natural light are created, and by interaction they
determine the overall colour effect of the system. Reversing the polarity reverses the colour
change. The colour depth and transparency and therefore the absorption capacity can be
controlled electrically. The glass system provides active solar protection of rooms and can
be used like conventional glass systems. The maximum dimensions of the currently
manufactured panels (technology demonstrators) are 120 cm x 80 cm. Current products
are about to enter the pilot production stage.
Can be used in low to medium temperatures (< –20°C to > +80°C), medium to long
replacement life (approx. 200000 switching cycles, small formats), requires a relatively
low switching voltage (< 5V DC), a permanently applied electrical field is not required for
the transparent state, suitable for room darkening (light transmittance in the off state
approx. 75%, in the on state approx. 8%), largely lightfast, can be used adjacent to
conventional glass construction, therefore allowing clean detailing, relatively easy to use,
adequate fire resistance, relatively inexpensive to manufacture compared with glass
systems based on liquid crystals. Otherwise as for tungsten oxide, Prussian blue above.
Lack of market presence, can be made only in small quantities, higher costs of replace-
ment, e.g. of damaged panes, relatively heavy, with resulting higher installation costs,
electrochromic coating of the edges of the cells is not possible, hence edge covering is
necessary. Otherwise as for tungsten oxide, Prussian blue above.
++
−−
Technology by Gesimat: two mounted glass panels with tungsten
oxide as the cathodic colouring electrochromic layer in combina-
tion with Prussian blue as the anodic colouring electrochromic
layer, left glass in the decoloured state, right glass in the
coloured state. | Technology by LBL: technology demonstrator of
a smart window with an electrically switchable mirror (TMSM);
bottom half reflective, top half transparent. | Smart window in
different reflective and transparent states. | Technology by
Gesimat: electrochromic glass system.
NON-FLEXIBLE AND FLEXIBLE DISPLAYS INCORPORATING EC
(TECHNOLOGY BY E INK AND OTHERS)
These consist of capsules of black and white pigment chips suspended in a clear liquid
enclosed between two electrically conductive substrates (e.g. polyethylenterephthalate
(PET), glass). The individual capsules are electrically controllable. The distribution of
pigment changes in response to the polarity of the DC electrical field on each side of a
capsule, which, in combination with other capsules, produces the overall colour of the
system. Reversing the polarity reverses the colour change. The system is used to display
graphics and alphanumeric characters and can, with limitations, be used like conventional
displays. Currently they are in the market introduction phase.
Can be used in low to medium temperatures (< –10°C to > +60°C, depending on
components), medium to long replacement life (approx. 200 000 switching cycles,
depending on the system, among other parameters), requires a relatively low switching
voltage (< 50 V DC, depending on the system, among other parameters), a permanently
applied electrical field is not required to maintain any state.
Little market presence.
Transparent layers incorporating electrooptic organic compounds:
GLASS SYSTEM INCORPORATING EO (PRIVA-LITE, TECHNOLOGY BY SGG)
Basic type (laminated glass) consisting of two laminated films between glass substrates
(2mm x 5mm), which are joined to one another by an electrooptic film of liquid crystals in
a polymer matrix with electrically conductive coatings (ITO) on both sides. Upon the
application of an AC electrical field, the previously transparent layer becomes translucent
(milky white turbidity) due to the irregular orientation of the crystals within the liquid
crystal layer, which can then reflect or absorb different spectra of natural light. The
crystals assume their regular orientation and the turbidity clears when the polarity is
reversed. Transparency and the amount of absorption and reflection can be set
electrically. The glass system provides active privacy or a projection surface and can be
used like conventional glass systems.
The maximum available dimension of a panel is 300 cm x 100 cm.
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, can be used in low to medium
temperatures (–20°C to +60°C), long replacement life (over 15 years in use), can be used
adjacent to conventional glass construction, therefore allowing clean detailing, relatively
easy to use, adequate fire resistance. Otherwise as for liquid crystals above.
Relatively high switching voltage required (100 V AC, Europe), a permanently connected
electrical field is required for the transparent state, not suitable for darkening rooms
(light transmittance in the off state approx. 76%), higher costs of replacement, e.g. of
damaged panes, relatively heavy, with resulting higher installation costs, electrooptic
coating of the edges of the cells is not possible, hence edge covering is necessary,
expensive to manufacture and install (currently approx. 1700 euro/m
2
to 2000 euro/m
2
,
supplied and installed). Otherwise as for liquid crystals above.
++
−−
++
−−
Technology by E INK and others: technology
demonstrator of a flexible digital clock
(Citizen). | Technology demonstrators of
flexible E INK paper displays (LG.Philips LCD,
Polymer Vision).
93 | electrochromic/-optic materials (EC, EO)
94 | colour- and optically-changing smart materials
The requirements for handling and processing the products depend on the technology and the
EC or EO used. With all glass- and plastic-laminated transparent systems, the substrate must
not be overstressed, e.g. by compression, which may arise from inadequately specified instal-
lation tolerances. Moisture must also not be allowed to penetrate the electrical connections.
Some electrochromic and electrooptic glasses are not suitable for installation as overhead roof
lights. In addition, the specified voltages must not be exceeded.
Products currently used in architecture include:
RAW OR END PRODUCTS:
DYES incorporating ECs (technology by E INK)
FILMS incorporating ECs (technology by E INK)
FILMS incorporating ECs (technology by Gesimat)
FILMS incorporating EOs (PRIVA-LITE, technology
by SGG)
INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS:
GLASS SYSTEM incorporating ECs (technology by
Gesimat)
GLASS SYSTEM (mirrors) incorporating ECs
(TMSM, technology by LBL)
POLYMER SYSTEM incorporating ECs (technology
by E INK)
GLASS SYSTEM incorporating EOs (PRIVA-LITE,
technology by SGG).
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There are only a few companies in the world that can manufacture electrochromic glass. Two
German companies are FLABEG and Gesimat. Unlike the situation with electrooptic systems,
so far there have been only a few completed applications of electrochromic systems in Europe,
mainly because Gesimat and other companies do not yet have an electrochromic system in se-
ries production.
One completed application was an accessible glass roof over the main reading room of the
Landesbibliothek Dresden, Germany (1996 to 2002), which was designed by the S.L.U.B. joint
venture and fitted with electrochromic glazing supplied by FLABEG. This glazing was later re-
placed by conventional glazing.
The following example shows that electrochromic glazing can also be used in old buildings. Here
two switchable panes were fitted with the help of putty into the external window frames of a
conventional wooden box window. The objective was to test the long-term behaviour of the glass
under real operating conditions.
Electrooptic switchable systems are currently becoming more popular worldwide, in particular
the PRIVA-LITE product manufactured by Saint Gobain Glass (SGG). Apart from dividing walls,
doors etc. that have been manufactured and installed to provide temporary optical separation
to parts of rooms, the world’s largest contiguous switchable electrooptical surface to date was
built into a facade in Tokyo in 2004.
Technology by Gesimat: a two-casement box window with electrochromic
glazing. | Separating wall with electrooptic glass (PRIVA-LITE):
Burnett (SGG). | Informational display at the EXPO 2005 in Japan
(E INK, TOPPAN-KANBAN). | opposite: Technology by SGG: electrooptic
glass system, in translucent and transparent states.
95 | electrochromic/-optic materials (EC, EO)
96 | colour- and optically-changing smart materials
Peter Marino Associates, USA
High rise facade | Tokyo, Japan (2004)
A new headquarters for the fashion group Chanel was com-
pleted in 2004 in the Tokyo district of Ginza. The ten-storey
highrise contains a 1300m
2
shopping centre, a concert hall
and a restaurant.
Its 910m
2
display facade, which allows the 56m high build-
ing to take on different appearances throughout the day, is
currently the only one of its type in the world. It consists of
a laminate with several functional layers. The outer curtain
wall is formed of grey glass, which, in conjunction with the
directly adjacent stainless steel, rhombic-honeycombed
structure, gives the building an elegant appearance, reminis-
cent of Chanel’s signature tweed pattern. Next follows a gap
and an electrooptic switchable layer of PRIVA-LITE. The in-
ternal face is formed from a two-pane laminated safety glass
interrupted by horizontally running aluminium rails in which
a double row of white LEDs are integrated.
By day the electrooptic glass and hence the whole facade is
switched to the transparent state. The view into the building
is unobstructed. By night the glass is switched to opaque
and the facade provides a projection surface for the 700000
LEDs, which are controlled by three main control computers
and 65000 microcomputers capable of processing a total
of over 32 trillion commands per second.
The display facade can show still images as well as video
presentations.
Chanel Ginza: facade at night in an animated state. |
General view.
<aZg^e@bgsZ
Monosmart material | Polysmart application
Colour- and optically changing smart material:
ELECTROOPTIC GLASS
Light-emitting smart material:
LIGHT EMITTING DIODES (LED)
Communication and advertising with electrooptic glass
97 | electrochromic/-optic materials (EC, EO)
Chanel Ginza: simulation of possible effects. |
Trial construction from inside.
Adhesion-changing smart materials include materials and products that are able to change re-
versibly the attraction forces of adsorption or absorption of an atom or molecule of a solid,
liquid or gaseous component in response to a stimulus. This may take place due to the effect
of light, temperature, an electrical field or a liquid and/or biological component.
Whilst adhesion describes the attraction forces between atoms and molecules of different
components, cohesion is the attraction of forces between atoms and molecules of the same
component.
Adsorption is the attachment of an atom or molecule of a component to an inner surface of a
material or product, the adsorbent. Absorption describes an inclusion of an atom or molecule
of a component into the free volume of a material and/or product, the absorbent. The release
of a previously adsorbed or absorbed atom or molecule is termed desorption (see matter-ex-
changing smart materials, p. 174).
The processes can be generally differentiated as:
PHYSICAL ADHESION
The main attraction forces are due to adsorption, secondary bonding, van-der-Waals forces,
electrostatic bonding, dipolar bonding and secondary valency bonding between different
components.
CHEMICAL ADHESION
Chemical bonding provides the main attraction forces between different components.
MECHANICAL ADHESION
These attraction forces arise mainly from interlocking, anchoring or intermeshing between
different components.
Depending on the stimulus involved adhesion-changing smart materials can be differentiated
as:
PHOTOADHESIVE SMART MATERIALS
Change the attraction forces of adsorption or absorption of atoms or molecules of solid,
liquid or gaseous components in response to light.
THERMOADHESIVE SMART MATERIALS
Change the attraction forces of adsorption or absorption of atoms or molecules of solid,
liquid or gaseous components in response to temperature.
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Example of adhesion on a hibiscus flower.
ELECTROADHESIVE SMART MATERIALS
Change the attraction forces of adsorption or absorption of atoms or molecules of solid,
liquid or gaseous components in response to an electrical field.
HYDROADHESIVE SMART MATERIALS
Change the attraction forces of adsorption or absorption of atoms or molecules of solid,
liquid or gaseous components in response to liquid components (e.g. water).
BIOADHESIVE SMART MATERIALS
Change the attraction forces of adsorption or absorption of atoms or molecules of solid,
liquid or gaseous components in response to biological components (e.g. bacteria).
Thermoplastic plastics are one example of smart materials that have strong thermoadhesive
properties. They create a temperature-dependent bond between different components. Elec-
troadhesive smart materials are able to generate an electrostatic field in response to a stimulus
and reversibly bond with ionised particles floating in the air, to give an example. Bioadhesive
smart materials can be considered to include living bacteria on a nutrient and carrier layer (e.g.
agar), which secrete adhesive substances, e.g. in the form of polysaccharide fibres in response
to light or nutrients.
Currently, photo- and hydroadhesive smart materials are of particular relevance in the field of
architecture. Photoadhesive smart materials change e.g. the wetting angle of liquid compo-
nents applied to solid components in response to light. Hydroadhesive smart materials include
materials that generate water in response to light by electrical conversion; the water might act
as the adhesive medium between two solid components. One publication describes a gripping
mechanism, functioning by hydroadhesion, which is cooled electrically by a Peltier element
(PE) to such an extent that it freezes to form a firm bond on contact with water-soaked textiles
(see [9]). The use of PEs in architecture will be dealt with in greater detail elsewhere (see ther-
moelectric generators (TEG), pp. 148ff.).
Monte Verde: self-cleaning facade with TiO
2
. |
Garden Chapel: self-cleaning construction
membrane with TiO
2
.
99 | adhäsionsvariierende smart materials
PHOTOADHESIVE SMART MATERIALS >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
Their inherent properties allow products based on pho-
toadhesive materials to change reversibly their adhe-
sion in response to light.
In architecture the following photoadhesive material
and products manufactured from it are of interest:
TITANIUM DIOXIDE (TiO
2
)
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+
"7fZm^kbZel
Titanium dioxide (TiO
2
) is currently the most technically important compound of titanium. It
occurs naturally as the crystal lattice structures (also described as modifications) rutile, ana-
tase and brookite. Raw materials for production are a titanium iron ore by the name of ilmenite,
a shiny black mineral, and rutile, a less iron-rich titanium ore; both of these are obtained from
opencast mines. TiO
2
is insoluble in water, organic solvents, diluted acids and alkalis. It is
lightfast and temperature-stable (its melting point is at 1855°C).
TiO
2
was first used as a white pigment. It was made in the USA and sold from 1909 under the
name Kronos titanium white. In Germany, it was manufactured from 1924 as Degea-Titanweiß,
at first as the anatase modification and then from 1938 in the rutile form. Since 1917, TiO
2
has been produced from ilmenite (titanium iron ore) using the sulphate process by the addition
of sulphuric acid. From 1958 also the chloride process has been in use. Here chlorine is added
to the ore. Since 1968, TiO
2
has also been used as a foodstuff additive. After its photocatalytic
effect had been discovered, the Japanese were successful in 1995 in using TiO
2
in ceramic sur-
face coatings. In recent years Japan also developed paper and building membranes with pho-
tocatalytic effects. 2002 saw the first self-cleaning glass with TiO
2
appear on the European
market.
Materials and components in use include:
MODIFICATIONS
Rutile, anatase
Both modifications are of interest in architecture:
RUTILE
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, usable over a comparatively large
temperature range (< –10°C to > +80°C), depending on the applied source material),
used in particular as a white pigment and as a photocatalyst for converting pollutants
and for creating a hydrophilic effect, better covering properties compared with the
anatase modification, non-consumptive, non-toxic.
Not available everywhere, effects are light-dependent, only about 5% of the solar
radiation (absorption of radiation < 413nm wavelength) can be used.
ANATASE MODIFICATION (TETRAGONAL TiO
2
CRYSTALS)
Used as a white pigment, in particular as a photocatalyst for converting organic pollut-
ants and for creating a hydrophilic effect. Otherwise as above.
Only about 5% of the solar radiation (absorption of radiation < 388nm wavelength) can
be used. Otherwise as above.
++
−−
++
−−
TiO
2
powder.
100 | adhesion-changing smart materials
101 | titanium dioxide (TiO2)
mbmZgbnf]bhqb]^!MbH
+
"7ikh]n\ml
One of the successful areas of application of titanium dioxide (TiO
2
), especially in Japan and
also in Germany, is in photocatalytic paper, which uses the UV light to oxidise organic molecule
pollutants and odours in the air and convert them into substances such as carbon dioxide and
water. The cellulose in the paper is hygroscopic and adsorbs water vapour; therefore the prod-
uct has no significant self-cleaning properties. Photocatalytic papers are expected to be further
developed for the European market, for example as wallpaper. In Japan it has occasionally been
incorporated in coverings for room dividers for domestic use.
TiO
2
can also be used, with the help of sunlight, to purify water, e.g. breaking down pesticides
and pharmaceutical residues. In the 1970s American scientist A. Heller and Japanese scientists
A. Fujishima and K. Honda described the photocatalytic process as follows: “When UV light
strikes the surface of the TiO
2
anatase crystal, it releases negatively charged electrons from
the surface leaving behind positively charged holes. In the presence of water, OH-groups are
adsorbed on the TiO
2
surface. The bond is so strong that further layers of H
2
O on the monomo-
lecular OH-layer are physically adsorbed and other substances repelled from the surface, creat-
ing an easy-to-clean, hydrophilic surface. Water droplets immediately spread on the hydrophilic
surface and form a compact film with the result that the contact angle is very low.” (after [10])
Various products with surfaces made of TiO
2
and capable of changing reversibly their adhesion
in response to UV light have been developed for architectural applications. The most important
products developed over recent years are those in which the anatase modification has been ap-
plied insolubly using the Sol-Gel process, preferably on to smooth surfaces. The first marketable
product was developed in Japan in the form of ceramic slabs which had self-cleaning properties
and were able to break down pollutant gases. From this have followed construction membranes,
glass panes and other products for various applications. In addition there are various products
on the market that use TiO
2
solely for breaking down organic pollutants. By the choice of com-
ponents used the products have no overall light-dependent hydrophilic properties but show a
permanent hydrophobic effect. Silicones are used to achieve this effect in certain photocatalytic
facade paints. Further similar products with a photocatalytic effect are interior paints and
plasters.
Illustration of the self-cleaning effect. | Illustration of the
photocatalytic conversion of organic pollutants.
102 | adhesion-changing smart materials
Below are described some products specifically developed for architectural uses and equipped
with the ability to change reversibly their adhesion in response to UV light:
CERAMIC SLABS WITH TiO
2
Ceramic slabs with a surface coating of baked-on TiO
2
, preferably the anatase modification,
currently available as facade slabs (e.g. with dimensions 592mm x 284mm x 15mm) and
as wall and floor tiles, can be handled and used like conventional facade slabs and tiles.
They are intended for use where their self-cleaning properties and their ability to improve
the air quality by breaking down organic pollutants are important.
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, applicable in conjunction with
conventional facade substructures, largely maintenance-free, long replacement life, fire-
resistant, relatively inexpensive compared with conventional ceramic slabs. Otherwise as
above for the anatase modification.
Only a few manufacturers, reactivation by additional cleaning is required where there is
severe dirt contamination (e.g. bird droppings, tar). Otherwise as above for the anatase
modification.
CONSTRUCTION MEMBRANES WITH TiO
2
Textile membranes fully coated with plastic (e.g. PVC, PTFE) with a TiO
2
surface coating,
preferably the anatase modification. Available in rolls in various dimensions depending on
the manufacturer, extensive cutting to shape required, can be prefabricated to suit the
customer’s requirements as conventional construction membranes, best suited for use
where self-cleaning is desirable (no knowledge of its suitability for air quality improvement
by breaking down organic pollutants; the release of volatile components from the plastic
shortly after installation and at high temperatures may present problems).
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, can be used for a wide range of
applications and integrated into various membrane construction types, largely mainte-
nance-free, long replacement life. Otherwise as above for the anatase modification.
Only a few manufacturers, reactivation by additional cleaning is required where there is
severe dirt contamination (e.g. bird droppings, tar), may have a plastic odour, possible
release of toxic components in the event of fire. Otherwise as above for the anatase
modification.
++
−−
++
−−
Ceramic facade slabs with TiO
2
. |
Ceramic wall and floor tiles with
TiO
2
. | opposite: Illustration
showing the self-cleaning effect:
without TiO
2
. | Photocatalysis with
UV light and TiO
2
. | Subsequent
hydrophilic effect.
103 | titanium dioxide (TiO2)
Available or developed products useful in
architecture include:
RAW OR END PRODUCTS:
FINE GRANULATE (powder) TiO
2
(e.g. anatase modification)
PAINTS containing TiO
2
(e.g. rutile modification,
not adhesion-changing)
INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS:
PAPER containing TiO
2
(not adhesion-changing)
CERAMIC SLABS with TiO
2
CONSTRUCTION MEMBRANES with TiO
2
GLASS PANES with TiO
2
GLASS PANES WITH TiO
2
Conventional glass panes with a TiO
2
surface coating, preferably the anatase modification.
Available as flat glass in various sizes depending on the manufacturer, extensive cutting to
shape required. They can be prefabricated to suit the customer’s requirements as
conventional glass panes. They are best suited for use where self-cleaning and air quality
improvement by breaking down organic pollutants is desirable.
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, can be used for a wide range of
applications and integrated into framed and frameless construction types, largely
maintenance-free, long replacement life. Otherwise as above for the anatase modification.
Reactivation by additional cleaning is required where there is severe dirt contamination
(e.g. bird droppings, tar). Otherwise as above for the anatase modification.
++
−−
104 | adhesion-changing smart materials
mbmZgbnf]bhqb]^!MbH
+
"7ikhc^\ml
Products incorporating titanium dioxide (TiO
2
) with the properties detailed above have become
well established worldwide and particularly in Japanese, European and US-American markets.
Licences for the use of the technology mainly based on the patents of US and Japanese com-
panies have been granted to several manufacturers.
Following the successful construction in Japan of the first building with facade slabs incorporat-
ing TiO
2
, facades are now appearing in Europe with photocatalytic, self-cleaning properties. The
main country where construction membranes containing TiO
2
are used is still Japan, the home
of the system developer Taiyo Kogyo Corporation, who has limited the award of licences to
several companies in Japan as well as in China, Taiwan and Thailand. The acquisition of a tra-
ditional German company means that self-cleaning membranes and textile structures can be
expected to become more common in Europe as well.
Since its introduction in Europe in 2002 all well-known major manufacturers now offer a self-
cleaning glass product. As the additional cost is small compared to conventional float glass, it
has already been used in projects by private and public clients. In addition to smaller areas on
buildings, the technology has been used on comparatively large complex areas of glass to re-
duce running costs by dispensing with time- and cost-intensive cleaning routines and perma-
nently installed cleaning platforms, and to give the building an uncluttered appearance, clear
of distracting attachments.
Technology by Deutsche Steinzeug: ceramic
slabs with TiO
2
. | Technology by Taiyo: various
construction membranes with TiO
2
. | Technol-
ogy by Pilkington: glass construction with TiO
2
.
105 | titanium dioxide (TiO2)
Obayashi Corporation, Japan
Chapel with photocatalytic, self-cleaning membrane skin|
Hyatt Regency Hotel, Osaka, Japan (2001)
Membranes can be formed into technically and geometri-
cally complex textile structures which can possess a special
aesthetic charm. The earlier disadvantage was that if main-
tenance was neglected or cleaning was not carried out or
was inadequate then the membranes would become unsight-
ly after a few years.
In January 2001 in the garden of a luxury hotel in Osaka,
Japan, a chapel was built which incorporates a white con-
struction membrane. The surface that is exposed to rain was
given a self-cleaning coating containing TiO
2
. The double-
curved, load-bearing structure of the chapel is open on two
sides and has four supports. It is clad externally with numer-
ous rows of tied filigree rhomboids on which about 50m
2
of
the membrane were applied.
The shape, surface texture and permanent self-cleaning
white colour of the structure suggest a lightweight bridal
gown moving in the wind.
Garden Chapel: night view and daylight view.
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Monosmart material | Monosmart application
Adhesion-changing smart materials:
CONSTRUCTION MEMBRANE WITH TiO
2
Self-cleaning surfaces
106 | adhesion-changing smart materials
Albert Wimmer, AN_architects, Austria
High-rise with photocatalytic self-cleaning
ceramic facade | Vienna, Austria (2004)
Wienerberg City, a new district in south Vienna, is the location for architect
Albert Wimmer’s 77m high, green, glistening apartment tower Monte Verde
for which AN_architects were engaged to design the photocatalytic facade.
The 182 apartment building is in the shape of a flat cuboid standing on its
end, with additional smaller cuboids individually superimposed upon its
surface. While the narrow ends of the tower in the north and south have
conventional facades, the sides with the superimposed parallelepipeds fac-
ing west and east have a self-cleaning photocatalytic facade system.
The ceramic facade slabs used here have a specially designed, blue-green
glaze on which the titanium oxide-containing “Hydrotect” surface coating
was applied by spray as a transparent liquid and then baked on.
In correspondence with the characteristics of the coating, the facade is able
to use light to form a hydrophilic surface on which the water drops striking
it form a compact film due to their reduced contact angle. Any dirt particles,
e.g. rust or dust, deposited out of air are more easily washed off along with
the rainwater drops flowing off the surface.
In addition to the self-cleaning effect there is also a light-responsive air
cleaning effect due to activated oxygen, which is generated by the free elec-
trons formed at the surface of the coating.
Scientific tests have shown that 1000m
2
of photocatalytic-coated facade
surface achieved an air cleaning effect that was the equivalent of 70 medi-
um-sized deciduous trees. Pro-rata the 6800m
2
ceramic facade of the
Monte Verde would be the equivalent of 476 similar trees, put aside its ad-
ditional qualities and functions such as the oxygen production. For some
cities with severe air pollution, photocatalytic ceramic facades would help
to ensure that air pollution does not increase, assuming that enough natural
light of the correct wavelength range strikes the facades.
Monte Verde: general view. | Sections of photocatalytic facade.
Monosmart material | Monosmart application
Adhesion-changing smart materials:
CONSTRUCTION MEMBRANE WITH TiO
2
Self-cleaning surfaces
Fhgm^O^k]^
107 | titanium dioxide (TiO2)
Monte Verde: facade section.
Light-emitting smart materials include materials or products with molecules that become ex-
cited by the effect of energy, e.g. the effects of light or an electrical field, to emit light. This
happens as a result of the molecules taking up a temporary state of higher energy before leav-
ing it again, at which time part of the energy taken up is emitted in the form of visible electro-
magnetic radiation, without the simultaneous emission of considerable thermal radiation. This
optical phenomenon is called luminescence.
In contrast, there are also materials or products with molecules that become excited by the ef-
fect of energy, for instance the direct or indirect application of heat, and emit heat as well as
light. These molecules take up a temporary higher energy state and emit visible electromag-
netic radiation, but the larger part of the energy emitted is thermal radiation. These materials
are not considered as smart materials and are not dealt with further in this book.
In general terms luminescence can be differentiated as:
PHOTOLUMINESCENCE
An optical phenomenon in which a molecule is excited and emits light due to the effect of
light.
ELECTROLUMINESCENCE
An optical phenomenon in which a molecule is excited and emits light due to the effect of
an electrical field.
BIOLUMINESCENCE
An optical phenomenon in which a chemical reaction occurs to excite a molecule in a living
organism to emit light.
CHEMOLUMINESCENCE
An optical phenomenon in which a chemical reaction occurs to excite a molecule to emit
light.
CRYSTALLOLUMINESCENCE
An optical phenomenon in which a molecule is excited due to crystallisation and emits
light.
RADIOLUMINESCENCE
An optical phenomenon in which a molecule is excited by the effect of radioactive radiation
and emits light.
RADIOPHOTOLUMINESCENCE (THERMOLUMINESCENCE)
An optical phenomenon in which a molecule is excited by the effect of radioactive radiation
followed by thermal radiation to emit cold light.
TRIBOLUMINESCENCE
An optical phenomenon in which a molecule is excited by a mechanical effect to emit light.
Currently, the most important architectural applications are photoluminescence and electrolu-
minescence. In the near future bioluminescence and triboluminescence will be among those
gaining in importance.
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Leuchtzimmer: paper with fluorescent paint. |
Lost Embryo: threads with flourescent pigments.
111 | fluorescence
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Materials or components with a reversible capability for fluorescence are capable, by absorption
of electromagnetic radiation in the form of light, of emitting light almost exactly on transition
from the excited singlet state back to the ground state, within a period not greater than 10
–8
seconds [11].
Depending on the usable light spectrum or on the particular application, fluorescent materials
or components can be further divided into:
DAYLIGHT-LUMINOUS MATERIALS OR COMPONENTS
These materials emit light during the day by absorbing the invisible ultraviolet component
of daylight and emitting light almost simultaneously. This effect is particularly clear under
overcast skies or at dusk. The effect can be increased if an artificial ultraviolet light source
is used, particularly in darkened rooms.
Some materials or components that are daylight-luminous include:
ORGANIC MATERIALS
Fluorescene, rhodamine, cyclam, perylene.
UV-LUMINOUS MATERIALS OR COMPONENTS
These materials emit light only when they are exposed to an artificial ultraviolet radiation
source.
Materials or components that are UV-luminous include:
INORGANIC MATERIALS
Zinc sulphide cadmium sulphide mixed crystals.
PHOSPHORESCENT MATERIALS OR COMPONENTS
These materials are used for example in fluorescent tubes; they convert the ultraviolet light
generated there into white light
Materials or components used as phosphors include:
INORGANIC MATERIALS
Rare earths (e.g. yttrium oxide)

PHOTOLUMINESCENT SMART MATERIALS >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
Photoluminescent materials and products can be
classed as fluorescent or phosphorescent depending on
the properties of their luminous behaviour with respect
to time.
FLUORESCENCE
The excitement of a molecule by light, in particular by
its ultraviolet radiation component; the transition from
the excited state back to the ground state is accompa-
nied by almost simultaneous light emission.
PHOSPHORESCENCE
The excitement of a molecule by light radiation; the
transition from the excited state back to the ground
state is accompanied by delayed light emission.
Solid organic daylight-luminous pigments. |
Daylight-luminous pigment from fluorescene.
112 | light-emitting smart materials
Fluorescent materials or components include:
MINERALS
Scheelite (blue, yellow luminescence), sodalite, calcite (orange-red luminescence), halite.
The materials of most interest to the field of architecture are:
FLUORESCENE, RHODAMINE, CYCLAM, PERYLENE
Organic materials for the manufacture of daylight-luminous pigments.
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, wide choice of colours, many years of
practical use, high brilliance and intensity of colour, free of heavy metals, non-toxic,
versatile range of applications; depending on type, resistance to particular chemicals and
high temperatures, also available in small quantities, inexpensive.
Limited lightfastness.
×nhk^l\^g\^7ikh]n\ml
A long-term market presence means that raw, semifinished and end products have been devel-
oped and made commercially available for a wide range of applications. They extend from pig-
ments and paints through composite materials with e.g. paper to carpets and complex plastic
housings.
In architecture there is particular interest in the following products involving daylight-luminous
organic pigments and UV-luminous inorganic pigments, some of which can be applied directly
to walls, for example, or processed into further products:
Paints containing daylight-luminous organic pigments:
DAYLIGHT-LUMINOUS DISPERSION-BASED PAINTS
They can be applied by brush, roller or spray to surfaces such as wood, plastic, textiles,
paper, cardboard, concrete and masonry.
High flexibility, good adhesion.
Limited lightfastness.
DAYLIGHT-LUMINOUS PAINTS BASED ON TWO-COMPONENT ACRYLATE-BASED PAINT
They can be applied by brush, roller or spray to surfaces such as metal, wood and glass.
Good resistance to mechanical loads, good adhesion, highly dirt-repellent, simple to
clean, resistance to wear with additional protective coating.
Limited lightfastness
++
−−
++
−−
++
−−
Daylight-luminous paint based on two-
component acrylate-based paint system. |
opposite: Polyacryl-based granulate.
113 | fluorescence
Paints made from UV-luminous inorganic pigments:
ALCOHOL-BASED UV LIQUIDS
They can be applied to textiles and other absorbent materials by soaking.
Good adhesion.
Limited lightfastness.
To ensure the long service life of the product and to improve colour intensity, the products
should not be applied too thinly. The colours light blue and light yellow are suitable for indoor
use only as they luminesce under artificial ultraviolet light only. Resistance to abrasion can
be increased by the application of an additional protective coating, for example, a transpar-
ent lacquer.
Granulates from daylight-luminous organic pigments:
GRANULATES (COMPOUNDS) BASED ON POLYACRYL
They can be heated and cast or injection moulded into different shapes.
Accurate batching, can be processed with other polyacryl-based granulates.
Limited lightfastness
Threads from daylight-luminous organic pigments:
POLYACRYL-BASED WOOL (WOOL YARN)
They can be processed manually and by machine into various textile fabrics.
Can be processed like ordinary wool and with other types of wool.
Limited lightfastness.
POLYESTER-BASED YARNS (SEWING YARNS, SPUN YARNS)
They can be processed manually and by machine to form various textile fabrics and seams.
Can be processed like ordinary yarn and with other types of yarn.
Limited lightfastness
++
−−
++
−−
++
−−
++
−−
Currently available or developed products
useful in architecture include:
RAW OR END PRODUCTS
ORGANIC PIGMENTS e.g. fluorescene
INORGANIC PIGMENTS e.g. zinc sulphide
cadmium sulphide mixed crystals
PAINTS containing luminous organic pigments
PAINTS containing fluorescent inorganic pigments
GRANULATES containing fluorescent
organic pigments
THREADS with fluorescent organic pigments
INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS
PAPER e.g. with fluorescent organic pigments
FILM e.g. with fluorescent inks
CARPET e.g. from fluorescent wool
CLOTH e.g. from fluorescent yarns
114 | light-emitting smart materials
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Fluorescent products of interest in architectural applications, in particular for interiors, include
daylight-luminous dispersion-based paints, specially for wall paints on plaster substrates, and
daylight-luminous films that can be applied to smooth substrates such as door panels, tiles,
floor coverings, metal cladding etc.
As fluorescent coatings and claddings would gradually become bleached over the longer term
and this leads to an irreversible loss of function, steps should be taken to reduce exposure to
damaging energy radiation peaks, both in summer and winter. This can be achieved by applying
the coatings in sheltered areas only or by constructional measures, for example, by using selec-
tive elements (filters) to place the coatings behind temporary or permanent features that reflect
or filter sunlight.
In recent years some aesthetically impressive works exploring the theme of fluorescence have
been produced by designers and artists.
Paper with blue fluorescent granulate, paper with green
fluorescent yarns: UV-Lichtpapier, Anke Neumann. | Fluorescent
film: Creeping Buttercup, Ruth Handschin.
115 | fluorescence
Ruth Handschin, Germany
Light installation | Künstlerhaus Bethanien, Berlin,
Germany (1990)
Her installation Leuchtzeichnung (Luminous drawing), shown
in 1990 in the Künstlerhaus Bethanien art centre in Berlin,
was the first major public work of the Swiss artist Ruth
Handschin. Consisting of a tangle of crossing double lines
with embedded random shapes, some serrated, some round-
ed, the work is reminiscent of the outlines of a road network
populated by insect-like organisms.
Ruth Handschin describes her work as “nocturnal.” She wrote
about it in 1990:
“Pale by day, scarcely visible, (the drawing) starts to lumi-
nesce at dusk. First light yellow on light violet-grey, then later
in full darkness, shocking yellow on violet-blue. The human
eye, overloaded by this extreme contrast of bright and dark,
begins to leap from line to line. The whole network raises it-
self off the floor and walls.”
The installation consists of fluorescent strips of paper, which
are precisely cut on site then stuck on to two walls, two col-
umns and the floor of the exhibition room and excited by UV
light. The effect is distorted to an extent which depends on
the position of the observer in the room and the angle of
view of the Leuchtzeichnung. Only when viewed from one
particular position can the Leuchtzeichnung be seen as a
true two-dimensional, undistorted luminous surface.
Leuchtzeichnung from different angles.
Enfbghnl=kZpbg`
Monosmart material | Monosmart application
Light-emitting smart material:
PAPER WITH FLUORESCENT INK
Fluorescent wall surfaces
Christina Kubisch, Germany
Light installation | Theatre Altes Schloss Ettersburg, Weimar,
Germany (2004)
Near Weimar, in the man-made natural surroundings of one of the English-
style parks designed by Prince Pückler-Muskau, stand the old and new cha-
teaux of Schloss Ettersburg, which were used in summer 2004 as part of a
newly established festival by artists Christina Kubisch and Bernhard Leitner
for their exhibition “Zeitversetzt” (“Shifted in Time”). Given that the chateaux
were located in the immediate vicinity of the Buchenwald concentration
camp and requisitioned by the SS in February 1945, the intention was to re-
vive the cultural tradition by giving attention to this particular history.
For one of her three installations Christina Kubisch chose a large glass win-
dow, which was located behind the stage of a room formerly used as a thea-
tre in the west wing of the old chateau. Inspired by the rooms, the events of
earlier times and the idea of bringing the stage back to life for a short time,
the artist created an installation of light and sound. She applied a special
fluorescent coating to the large glass window, in three-parts and divided by
bars, which had at its rear face a brightly lit corridor; the corridor and had
originally provided a form of background lighting. The aim of the design was
to create “fragile layers of time.”
The coating, which, when looked at more closely, is reminiscent of frosted
glass and consists of several wafer-thin glazes of greenish white fluorescent
pigment with an unspecified binder, was applied over several days to cover
the individual glass panes. Four UV lamps, which were concealed so that they
could not be localised by the observer, were used to activate the pigment in
the coating. A black cloth was suspended over the corridor-facing rear face
of the wall to darken the stage and the visitors’ room.
Together with the sounds of a glass harmonica, sometimes occurring indi-
vidually, sometimes overlapping at irregular intervals, Zwei Räume (Two
Rooms) gives the impression of an “imaginary theatre piece,” in which the
luminous surface is the stage and the characters enter in the form of
sounds.
Zwei Räume (Two Rooms): detail of the fluorescent coating. | Window front of
the theatre from outside, untreated. | Window front of the theatre from inside,
fluorescent coating.
116 | light-emitting smart materials
MphKhhfl
Monosmart material | Monosmart application
Light-emitting smart material:
PAINT WITH FLUORESCENT PIGMENTS
Fluorescent window surfaces
117 | fluorescence
EunSook Lee, Germany
Light installation | Embassy of the Republic of Korea,
Berlin and elsewhere, Germany (2003)
During the preparations for her first exhibition in 1986, Ko-
rean artist EunSook Lee suffered severe burns, which threat-
ened to rob her of all movement in her right hand. Trauma-
tised by this event she tried to incorporate her inner con-
flicts, anxieties and pains into her subsequent projects. With
her installation Lost Embryo EunSook Lee was able to visu-
ally express the depths of her feelings and her love of nature
in a fantastic way.
Lost Embryo, first presented to the public in 1999 in Vancou-
ver, Canada, attempts to represent artistically the inside of
an over-sized womb. Between 600 and 700 embryos are
symbolised by 20cm long, convoluted tubular shapes and
attached in a grid pattern to the full room height, mono-
chrome walls at intervals of about 25cm. Each individual
tubular shape is made up of numerous fluorescent threads
which are thermally laminated between two transparent poly-
ester strips and patched together to form convoluted three-
dimensional tubes. This creates areas where the fluorescent
threads are overlaid by the polyester material, and other ar-
eas where the threads are not laminated and therefore fully
exposed. The use of different colours for the threads and
polyester strips, excited by the long ultraviolet lighting tubes
attached to the ceiling, creates a fascinating interplay of
form and colour.
Lost Embryo: general view. | Detail of fluorescent threads in the
tubular structures.
Ehlm>f[krh
Monosmart material | Monosmart application
Light-emitting smart material:
YARN WITH FLUORESCENT PIGMENTS
Fluorescent wall surfaces
iahliahk^l\^g\^7fZm^kbZel
In contrast to fluorescence the optical phenomenon of phosphorescence in materials or com-
ponents involves some afterglow luminescence. This occurs when a molecule absorbs light and
emits light again during the transition from an excited triplet state to the ground state over a
period of greater than 10
–8
seconds ([11]). Materials or components that have this ability to
persistently emit light are described as phosphors.
Depending on the length of the afterglow luminescence process, the phosphorescent materials
or components can be differentiated into:
PHOSPHORESCENT MATERIALS OR COMPONENTS
These materials luminesce for a comparatively short time and have only a slight excitement
sensitivity.
Some phosphorescent materials or components are:
INORGANIC MATERIALS OR COMPONENTS
Zinc sulphide crystals, magnesium sulphide crystals.
PERSISTENTLY PHOSPHORESCENT MATERIALS OR COMPONENTS (AFTERGLOWS)
These materials luminesce for a comparatively long time and have high excitement
sensitivity.
Some persistently phosphorescent materials or components are:
INORGANIC MATERIALS OR COMPONENTS
Rare earths (e.g. alkaline earth aluminate crystals)

Phosphorescent materials also include:
MINERALS
Lapis Solaris (“Bolognian Phosphorus”)
As these materials or components also absorb the ultraviolet radiation contained in daylight
and emit it as light, luminescence may persist, with sufficient excitement, even on days when
no or only inadequate further excitement is taking place. This is the case in particular for alka-
line earth aluminate crystals.
Alkaline earth aluminate
crystals. | Phosphorescent
paint by day and at night. |
Granulate (compound) and
a polyacryl-based plastic
profile produced from it.
118 | light-emitting smart materials
The following are currently of interest to architecture:
ZINC SULPHIDE CRYSTALS, MAGNESIUM SULPHIDE CRYSTALS
These materials are excited by natural and artificial light, and by radiation from radioactive
substances. After excitation ceases the luminance falls to 10% or less of its original value
within 20 minutes.
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, many years of practical use, high
brilliance and intensity of colour, very short excitement time (a few minutes), long
afterglow (several hours), no radioactive substances, no lead or chromium pigments,
versatile range of applications; depending on type, resistance to particular chemicals and
high temperatures, also available in small quantities, inexpensive compared to alkaline
earth aluminate crystals.
Limited lightfastness.
ALKALINE EARTH ALUMINATE CRYSTALS
These materials are excited by natural and artificial light, and by radiation from radioactive
substances.
Market presence, very high brilliance and intensity of colour, short excitement time, very
long afterglow (several hours), versatile range of applications, resistance to particular
chemicals and very high temperatures, available in small quantities.
Expensive compared to zinc sulphide crystals or magnesium sulphide crystals.
iahliahk^l\^g\^7ikh]n\ml
The first phosphorescent products were timepieces and instruments that were mainly used by
the military. Dial faces and hands were given a luminous coating that normally contained radio-
active substances. Until 1950 this was mainly radium-226, while from 1950 cheaper strontium-
90 and yttrium-90 were used, which resulted in wrist complaints due to beta radiation. Today,
for the manufacturing of phosphorescent products the above-mentioned zinc sulphide, magne-
sium sulphide and alkaline earth aluminate crystals are used. They have been developed for a
wide range of applications and are mature products on the market.
In architecture there is particular interest in the following products involving phosphorescent
inorganic pigments, some of which can be applied directly to walls, for example, or which can
be processed into further products:
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Phosphorescent glass blocks (Veluna). |
Phosphorescent glass tiles (Onda) by
day and at night.
119 | phosphorescence
120 | light-emitting smart materials
Paints containing phosphorescent inorganic pigments:
PHOSPHORESCENT DISPERSION-BASED PAINTS
They can be applied by brush, roller or spray to surfaces such as wood, plastic, textiles,
paper, cardboard, concrete and masonry.
High flexibility, good adhesion.
Limited lightfastness.
PHOSPHORESCENT PAINTS BASED ON TWO-COMPONENT ACRYLATE-BASED PAINT
They can be applied by brush, roller or spray to surfaces such as metal, wood and glass.
Good resistance to mechanical loads, good adhesion, good dirt resistance, simple to
clean, resistance to wear with an additional protective lacquer.
Limited lightfastness.
General recommendations for use:
The luminous effect depends not only on the pigment used but also considerably on the
concentration, application surface, coating thickness and the colour of the substrate. The
abrasion resistance of the paint can be enhanced by the application of a transparent
protective lacquer.
FILMS
Laminate comprising a white primer, the phosphorescent layer and a UV-stabilised
transparent finishing coat.
Can be used in low to medium temperature ranges (–40°C to +80°C), available in various
luminous intensities and film thicknesses.
Limited lightfastness (outside), limited choice of colour (predominantly green).
Granulates containing persistently phosphorescent inorganic pigments:
GRANULATES (COMPOUNDS, ENCAPSULATED MASTER BATCHES) BASED ON POLYETHYL
VINYL ACETATE
They can be incorporated into various thermoplastics such as PE, PP, PVC, PES, ABS, PA,
PC, PMMA, duroplastics such as PES, PUR and amino plastics, and heated for casting or
injection moulding into various shapes.
High excitement sensitivity, very long persistence, can be used in low to medium
temperature ranges (–40°C to +80°C), largely lightfast (outside), accurate batching, can
be processed with other thermoplastic-based granulates.
Limited choice of colour (predominantly green).
Complex three-dimensional shapes, which could be of particular interest in wall claddings,
can be manufactured using compounds or master batches capable of being heated.
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++
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++
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++
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Currently available or developed
products useful in architecture include:
RAW OR END PRODUCTS
INORGANIC PIGMENTS from e.g.
zinc sulphide crystals
PAINTS containing phosphorescent
inorganic pigments
GRANULATES containing phosphorescent
inorganic pigments
THREADS containing phosphorescent
inorganic pigments
INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS
PAPER with e.g. phosphorescent
inorganic pigments
FILMS with e.g. phosphorescent
inorganic inks
CONCRETE with e.g. phosphorescent
inorganic pigments
GLASS with e.g. phosphorescent
inorganic pigments
PLASTICS with e.g. phosphorescent
inorganic pigments (e.g. polycarbonate panels)
FABRICS with e.g. phosphorescent threads
FABRICS incorporating metal with e.g.
phosphorescent threads
Footway covering with phosphorescent glass fragments and
other luminescent components: Maya Mountain Street, Kobe,
Kirakira-Komichi. | Paper with green phosphorescent pigments:
Phos-Licht-Papier, Anke Neumann. | opposite: Phosphorescent
pavement.
Threads with phosphorescent inorganic pigments:
POLYACRYL-BASED WOOL (WOOL YARN)
They can be processed manually and by machine into various textile fabrics.
Can be processed like ordinary wool and with other types of wool.
Limited lightfastness.
POLYESTER-BASED YARNS (SEWING YARNS, SPUN YARNS)
They can be processed manually and by machine to form various textile fabrics and seams.
Can be processed like ordinary yarn and with other types of yarn.
Limited lightfastness.
With suitable yarns, phosphorescent textile fabrics such as curtains, roller blinds, vertical
blinds, wall coverings or room dividers can be manufactured. Wool yarns can be used e.g. in
carpets, seating or textile wall coverings.
iahliahk^l\^g\^7ikhc^\ml
Phosphorescent paints are currently mainly used in architecture for safety-related applications,
like marking escape routes with directional arrows or as a visibility aid on the front edges of
stairs. By the use of appropriate materials and products in their projects, for example in spatial
installations, artists, and increasingly designers and architects, are confronting the wider public
with more than the conventional applications.
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121 | phosphorescence
122 | light-emitting smart materials
Ruth Handschin, Germany
Light installation | Hotel Teufelhof, Basel, Switzerland
(1994)
At the Teufelhof Hotel in Basel, Monica and Dominique
Thommy-Kneschaurek seek to provide a gastronomic as well
as a cultural experience to their guests. In addition to the
gastronomy area there is a theatre, a “gallery hotel,” and an
„art hotel“. In the latter each one of the eight rooms is made
into a walk-in work of art. The rooms are completely rede-
signed roughly every three years. For the redesign in July and
August 1994 the artist Ruth Handschin provided one of the
rooms with various light drawings, turning it into a Leucht-
zimmer (Luminous Room).
The drawings were created using a mixture of fluorescent
and phosphorescent pigments, which were applied as paint
with an acrylic binder in thin lines on the ceiling, wall and
floor. The large format motifs depict the outlines of leaves
and extend over several surfaces. By the addition of various
types of luminescent pigments the motifs emit light both
day and night. They use the ultraviolet radiation contained
in natural light over the day, and at night give up, after a de-
lay, the natural and/or artificial light taken in during the
day.
Leuchtzimmer: luminous drawings by day. | Luminous drawings at night.
EnfbghnlKhhf
Polysmart materials | Monosmart application
Light-emitting smart materials:
PAINT WITH FLUORESCENT AND PHOSPHORESCENT
PIGMENTS
Fluorescent and phosphorescent wall, ceiling and floor
surfaces
Juliet Quintero, Great Britain
Luminous wallpaper | Great Britain (2004)
“Everything around her was different. The house, the coun-
tryside, the people. She had entered a fairytale world that
would become more and more real for her”.
Alice in Wonderland was the unusual design theme of Juliet
Quintero, who in 2004 studied with Jonathan Hill at the Bar-
tlett School of Architecture, UCL, London. Equally unusual
was the material that was to contribute to the transforma-
tion of her work, which was called “Alice’s House”: sugar.
Everything possible in “Alice’s House” was to be made com-
pletely or in part from sugar: the walls, the wallpaper, the
panes of glass, the curtains, the mirror. It was to be left to
change over time in the London mist, smog, rain and/or light
and in this way undergo a transformation. Instead of tradi-
tional building materials, the artificial stone was made out
of caramelised sugar and the glass from invert sugar. Cur-
tains were given more materiality by stiffening and thus be-
came more immediate. This was achieved by filling the sewn
curtain materials with sugar, which was then crystallised out
by moistening and drying.
Filigree Wallpaper is based on a wallpaper design by William
Morris. The paint was a sugar solution made of egg white
mixed with royal icing sugar, hot water and phosphorescent
pigments, which was applied to a sheet of glass following
the wallpaper pattern. Contrary to expectations, the addition
of pigments and the egg white component did not have any
moisture-stabilising effect. The sugar component did not
lose its inherent hygroscopic property, which means the
paint has remained extremely sensitive so that Filigree Wall-
paper is mainly suitable for interiors and the paint for indoor
application.
The properties of the added phosphorescent pigments on
the other hand were successfully preserved: Filigree Wallpa-
per luminesced after 15 minutes of excitement by natural
light.
Filigree Wallpaper by day and at night.
123 | phosphorescence
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Monosmart material | Monosmart application
Light-emitting smart material:
PAINT (SUGAR SOLUTION) WITH PHOSPHORESCENT
PIGMENTS
Phosphorescent wall surface
Hannaliisa Hailahti, Finland
Luminous fabric | Finland (2005)
Finnish designer Hannaliisa Hailahti developed a fine lumi-
nous fabric made from phosphorescent and metallic silver
reflective threads. The designer sought a vision for energy-
autonomous lighting elements with the aim of creating a
more appealing nocturnal atmosphere and allowing safe
movement around the house at night without the use of fur-
ther light sources; at the same time she wanted to avoid
complete darkness.
In the dark, the light emitted from the phosphorescent
threads is reflected by the adjacent metallic threads to in-
crease the luminous effect. The bending stiffness of the met-
al allows the fabric to be hand-formed into different shapes.
Depending on the cut and the dimensions, this kind of fabric
can be used as lights, room dividers or curtains.
Shush as an unfolded room divider at night and closed by day. |
Shush as a luminous source.
124 | light-emitting smart materials
LANLAgb`ameb`aml
Monosmart material | Monosmart application
Light-emitting smart material:
MIXED FABRIC WITH PHOSPHORESCENT THREADS
Phosphorescent lights, room dividers and curtains
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eb`am&^fbmmbg`]bh]^l!E>="7fZm^kbZel
Injection electroluminescence is the fundamental principle behind semiconductor light sources
such as light-emitting diodes (LED), in which the charge carriers are introduced from outside
by a so-called injection current and light is emitted by the recombination of electrons and
holes.
Doped gallium arsenide acts as the lumninescent material in LEDs. It is embedded between
two electrodes which are encapsulated by light-transparent plastic to separate them from their
surroundings. For a long time only red, yellow and green LEDs were available, but with the de-
velopment of blue LEDs, which has only recently extended the range of possible light colours,
now even white LEDs can be produced by combinations of different light colours.
French scientist Georges Destriau discovered electroluminescence (EL) as early as 1936. It re-
mained in the laboratory however until the late 1960s. The aim had been to develop an alterna-
tive to incandescent bulbs as a light source; this was not an initial success.
Electroluminescent materials or components in the field of injection electroluminescence
include:
INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Doped gallium arsenide, other gallium compounds.
The following is currently of interest to architecture:
DOPED GALLIUM ARSENIDE
This semiconductor is doped with different metals. The method used for production,
crystal growth, is expensive.
Market presence, many years of practical use, high brilliance and intensity of colour, in
its encapsulated version free of toxic substances, versatile range of applications;
depending on type, resistance to particular chemicals and high temperatures, also
available in small quantities.
Only manufactured by a few specialist factories, limited number of available light colours.
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ELECTROLUMINESCENT SMART MATERIALS >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
An optical phenomenon in which a molecule emits light
due to the effect of the electrons in an electrical field.
Based on the current stage of development electrolumi-
nescence can be differentiated as follows:
INJECTION ELECTROLUMINESCENCE
POWDER ELECTROLUMINESCENCE
THIN FILM ELECTROLUMINESCENCE
THICK FILM ELECTROLUMINESCENCE
POLYMER-/SMALL MOLECULE
ELECTROLUMINESCENCE
Materials and products from the field of injection-, thick
film- and polymer-/small molecule electroluminescence
are considered in detail below. The latter are currently
in the market introduction phase.
125 | injection electroluminescence | light-emitting diodes (LED)
126 | light-emitting smart materials
2 W high output LEDs | RGB multi-LED. | High output LEDs with
optical lenses. | Complex arrangement of light sources formed
with several LEDs for a car. | Lamp with high output LED. |
Colour-on-demand LED. | opposite: LEDs in plastic housing
(Solarbrick). | LEDs in glass. | Facade with LEDs in plastic
housings in combination with solar cells: South Korea. | LEDs in
metal mesh (Mediamesh) | Highrise facade with LEDs in and
before stainless steel mesh (Mediamesh and Illumesh): project by
Benjamin Romana.
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eb`am&^fbmmbg`]bh]^l!E>="7ikh]n\ml
The first use of light-emitting diodes (LED) was in electronic devices, where for many years they
were utilized for function control and operational data displays. Today the aim is to restrict the
number of LEDs in applications where previously a high number of LEDs had been used, such
as in cars, which often had up to 200 LEDs. This is done by using a single or a few centralised
light sources with connected flexible fibre-optic cables to illuminate the various positions.
In a manner similar to fibre-optic cables, glass or transparent plastic panels, e.g. PMMA, are
used for illumination; with these techniques LEDs attached to the end faces direct their light
into the main faces of the panels. This arrangement avoids any impression of point light
sources, which would be the case with LEDs incorporated into the main panel faces. Taking the
opposite approach, by arranging the LEDs densely in the main face in relation to the viewing
distance and having individual control of each LED, combinations of various colours of LED
can produce coloured or even white moving film sequences comparable to television pictures.
In recent times this application has become increasingly popular as a replacement for conven-
tional large projected images, e.g. in the entertainment field.
Depending on their different output classes LED can be categorised as:
STANDARD LED
These LEDs can be soldered or inserted into circuit boards or clamped or screwed to
electrically conductive substrates, cables etc.
Comparatively long replacement life, comparatively low power consumption, versatile
range of applications, generally resistant to particular chemicals and high temperatures,
also available in small quantities, comparatively inexpensive.
No ability to illuminate areas, limited number of available light colours.
If necessary, the luminous effect can be increased by the use of lenses etc. Where there is
restricted room for installation, small diameter light-transmitting glass or plastic can be
placed in front of the LEDs. Special LEDs are available for use outdoors.
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Currently available or developed products useful
in architecture include:
RAW OR END PRODUCTS
STANDARD LEDs
HIGH OUTPUT LEDs
RGB multi-LEDs
COLOUR-ON-DEMAND LEDs
INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS
GLASS with LEDs
GLASS with LEDs in combination with solar cells
METAL FABRIC with LEDs
PLASTIC FABRIC with LEDs
HIGH OUTPUT LED
As they have been developed for a wide range of applications, they are available with a
number of different connection types. They can be used in architecture wherever high light
output is required and the necessary electrical energy is available.
Can provide up to 100 times the light output of standard LEDs.
Cannot be used everywhere, comparatively expensive.
Several LEDs are combined into one unit for particular applications. They can be supplied in
modules, clusters etc. and fitted with optical lenses for combining the emitted light, for
example.
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eb`am&^fbmmbg`]bh]^l!E>="7ikhc^\ml
Standard light-emitting diodes (LED) are finding increasing use in architecture. Ultraflat LEDs
integrated into glass panes that can be supplied with electricity through almost invisible cable-
ways are used for illuminating transparent balustrades, banisters, room dividers etc.
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127 | injection electroluminescence | light-emitting diodes (LED)
128 | light-emitting smart materials
CLOUD 9, Spain
Light-kinetic curtain-wall facade | Hotel Habitat H&R, Barcelona,
Spain (2007)
“Your room in a tree” is the concept for a new hotel to be completed in the
Hospitalet district of Barcelona by 2007. The future guests and staff will
enjoy the benefits of an artificial forest of leaves that forms the external skin
of the new Hotel Habitat H&R. The building, designed by Spanish architect
Ruiz-Geli and his CLOUD 9 practice with other partners, consists of a com-
paratively simple highrise with a conventional glass facade, which is covered
with a stainless steel mesh on which a multitude of artificial leaves with
electronics are attached.
Placed at a distance of 57 cm apart, each of these 5000 25 cm diameter
leaves is fitted with a solar cell. The electrical current created during the day
is stored temporarily in an accumulator and directed to one-, two- or three-
RGB LEDs at night by a processor (CPU). The processor analyses the state
of charge of the accumulator and the energy consumption of the LEDs, and
controls the duration of illumination appropriately for one, two or three
LEDs. By using LED combinations, a total of seven colours can be created:
in addition to the standard colours red, green and blue achieved by switching
on the appropriate single LED in each case, combinations of two LEDs pro-
duce the colours magenta, yellow and cyan, while switching on all three LEDs
gives a white light.
Depending on the season and the energetic conditions, at night the building
skin will change automatically by putting on illuminated clothes of different
colours.
Hotel Habitat H&R: illustration of general view.
Ahm^eAZ[bmZmAK
Polysmart materials | Monosmart application
Light-emitting smart materials:
METAL FABRIC WITH LED, SOLAR CELLS
Colour and light changes dependent on light and software
129 | injection electroluminescence | light-emitting diodes (LED)
Hotel Habitat H&R: illuminated model. | Partial view of model. | Prototype of an artificial
leaf with solar cell, RGB LEDs, processor and accumulator. | Basic colours of artificial
leaves (red, green, blue and white).
130 | light-emitting smart materials
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enfbg^l\^gmfZm^kbZel!>E"7fZm^kbZel
Thick film electroluminescence is a possible principle of operation for in most cases flat light
sources made from electroluminescent material (EL). It is based on the interaction of several
functional layers. The thickness of the light-emitting layer, also called the emitter layer, is much
thicker than that used in thin film technology. When an electrical field is applied, the deposited
luminous pigment (phosphorus) is excited and emits a cold light. EL films and EL cables are
two of the products developed from this technology.
ELs or components in the field of thick film electroluminescence include:
INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Doped zinc sulphide.
The following are currently of interest to architecture:
DOPED ZINC SULPHIDE
This is a semiconductor doped with different metals to create different colours of light,
which can be applied to plastic and glass.
Market presence, years of practical use, also available in small quantities, comparatively
inexpensive.
A relatively high alternating current is required, limited number of available light colours.
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enfbg^l\^gmfZm^kbZel!>E"7ikh]n\ml
Unlike those based on thin film technology, thick film technology products have established
themselves on the market, although their design principle is virtually identical. Both mix the
luminescent pigments with a transparent, organic or ceramic binder. To apply an electrical field
to the top (layer) a very thin transparent, electrically conductive metal layer is used as a front
electrode and an electrically conductive metal layer as the back electrode. The construction is
the same as a capacitor, which is why they are also called luminescence diodes.
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EL cable. | EL film. | EL ink
printed on speedometer.
Originally in competition with the incandescent light bulbs, which as well as emitting visible
light convert the majority of the absorbed energy into heat and like LEDs provide a point source
of light, they were developed first as luminescent film, also called EL film, which emits cold
area light from its surface. Later came electroluminescent material (EL) strips and EL cables,
which were developed using the same principle. An important advantage over incandescent light
bulbs is that by using suitably flexible layer components even curved substrates can be clad
with appropriate products.
EL products are used for backlighting LCD displays, as liquid crystals cannot emit light them-
selves. Further areas of application include luminous advertising boards, safety-related prod-
ucts etc.
The following are of current and future interest to architecture:
EL FILM
One-sided and double-sided luminous films are available. They can be used on flat and on
curved substrates and can be attached mechanically or by adhesives. One variant is EL
strip.
Comparatively long replacement life, comparatively low power consumption, versatile
fields of application, generally resistant to moisture and high temperatures (< –20°C to
> +50°C), some resistance to UV light, also available in small quantities, comparatively
inexpensive, can be customised in various ways, infinitely dimmable, can be operated
using low voltages, light, unbreakable, smooth flicker-free luminous surfaces, impact
resistance, very short reaction times.
Alternating current supply required, additional electronics required, cannot be bent to
shape.
Film can be cut with scissors to create complex luminous shapes without affecting functional-
ity. The electricity supply electronics must be suitably adjusted to volume of power consump-
tion and size of the luminous surface area.
EL CABLE
They can be attached to surfaces by staples, adhesives or by sewing.
Comparatively long replacement life, can be used in low to medium temperatures
(< –20°C to > +50°C), 360° light emission, comparatively high mechanical loading
capacity, available up to 250m long.
Alternating current supply required, additional electronics required, cannot be bent to
shape.
The general recommendations for use are those for EL film.
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Currently available or developed products
useful in architecture include:
RAW OR END PRODUCTS
EL FILM, EL STRIP
EL CABLE
EL INKS, PRINTING INKS
INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS
PAPER with EL CABLES
FABRIC with EL PRINT
PANELS with EL PRINT
METAL FABRIC with EL CABLES
131 | thick film electroluminescence | electroluminescent materials (EL)
132 | light-emitting smart materials
EL INKS
Can be applied to various surfaces using printing techniques, usually the silk-screen
printing process.
Can be used in low to medium temperatures (< –20°C to > +50°C) and for comparatively
complex luminous surfaces.
Specialist manufacture necessary.
mab\dÖef^e^\mkhenfbg^l\^g\^u^e^\mkh&
enfbg^l\^gmfZm^kbZel!>E"7ikhc^\ml
The first architectural use of electroluminescent material (EL) elements was in 1957. 112 square
luminous surfaces were built into a model room. Glass and other materials were used in the
panels. Evidence that such panels were already commercially available is to be found in an arti-
cle in the German magazine Hobby – Das Magazin der Technik ([12]) entitled: “...und es leuchten
die Wände” (and the walls provide the light). The walls were made from sheet metal and porce-
lain; phosphorus crystals were used as the luminous medium.
EL films are currently used in architecture in interiors and exteriors. Although they are now
mass-produced and the available dimensions have continuously increased, currently the only
way to create relatively large luminous surfaces is by grouping several smaller EL films together.
Uses for EL films and EL strips include large format displays in public areas, luminous floor
coverings, e.g. in television studios and in works of art.
EL cable can be used to create shapes and edges on buildings or for creating linear features on
luminous surfaces or luminous pictures on facades.
EL inks offer the architect a lot of possibilities. They can, for example, be applied using the
silk-screen printing process as a coloured pattern to facade elements. The images can be creat-
ed on a personal computer or scanned.
++
−−
Model room with EL panels from 1957. |
Illustration of the “Electron lights” (1957) |
Paper with EL strips: Ellum-Lichtpapier,
Anke Neumann.
Loop.pH Ltd. – Rachel Wingfield, Mathias Gmachl,
Great Britain
Light-kinetic room dividers | Great Britain (2004)
The work Blumen (Flowers) by designers Rachel Wingfield
and Mathias Gmachl at their company Loop.pH Ltd. in Lon-
don shows how traditional decorative floral patterns can be
used in conjunction with EL technology for the development
of innovative room dividers.
The room dividers, which were first developed as functional
technology demonstrators, consist of several similar shaped,
wide, textile louvres suspended from the ceiling. They are
arranged side by side to open in a space-saving manner in
their own guide rails.
The pattern consists of a four-part leaf motif that, when re-
flected eight times, forms a square basic shape and is ar-
ranged in a larger square pattern, which in its turn, depend-
ing on the desired louvre dimensions, can be extended by
simply adding more patterns to the sides or above and below.
The pattern was made to luminesce by an electrolumines-
cent ink, which was applied to the textile using a special
inkjet printer. Thin electrical wire, different in colour and
made to surround the individual patterned areas ornamen-
tally, allows each area to be individually supplied with cur-
rent and hence controlled.
With specially developed software the room dividers can be
designed to react to various stimuli depending on the char-
acteristics of the sensors used. It would be possible for ex-
ample to have room dividers in which a varying number of
areas would luminesce, depending on the current state of
light conditions. With the right control system the patterned
areas could illuminate to create their own patterns.
Blumen room divider with a section of pattern (technology
demonstrator). | Detailed photograph of Blumen room divider. |
Partial, pattern-forming illumination of individual patterned
areas.
133 | thick film electroluminescence | electroluminescent materials (EL)
?ehp^kl
Monosmart material | Monosmart application
Light-emitting smart material:
FABRIC WITH EL PRINT
Illuminations depending on light and software
134 | light-emitting smart materials
Loop.pH Ltd. – Rachel Wingfield, Mathias Gmachl, Great
Britain
Light installation | York Art Gallery, London, Great Britain
(2005-2010)
This light installation, on display since October 2005 and in-
tended to last for five years at the York Art Gallery in London,
during the night converts the local weather events into visual
effects on the building, where they can be witnessed by pas-
sers-by. It demonstrates the combination of traditional
shapes with contemporary display technology based on
electroluminescence. Five horizontally aligned display pan-
els are placed in the recesses of the narrow false windows
in the upper storey of the art gallery facade, above the en-
trance to the classical Italian Renaissance-style building.
Each of the displays consists of a panel printed with elec-
troluminescent inks and encapsulated between a sheet of
hardened glass and a mirror. To visualise the different weath-
er conditions an ornamental-looking, square weather map
was designed in which, according to the sensory data provid-
ed, concentric spiral-shaped areas can be switched on and
off by a computer programmed with specially developed
software.
Weather data is collected by a compact weather station; in
this case a Davis-Vantage Pro2 with sensors for atmospheric
pressure, temperature, humidity, rainfall as well as wind
speed and direction. It is positioned on the portico roof over
the entrance.
The aim of this installation is to draw the nocturnal passer-
by’s attention, by means of the aesthetic and kinematic of
the light patterns, to the global warming caused by Man.
Weather Patterns: complete pattern. | Different sections of
pattern that can be activated. | Possible patterns depend on the
weather conditions. | Weather Patterns by day and at night.
P^Zma^kIZmm^kgl
Monosmart material | Monosmart application
Light-emitting smart material:
PANELS WITH EL PRINT
Illuminations depending on light and software
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Organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) are normally manufactured as flat LEDs based on organic,
semiconductor polymers, or small molecules, which like the latter emit cold light by the absorp-
tion of electrons.
Depending on the components used, organic LEDs manufactured with polymers are given the
abbreviation PLEDs or POLEDs, and those OLEDs manufactured with small molecules the ab-
breviations SOLEDs or SMOLEDs. OLEDs with particular flexibility or those in which phospho-
rescent components are used are sometimes also called FOLEDs or PHOLEDs respectively.
OLEDs generally consist of several functional layers placed one upon the other. The bottom
layer, e.g. a glass plate, acts as a substrate to carry the layers above it. On this goes the anode,
e.g. indium tin oxide (ITO). On top of this follows the hole transport layer (HTL). Another layer
may be applied between the ITO and the HTL layers. In some cases this layer may be used to
produce a smooth surface. On top of the HTL layer there is another layer, known as the emitter
layer (EL), which is formed with a small amount of pigment (approx. 5% to 10%) or may consist
of 100% pigment. On top of this comes the electron transport layer (ETL), on which a cathode
of e.g. calcium or aluminium is deposited. Finally a covering layer is applied, e.g. a glass
plate.
Application of an electrical field causes the pigment in the emitter layer, where positive and
negative charges meet (known as the recombination layer), to be excited and emit white or col-
oured cold light, depending on the pigment used.
The first designs for OLEDs were produced in the USA, where an international photographic
company submitted the first patent application in the 1980s. The patent application was for
organic luminous diodes based on small molecules deposited in a vacuum (SMOLED). In 1990,
electroluminescence was discovered in polymers and OLEDs were then also made using Cam-
bridge Display Technology processes, in which long-chain polymers are applied by rotation
coating or pressure coating on to an electrode (POLED). Since then there have been numerous
developments of OLEDs mainly in the USA, Japan and Germany. Today sees the two technolo-
gies in competition with each other.
Schematic representation of the construction of
a SMOLED and a POLED.
135 | polymer / small molecule electroluminescence | organic light-emitting diodes (OLED)
Transport layer
Emitting layer
Transport layer
electron transport layer
metal cathode
glass substrate
transparent conductor (ITO)
hole transport layer
emitting layer
Transport layer
Transport layer
Emitting layer
NOVALED innovative
technology:
Doped OLED
structures with
in-house developed
materials
136 | light-emitting smart materials
Materials and components generally used for SMOLEDs include among others:
SMALL MOLECULES
E.g. aluminium-tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq
3
), aluminium-tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq
3
) +
polymer.
Materials and components generally used for POLEDs include among others:
ORGANIC, SEMICONDUCTING POLYMERS
E.g. polyphenylenvinylene (PPV), polythiophene and polyfluorene (green, red and blue
fluorescent pigments).
INORGANIC-ORGANIC, SEMICONDUCTING POLYMERS
Metal-organic complexes (phosphorescent pigments).
The following are of interest to architecture:
ALUMINIUM-TRIS(8-HYDROXYQUINOLINE) (ALQ
3
)
Organic semiconductors, suitable for the manufacture of colour displays and light sources,
can be applied to various substrates such as glass and plastic.
Market presence, many years of practical use, relatively good optical properties, low
electrical voltage required (e.g. 3V to 5V).
Relatively expensive manufacturing process under vacuum conditions and therefore
comparatively expensive to use.
POLYPHENYLENVINYLENE (PPV), POLYTHIOPHENE, POLYFLUORENE
Organic semiconductor polymers luminescent in RGB colours, suitable for the manufacture
of colour displays and light sources, can be applied to various substrates such as glass
and plastic.
Market presence, many years of practical use, relatively good photoconductivity and
electroluminescence, low electrical voltage required (e.g. 3V to 5V).
Limited number of available luminous colours.
++
−−
++
−−
Green and red crystals as p- and n-dopants for the manufacture
of SMOLEDs.
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As the principle of this type of electroluminescence is comparatively new and still has a certain
number of weak points, like the in many cases inadequate long-term stability for some colours
and its moisture susceptibility, there are only a few products available on the market in series
production. Its many advantages, such as emitting area light unlike LEDs, the lack of need for
backlighting unlike LCDs, and the greater possible luminance (brightness) compared with EL
film, have meant that this technology has made steps to establish itself in numerous areas, on
the one hand as a replacement for conventional electroluminescent products and on the other
in the development of new applications.
In the consumer sector in particular, suitable displays are already on the market for small port-
able electronic devices like MP3 players and mobile telephones. With reference to larger display
dimensions, a Japanese manufacturer has already introduced the first device with a 40 inch
(diagonal) screen to the public, but it will still require some years of development work before
it is ready for the market and has a consumer-friendly price tag.
In 2005, as a result of cooperation between two German companies in the automobile sector,
a small lighting unit for use in automobiles was presented at the international automobile exhi-
bition in Frankfurt (IAA).
The following products with organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) are of current and future inter-
est to architecture:
NON-FLEXIBLE OLED DISPLAYS
Available as SMOLEDs and POLEDs. Glass is one of the materials that can be used as a
substrate. They can be applied to smooth surfaces, in housings etc., either attached
mechanically or by adhesive and are currently available in 0.9, 1.2 and 1.6 inch diagonal
sizes.
Market presence, can be used in low to medium temperature ranges (< –20°C to
> +80°C), driven by low voltages, relatively low power consumption, dimmable, limited UV
light resistance, smooth and flicker-free luminous surface, relatively large viewing angle
(e.g. 160°), limited impact resistance, very short reaction times.
Relatively sensitive to moisture, varying durability of pigment, relatively short life
compared with LCD displays, no illumination of the edge of the display, therefore an
edge cover is required, cannot be bent.
++
−−
Technology by Novaled: white-light-emitting SMOLED display. |
Coloured-light-emitting SMOLED displays. | Technology by Osram
Opto Semiconductors: coloured-light-emitting POLED displays.
137 | polymer/small molecule electroluminescence | organic light-emitting diodes (OLED)
138 | light-emitting smart materials
FLEXIBLE OLED DISPLAYS (E.G. TECHNOLOGY BY FRAUNHOFER INSTITUTE FOR APPLIED
POLYMER RESEARCH)
Available as SMOLEDs and POLEDs. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is one of the
materials that can be used as a substrate.
Can be attached mechanically or by adhesive to curved or flexible substrates, e.g. three-
dimensional curved membranes, unbreakable, otherwise as above.
Lack of market presence, very small bevels or folds not possible; otherwise as above.
NON- AND SEMITRANSPARENT OLED LIGHT SOURCES (E.G. TECHNOLOGY BY OSRAM
OPTO SEMICONDUCTORS)
Limited availability as SMOLEDs and POLEDs. Glass is one of the materials that can be
used as a substrate. They can have their own housings, frames etc., therefore can stand
alone or be attached mechanically or by adhesives to smooth substrates such as walls or
ceilings. Light sources were developed as technology demonstrators, which were made up
of several tiles (SMOLEDs) in a 2 inch x 3 inch (approx. 5 cm x 7.6 cm) format.
As above.
Lack of market presence, relatively short life (approx. 3000 hours), relatively low
brightness (250 Cd/m², or 400 Cd/m² in future) compared with conventional light
sources, edge cover required, cannot be bent or curved.
TRANSPARENT OLED LIGHT SOURCE (E.G. TECHNOLOGY BY NOVALED)
Technology demonstrators based on SMOLEDs. Glass is one of the materials that can be
used as a substrate. They can have their own housings, frames etc., therefore can stand
alone or be attached mechanically or by adhesives to smooth substrates such as walls or
ceilings or into housings.
Can be used in low to medium temperature ranges (< –20°C to > +80°C), relatively long
replacement life (approx. 5000 to 200 000 hours, depending on the application),
relatively high brightness possible (< 100 Cd/m² to > 5000 Cd/m², depending on the
application).
Lack of market presence, edge cover required, cannot be bent or curved, cannot be
processed, e.g. cut, like conventional glass or EL films.
Several displays can be placed adjacent to one another to create large and/or curved surfaces.
The non-luminous edge zones can result in unwanted blank areas. Temporary reduction of the
output, e.g. by dimming the light, can increase the life of the display.
++
−−
++
−−
++
−−
Currently available or developed products useful
in architecture include:
RAW OR END PRODUCTS
Flexible displays using OLEDs (e.g. POLEDs)
Light sources (small) using OLEDs (e.g. SMOLEDs)
INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS
Light sources (large) using OLEDs (SMOLEDs)
Transparent light sources/day-night window using
OLEDs (SMOLEDs)
Emergency lighting using OLEDs (SMOLEDs)
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Due to the fact that currently few products incorporating organic light-emitting diodes (OLED)
for use in architecture are available on the market, until now only a limited number of applica-
tions have been realised and given publicity. OLEDs are of particular interest as area light
sources. Comparatively small light sources with uses such as emergency lighting are among
the first products that will be available in the foreseeable future. Currently, development is tak-
ing place of a so-called day-night window based on small molecule technology, which allows
natural sunlight to enter by day and serves as an artificial light source at night.
Technology by Osram Opto Semiconductors:
technology demonstrator of an OLED light
source consisting of two white-light-emitting
tiles. | Technology by Novaled: technology
demonstrator of a transparent OLED light
source. | Weakly and strongly luminous
examples. | opposite: Technology by Fraunhofer
Institute for Applied Polymer Research:
technology demonstrator of a flexible POLED
display.
139 | polymer/small molecule electroluminescence | organic light-emitting diodes (OLED)
140 | light-emitting smart materials
Kieran Timberlake Associates, USA
Pavilion with polyvalent building skin | Cooper Hewitt National Design
Museum, New York, USA (2003)
SmartWrap is the name of an innovative, polyvalent building skin which, on
the basis of a newly developed transfer technology, it is expected to open
up new possibilites for the industrial and cost-efficient use of smart materi-
als in the future. In New York a pavilion was designed to demonstrate its
components and technology; this construction formed the main exhibition
piece of the August 2003 SOLOS exhibition at the Cooper Hewitt National
Design Museum.
SmartWrap was developed as a two-layer coating system by Kieran Timber-
lake Associates, an architectural practice based in Philadelphia, Pennsylva-
nia, in conjunction with students and partner companies. While the outside
layer forming the external facade skin consists of a transparent, elastic poly-
ethylene terephthalate (PET), on which different electronic smart materials
can be applied by rolling and printing, the inside room-forming layer mainly
supports thermal insulation and heat storage materials.
SmartWrap will allow future building skins to appear on the market that will
have all the components required to convert and manage solar radiation. The
external skin is fitted with organic photovoltaic cells (OPV) to collect and
convert sunlight, with thin film batteries to store electrical energy, with con-
ductive, printed circuits and organic thin film transistors (OTFT) for distrib-
uting the electricity and for controlling functions, with polymer-based OLEDs
for lighting and electronic displays, and with chromatic solar protection for
controlling the transmission of light and heat.
Adjacent to the outer skin there is a permanent thermally insulative layer of
air, which is formed with the help of the offset inner skin, in which are incor-
porated by means of pockets a thermally insulative aerogel and latent heat
storage, the latter in the form of phase change material (PCM).
In the pavilion only a small section of the building skin was fitted with the
innovative layer system. The larger part simulated the possible appearance
of SmartWrap using a printed PET film.
Polysmart materials | Polysmart application
Light-emitting and heat-storing smart materials:
FILM WITH ORGANIC LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES (OLED), WITH
ORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS (OPV); FILM WITH PHASE CHANGE
MATERIALS (PCM)
LfZkmPkZi
SmartWrap: view into the pavilion. | Preprinted roll machine. | View between the room-forming layer
with PCM and facade-forming layer with OLEDs, thin film batteries and organic photovoltaic cells. |
Building skin with SmartWrap, simulated with a printed PET film. | Night view.
141 | polymer/small molecule electroluminescence | organic light-emitting diodes (OLED)
Electricity-generating smart materials include materials and products that are able to generate
an electric current with a connected consumer (e.g. a resistance load) in response to one or
more stimuli from outside influences, the effect of light, or changes in temperature and/or
pressure.
The currently available electricity-generating smart materials can be differentiated according
to their triggering stimuli as follows:
PHOTOELECTRIC SMART MATERIALS
After the connection of a consumer these materials generate an electric current when excited
by the effect of light (electromagnetic energy).
THERMOELECTRIC (PYROELECTRIC) SMART MATERIALS
After the connection of a consumer these materials generate an electric current when
excited by the effect of temperature (thermal energy).
PIEZOELECTRIC SMART MATERIALS
After the connection of a consumer these materials generate an electric current when
excited by the effect of compression or tension (mechanical energy).
CHEMOELECTRIC SMART MATERIALS
After the connection of a consumer these materials generate an electric current when excited
by the effect of a chemical environment (chemical energy).
Piezoelectric smart materials are inverse smart materials. They are able to generate electric
charges from the effect of compression or tension, and in reverse change their shape on appli-
cation of an electrical field. Both effects are discussed extensively in the following sections and
hence they are omitted from the chapter on electroactive smart materials (pp. 66ff.).
Chemical elements that for example consist of different noble metals and depend on the pres-
ence of an electrolyte such as salt water in order to generate an electric current are not classed
as chemoelectric smart materials. As the less noble electrodes in these elements dissolve over
time (“sacrificial electrodes”), they will not be dealt with any further here.
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MATscape: detail of building skin with wind
quills on the north side that are connected to
piezoelectric cells.
143 | dye solar cells (DSC)
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Dye solar cells (DSC) are layer composites in which dyes among others are used as components
that generate an electric current with a connected consumer by the absorption of light (elec-
tromagnetic radiation). They are also known as Grätzel cells (named after the Swiss developer
of the basic technology), photo-electrochemical solar cells or nano solar cells (the latter name
refers to the dimensions of the semiconductor component normally used, titanium dioxide
TiO
2
) (also see titanium dioxide (TiO
2
), pp. 100ff.).
In principle, DSCs consist of several functional layers placed one upon the other: a transparent
anode, commonly tin oxide, is deposited on a supporting first substrate layer such as glass. A
paste of TiO
2
, perhaps only a few microns thick, is screen-printed and baked on top of the tin
oxide to form a nanocrystalline semiconductor layer. After this comes the coating of the TiO
2
,
e.g. by dipping, with a light-absorbing dye, and an electrolyte layer, which may be an iodine solu-
tion, with a layer of e.g. platinum or graphite, which acts as a catalyst. The final layer is a sub-
strate layer with a prefitted transparent electrode.
The development of the DSC goes back to the experiments by Michael Grätzel and his research
team at the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland, at the beginning of the
1990s. In these experiments, dye and TiO
2
were tried in solar cells instead of silicon. Patenting
followed in 1992. A number of research bodies have been working since then on optimising the
technology. Efforts have concentrated mainly on the search for suitable, adequately cycle-stable
dyes, the development of leakproof cells and on increasing the achievable effect. Apart from
Switzerland, the leading research countries are Germany and Australia. An Australian company
has just commenced series production of modules.
Materials and components generally used include among others:
INORGANIC AND ORGANIC DYES
Ruthenium complexes (e.g. N3, red dye, black dye), osmium complexes.
Organic dyes: anthocyanin (natural plant dyes, e.g. in hibiscus blossom and bilberry juice),
bacterial chlorophylls (e.g. in purple bacteria)
Dye mixtures: porphyrins and phthalocyanines
The following material, or component respectively, is currently among those of interest in
architecture:
PHOTOELECTRIC SMART MATERIALS >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
Their inherent properties enable them to react to light
(visible light, UV light; electromagnetic radiation) by
generating an electric current with a connected
consumer.
The following photoelectric smart materials are cur-
rently among those of interest to architects:
DYE SOLAR CELLS (DSC)
Other photoelectric smart materials include:
SILICON SOLAR CELLS
THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS
ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS (organic photovoltaics, OPV)
Silicon solar cells are based on comparatively old tech-
nology and are being increasingly superseded by new
developments, such as thin film solar cells and organic
solar cells. Information about new developments in sili-
con-based solar cells can be found on p. 41 f.
Depending on the dye used (e.g. anthocyanin), dye solar
cells can also be classed as organic solar cells. They are
based on a comparatively new technology in which the
synthetic organic polymers, as light-sensitive compo-
nents, are often interlayered between flexible substrate
layers. They are currently in the market introduction
phase (see p. 41 f.).
144 | electricity-generating smart materials
Technology by Dyesol: screen-printed
nanocrystalline TiO
2
layer. | Baking of TiO
2
. |
Introduction of dye into cells. |
Technology by Fraunhofer Institute for Solar
Energy Systems: optimisation and
manufacture of pastes, colloids in the
manufacture of DSCs.
RUTHENIUM COMPLEXES
Dyes based on the metallic element ruthenium and an organic solution.
Market presence, can be used in low to medium temperatures (< –20°C to > +80°C), very
large number of absorption and emission cycles possible (up to about 50 million), much
longer replacement life compared with e.g. anthocyanins.
Relatively expensive compared with anthocyanins.
++
−−
145 | dye solar cells (DSC)
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A number of different institutions are currently working on the optimisation of dye solar cells
(DSCs). One aspect under investigation is the sealing of the edges of the cells, which is still a
weak point. With a technology recently developed by the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy
Systems in Freiburg, Germany, the goal of long-term stability in excess of 10 years can now be
achieved. This technology seals the modules with a glass solder to prevent leakage of liquid
electrolyte and protect sensitive internal components from premature degradation. So far the
technology is not yet ready for widespread market success, as its currently achievable efficiency
is generally below 5% (in Japan an efficiency of 10.4% has been achieved on a 1 cm
2
surface)
and an efficiency of about 12% can be obtained from today’s silicon-based solar cells. In spite
of this, international companies based for example in Australia are trying to establish DSC
modules on the market albeit in small numbers; they aim especially at the German market,
where the contribution of regenerative sources of electrical energy to the national grid is sub-
sidised by the government.
DSCs are currently or likely to be available in the future as:
DSC MODULES (TECHNOLOGY BY DYESOL)
Several DSCs grouped into modules, with striped channels. They are available in individual
housings, or housings or frames accommodating several modules (panels), which allow
them to be stand-alone products or be attached mechanically or glued to flat surfaces, e.g.
walls or roofs.
Market presence, generation of electric current with little light, can be used in low to
medium temperatures (< –20°C to > +80°C), relatively long replacement life (approx. 500
to 5000 hours).
Low efficiency (< 5% under standard testing conditions), cannot be bent or curved,
cannot be handled like conventional glazing e.g. cut to shape, relatively expensive
compared with modules of conventional silicon solar cells.

++
−−
Technology by Dyesol: module of six DSCs. |
Transparent effect of dye used. | Supported
panel of several modules.
146 | electricity-generating smart materials
DSC MODULES (TECHNOLOGY BY FRAUNHOFER INSTITUTE FOR SOLAR ENERGY)
Technology demonstrators of DSCs comprising of several modules arranged together with
meandering channels, sealed with screen-printed glass solder. They are available in
individual housings or housings or frames accommodating several modules (panels), which
allow them to be stand-alone units or be attached mechanically or glued to flat surfaces,
e.g. walls or roofs. The maximum size of modules so far (technology demonstrators) is
30 cm x 30 cm, voltage approx. 4.2 V, current approx. 0.8 A.
Generation of electric current (electron-hole pairs) with low quantities of light, can be
used in low to medium temperatures (< –20°C to > +80°C), edge areas have a long-lasting
seal of glass solder, strength from the meandering bond pattern with the glass substrate.
Lack of market presence, low efficiency (2.5%, may rise to 5% under standard testing
conditions in future, depending on various aspects including printing techniques),
transparency limited due to meandering bond pattern with the glass substrate, cannot be
bent or curved, cannot be handled like conventional glazing e.g. cut to shape, relatively
expensive compared with modules of conventional silicon solar cells.

The edge areas between the two glass substrates must not be allowed to leak, otherwise the
long-term functionality of DSCs cannot be guaranteed. It is important to avoid excessive one-
sided alternating thermal loads, such as arise with use as window glazing. This applies in par-
ticular to cells and modules with striped channels.
++
−−
Products currently in use in architecture or
likely to become relevant in future include:
RAW OR END PRODUCTS
DSCs (technologies by Dyesol and
Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems)
INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS
DSC modules (technologies by Dyesol and
Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems)
DSC panels (technologies by Dyesol and
Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems)
147 | dye solar cells (DSC)
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Dye solar cells (DSC) can be generally attached like conventional silicon or thin film technology
solar cells in front of facades and on building roofs or integrated into them. As long-term stabil-
ity of up to 5000 hours (technology by Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy) is still relatively
low at the moment, it would be prudent to ensure that the units can be easily disassembled for
maintenance and repair and replaced. The edges should be protected against large mechanical
and thermal loads, e.g. by thermal separation or offset frames.
The way DSCs work means that they are coloured and this makes them particularly interesting
to the architect as formal or contrasting design objects in facades and roofs or, when dispensing
with coloured filters, by integrating DSCs optically into similarly coloured roof areas.
The cells are transparent and hence can be used as glass components in facades and windows.
The use of red dye without additional colour filters limits the scope of application as the admit-
ted light, depending on the proportion and positioning of the active areas, will always be some
shade of red. Another field of application is in areas that are permanently or temporarily sub-
ject to relatively small quantities of light (e.g. north-facing facades). Complicated adaptive
tracking systems would then not have to be employed as often.
Up to now there have been only a few published implementations of DSCs in buildings.
Technology by Dyesol: building in Australia with
DSC panels integrated into the external skin |
opposite: Technology demonstrators by
Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems:
single-colour module 30 cm x 30 cm composed
of six DSCs. | Multicolour module, colours
achieved by the use of photoactive, selective
light-absorbent metal-organic complexes
(dyes). I Module with printed graphic light-
scattering layer (yellow area). All modules have
a lasting seal based on a glass soldering
technique developed at the Fraunhofer Institute
for Solar Energy Systems.
148 | electricity-generating smart materials
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fZm^kbZel
Thermoelectric generators (TEG), also known as thermogenerators, consist of thermoelectric
components mainly made from highly doped p- and n-conducting semiconductors, less often
from two wires of different metals, which accelerate electrons or generate electron-hole pairs
by absorbing heat (thermal energy) in reaction to a temperature gradient.
Depending on their functional and constructional principles TEGs can be differentiated as p- and
n-conducting semiconductors:
THERMOCOUPLE-BASED TEG
These are TEGs that consist of semiconducting, normally block-forming thermocouples
produced by doping with different foreign atoms.
They are electrically in series and thermally in parallel to increase output. TEGs function as
electron pumps. Manufacturing technology provides the market with thin film TEGs
(thickness of semiconductor layers < 100µm), thick film TEGs and macro-TEGs.
ELEMENT-BASED TEG
A relatively new development in which the TEGs consist of differently doped, semiconduct-
ing, stripe-forming elements. Their functional principle is similar to the solar cell. They
therefore act as electron-hole pair generators. They can be classified as thin film TEGs,
thick film TEGs or macro-TEGs, depending on the thickness of the semiconductor film.

The development of TEGs goes back to Thomas Johann Seebeck and the Seebeck effect named
after him. In 1821 he discovered that a closed circuit of two wires of different metals produces
a magnetic field due to the voltage they create when a temperature difference exists between
the two contact points. In 1834 Jean Peltier discovered the reverse effect named after him: the
creation of a temperature difference from an electric current. In the 1920s new semiconductor
materials were developed that were used in TEGs. In the 1950s Abram Fedorovich Ioffe and his
colleagues developed the concept of thermoelectric conversion on which today’s theories are
founded. By around 1960 a great number of semiconductor materials were being examined for
their suitability in TEGs, including bismuth telluride, which is still in use today. Among the first
users were NASA and the military. Today the search is for TEGs that can use the waste heat
from combustion processes or solar radiation. In 2004 a new technology was introduced in
which silicon was used as the semiconductor material to generate, similar to a solar cell, elec-
tric current by forming electron-hole pairs.
THERMOELECTRIC SMART MATERIALS >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
Their inherent properties allow them to react to tem-
perature differences (temperature gradients) by ab-
sorbing heat (thermal energy) and generating an elec-
tric current with a connected consumer.
The following thermoelectric smart materials are cur-
rently of interest to architects:
THERMOELECTRIC GENERATORS (TEG)
Other thermoelectric smart materials are:
THERMOELEMENTS
RADIONUCLIDE BATTERIES
Thermoelements consist of pairs of wires of different
metals, for example iron and copper-nickel, which are
connected to one another at one point and by their gen-
eration of thermovoltages can be used to measure tem-
peratures. They cannot generate large voltages and
therefore are generally not suitable for use as sources
of electric current.
Radionuclide batteries are thermoelectric generators
that can generate thermovoltages by absorption of the
decay heat from radioactive isotopes. Their uses in-
clude space travel among others.

Schematic representation of construction and
functioning of a thermocouple-based TEG
(e.g. technology by Micropelt) and an element-based
TEG (technology by SAM).
Materials and components in use for thermocouple-based TEGs include the following:
DOPED INORGANIC SEMICONDUCTORS
Bismuth telluride (Bi
2
Te
3
), iron disilicide (FeSi
2
), silicon-germanium (SiGe), cobaltate
ceramics.
GRADED DOPED INORGANIC SEMICONDUCTORS
Bismuth telluride/iron disilicide (Bi
2
Te
3
/FeSi
2
)
DOPED INORGANIC SEMICONDUCTORS
Silicon germanium (SiGe).
The following materials and components are relevant for architectural uses or could be in the
future:
BISMUTH TELLURIDE (BI
2
TE
3
)
Inorganic semiconductor alloy of metallic bismuth and metallic telluride (with gold- or
silver-doped tellurium). This alloy can be further processed into p- and n-conducting
semiconductors by doping with different foreign atoms. It is used in thermocouple-based
and element-based TEGs.
Market presence, can be used in low to medium temperatures (> +300°C), good efficiency
(approx. 8%, depending on temperature difference among other parameters).
Cannot be used in strongly oxidising atmospheres (e.g. gas burners).
IRON DISILICIDE (FeSi
2
)
Inorganic semiconductor alloy composed of metallic iron and metallic silicon. This alloy
can be further processed into p- and n-conducting semiconductors by doping with different
foreign atoms. Is used for thermocouple-based TEGs.
Market presence, can be used in low and high temperatures (< +800°C), can be used in
strongly oxidising atmospheres (e.g. gas burners).
Low efficiency (approx. 3%, depending on temperature difference among other param-
eters), relatively expensive.
++
−−
149 | thermoelectric generators (TEG)
hot side cold side
n - layer p - layer p - layer contact
heat source
heat flow
heat sink
n - layer contact
150 | electricity-generating smart materials
SILICON GERMANIUM (SiGe)
Inorganic semiconductor alloy composed of purified metallurgical grade silicon and
germanium. This alloy can be further processed into p- and n-conducting semiconductors
by doping with different foreign atoms. As well as in solar cells, it will also find future use
in element-based TEGs.
Market presence, can be used in low and high temperatures (< +500°C), very good
efficiency (> 15%, depending on temperature difference among other parameters), can
be used in strongly oxidising atmospheres (e.g. gas burners).
Must be processed in purer form than e.g. bismuth telluride.
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Although reversibly operable, thermoelectric generators (TEG) are different to Peltier elements
(PE) or modules (PM). For example, the semiconductor alloys can be doped with various foreign
atoms. Solder cannot be used in contact with heat sources at a temperature of more than
250°C. These are temperatures typically obtained by concentrating solar radiation by the use
of prepositioned lenses. In certain situations there may be higher numbers of thermocouples
in TEGs than in PEs. The reason that TEGs have been nowhere near successful on the market
is their lower efficiency, which is quoted as between 3% to 4% (in contrast to efficiencies of
more than 12% with conventional technologies).
Manufacturers of TEGs have generally concentrated on one of the above technologies. While
some manufacturers offer very small, maximum size 5mm x 5mm, thin film technology TEGs
with only a small electrical output of a few 100µW that generate less than 100mV voltage from
relatively small temperature differences, other manufacturers concentrate on larger and more
powerful TEGs and offer modules with electrical outputs rated at between 2.5W to 19W from
relatively large temperature differences of up to several 100K.
There are no known TEGs that have been developed specially for use in architecture and have
reached market readiness. Universities in the USA and Europe are working on the development
and testing of facade systems with PEs or PMs for active climatisation of rooms.
++
−−
Bismuth crystal. | Tellurium crystal. |
Polycrystalline solar grade silicon.
A development in the field of textiles from 2002 could be transferred to find applications in ar-
chitecture. Integrable into fabrics, silicon thermogenerator chips have been developed to pro-
vide a battery-free electricity supply to various consumers incorporated into textile clothing.
They use the small temperature difference between the inside and outside of the textiles to
generate typical power outputs of approx. 1.0mW and no-load voltages of approx. 10 V/cm
2
from a temperature difference of 5K (in: [13]).
The use of TEGs to generate electric current is not new, but so far this technology has not been
able to succeed in the market due to its low efficiency. In addition to optimising semiconductors,
e.g. by grading different materials, developers have also sought to establish new silicon-based
technologies. As efficiency depends on the size of the temperature difference, the products are
used either in the heat given off by combustion processes or in concentrated solar radiation.
The latter application is of special interest in architecture.
The following TEGs are either currently or likely to be available in the future and of use in the
field of architecture:
MODULES OF THERMOCOUPLE-BASED, MICROSCALE TEG
(E.G. TECHNOLOGY BY MICROPELT)
Several thermocouples of block-forming, less than 100µm thick semiconductors (thin film
TEGs) grouped into modules. These products can be fastened to smooth and flexible
substrates, e.g. glass or membranes, either mechanically or by adhesive. The maximum
size of the modules manufactured to date is 5mm x 5mm, their electrical output is less
than 600µW, voltage below 100mV, current less than 40mA, from a temperature difference
of less than 20K. A technology demonstrator currently being developed has given an
electric output of 0.045W, a voltage of 2.1V and a current of 0.075A from a temperature
difference of 33K. They can be used to provide an independent energy supply or energy
support to sensors and other microsystems.
Market presence, generation of electric current from small temperature differences, can
be used in low to medium temperatures (< +250°C hot sides), relatively long replacement
life (approx. 100 000 hours, comparable with silicon solar cells).
Low efficiency (< 5%, depending on the module and temperature), cannot be bent or
curved.
++
−−
Technology by Micropelt: schematic representation of the
construction of a microscale TEG. | Three microscale TEGs.
151 | thermoelectric generators (TEG)
152 | electricity-generating smart materials
MODULES OF THERMOCOUPLE-BASED, MACROSCALE TEG (E.G. TECHNOLOGY BY HI-Z)
Several thermocouples of block-forming semiconductors less than 100µm thick (thin film
TEGs) grouped into modules. These products can be fastened to smooth and flexible
substrates, e.g. glass or membranes, either mechanically or by adhesive. Up to now with a
maximum size of 75mm x 75mm, the modules are capable of generating an electrical
output of 19 W, a voltage of 5 V, a current of 8 A, from a temperature difference of 200 K.
They can be used to provide an independent energy supply or energy support to sensors or
other macrosystems and as a universally usable source of electricity.
Market presence, generation of electric current from small temperature differences, can
be used in low to medium temperatures (< +230°C, hot sides), relatively long replace-
ment life (approx. 500 to 5000 hours).
Low efficiency (4.5%, depending on the module and temperature), cannot be bent or
curved, relatively expensive (approx. 154 US $/HZ-20 module, technology by Hi-Z ).
MODULES OF ELEMENT-BASED, MACROSCALE TEG (TECHNOLOGY BY SAM)
Several elements of band-forming semiconductors (thin or thick film TEGs) grouped into
modules. These products can be fastened to smooth and flexible substrates, e.g. glass or
membranes, either mechanically or by adhesive. Up to now with a maximum size of
20mm x 25mm x 30mm, the modules are capable of generating a voltage of approx. 2 V,
a current of approx. 8 A, from a temperature difference of approx. 400 K. They can be
used to provide an independent energy supply or energy support to sensors or micro/
macrosystems and as a universally usable source of electricity.
Generation of electric current (electron-hole pairs) from small temperature differences,
can be used in low to very high temperatures (in future < +1500°C hot side, component-
dependent), in future very good efficiency (up to approx. 30%, depending on module and
temperature), in future very long replacement life (> 100 000 hours, comparable with
silicon solar cells), in future relatively inexpensive (approx. < 1 euro/W).
Lack of market presence, cannot be bent or curved.
++
−−
++
−−
Technology by Micropelt: illustration of PE. |
Technology SCTB NORD: thermoelectric module.
| Technology by FerroTec: special constructional
form of PEs. | Technology demonstrators by
SAM: module made up of a layered block of
elements. | opposite: PM-based air conditioning
system integrated into a building in 1958,
designed by the RCA research department. |
Refrigerator with PMs, around 1958.
Products currently in use in architecture or
likely to be relevant in future include:
RAW OR END PRODUCTS
THERMOCOUPLES for the manufacture of
microscale TEGs (e.g. technology by Micropelt)
THERMOCOUPLES for the manufacture of
macroscale TEGs (e.g. technology by Hi-Z)
ELEMENTS for the manufacture of macroscale
TEGs (technology by SAM)
INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS
MODULES of thermocouple-based, microscale
TEGs (e.g. technology by Micropelt)
MODULES of thermocouple-based, macroscale
TEGs (e.g. technology by Hi-Z)
MODULES of element-based, macroscale TEGs
(technology by SAM)
In order to ensure the long-term functionality of TEGs they must not be subjected to tempera-
tures above those specified for the particular product. In addition the electrical connections
must not be broken or damaged, e.g. by mechanical loads such that they are reduced in cross
section. Direct contact with water, moist and/or corrosive media must be prevented.
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At the moment there are no known applications of thermoelectric generators (TEG) to generate
electric current in building envelopes. Current research mainly in the USA and Europe is examin-
ing the use of the Peltier effect in building envelopes to climatise rooms by active cooling and
heating processes. That this idea is not new is shown by the earlier development at the end of
the 1950s from the American company RCA, who, with Bell Telephone and Westinghouse,
worked on a number of applications for “thermionic converters” and in 1958 demonstrated a
suitably equipped electronic, vibration-free air conditioning system for buildings, which was the
first of its kind at that time. Around that time RCA developed a refrigerator with the same
technology.
Current researchers are seeking to integrate Peltier elements (PE) in multilayer systems for
building envelopes, e.g. as active climatisation components in greenhouses, encapsulated be-
tween two conventional glass panes. Suitably configured, they could independently generate
electric current for active cooling when temperatures rise too high inside the glazed building.
A more complex development that uses PEs with two hot sides comes from the USA. In the two
skin system, the inner skin actively climatises the rooms with its flat, two-sided, active heatable
PEs, while the outside skin generates the required electric current from its flat arrangement of
photovoltaic elements.
If the costs drop in future below 1 euro/watt as predicted, TEGs could also find use in building
envelopes, for example by the integration of suitable converters in textile membrane skins for
residential and leisure buildings. This could be achieved in the first instance by weaving a
membrane in a conventional way incorporating electrically conductive threads, then coating it
with PVC and finally passing it through an automatic production line to produce individual TEG
modules in a preset pattern to create electrical contact.
153 | thermoelectric generators (TEG)
154 | electricity-generating smart materials
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Piezoelectric ceramics (PEC) and piezoelectric polymers (PEP), often referred to as piezoce-
ramics and piezopolymers, are inorganic or organic materials that, when under a mechanical
load, generate electric charges on their surfaces as a result of deformation through changes of
charge distribution. In reverse, they can change their shape by the application of a voltage.
These phenomena are described as the piezoelectric and the inverse piezoelectric effect
respectively.
The piezoelectric effect was discovered in 1880 by the Curie brothers in natural Rochelle salt
(or sodium potassium tartrate tetrahydrate, also known as Seignette salt), tourmaline and
quartz crystals. They found that electrostatic charges result from mechanical loading of the
crystal surfaces. These charges are proportional to the magnitude of the load. Among the first
uses were ultrasound transducers and quartz resonators for frequency stabilisation. In 1950 a
patent for a charge amplifier was granted to Walter P. Kistler, which helped ensure the wide-
spread adoption of piezoelectric instrumentation technology. The first piezoelectric sensors
were developed about ten years later. 1969 saw the discovery of the first highly active piezoelec-
tric polymer materials. In the late 1990s a Finnish company developed a quasi-piezoelectric
electret film, which is mainly used for sensors in a number of different applications.
Materials and components generally used as PECs include among others:
DOPED INORGANIC COMPOSITE CERAMICS
Lead zirconate titanate (PZT), lead magnesium niobate (PMN), barium titanate (BaTiO
3
).

Materials and components generally used as PEPs include among others:
ORGANIC POLYMERS
Polyvinylidenfluoride (PVDF).
Materials and components generally used as QPEPs include among others:
ORGANIC ELECTRET POLYMERS
Polyolefines (polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP)).
PIEZOELECTRIC SMART MATERIALS >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
These types of smart materials have inherent properties
that enable them to generate electric charges when de-
formed by mechanical effects, e.g. compression.
The following piezoelectric smart materials are current-
ly of interest to architects:
PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMICS (PEC)
PIEZOELECTRIC POLYMERS (PEP)
Other piezoelectric smart materials are:
PIEZOELECTRIC MONOCRYSTALS
Piezoelectric monocrystals include, for example, nat-
ural quartz crystals and tourmaline crystals, which
have good piezoelectric properties but are only of sec-
ondary importance in their technical application. Crys-
tals of sodium potassium tartrate found earlier use in
the manufacture of sound pick-up cartridges. Today it
is predominantly polycrystalline ceramics and polymers
that are used, in particular for sensor and actuator
technology.
Schematic representation of the piezoelectric and
inverse piezoelectric effect on the cubic and
tetragonal structure of lead zirconate titanate (PZT)
and barium titanate (BaTiO
3
).
electric field
mech. stress
The following electrically charging materials and components are or could be important in the
future in the field of architecture:
LEAD ZIRCONATE TITANATE (PZT)
Inorganic compound of lead (Pb), oxygen (O) and titanium (Ti) or zirconium (Zr). So-called
hard and soft ceramics can be produced by doping with foreign atoms. Soft ceramics are
more easily changed by electrical fields than hard ceramics. Their piezoelectric properties
are the result of thermoelectric treatment by sintering and then polarisation under the
influence of an electrical direct current field. One of its uses is for high voltage actuators.
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, many years of practical use, can be
made to almost any shape, high stiffness, high dielectric constant, relatively inexpensive
compared with PVDF.
Sensitive to moisture, low tensile and shear capacity, toxic.
POLYVINYLIDENFLUORIDE (PVDF)
Semicrystalline thermoplastic plastic synthesised from hydrofluoric acid and methylchloro-
form. Its piezoelectric property is the result of mechanical-electric treatment by stretching
and then polarisation under the influence of an electrical direct current field. Its uses
include sensors.
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, highly elastic, non-toxic, insensitive to
moisture, relatively inexpensive compared with PZT.
Limited formability, low UV resistance.
POLYOLEFINES (POLYETHYLENE (PE), POLYPROPYLENE (PP))
Semicrystalline thermoplastic plastic synthesised from olefines such as ethylene or
propylene in the presence of catalysts by polymerisation. Their quasi-piezoelectric
properties are the result of electrical treatment by the permanent electrostatic charging of
gas bubbles previously injected under high pressure. Their uses include sensors among
others.
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, highly elastic, non-toxic, insensitive to
moisture.
Can only be used in low temperatures (–20°C to +50°C), limited formability, low UV
resistance, relatively expensive compared with PZT.
++
−−
++
−−
++
−−
SEM photograph of the crystal structure of
barium titanate (BaTiO
3
), colour digitally
enhanced. | Various piezoceramic powders. |
SEM photograph of multilayer polyolefin-based
electret film.
155 | piezoelectric ceramics/polymers (PEC, PEP)
156 | electricity-generating smart materials
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Piezoelectric ceramics (PEC) and piezoelectric polymers (PEP) can generate electric charges
under the effect of mechanical loads and the resulting deformations; they can also generate
deformations under the effect of electrical fields. While the piezoelectric effect is mainly of use
in sensor technology, the inverse piezoelectric effect is used primarily for actuators.
Ceramics and polymers have been only used to a secondary extent as piezoelectric generators
because the obtainable power and current from the currently available products are very low in
comparison with solar cells. While large, internationally active manufacturers of piezoceramic
materials and products have developed and brought on to the market none or very few of their
own generators, a few specialist companies have concentrated on the development and market-
ing of generators of various sizes for use in energy-independent micro- and macroscale systems
in the field of sensor technology. Some of these products were developed for use in architecture,
e.g. to provide an independent electricity supply to remote control sensors in switches. Foils
have been developed for use under the walking surfaces of floors, which can indicate the load
on the floor from the changes in charge caused by people walking on it.
In principle, actuators made from piezoceramic materials can also be used as generators. So-
called bender actuators are very suitable for this as they can have relatively large travel dis-
tances compared with linear actuators. They are of interest to architects because they can be
used in a relatively simple way to generate electric charges from building vibrations caused by
the wind or the movement of people.
Technology by PI Ceramic: various multilayer
bender actuators with connection wires,
microprocessor to equalise sizes. | Various
multilayer bender actuators with integrated
positioning sensors. | Various multilayer linear
actuators with ceramic insulation. | Various
prestressed multilayer linear actuators, some
fitted with connection wires. | CFP structure
with integrated multilayer linear actuators
(PICA actuator).
The following products based on PECs and PEPs are among those currently or likely to be avail-
able in the future and of use in architecture:
MULTILAYER BENDER ACTUATORS MADE FROM LEAD ZIRCONATE TITANATE (PZT) (E.G.
TECHNOLOGY BY PI CERAMIC)
Linear monolithic bender actuators made from approx. 50µm thick piezoceramic layers
with internal silver palladium electrodes and ceramic insulation. They can be clamped at
one or both ends depending on the shape and design. They can be used for example as
piezoelectric generators, energy-independent sensors (piezoelectric effect) and for
micropositioning and vibration absorption (inverse piezoelectric effect) on micro- and
macroscale systems.
Market presence, can be used in low to medium temperatures (< +250°C, dependent on
PZT modification among other parameters), relatively large travel distances achievable
compared with multilayer linear actuators (> 2mm, dependent upon dimensions and
voltages among other parameters), with ceramic insulation largely insensitive to moisture,
very long replacement life (> 1000000 cycles). Otherwise as for PZT above.
Generates relatively small voltages (< ±30V), deformations must be within the permissi-
ble limits, i.e. max. 10% in excess of the actuator’s travel distance, relatively low
actuating force achievable compared with multilayer linear actuators.
MULTILAYER LINEAR ACTUATORS (STACK TRANSLATORS, LINEAR CONVERTERS) MADE
FROM LEAD ZIRCONATE TITANATE (PZT) (E.G. TECHNOLOGY BY PI CERAMIC)
Linear converters made from e.g. approx. 25µm to 100µm thick block- or disc-shaped,
stacked piezoceramic layers with internal electrodes, which are sintered together to form a
monolith. They can be attached mechanically on flat surfaces, e.g. by clamping, or by
gluing the top or bottom pieces of the unit in place. They can be used as piezoelectric
generators, energy-independent sensors (piezoelectric effect) and for micropositioning and
vibration absorption (inverse piezoelectric effect) on micro- and macroscale systems.
Market presence, can be used in medium temperatures (< +250°C, dependent on PZT
modification among other parameters), very long replacement life (> 1000000 cycles),
with ceramic insulation largely insensitive to moisture. Otherwise as for PZT above.
Generates relatively small voltages (< ±30V), deformations must be within the permis-
sible limits, i.e. max. 10% in excess of the actuator’s travel distance, relatively short
travel distance achievable compared with multilayer linear actuators (< 200µm, depend-
ent upon dimensions and voltages among other parameters).

++
−−
++
−−
Technology by Mirow: various polymer film
sensors (pressure converters) made from
piezoelectric PVDF films: piezosensor array for
flow analysis. | Seven piezosensors arranged
adjacent to one another on transparent plastic
support. | Sensor band for measuring pulse
rates. | 50 bending sensor array for crash tests.
157 | piezoelectric ceramics/polymers (PEC, PEP)
158 | electricity-generating smart materials
Osther constructional forms of actuators based on PECs are:
LAMINAR ACTUATORS (CONTRACTION ACTUATORS)
TUBE ACTUATORS (TUBES)
SHEAR ACTUATORS
PIEZOMECHANICS WITH INTEGRATED LEVER RATIO SETTING
PIEZO STAGES
POLYMER FILM SENSORS (PRESSURE CONVERTERS) MADE FROM POLYVINYLIDENFLUO-
RIDE (PVDF) (E.G. TECHNOLOGY BY MIROW)
Flat composites made from single- or multiple-layered transparent film layers (films) of
polyvinylidenfluoride (PVDF), with thin electrically conductive coatings on both sides, e.g.
of vapour-deposited metals, surrounded by metal films or conductive plastic films, which
act as electrodes. Other protective coatings could be added, for example PET. Available in
different sizes. They can be attached to flat, round and flexible substrates by mechanical
fixings or by gluing. They can be used as energy-independent sensors (piezoelectric effect)
and for deforming (inverse piezoelectric effect) on micro- and macroscale components or
systems.
Market presence, long replacement life (> 1000000 cycles), high compressive strength,
insensitive to impact, can be cut to shape, can be bent (depending on the electrodes
used). Otherwise as for PVDF above.
Only relatively low to medium voltages can be generated (< ±200 V/µm); deformations
must be within the permissible limits. Otherwise as for PVDF above.
ELECTRET POLYMER FILM SENSORS (PRESSURE CONVERTERS) MADE FROM POLYOLE-
FINES (E.G. TECHNOLOGY BY EMFIT)
Flat composites made from multiple layers of polyolefine-based film with embedded,
electrostatically charged gas bubbles, both sides are enclosed in thin aluminium foil, which
act as the electrodes. Other protective coatings could be added, for example PET. Available
in different shapes and sizes, for example as 580mm wide rolls. These products can be
fastened to smooth and flexible substrates, e.g. on or under floor coverings, on seating or
beds, either mechanically or by adhesive. They can be used as energy-independent sensors
(quasi-piezoelectric effect). To amplify their output they can be placed in series with
voltage or charge amplifiers, or with so-called control units, which at the moment require a
separate power supply, for optical or acoustic indication.
Market presence, long replacement life (> 1000000 cycles), high compressive strength,
insensitive to impact, can be cut to shape. Otherwise as for polyolefines above.
Only relatively low to medium voltages can be generated (< ±200 V/µm); deformations
must be within the permissible limits, cannot be bent. Otherwise as for polyolefines
above.
++
−−
++
−−
Technology by Emfit: schematic representation
of the construction and functioning of an
electret polymer film sensor. | Rolled-up electret
polymer film sensor with connection lead for
connection to a control unit. | Technology by
EnOcean: piezo radio transmitter module PTM
100 with rocker model.
In order to ensure the long-term functionality of products based on PECs and PEPs, they must
not be subjected to mechanical or electrical loads in excess of those specified for the particular
product. In addition the electrical connections must not be broken or damaged by mechanical
loads with the result that they are reduced in cross section. Direct contact with moist and/or
corrosive media is detrimental to PECs even with insulation and hence is to be prevented.
Products currently in use in architecture or likely to become
relevant in future include:
RAW OR END PRODUCTS:
MULTILAYER BENDER ACTUATORS made from or incorpo-
rating lead zirconate titanate (PZT) (e.g. technology by PI
Ceramic)
MULTILAYER LINEAR ACTUATORS (stack translators, linear
converters) made from or incorporating PZT (e.g. technol-
ogy by PI Ceramic)
LAMINAR ACTUATORS (contraction actuators) made from or
incorporating PZT (e.g. technology by PI Ceramic)
TUBE ACTUATORS (tubes) made from or incorporating PZT
(e.g. technology by PI Ceramic)
SHEAR ACTUATORS made from or incorporating PZT
(e.g. technology by PI Ceramic)
PIEZOMECHANICS with integrated lever ratio setting made
from or incorporating PZT (e.g. technology by PI Ceramic)
PIEZO STAGES made from or incorporating PZT
(e.g. technology by PI Ceramic)
POLYMER FILM SENSOR (pressure converter) made from
polyvinylidenfluoride (PVDF) (e.g. technology by Mirow)
ELECTRET POLYMER FILM SENSOR (pressure converter)
made from polyolefines (e.g. technology by Emfit)
CFRP structure with e.g. integrated multilayer linear
actuators (stack translators, linear converters) incorporat-
ing PZT (e.g. technology by PI Ceramic)
PIEZO RADIO TRANSMITTER MODULE (technology by
EnOcean)
FLOOR with electret POLYMER FILM SENSOR (pressure
converter) made from POLYOLEFINES (e.g. technology by
Emfit)
159 | piezoelectric ceramics/polymers (PEC, PEP)
160 | electricity-generating smart materials
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The use of bender actuators in the field of architecture is currently being studied at numerous
universities. In 1998 for example, the German Research Foundation (DFG), formed a special
research group 409 for adaptive structures in aircraft and lightweight construction to investi-
gate their use in other applications; by now this group has completed its work. An important
aspect is the use of components incorporating piezoelectric materials for active sound reduc-
tion and for vibration absorption in building components. In these areas there has been coop-
eration with other research groups in the fields of air and space travel and materials science,
among others.
As well as the use of inverse piezoelectric effects, there are also some applications for products
that exploit the piezoelectric effect. For example, the aviva MUNICH building in Munich’s com-
mercial district has remote-controlled, batteryless, piezo radio switches for operating the Vene-
tian blinds and lighting in the office rooms. Radio technology allows wiring and flush-mounted
boxes to be dispensed with. Internal wall arrangements are more flexible and walls can be
moved relatively inexpensively.
The use of electret polymer film sensors also opens up some interesting possibilities. One of
the uses for these extremely pressure-sensitive and very thin sensors is for installation under
floor coverings. In Finland in 2005 the floors of two detainment cells in a small police station
were fitted with these devices as an experiment. The sensors were placed between the concrete
floor surface and the linoleum floor covering. If the police station is unmanned and prisoners
escape from the cells, the system alerts a neighbouring station over a digital mobile phone
network. In Japan the Kaimin System, intended for use in “intelligent rooms” and fully equipped
with sensors, was developed. The system used polymer film sensors as sleep sensors in bed
heads.
Building with solar cells (south side) and wind quills (north side)
connected to piezoelectric cells: MATscape, Mitchell Joachim, Lara
Greden, Whitney Jade Foutz, Wendy Meguro, Luis Rafael Berrios-
Negron (2005).
Felix Hess, Netherlands
Sound installation | Warsaw Autumn, Centre for Contemporary Art,
Warsaw, Poland (1996)
How Light Is Changed Into Sound is the name for a series of interactive sound
installations of the Dutch artist Felix Hess. The research physicist developed
small electronic sound machines (described by him as “cracklers”), which
react to changes in air pressure and brightness with sporadic, irregular click-
ing noises; the hearer associates these sounds with the croaking of frogs.
Each of these sound machines consists of a small circuit board on which
the few required electronic components are soldered and connected by wires
to a low voltage supply; the actual sound generator is connected to a power
circuit. Whilst in the installation It’s in the Air the circuit boards used to react
to changes in air pressure were additionally equipped with sound sensors
and a conventional 9 volt block-battery, for his installation How Light Is
Changed Into Sound the artist used small solar panels.
In both cases the sound generator consists of a wired piezo element, which
works in conjunction with a small stone and a balsawood sounding board on
its underside to amplify the sound. The electric current generated and flow-
ing through the piezo element deforms it in a semi-rhythmic manner and
excites the sounding board to vibrate.
For his installation How Light Is Changed Into Sound at the Warsaw Autumn
cultural festival, the artist set up four such sound generators on the floor in
one half of a room, spaced apart and connected together by a central circuit
board. In addition to the circuit board, each sound generator was connected
to four small solar panels on each side. Sunlight entered in various qualities
through three window openings. Depending on the transient dynamic varia-
tions in brightness in the room and the number and changes in position of
observers, the solar panels generated varying amounts of current which en-
livened the inconspicuous room with irregular clicking noises.
How Light Is Changed Into Sound: view into the installation room with its four
“Cracklers”. | Close-up photograph of a sound generator for the installation
It´s in the Air.
161 | piezoelectric ceramics/polymers (PEC, PEP)
AhpEb`amBl<aZg`^]BgmhLhng]
Monosmart material | Monosmart application
Electricity-generating, shape-changing smart materials:
BALSAWOOD BOARDS AND STONES WITH PEC ELEMENTS (LINEAR
ACTUATORS)
Sound installation controlled by light and hardware
162 | electricity-generating smart materials
Axel Ritter, Germany
Weight-controlled pavilion with optically changing
building envelope | Germany (1995)
Dynaf l e x p01 is a reactive, mechanical structure, capable
of carrying foot traffic, which reacts to changing internal live
loads with expansions and deformations and can be called
a biomechanoid.
The construction is intended to be a pavilion and is almost
completely composed of glass fibre reinforced plastic. It
consists of seven modules of elliptical cross section. Each
module has an outside ring and two adjacent inner rings,
which are attached to one another at the sides at the vertices
of the ellipse. The outer and inner rings are supported at the
floor by a traverse with spring bearings by means of two
pairs of struts, with the inner ring having two bases resting
on the floor.
Each traverse carries a vertically moving load distribution
plate. When loaded, the traverse moves to the right, left or
slightly downwards. This causes the cross section of the
outer ring to become more circular and the connected strut
pairs press the inner rings apart: as a result the pavilion
changes in length depending on the deflection. In addition
to right, left and straight-ahead movements, the lateral con-
nection nodes move up or down to affect the openings of two
neighbouring modules, which can change their positions in
any direction.
Dynaf | e x p01: demonstration model with supporting hairs
equipped with piezoelectric bender actuators and individually
attached electrooptic/-chromic glass elements.
=rgZ_e^qi)*
Monosmart materials | Polysmart application
Colour- and optically changing smart materials:
GLASS WITH ELECTROOPTIC COATINGS
Electricity-generating smart materials:
BENDER ACTUATORS WITH PIEZOCERAMIC MADE
FROM PZT
A construction that dynamically changes its light
transmission properties in response to live loads and
mechanical vibrations
Dynaf | e x p01: Actuating cam for changing the geometry, inner
and outer rings of a module, internal detail. | Load distribution
plates with traverses pressing on the outside rings. | Connection
of load distribution plate, strut pair inner and outer rings. |
Internal detail.
163 | piezoelectric ceramics/polymers (PEC, PEP)
The external skin is formed of electrooptical glass elements.
These elements are attached in rows to the outer ring and
fastened on a crown of flexible supporting hairs with round
cross sections and equipped with piezoelectric bender actu-
ators. This ensures that the glass elements and the support
hairs are not damaged on the relatively tightly curved
surfaces.
Voltages are generated depending on the vibrations caused
by wind or people, which in turn causes the electrooptical
layers, via the connected electronic units, to change more or
less dynamically from transparent to opaque. Thus the ac-
tivities taking place can be discerned not only from the de-
formations but also from the glass elements of the external
skin. In addition, it would be possible to display the critical
loading states caused by the mechanical stresses. The load-
ing states would be visualised in the colour changes of the
glass elements of the corresponding electrochomic layers.
The principle of weight-controlled mechanical expansion as
used here, and the potential expansions and deformations
deriving from it, can be transferred to other types of building
structures. A building designed with this principle could pro-
vide enhanced flexibility of use by temporarily claiming ad-
ditional space. For example, in case of use as a kindergarten
an additional interior space could be provided in the morn-
ing, which would then be available as a playground or car
park during other parts of the day.
Energy-exchanging smart materials, including energy-storing smart materials, are materials
and products that are able to store energy, both sensible and latent energy, e.g. in the form of
light, heat, electricity or hydrogen, and exhibit at least some reversibility.
The energy-storing smart materials available on today‘s market can be differentiated as
follows:
LIGHT-STORING SMART MATERIALS
These materials have inherent properties that enable them to store energy in the form of
light.
HEAT-STORING SMART MATERIALS
These materials have inherent properties that enable them to store energy in the form of
heat and cold (negative heat).
ELECTRICITY-STORING SMART MATERIALS
These materials have inherent properties that enable them to store energy in the form of
electricity.
HYDROGEN-STORING SMART MATERIALS
These materials have inherent properties that enable them to store energy in the form of
hydrogen.
Heat-storing smart materials are discussed in the following section. Some light-emitting smart
materials also have the ability to store light, and therefore light-storing smart materials are
discussed in that section (see light-emitting smart materials, pp. 110ff.). Electricity-storing
smart materials are not sufficiently developed at the moment and there is little information
available on them. A number of the systems for storing electricity in use today, for example
lead accumulators, with their reduced capacity in cold conditions, have a degree of reversibility.
However, for these products this reversibility is normally unwelcome. New developments in this
area are seeking to eliminate much of this temperature dependency. Metal hydrates are particu-
larly suitable for use as hydrogen-storing materials, but as they lack reversibility they cannot
be classed as smart materials.
^g^k`r&^q\aZg`bg`lfZkmfZm^kbZel
Technology by GLASSX: light-directing insulation
glazing system with salt hydrate PCM; indoor
view of installed unit.
165 | phase change materials (PCM)
iaZl^\aZg`^fZm^kbZel!I<F"7fZm^kbZel
In principle, all materials that are able to reversibly change their state in response to external
influences are classed as phase change materials (PCM). The type of influence or loading that
instigates the change of phase is not important. Most of the known materials exhibit tempera-
ture-dependent phase changes. There are also other influences, e.g. chemical stimuli or the in-
take of matter, which can trigger phase changes and these are often associated with changes
in elasticity. In addition to the states of solid, liquid and gas, there are other, largely stable in-
termediate states, such as the colloidal state derived from gels.
In the construction and architecture industries the term PCM has become generally applicable
to materials and products that can be used as temperature-regulating media, for example latent
heat or latent cold storage media for the regulation of temperatures. They have the property,
below an inherent material-dependent phase change temperature, to change their state from
liquid to solid by crystallisation and release a quantity of heat energy previously taken in and
stored at a higher temperature. In the course of the phase change from solid to liquid and dur-
ing the heat energy input the temperature of the material remains constant.
Among the first users of PCMs in the 1960s was NASA, who experimented with these materials
and various applications in the field of space flight. Towards the end of the last century, the
German Aerospace Center (DLR), developed a latent heat storage medium, based on sodium
acetate and a heat transfer oil, for use in buildings. PCMs were used first in the USA, then later
in other countries including Germany, in panels and other cladding components.
Materials and components in use include among others:
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Paraffins, paraffin mixtures (waxes).
INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Salt hydrate, salt hydrate mixtures (eutectic mixtures), water, water mixture.
ORGANIC-INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Paraffin-salt hydrate mixtures, water mixture.
Schematic representation of the functioning of
a latent heat storage medium.
HEAT-STORING SMART MATERIALS >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
These materials have inherent properties that enable
them to store energy in the form of heat and cold (nega-
tive heat) as latent energy.
The following latent heat-storing smart materials are
currently of interest in the field of architecture:
PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS (PCM)
Other materials and products with relatively high heat-
storing capacity and/or relatively low heat dissipation
are usually not counted among smart materials and will
not be discussed further here.
heat stored
ambient
temperature rises
heat released
latent heat storage
medium liquefies
managed temperature
remains constant
ambient
temperature falls
latent heat storage
medium solidifies
managed temperature
remains constant
166 | energy-exchanging smart materials
Materials and components for the manufacture of PCMs must be able to function over a com-
paratively high number of charging and discharging cycles and, depending on the application,
undergo relatively little change in volume. When used in building materials or components, di-
rect contact points should be eliminated as far as possible to prevent structural damage. This
can be achieved by encapsulation (micro-, macroencapsulation).
The following PCMs are among those of interest in architecture:
PARAFFINS, PARAFFIN MIXTURES
The melting temperature depends on the particular paraffin used and any added constit-
uents.
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, many years of practical use, can be
used over a relatively large temperature range (approx. –12°C to +180°C), wide range of
applications, insensitive to mechanical vibrations, maintenance-free, long replacement
life.
Highly combustible, volume change at phase change, relatively expensive compared with
water-based PCMs and still expensive compared with salt hydrate-based PCMs.
SALT HYDRATE, SALT HYDRATE MIXTURES
The melting temperature depends on the particular salt hydrate used and any added con-
stituents.
Non-combustible, can be used over a relatively large temperature range (approx. –70°C to
+120°C, including negative melting salt-water eutectics), relatively inexpensive compared
with paraffin-based PCMs. Otherwise as above.
Tendency to supercool when used for cold storage, tendency to segregate, volume change
at phase change, tendency to promote corrosion.
WATER, WATER MIXTURE
The melting point of water is 0°C.
Leaks are not hazardous to groundwater, can be used over a relatively large temperature
range (approx. –40°C to +100°C), no tendency to segregate, relatively inexpensive
compared with paraffin- and salt hydrate-based PCMs.
Relatively poor thermal conductivity compared with paraffin- and salt hydrate-based
PCMs, volume change at phase change.
SILICATE
Used in the form of powder as the carrier medium for embedding various PCMs, propor-
tion of composite material approximately 40%.
In powder form one of its suitable uses is for filling containers, relatively little volume
change at phase change.
None known.
++
−−
++
−−
++
−−
++
−−
Microscopic-scale photograph of salt hydrate
crystals. | Conventional close-up photograph of
slightly heated salt hydrate (part of following
photograph). | Conventional photograph of salt
hydrate crystals.
167 | phase change materials (PCM)
iaZl^\aZg`^fZm^kbZel!I<F"7ikh]n\ml
Phase change materials (PCM) have a wide range of uses, for example in clothing textiles, in
motor vehicles, as external panels and partitions, and in refrigeration and heating systems.
In recent years, a relatively large number of products for architecture have been developed and
brought to the market. They are mainly used for passive climatisation of e.g. wall and ceiling
components. Some more ambitious applications are now being tried following a phase of ob-
servation and testing in small projects.
Products are now available that can be used in existing and new buildings. Their solid walls en-
able many old buildings to buffer temperature peaks so that for example their rooms stay com-
fortably cool for longer in the summer months, but new buildings usually lack these thermal
storage masses. Compact external walls with highly heat-insulative and heat-storing compo-
nents can be constructed by the intelligent incorporation of latent heat-storing products based
on PCMs, such as appropriately designed gypsum plasterboards, plaster or even complex fa-
cade systems. Existing buildings can be improved by increasing their storage mass by retrofit-
ting PCM-containing products.
There are various raw, intermediate and end products on the market. These range from granu-
lates to composite materials with graphite to complex light-directing insulation glazing systems
with integral salt hydrate-filled plastic panels.
Of the products on the market incorporating PCMs the main interest in architecture for the
foreseeable future is, among others, in products that store latent heat and regulate
temperature:
MICROENCAPSULATED PCM (E.G. MICRONAL, TECHNOLOGY BY DASF)
Plastic-encapsulated paraffin-based PCMs for passive climatisation of e.g. internal walls
and ceilings, available e.g. as a powder for incorporation into other construction materials
such as plaster, chipboard and fillers.
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, can be incorporated into different
construction materials, available as various end products such as PCM plaster, resistant
to mechanical damage, e.g. cutting. Otherwise as above for paraffins, paraffin mixtures.
Not universally available, only approved end products can be used, cannot be used alone
because of inadequate fire resistance (fire safety). Otherwise as above for paraffins,
paraffin mixtures.
++
−−
Technology by DASF: microscopic-scale photograph of Micronal
microcapsules with diameters of 2µm to 20µm. | Microscopic-
scale photograph of an individual Micronal microcapsule. |
Dispersion with Micronal microcapsules. | Plaster pattern with
Micronal microcapsules. | Technology by Dörken: aluminium
composite bag with salt hydrate filling.
168 | energy-exchanging smart materials
PLASTER WITH PCM (E.G. TECHNOLOGY BY DASF)
Include microencapsulated paraffin-based PCMs, for passive climatisation of internal walls
and ceilings, can be handled and applied as conventional plaster.
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, can be coloured by the application of
paint or the addition of pigments, easy to apply. Otherwise as above for paraffins,
paraffin mixtures.
Not universally available, relatively expensive compared with conventional plasters.
GYPSUM PLASTERBOARD WITH PCM (E.G. TECHNOLOGY BY DASF)
Currently available as 2000mm x 1250mm x 15mm board, can be handled and fixed as
conventional plasterboard or fibre-cement boards. Otherwise as above.
Thermal conductivity comparable with that of conventional plasterboard. Otherwise as
above.
Relatively expensive compared with conventional plasterboard. Otherwise as above.
ALUMINIUM FOIL BAGS WITH PCM (E.G. TECHNOLOGY BY DÖRKEN)
Aluminium foil bags with salt hydrates or salt hydrate mixtures for passive climatisation of
e.g. ceilings will improve thermal conductivity if placed adjacent to components with good
conductivity (e.g. made from metal) and can for example be applied to suspended ceilings.
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, as it is not solid it does not damage
cladding materials, easy to apply. Otherwise as above for salt hydrate, salt hydrate
mixtures.
Overhead leaks are hazardous to health, may cause property damage, additional laminar
components required.
++
−−
++
−−
++
−−
Technology by GLASSX: section
through light-directing insu-
lation glazing system with salt
hydrate PCM. | Operating
principle at high and low solar
positions.
169 | phase change materials (PCM)
LIGHT-DIRECTING INSULATION GLAZING SYSTEM WITH MACROENCAPSULATED PCM
(TECHNOLOGY BY GLASSX)
Insulation glazing system consisting of four panes positioned one behind the other with
external integrated light-directing prismatic plastic panels and internal integrated
transparent plastic containers filled with salt hydrate. The system provides passive
climatisation of the facade and can be used in almost the same way as conventional
insulation glazing systems.
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, can be incorporated alongside
conventional glazing allowing the detailing to be simple, relatively easy to install, can
indicate charge state. Otherwise as above for salt hydrate, salt hydrate mixtures.
Higher replacement cost of defective panes and PCM containers, relatively heavy with
consequences for installation costs, high manufacturing and installation costs compared
with conventional insulation glazing. Otherwise as above.

++
−−
Currently available or developed products relevant to
architecture include:
RAW OR END PRODUCTS:
POWDER e.g. microencapsulated PCMs (e.g. Micronal)
DISPERSION e.g. microencapsulated PCMs
(e.g. Micronal)
COMPOUNDS (granulate, panels) e.g. PCM/graphite,
PCM/plastic
INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS:
PLASTER containing microencapsulated PCMs
(paraffin, e.g. Micronal)
FILLER containing microencapsulated PCMs
(paraffin, e.g. Micronal)
GYPSUM PLASTERBOARD containing microencapsulated
PCMs (paraffin, e.g. Micronal)
ALUMINIUM FOIL BAGS filled with PCMs
(salt hydrate, salt hydrate mixtures)
LIGHT-DIRECTING INSULATION GLAZING SYSTEM with
macroencapsulated PCMs (paraffin)
LIGHT-DIRECTING INSULATION GLAZING SYSTEM with
macroencapsulated PCMs (salt hydrate)
170 | energy-exchanging smart materials
iaZl^\aZg`^fZm^kbZel!I<F"7ikhc^\ml
A number of different products incorporating phase change materials (PCM) have been in use
in architecture for several years now. Among the first applications in existing and new buildings
were microencapsulated PCMs. In 2001 the internal walls of a low-energy building, a so-called
3-litre-house, in Ludwigshafen, Germany, were plastered with gypsum plaster containing micro-
encapsulated PCM. To optimise temperature management in another building, one of Berlin’s
refurbished residential and office complexes on the Spree River, latent heat storage was incor-
porated into the plaster of a chilled ceiling, using a capillary tube mat. In 2005 the classrooms
of a high school in Lauffen am Neckar, Germany, were built using lightweight construction in
which approx. 500m
2
gypsum plasterboard panels incorporating microencapsulated paraffin-
based PCM were used.
Macroencapsulated PCMs so far have only been used in new buildings. In 2000, architect Diet-
rich Schwarz installed macroencapsulated PCM in the southern facade of a solar house in
Ebnat-Kappel, Switzerland. In conjunction with a south German company, the Swiss architect
developed a light-directing insulation glazing system with macroencapsulated paraffin as the
PCM and used this for his innovative temperature-regulating facade. Due to the high inflamma-
bility of the paraffin a comparable insulation glazing system was developed soon after, using
salt hydrate held in transparent plastic containers; this glazing system was approved exclusively
for use as a construction product. In 2004 a relatively large building complex with 20 senior
citizens’ apartments was built using this system, which is described briefly below.
Sonnenschiff, equipped with gypsum plasterboard panels with microencapsulated
paraffin-based PCM.
171 | phase change materials (PCM)
Dietrich Schwarz, Switzerland
Senior citizens’ apartments with a latent heat-storing glass facade |
Domat/Ems, Switzerland (2004)
Swiss architect Dietrich Schwarz has shown in several of his buildings how,
in addition to their latent heat-storing properties, the ability of PCMs to
change their optical appearance can also be used in a facade. The initial so-
lution involved pure paraffin in transparent hollow plastic blocks, used as
latent heat storage facade elements in the south facade of a zero energy
house in Ebnat-Kappel, Switzerland. In contrast, for this project a salt hy-
drate was used as the PCM, due to fire safety reasons.
On the south side of this complex the architect installed a new design of a
latent heat-storing insulation glazing system filled with salt hydrate over an
area of 148m
2
. Called GLASSXcrystal, the 78mm wide system is con-struct-
ed like an ordinary triple insulation glazing unit, but with a light-directing
prism panel outside and a PCM panel inside, consisting of polycarbonate
containers filled with a salt hydrate mixture, which stores heat at +26°C to
+28°C.
In summer the solar radiation is reflected back outside by the prismatic
panels. During the winter the lower sun angle allows the solar radiation to
pass almost unimpeded into the facade construction, where it hits the PCM
panel, is converted into thermal radiation and stored by the melting of the
salt hydrate. If the room temperature falls below +26°C, perhaps at night or
on cloudy days, the salt hydrate crystallises and releases its stored heat en-
ergy into the room.
The charge state of this latent heat-storing glass facade can be observed di-
rectly from its optical appearance, which is determined by the different
phases of the salt hydrate: if the facade looks opaque (seen from outside
through the prismatic panels or from the inside), then the salt hydrate is
uncharged. If it appears translucent (seen from outside through the pris-
matic panels) or transparent (from the inside, with no printed pattern), the
salt hydrate is being charged or is fully charged.
Senior citizens’ apartments: view of south facade. | Side view of south facade. |
Inside view of latent heat-storing facade.
L^gbhk\bmbs^glÍZiZkmf^gml
Monosmart material | Monosmart application
Heat-storing smart material:
INSULATION GLASS WITH PCM (SALT HYDRATE)
Intelligent management of solar radiation
172 | energy-exchanging smart materials
Senior citizens’ apartments: outside detail of latent heat-storing facade, uncharged
state (opaque). | Detail of latent heat-storing facade, charged state (translucent).
Matter-exchanging smart materials, including matter-storing smart materials, are materials
and products that are able to reversibly take up and/or in, to bind and release matter either in
the form of molecules, as gaseous, liquid or solid components by various physical and/or
chemical processes.
The taking-up and -in of matter may be activated, among others, through hygroscopic surfaces,
e.g. by embedding hydrophilic components in a shape-giving matrix; through electrostatic sur-
faces, e.g. by the creation of an ionised electrical field; or through magnetic surfaces, e.g. by
the creation of an electromagnetic field. This is in contrast to conventional methods of storing
matter, which are mainly based on mechanical principles. Examples of this would be containers
and natural or synthetic sponges.
The matter-storing smart materials currently available on the market can be differentiated on
the basis of the type of matter stored, which can also be the triggering stimulus:
GAS/WATER-STORING SMART MATERIALS
They are excited by gas and/or water to adsorb or absorb them. Through contact with
another medium such as air, and in certain situations through other influences
(e.g. increased temperatures), they can become excited and desorb the stored matter.
PARTICLE-STORING SMART MATERIALS
They are excited for example by ionised, electrical or electromagnetic fields to absorb
particles. When the field is removed, they are excited and desorb the stored matter.
Materials and products that can become electrostatically charged as a result of a stimulus
are also examples of particle-storing smart materials. Architects R&Sie... give an indication
of how electrostatically charged surfaces could be incorporated into buildings with their
design Dusty Relief/B-mu, a museum of the future for Bangkok.
fZmm^k&^q\aZg`bg`lfZkmfZm^kbZel
Hydroabsorber foils: detail of
several cells with roughly half-swelled
AP crystals.
GAS/WATER-STORING SMART MATERIALS >
MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, PROJECTS
The inherent properties of these materials allow them
to react to the influence of gases and/or water in the
form of water vapour, water or aqueous solutions by
attaching them to their inner surfaces or taking them
into their volume. Depending on the process involved,
they may reversibly change their volume, density and
optical properties and/or their energy state.
The storage may also involve a conversion of the matter
taken up or the components, and through this a release
of energy, for example as process heat from exothermic
reactions, may take place. One or several stimuli such
as the influence of a certain temperature, a particular
chemical environment or the removal of an electrical
field release the previously attached or embedded
matter.
Depending on the mechanism of the taking-up of the
components, the effect may be classed as adsorption
and absorption. Adsorption describes the taking-up of
an atom or molecule of a component on to an inner
surface of a material or product, the adsorbent. Ab-
sorption describes the taking-in of an atom or molecule
of a component into the volume of a material and/or
product, the absorbent. The release or removal of a
previously adsorbed or absorbed atom or molecule of
a component is termed desorption (see adhesion-
changing smart materials, pp. 98ff.).
The following gas/water-storing smart materials are
currently of interest to architects:
MINERAL AD-/ABSORBENTS (MAd, MAb)
ABSORBENT/SUPERABSORBENT POLYMERS (AP/SAP)
Other gas/water-storing smart materials include:
OTHER INORGANIC ADSORBENTS (IAd)
ORGANIC ADSORBENTS (OAd)
OTHER ORGANIC ABSORBENTS (OAb)
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fZm^kbZel
Mineral adsorbents (MAd) are materials or components with a liquid or solid phase that are
able to take up gaseous components on to their inner surfaces and as a result reversibly change
their volume, density, optical properties and/or their energy state. By contrast, mineral absorb-
ents (MAb) are materials or components with a liquid or solid phase that are able to take up
liquid components on their inner surfaces and take them into their volume and, where neces-
sary, reversibly change their viscosity. These liquid components are not to be released, even
under pressure.
MAds include some natural dry clays and synthetically produced silica gels. MAbs mainly in-
clude natural bentonites, which are often modified for different applications.
Bentonites are clays and minerals containing smectite, usually montmorillonite, as well as other
minerals such as mica and zeolites. In conjunction with their function as absorbents, the high
swelling capacity of some of these materials is of special interest. Bentonites are also used as
desiccants and, in suspension form, as materials and for products with thixotropic properties
(see p. 38).
Loam has been in use as a construction material for thousands of years in various forms includ-
ing stones, mortar and render for shelters and houses. By the 1920s artificial MAds were being
produced. This was also around the time that silica gel was developed at the Johns Hopkins
University in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. In recent years there has been an increased use of
natural and synthetic zeolites, which are specially developed for today‘s new applications. Since
1987 bentonite in Germany has been in use in mats for sealing.
MAd materials and components in use include:
INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Silica gels, dry clays (e.g. activated alumina, calcium bentonite, loam), molecular sieves
(synthetic zeolites), gypsum.
MIXTURES INCORPORATING INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Calcium bentonite/calcium chloride (CaCl
2
).
ADDITIONAL COMPONENTS
Colour indicators (e.g. cobalt chloride (CoCl
2
), methyl orange)
175 | mineral ad-/absorbents (MAd, MAb)
MAb materials and components in use include:
INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Calcium bentonites (unactivated bentonites), activated bentonites (or active bentonites),
natural sodium bentonites.
MIXTURES INCORPORATING INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Bentonite mixtures.
Materials and components for the manufacture of MAds and MAbs must be able to perform
through a relatively high number of cycles of exchange of gaseous or liquid components without
any noticeable loss of capacity, and contain no volatile toxic substances.
The following MAds and MAbs are among those of interest in architecture:
SILICA GELS
They are made synthetically using sodium silicate and a silicic acid in various particle
shapes (irregular, spherical) up to approx. 8mm grain size and with different pore
diameters. They are available in various ranges of effectiveness to achieve different air
moisture contents, and can be regenerated at temperatures of +130°C to +200°C.
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, many years of practical use, usable
over a comparatively large temperature range (ca. –30°C to +80°C), small particle size
means suitability as bag fillings, uses include desiccants, moisture buffers and heat-
emitting smart materials, can incorporate colour indicators, non-combustible, not
sensitive to mechanical vibrations, maintenance-free.
Relatively short replacement life (< 10 regeneration cycles), sometimes the accompanied
development of heat may be undesirable, relatively large amount of dust released,
relatively poor air circulation and low adsorption speed compared with spherical silica
gels, will burst in direct contact with water.
++
−−
Bentonite swelling.
As there are many natural materials such as wood, pa-
per, leather, raffia among the ranks of organic adsorb-
ents (OAd) and they are able to adsorb only relatively
small quantities of water in the form of vapour, they will
not be dealt with further here. In this context it should
be mentioned that the hygroscopic property of paper
in conjunction with a photocatalyst is used in Japan
among other places; this so-called photocatalytic paper
cleans the room air of pollutants with the help of light
(see titanium dioxide (TiO
2
), pp. 100ff.).
The use of mineral absorbents (MAb) to waterproof
buildings has become part of the current state of the
art. As they can also be used for other purposes, these
smart materials will be considered only to a limited ex-
tent here. Bentonite in particular is one of these materi-
als in which both the take-up and take-in mechanisms
can occur, and therefore mineral ad- and absorbents
(MAd, MAb) will be brought together in one chapter.
These smart materials are classed as inorganic ad- and
absorbents (IAd, IAb).
176 | matter-exchanging smart materials
CALCIUM BENTONITES
Natural clay mineral, available as powder or granulate, which can be further processed in
various ways, suitable for use in bentonite suspensions e.g. for sealing soil layers. They can
be regenerated in the presence of air.
Relatively long replacement life (> 10 regeneration cycles), usable over a comparatively
large temperature range (< –30°C to > +80°C), uses include desiccants, moisture buffers
and seals (due to their moisture-sensitive volume change), can be processed into clay
bricks or clay render among others. Otherwise as above.
Volume changes may be undesirable for certain applications. Otherwise as for silica gels
above.
ACTIVATED BENTONITES, NATURAL SODIUM BENTONITES
Clay minerals with mainly sodium ions in the intermediate layers, activated bentonites,
natural sodium bentonites are used e.g. for sealing soil layers. They can be regenerated in
the presence of air.
Relatively long replacement life (> 10 regeneration cycles), usable over a comparatively
large temperature range (< –30°C to > +80°C), uses include moisture buffers and seals
(due to their moisture-sensitive volume change).
Not suitable or only suitable under certain conditions for processing into clay bricks or
render.
LOAMS
Mixtures composed of various ratios of clay, sand and other components.
Usable over a relatively large temperature range (< –30°C to > +80°C), suitable as
moisture buffers, can be processed e.g. into clay bricks or render, non-hazardous.
Otherwise as for silica gels above.
Relatively poor adsorption capacity, lower adsorption speed compared with silica gels,
calcium bentonites and zeolites.
ZEOLITES
Natural and synthetic alumino-silicates with a well-defined cluster structure. Natural
zeolites can be used, among others, as heat-emitting smart materials, synthetic zeolites
for drying gases (e.g. air), available as powder and granulate, which can be further
processed in various ways. They can be regenerated at temperatures of +250°C to +400°C
or under negative pressures (evacuation).
Relatively long replacement life (> 10 regeneration cycles), can be used over a compara-
tively large temperature range (< –30°C to > 400°C) as desiccant or filtration media,
catalyst for conversion of pollutant gases and as a heat-emitting smart material.
Otherwise as for silica gels above.
Relatively high regeneration temperatures required. Otherwise as for silica gels above.
As the hygroscopic effect of gypsum is well known it will not be discussed further here.
++
−−
++
−−
++
−−
++
−−
Silica gel granulate without and with indicator. | Silica gel
granulate with methyl orange as indicator in unsaturated
(inactive) and saturated (active) state. | Bentonite granulate. |
Silica gel bags. | Gypsum wallboard with zeolite.
177 | mineral ad-/absorbents (MAd, MAb)
178 | matter-exchanging smart materials
Band (strip) with MAb (bentonite). |
Installation of bands and mats with
MAb (bentonite). | Sealing effect of
mats with MAb (bentonite). | Mat
(geotextile) with MAb (bentonite).
fbg^kZeZ]&(Z[lhk[^gml!F:]%F:["7
ikh]n\ml
Mineral adsorbents (MAd) such as silica gels and activated alumina are used in the dehydrated
state as desiccants, e.g. for the separation of gases and stored parts of water vapour. In the
non-dehydrated state they are used as water vapour-sensitive moisture buffers in a number of
fields, e.g. for constant air moisture content in rooms and transport containers. MAds are also
used in museums, where they are found in glass display cabinets containing moisture-sensitive
articles such as pictures or metal artefacts. To improve handling and for dust protection MAds
are often packed in water vapour-permeable bags, and when colour indicators are incorporated
at least one side of the bag is transparent or translucent to make the contents visible. Flexible
tubes of foil are filled in sections with MAds and sold in strips of different lengths, either with
different fillings or simply with silica gel in buildings. They are often used to prevent the growth
of moulds and their spores, in particular in lightweight timber constructions that may still have
a relatively high moisture content. This is done by installing several strips on the inner side of
the cladding.
Mineral absorbents (MAb) are familiar as moisture and odour absorbents in cat litter; bentonite
being one of them. Bentonites are also used in architecture. Calcium bentonites, activated
bentonites and natural sodium bentonites are used in suspensions for their supporting and
sliding properties. The latter are also incorporated into mats and panels, where they are con-
tained in textiles or cardboard in various ways. Areas of application include hydraulic, highway,
tunnel and landfill construction as well as use as seals around basement walls, joints between
buildings, foundations etc. The sealing effect of these products relies on their ability to absorb
relatively high volumes of aqueous components and swell to form sealing gels, which fill or
close any cracks or other weak spots. The swelling pressure also fixes the products more firmly
in place.
In addition to loose powdered and granulated fillings the following products incorporating
MAds or MAbs are of interest in architecture:
BAGS WITH MAd FILLING
MAds enclosed in water vapour-permeable foil or paper are used to dry the air in transport
containers or electronic equipment.
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, easy to apply, relatively little or no
dust released, can be attached to or incorporated into many different types of construc-
tion, wide range of products available, resist mechanical loads and direct application of
water, relatively inexpensive. Otherwise as for MAds above.
Not universally available, approval may be required for certain applications in some
countries, relatively poor air circulation and low adsorption speed compared with non-
foiled MAds, the use of paper alone does not provide adequate fire resistance. Otherwise
as for MAds above.
++
−−
STRIPS WITH MAd FILLING
MAds enclosed in water vapour-permeable foil or paper are used to dry components with
residual moisture content, e.g. those made from wood.
Can be suspended in place. Otherwise as above and for MAds.
As above and for MAds.
GYPSUM WALLBOARDS INCORPORATING MAd
Zeolites (in particular clinoptilolites) enclosed in gypsum wallboards are currently available
in sizes 2000/3000mm x 1200/1300mm x 12.5mm and can be used like conventional
gypsum and fibre cement wallboards. They are especially suitable where air quality
improvement by conversion and some binding of pollutant gases and unwanted odours is
required, and for the adsorption of water vapour.
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, easy to use. Otherwise as for MAds
above.
Relatively expensive compared with conventional gypsum wallboards. Otherwise as for
MAds above.
BANDS (STRIPS) INCORPORATING MAb
Bentonites (e.g. natural sodium bentonite) bound in a matrix with one side having a
stabilising textile webbing and/or covered with a self-adhesive strip for attaching to a
component are currently available for example in sizes 25mm x 12mm and 25mm x
19mm. They are especially suitable for sealing components in contact with earth against
aqueous solutions, e.g. ground water, and are regenerated to a certain extent in the
presence of air.
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, can be used over a comparatively large
temperature range (–18°C to +80°C), easy to use, can be used where sealing by water-
sensitive volume change is required, relatively long replacement life (> 10 regeneration
cycles), relatively good UV resistance, non-combustible, insensitive to mechanical
vibrations, maintenance-free.
Not dimensionally stable enough for some applications, relatively low absorption speed
compared with powdered MAbs and superabsorbent polymers.
Other products incorporating MAbs include:
MATS INCORPORATING MAbs
PANELS INCORPORATING MAbs

++
−−
++
−−
++
−−
Available or developed products useful in architecture include:
RAW OR END PRODUCTS:
POWDERED MAds or MAbs (e.g. calcium bentonite)
GRANULATED MAds or MAbs (e.g. silica gel)
INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS:
BAGS with MAd fillings (e.g. calcium bentonite)
BANDS (strips) incorporating MAds or MAbs (e.g. silica gel)
GYPSUM WALLBOARDS incorporating MAds
(zeolite, in particular clinoptilolite)
MATS (boards) incorporating MAbs (e.g. natural sodium
bentonite)
PANELS incorporating MAbs (e.g. natural sodium bentonite)
179 | mineral ad-/absorbents (MAd, MAb)
180 | matter-exchanging smart materials
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ikhc^\ml
Bentonite has been the main mineral adsorbent (MAd) product in use in architecture to date.
Generally it has been used in suspensions to seal layers of soil in earthworks. There are also
systems of cardboard containers filled with bentonite powder or coarse granules on the market.
They are used in the so-called “braune Wanne” or brown tank technique for sealing building
basements at the external walls and in the foundation area. Any water encountered, e.g. stand-
ing ground water or water from surface water soakaways, swells the edges of the boards and
any other points of weakness, and seals the system against further entry of water. Apart from
calcium bentonites, stronger swelling sodium bentonites are also used. They can be classed as
mineral absorbents (MAb).
Rather new on the market are multifunctional acoustic gypsum wallboards incorporating MAds,
which, in addition to their inherent sound-absorbing and air moisture-buffering properties, can
improve room air quality by binding and converting odours and pollutants. The first projects
have already been realised using this product.
Marco Duchow, Alexander Duchow, Germany
Industrial monument with multifunctional catalytic gypsum wallboard
ceilin | Cottbus, Germany (2005)
For its use as a call centre, the column-free hall in the roof story of the in-
dustrial monument die fabrik (the factory) in Cottbus had to have good room
acoustics. Hamburg architects Marco and Alexander Duchow had been com-
missioned to give the historic room, where heavy looms once worked under
a barrel roof, a more modern character without losing the aesthetic of the
old factory.
Following information from a major German manufacturer about the advan-
tages of a new type of acoustic gypsum wallboard that improves room air
quality by the action of its incorporated zeolite, the decision was made to
use the material for cladding the curved soffit of the roof construction.
With gypsum as the main constituent (90%) the boards have moisture-regu-
lating properties and, because of incorporated additional layers of catalytic
zeolite powder (clinoptilolite <10%), can also bind or convert various odours
and pollutants. The actual physical and chemical processes involved are not
fully understood at the moment. There is no possibility of pure ad- or ab-
sorption processes without the conversion of these substances taking place
or of the boards becoming saturated over time.
Trials have shown that levels of cigarette smoke and the pollutants it con-
tains (such as formaldehyde and acetaldehyde), carpet and mattress odours
and the dodecene incorporated in the products, benzene from motor vehicle
exhaust gases and paints, aromatic hydrocarbons in printed products and
cleaning agents can be significantly lowered.
die fabrik: view at night. | View into the call centre with air-cleaning ceiling formed
with curved gypsum wallboard incorporating zeolite.
Monosmart material | Monosmart application
Gas/water-storing smart material:
GYPSUM WALLBOARDS WITH ZEOLITE
Sound absorption, air cleaning
ma^_Z\mhkr
181 | mineral ad-/absorbents (MAd, MAb)
182 | matter-exchanging smart materials
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!:I%L:I"7fZm^kbZel
Absorbent polymers (AP) are synthetic hydrophilic three-dimensionally cross-linked polymers
that are able to take up liquid components (e.g. water, aqueous solutions, oil) on to their internal
surfaces and take them into their volume, and reversibly change their volume, density and/or
optical properties. These liquid components are not released, even under pressure. Modifica-
tions to long chain molecules allow these products to be adapted and optimised for a wide
range of uses.
It is their ability to absorb large amounts or water and aqueous solutions very quickly that
makes these products particularly interesting in the field of architecture. Currently, there are
APs available that, depending on the liquid to be absorbed (the sorbent), can absorb volumes
of liquid some 30 times their initial volume, in the case of deionised water 500 times, in a rela-
tively short time. This time may be anything from a few seconds to a few minutes, depending
on the type of sorbent, the quantity of the absorbing polymer granulate and the surface area/
volume ratio. These materials are called superabsorbers or superabsorbent polymers (SAP).
Before SAPs were developed, cellulose was used instead; its high suction property made it
useful in hygiene products, e.g. in disposable nappies. In 1986 the world’s first facility for the
production of SAPs was brought into operation in Germany. Since then cellulose has been in-
creasingly replaced in suitable products by SAPs, which have also found new uses, e.g. as soil
additives in agriculture. In addition to Germany, the most important manufacturing countries
are the USA and Japan.
Materials and components in use include:
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Sodium polyacrylate
ADDITIONAL COMPONENTS
Pigments, aromatics, odour absorbers, silicates, mineral dust
Materials and components for the manufacture of APs/SAPs must in some cases be able to
perform through a relatively high number of cycles of exchange of liquid components without
any noticeable loss of absorption properties. Accordingly, there must be no loss of capacity
and no significant reduction in speed of absorption after at least 10 cycles. As well as meeting
these requirements, APs and SAPs must often be UV-stable and contain no volatile toxic
components.
The following APs and SAPs could be among those of interest in architecture:
CROSS-LINKED SODIUM POLYACRYLATE
Three-dimensionally cross-linked hydrophilic polymers appropriately modified to suit their
applications. Manufactured synthetically by the polymerisation of various components.
They can be further processed into powders and granulates. Available for a range of
applications. They can be regenerated for example by contact with still, moving and/or
heated air.
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, many years of practical use, usable
over a comparatively large temperature range (< –10°C to > +80°C), availability in small
particle sizes means suitability as bag fillings e.g. as water absorbers or hydrogels that
reversibly change from opaque to translucent, can be used as heat-emitting (latent heat
creating) smart material, can be combined with pigments, aromatics, odour absorbers,
silicates, mineral dusts, non-combustible when carrying absorbed water, insensitive to
mechanical vibrations, maintenance-free.
Some have relatively short replacement lives (< 10 regeneration cycles), some have low
UV resistance, less air circulation and slower absorption speed if allowed to clump.
Z[lhk[^gm(lni^kZ[lhk[^gmiherf^kl
!:I%L:I"7ikh]n\ml
The main areas of use of absorbent/superabsorbent polymers (AP/SAP) are in hygiene prod-
ucts and agriculture. They can be added to natural or artificial soils as a soil additive in the
form of burnt expanded clay or may be the single ingredient of a synthetic soil. They can also
be used to provide a nutrient subsoil. A number of products have been specially developed in
this area. Further applications include their use in underwater high voltage cable installations
to prevent water entry in the event of damage and in packaging. A relatively new development
is a chair with SAPs incorporated into the chair back upholstery. When the chair is in use, it
binds any sweat, which is later released in contact with air when the chair is not in use.
Although not developed specially for use in architecture, APs as well as SAPs can find applica-
tions in flat or slightly sloping roofs. In agriculture, composite SAPs mixed with mineral com-
ponents are used as soil improvers, especially in difficult soil and climate conditions, and could
be found useful in green roofs in the future.
In addition to the available performance range of powder and coarse granulate absorbents that
can be further optimised by addition of other ingredients, there are various intermediate and
end products available. As well as loose fillings made from powdered and granulated APs and
SAPs, the main products of interest in architecture are those available as composites with other
components:
++
−−
Superabsorber powder made from
SAP in varying states of saturation.
183 | absorbent/superabsorbent polymers (AP, SAP)
184 | matter-exchanging smart materials
Non-composites:
HYDROCRYSTALS MADE FROM AP
Pigmented granulates of cross-linked normal absorbent polyacrylate are manufactured in
almost any colour as irregular particles of up to about 4mm grain size and used for
keeping plants continuously supplied with water and in place in their containers.
Relatively good regeneration performance, can be installed in or on many types of
construction, relatively little tendency to clump compared with powdered APs and SAPs.
Otherwise very similar to cross-linked sodium polyacrylate.
Not universally available, approval may be required for certain applications, relatively
slow absorption speed compared with powdered SAPs. Otherwise very similar to cross-
linked sodium polyacrylate.
SUPERABSORBER POWDER MADE FROM SAP
Fine white granulates of cross-linked superabsorbent sodium polyacrylate, irregularly
shaped with a grain size of about 1mm. Uses include the manufacture of various
composites, the quick absorption of a range of liquid media (e.g. water, bodily fluids and
oil) and the continuous supply of water to plants.
Can be used in and on various types of construction, for example textiles. Otherwise very
similar to cross-linked sodium polyacrylate.
Not universally available, approval may be required for certain applications, relatively
slow desorption speed compared with absorption speed, relatively high tendency to
clump compared with coarsely granulated APs and SAPs. Otherwise very similar to cross-
linked sodium polyacrylate.
++
−−
++
−−
Technology by Rascor: compression of purple-
coloured AP in a daywork joint. | Section
through band composite with empty AP channel
(above foam band). | Installed band composite
with AP not yet compressed.
Composites:
BAND COMPOSITES INCORPORATING AP
Hydrogel made from polyacrylate, produced from two liquid components immediately
before application; the hydrogel band, initially uncross-linked and later normally absorbent,
is compressed into a hollow cell plastic profile with an additional foamed material band.
Currently available with the dimensions 30mm x 20mm x 2000mm. The products are
used to absorb aqueous solutions and for sealing, e.g. against the entry of ground water
under pressure.
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, can be used over a comparatively large
temperature range (< –10°C to > +60°C), can be installed in or on different types of
construction, can be used as a water absorber, an irreversible colour change (e.g. purple
to colourless) indicates hydrogel, relatively long replacement life, maintenance-free.
Not universally available, relatively poor absorption capacity and slow absorption speed
compared with powdered SAPs.
AGRO-COMPOSITES INCORPORATING SAP (E.G. TECHNOLOGY GEOHUMUS)
Irregularly shaped composite granulates with grain sizes up to about 4mm made from
cross-linked superabsorbent sodium polyacrylate with incorporated silicates and mineral
dusts. Their uses include continuously supplying water and support to plants whilst
keeping the soil surface open.
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, can be used over a comparatively large
temperature range (< –10°C to > +80°C), availability in small particle sizes means
suitability as bag fillings e.g. as water absorbers and heat-emitting (latent heat creating)
smart materials, relatively long replacement life (> 10 regeneration cycles), relatively
good UV resistance, non-combustible, insensitive to mechanical vibrations,
maintenance-free.
Not universally available, cannot change reversibly from opaque to translucent (mineral
components).
++
−−
++
−−
Technology by Geohumus: agro-composite
incorporating SAP before swelling. | Demonstra-
tion of the swelling capacity of a compressed
cube. | Plant with SAP in the root area. |
Cultivation trial in a greenhouse at the Justus
Liebig University, Gießen, Germany.
185 | absorbent/superabsorbent polymers (AP, SAP)
186 | matter-exchanging smart materials
LAYER COMPOSITES INCORPORATING SAP
Irregularly shaped, fine, white granulates of cross-linked superabsorbent sodium poly-
acrylate that are interlayered between textile layers, sometimes together with cellulose.
Their uses include the absorption of liquids in packaging.
Market presence, can be made in large quantities, depending on the layer materials
and SAP used they can be used over a comparatively large temperature range (< –10°C to
> +80°C), uses include water absorbers and heat-emitting (latent heat creating) smart
materials, relatively good UV resistance, insensitive to mechanical vibrations,
maintenance-free.
Relatively short replacement life (< 10 regeneration cycles) depending on the layer ma-
terial and SAPs used, relatively poor air circulation and slower absorption speed
compared with coated APs and SAPs, may be combustible depending on the layers used.
Z[lhk[^gm(lni^kZ[lhk[^gmiherf^kl
!:I%L:I"7ikhc^\ml
Whilst superabsorbent polymers (SAP) have in a few cases been successfully used as soil addi-
tives in green roofs, other uses of absorbent polymers (AP) and SAPs in architecture are cur-
rently still insignificant. They could be used, possibly on a large scale, for difficult soils and in
hot and dry climates. This would include deserts (arid zones) and in particular the cultivation
and long-term support of vegetation layers. Suitable polymers could also be used to store
rainwater, perhaps temporarily, and release it, when necessary, into building components in
contact with inside or outside air, e.g. when the room air is too dry and/or surface temperatures
are too high. It is feasible to incorporate APs and/or SAPs into wallpapers, wall coverings and
room dividers, where it would be possible to install sufficiently coarse, non-woven fabric so that
the granulate could be permanently contained in place even after complete absorption has oc-
curred. Membranes, perhaps made from textiles or ETFE film, could incorporate APs and SAPs
in pockets or bubbles.
++
−−
Currently available or developed products
relevant to architecture include:
RAW OR END PRODUCTS
FINE GRANULATES (powders) of APs, SAPs
COARSE GRANULATES (e.g. crystals) of APs, SAPs
INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS
BAND COMPOSITES incorporating APs
AGRO-COMPOSITES incorporating SAPs
LAYER COMPOSITES incorporating SAPs
FILMS incorporating APs
Axel Ritter, Germany
Water-sensitive, light transmission-changing foils |
Germany (1994)
These two technology demonstrators show how APs could be
integrated into foil membranes to create light transmission
and colour changing building envelopes.
Enclosed in the hemispherical cells of an ordinary, commer-
cially available bubble wrap, these colour-pigmented AP
granulates were tested to see if they were able to perma-
nently change the transparency of foil membranes under the
influence of water and the hydrogels formed.
For the prototype, AP crystals were placed in the cells. Grav-
ity caused them to accumulate at the bottom of each cell
with the result that the foil remained generally transparent.
The cells were then half-filled with water to allow maximum
swelling volume. The contact with water initiated swelling in
the crystals and thus produced changes in light transmis-
sion and colour.
Hydroabsorber foils: detail of several cells with roughly half-
swelled crystals (semitransparent: transparent/opaque). | Several
cells, some with completely swelled and some with unswelled
crystals (semitransparent: transparent/opaque). | Several cells
with fully swelled crystals (opaque).
187 | absorbent/superabsorbent polymers (AP, SAP)
Monosmart material | Monosmart application
Water-storing smart material:
FOILS INCORPORATING AP
Water-sensitive light transmission-changing surfaces and
building envelopes
Ar]khZ[lhk[^k?hbel
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materials, at: http://dbtindia.nic.in/woman/paper15.htm
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bransysteme, Seminar Report, Universität Stuttgart,
Summer Semester 1994
Ritter, Axel: „Es“ bewegt sich – Reagible Tragstruktur aus
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Ritter, Axel: Flexible Tragstruktur aus Glasfaserkunststoff, in:
Arch+, 12/95, p. 136
Ritter, Axel: Polyreagible Mechanomembran mit wettersen-
sibler Ausstattung – Lektionen aus der Natur, in: Intelli-
gente Architektur, No. 36, 09–10 2002, ch. 16
Roth, Werner; Schilz, Jürgen; Steinhüser, Andreas:
Thermoelektrische Wandler als Zusatzstromerzeuger,
Forschungsverbund Sonnenenergie „Themen 96/97“,
pp. 77–83
Saße, Dörte: Photochromes Glas erstmals umweltfreundlich
hergestellt, at: http://www.wissenschaft.de/wissen/
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Heidelberg, 2001
Shor, Shirley: Smart House – Version 2.0 – Das Haus von
Bill Gates als Modell für das Haus der Zukunft; at: http://
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lhnk\^l
189 | sources
CATALOGUES, WHITE PAPERS, BROCHURES
Dehnstoffarbeitselemente mit PTC; company publication by
Behr Thermot-tronic GmbH, Kornwestheim
EunSook Lee, catalogue of exhibition at Republic of Korea
Embassy, 26 November to 5 December 2003, Berlin
Förderpreis zum 3. Studentenwettbewerb „Textile Strukturen
für neues Bauen 1995“, white paper published by
Techtextil-Symposium, Arbeitskreis Textile Architektur
und der Messe Frankfurt,1995, Frankfurt
Gelsenkirchen-Stiftung (Editor): Kinetische Kunst – Die
Sammlung des Städtischen Museums Gelsenkirchen,
Edition Braus: Heidelberg, 1998
GLASSX verwandelt die Glasfassade in ein Klimatisierungse-
lement mit nachhaltiger Energiebilanz, company
publication by GlassX AG, Zurich, Switzerland
Heckner, Karl-Heinz: Intelligente Gläser im Energiemanage-
ment von Gebäuden – Fenster mit variablen optischen und
thermischen Eigenschaften, in: conference paper at
„GLAS“ – Innovationsforum für Glasvarianten, Haus der
Technik, Berlin, on 03.06.1999
Nitz, Peter: Sonnenschutz mit thermotropen Schichten,
white paper for the 1st Leobener Symposium Polymeric
Solar Materials, Leoben, 2003
Optimal gekoppelt: Akustik und Raumluftqualität – Call
Center im Industriedenkmal „die Fabrik“ in Cottbus, press
release by Knauf Gips KG, Iphofen, 2005
Piezokeramische Materialien und Bauelemente, company
publication by PI Ceramic GmbH, Lederhose, Germany
Sigmar Polke, catalogue of exhibition at Musée d´Art
Moderne de la Ville de Paris, ARC, Paris, from 20 October
to 31 December 1988
SmartWrap; company publication by KieranTimberlake
Associates, 2003
Thermobimetalle – Grundlagen, Berechnungen, Gestaltung,
Auswahl; company publication by G. Rau GmbH,
Pforzheim, 1989
Toyoda, Hiroshi; Nakata, Takayuki; Abe, Kazuhiro:
Photocatalytic properties of membrane materials treated
with titanium dioxide for architectural membrane
structures, company publication by Taiyo Kogyo Corp.,
Osaka, Japan
Verbundprojekte, in: Ergebnisse aus Forschung und
Entwicklung, ZAE Bayern, 2003, pp. 48–53
Wie das Auge in der Bleistiftzeichnung herumspaziert, so
meldet das Hirn..., leaflet by Ruth Handschin about the
light installation at Künstlerhaus Bethanien, Berlin, 1990
INFORMATION SOURCES ON THE INTERNET
http://www.art-site.de/ruth.handschin
http://www.autonomic.uiuc.edu
http://www.bayermaterialscience.de
http://www.bine.info
http://www.chempage.de
http://www.dyesol.com
http://www.eamex.co.jp
http://www.e-ink.com
http://www.el-licht.de
http://www.el-technik.de
http://www.emfit.com
http://www.empa.ch
http://www.enocean.com
http://www.functionalpolymers.basf.com
http://www.innovations-report.de
http://www.inhaus-duisburg.de
http://www.ise.fhg.de
http://www.oled.at
http://www.photochromics.co.uk
http://www.privalite.com
http://www.rinspeed.com
http://www.sam-tetec.com
http://www.seilnacht.com
http://www.storelite.com
http://www.tagesleuchtfarben.ch
http://www.tii.se/static.htm
http://www2.uni-jena.de/chemie/institute/oc/weiss.htm
http://www.we-make-money-not-art.com
http://wikipedia.org
UNIVERSITIES, INSTITUTIONS
Eidgenössische Materialprüfungs- und Forschungsanstalt
(EMPA), Dübendorf
Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZ Jülich), Jülich
Fraunhofer Institut Angewandte Polymerforschung (IAP),
Potsdam-Golm
Fraunhofer Institut für Solare Energiesysteme (ISE),
Freiburg
Fraunhofer Technologie Entwicklungsgruppe (TEG),
Stuttgart
Philipps-Universität, Marburg
Technische Universität Berlin, Physikalische und Theo-
retische Chemie, Berlin
Universität des Saarlandes, Fachbereich Organische
Chemie, Saarbrücken
LECTURES ON THE SUBJECT BY THE AUTHOR
Häuser mit IQ – Die smarten Eigenschaften des Wassers als
Auslöser komplexer Veränderungen am Haus, invited
lecture to the 3rd Students‘ Congress at the Fachhoch-
schule Suderburg, 05.06.1994
Sich verändernde Häuser als Ergebnis biologischer Prozesse
auf Natursteinflächen, invited lecture to the 4th Students‘
Congress at the Fachhochschule Nürtingen, 14.05.1995
Gewichtsgesteuerte Phänomene, invited lecture at the
Institut für leichte Flächentragwerke (IL) of the Univer-
sität Stuttgart as part of an international symposium,
28.05.1998
Smarte Materialien für eine neue Architektur, invited lecture
at the Fachhochschule Koblenz, 09.06.2004
PUBLICATIONS RELEVANT TO THE SUBJECT BY THE
AUTHOR
Airship hangar wins textiles design prize, publication of a
design for a pneumatically convertible airship hangar
with a bivalent load bearing structure – Luftschiffhalle
Friedrichshafen, in: Technical Textiles International,
November 1995
Airship hangar designed with textile structure, publication
of a design for a pneumatically convertible airship
hangar with a bivalent load bearing structure – Luftschiff-
halle Friedrichshafen, in: High Performance Textiles,
November 1995
Publication of a design for a pneumatically convertible
airship hangar with a bivalent load bearing structure –
Luftschiffhalle Friedrichshafen, in: Techtextil-Telegramm,
December 1995
A pneumatic convertible, publication of a design for a
pneumatically convertible airship hangar with a bivalent
load bearing structure – Luftschiffhalle Friedrichshafen,
in: fabrics & architecture, 01–02 1995
Dreilagige Textilhülle von 157m Länge, publication of a
design for a pneumatically convertible airship hangar
with a bivalent load bearing structure, in: Techniker-
Magazin, June 1995
Publication of a design for a weight-controlled building by
the Kinetic Design Group at the Massachusetts Institute
of Technology (MIT), at: http://kdg.mit.edu/Matrix/
matrix.html, since December 1999
Publication of a design for a reactive mechanical mem-
brane, in: Wallpaper*, December 2002
Publication of a competition design for a building with a
reactive mechanical facade capable of changing its
textural and light transmission properties, by: Exhibition
by the Aufsichts- und Dienstleistungsdirektion Trier at the
Elector‘s Palace, Trier; Exhibition by the Verbandsge-
meinde Verwaltung Hermeskeil, Hermeskeil, October
2003
NOTES ON THE TEXT
[1] http://kdg.mit.edu/Matrix/matrix.html
[2] Hofmeister, Sabine: Der beabsichtigte Zufall und
die gewollten Veränderungen im malerischen
Werk Sigmar Polkes, Diplomarbeit, Institut für
Technologie der Malerei, Stuttgart, May 1993
[3] van Hees, Rob: Laboratory Profile: Conservation
Techniques, at: http://www.tudelft.nl/~
[4] E-mail from Herbert Enzler, technical assistant at
the Institut für Polymerwerkstoffe und Kunststoff-
technik of the TU Clausthal dated 14.11.2005
[5] Schmidt-Mende, P.: Aktoren mit Formgedächtnis-
legierungen, in: Jendritza, Daniel J. et al.:
Technischer Einsatz Neuer Aktoren – Grundlagen,
Werkstoffe, Designregeln und Anwendungs-
beispiele, 2nd ed., expert-Verlag: Renningen-
Malmsheim, 1998
[6] E-mail from Dipl. Masch.-Ing. ETH Patrick
Lochmatter, Eidgenössische Materialprüfungs-
und Forschungsanstalt (EMPA), Dübendorf dated
22.06.2006
[7] Bouas-Laurent, H.; Dürr, H.: Organic Photo-
chromism, in: Angewandte Chemie, No. 116,
2004, pp. 3404–3418
[8] Helioseal Clear Chroma – farbverändernd,
transparent, ästhetisch, company publication by
Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Lichtenstein
[9] Stephan, Jörg: Beitrag zum Greifen von Textilien,
Dissertation, Fachbereich 11 Maschinenbau und
Produktionstechnik der Technischen Universität
Berlin, Berlin, February 2001
[10] Keramische Fliesen mit Hydrotect Oberflächen-
Veredelung, company publication by the
Deutsche Steinzeug Cremer & Breuer AG, Bonn
[11] Blasse, Grabmeier, 1994
[12] Mann, Martin: ... und es leuchten die Wände, in:
hobby – Das Magazin der Technik, No. 8, August
1957, pp. 74–77
[13] Elektronik, 12/2002
ILLUSTRATION CREDITS
AGROB BUCHTAL: 99 top, 106, 107
(photos: Pez Hejduk)
© Alsa: 82, 85
© Anja-Natalie Richter: 64
© atelier brückner: 13, 14 top
(all photos: Thomas Mayer)
© Autostadt: 14 bottom
© Axel Ritter: 11 left (photos: Axel Ritter); 15, 46 top
(graphic: Axel Ritter); 52 (graphic: Axel Ritter); 57,
58 (photos: Axel Ritter); 76 left 1
st
, 2
nd
and 3
rd
from
top; 81; 91; 100; 113 (photo: Axel Ritter); 162, 163
(photos: Axel Ritter); 174 (photo: Axel Ritter); 177
2nd from top (photo: Axel Ritter); 183; 187
(photos: Axel Ritter)
© BASF: 165; 167 left, right 1
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from top; 170
Bayer: 20 2
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and 3
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from top
© Behr Thermot-tronik: 49, 50
© BMW Group: 21 right
© Bryan Boyer: 46 bottom; 71
© Bugatti: 16
© Christina Kubisch: 116
© Christopher Glaister, Afshin Mehin, Tomas Rosen: 88
© CLOUD 9 (Enric Ruiz Geli): 128; 129
© 2006 Cute Circuit: 18; 20 1
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from top
© DaimlerChrysler: 21 left 4
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from top
© Daniel Pelosi: 41 3
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and 4
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dECOi Architects: 12
© Deutsche Steinzeug Cremer & Breuer: 101; 102;
104 1
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© DieMount: 126 left 3
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from top, right 1
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© Ewald Dörken AG: 166 2
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and 3
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from top;
167 right 2
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© Dyesol: 144 1., 2
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and 3
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from top; 145; 147
© EADS: 62
east Hamburg: 104 4
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Eike Becker Architekten: 78
© E Ink / Citizen: 93 1
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© E Ink / LG.Philips LCD: 93 2
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© E Ink / Polymer Vision: 93 3
rd
from top
© E Ink / Toppan Printing: 95 right 1
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© Emfit: 155 3rd from top; 158 1
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and 2
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© EMPA: 66; 67; 68; 69
© EnOcean: 158 3
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from top
© EunSook Lee: 110 bottom; 117
© European Bioplastics: 30 1
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from above
(photo: Treofan), 2
nd
from above (photo: Novamont)
© Felix Hess: 161
© FerroTec: 152 3
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from top
© Fludicon GmbH: 38 left 1
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from top, right
© Fraunhofer IAP: 83 (photos: Armin Okulla); 84
(photo: Armin Okulla); 138 (photo: Armin Okulla)
© Fraunhofer ISE: 76 right; 77; 144 4
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from top; 146
© Fraunhofer TEG: 149 3
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Freihofer: 29 left 2
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and 2
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© FZ Jülich: 155 1
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© 2006 G+B pronova: 32 right
© Geohumus International: 185
© Gesimat: 92 1
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and 4
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© GKD / ag4: 127 right
© GlassX: 164 (photo: Gaston Wicky); 166 1
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(photo: GlassX); 168 (photo and graphics: GlassX);
171, 172 (photos: Gaston Wicky)
© G. Rau: 53; p. 54; 55; 56; 61
© Gruppe RE (Silke Warchold, Nicole Hüttner):
23 right (photos: Lucas Roth); 119 2
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and 3
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from
top (photos: Sabrina Rothe)
© Grado Zero Espace: 17, 19 left 1
st
, 2
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and 4
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from
top
© Hannaliisa Hailahti: 124
hobby – Das Magazin der Technik, No. 8, August 1957,
74, 75 and 77: 132 1
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and 2
nd
from top
hobby – Das Magazin der Technik, No. 11,
November 1958, 164: 153
© Jaithan Kochar: 42 right 2
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and 3
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from top
© James Robinson: 74 1
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and 2
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from top; 75
© KieranTimberlake Ass.: 140; 141
© Knauf Gips: 177 right 2
nd
from top (photo:
Albert Weisflog); 181 (photos: Albert Weisflog)
© J. Mayer H.: 72 (photo: Uwe Walter); 87
© Juliet Quintero: 123
Kowa / Kirakira-Komichi: 120; 121 top
Kowa / Mamoru Nanba: 119 1
st
from top
© LBL: 92 2
nd
and 3
rd
from top
© LBM: 40
© Lichtpapier (Anke Neumann): 114 1
st
and 2
nd
from top (photos: Anke Neumann); 121 2
nd
and
3
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from top (photos: Anke Neumann); 132 3
rd
and
4
th
from top
lif Germany: 127 left 3
rd
from top
© Loop.pH (Rachel Wingfield, Mathias Gmachl):
133; 134
© 2004–2006 Lord Corp.: 38 left 2
nd
, 3
rd
and 4
th
from
top
© 2006 LUMINEX: 23 left
© Merck: 31
© 2006 Messe Frankfurt Exhibition GmbH: 19 left
3
rd
from top (photo: Jean-Luc Valentin); 20 2
nd
from
top (photo: Jean-Luc Valentin)
© 2006 Michael Bleyenberg: 34; 35
© Micropelt: 151; 152 1
st
from top
© Minimax: 48 2
nd
and 3
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from top
© Mirow Systemtechnik: 157
190 | sources
© Mitchell Joachim: 11 right
Mitchell Joachim, Lara Greden, Whitney Jade Foutz, Wendy
Meguro, Luis Rafael Berrios-Negron: 142; 160
© National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation:
39
© NAUE: 178 4
th
from top
© 2006 NO-CONTACT (Adam Whiton, Yolita Nugent):
19 right
© Norbulb Sprinkler Elemente: 48
© Novaled: 135 top; 136; 137 1st and 2nd from top;
139 2
nd
and 3
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from top
© OKER-Chemie: 177 left 1
st
and 3
rd
from top, right 1
st
from top
© 2004 Olafur Eliasson: 33
© Osram Opto Semiconductors: 126 left 1
st
2
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and 4
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from top, right 2
nd
from top; 135 bottom; 137 3
rd
from
top; 139 1
st
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© Permalight: 118 1
st
from top
© Peter Linnett, Tobi Blunt: 51
© Peter Marino Architects: 96 left; 97 right
© Peter Yeadon: 42 left, right 1
st
from top
© Philipps-Universität / N. Hampp: 74 3
rd
and 4
th
from top;
76 left, 4
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and 5
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from top
© PI Ceramic: 154; 155 2
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© Prinz Optics: 32 left
© Rascor International: 184
© RC TRITEC: 111 top; 112; 118 2
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and 3
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from top
© Rinspeed: 21 left 1
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© R&Sie... (François Roche): 10
© Ruth Handschin: 110 top; 114 3
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from top; 115; 122
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© SCTB NORD: 152 2
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© SGG: 94; 95 left 2
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96 right; 97 left; 103
© 2006 Sharon M. Louden, courtesy of the Artist and
Oliver Kamm/5BE Gallery: 25
© SHARP: 41 2
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Sigmar Polke: 24; 86
Solitech – Innovative Solartechnik: 127
© Taiyo: 104 2
nd
and 3
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from top
© Taiyo / Obayashi Corp.: 99 bottom; 105
Technische Universität Berlin / G. Hauck: 80
© Interactive Institute / Front design: 79
© Interactive Institute: 22
© UIUC: 28
wikimedia.org: 59; 98; 111 bottom; 150
© Würth Solar / Universität der Künste Berlin:
41 1
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from top
© Yvonne Chan Vili: 65
© Zigan Displays: 130
191 | sources

ax el ritter
in architecture, interior architecture and design

Birkhäuser – Publishers for Architecture

image research and selection Editor Copyediting and proofreading - - .- Translation Graphic design. layout and cover Cover idea.

PRODUCTS. PROJECTS 47 53 59 66 66 electroactive smart materials ELECTROACTIVE POLYMERS (EAP) > MATERIALS. PRODUCTS. PROJECTS 98 100 100 ADHESION-CHANGING SMART MATERIALS photoadhesive smart materials TITANIUM DIOXIDE (TiO2) > MATERIALS. PROJECTS SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS (SMA) > MATERIALS. PROJECTS THERMOBIMETALS (TB) > MATERIALS. PRODUCTS. PROJECTS 80 80 thermochromic and thermotropic smart materials THERMOCHROMIC/-TROPIC MATERIALS (TC. PRODUCTS. PRODUCTS. PROJECTS 72 73 73 COLOUR. PRODUCTS. PRODUCTS. EO) > MATERIALS. TT) > MATERIALS.7 10 26 43 preface trends and developments innovative materials and products smart materials 45 PROPERTY-CHANGING SMART MATERIALS 46 47 SHAPE-CHANGING SMART MATERIALS thermostrictive smart materials THERMAL EXPANSION MATERIALS (TEM) / EXPANSION MATERIALS (EM) > MATERIALS. PROJECTS .AND OPTICALLY CHANGING SMART MATERIALS photochromic smart materials PHOTOCHROMIC MATERIALS (PC) > MATERIALS. PRODUCTS. PROJECTS 89 89 electrochromic and electrooptic smart materials ELECTROCHROMIC/-OPTIC MATERIALS (EC.

PROJECTS 173 MATTER-EXCHANGING SMART MATERIALS gas/water-storing smart materials MINERAL AD-/ABSORBENTS (MAd. PROJECTS photoelectric smart materials DYE SOLAR CELLS (DSC) > MATERIALS. PRODUCTS. PROJECTS PHOSPHORESCENCE > MATERIALS. PRODUCTS. PROJECTS POLYMER/SMALL MOLECULE ELECTROLUMINESCENCE | ORGANIC LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES (OLED) > MATERIALS. PRODUCTS. PRODUCTS. PROJECTS ABSORBENT/SUPERABSORBENT POLYMERS (AP SAP) > . PRODUCTS. PRODUCTS. PRODUCTS. PROJECTS thermoelectric smart materials THERMOELECTRIC GENERATORS (TEG) > MATERIALS. PRODUCTS. PRODUCTS. PROJECTS piezoelectric smart materials PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMICS/POLYMERS (PEC. MAb) > MATERIALS. PROJECTS THICK FILM ELECTROLUMINESCENCE | ELECTROLUMINESCENT MATERIALS (EL) > MATERIALS. PROJECTS heat-storing smart materials PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS (PCM) > MATERIALS.109 ENERGY-EXCHANGING SMART MATERIALS photoluminescent smart materials FLUORESCENCE > MATERIALS. PRODUCTS. PROJECTS electroluminescent smart materials INJECTION ELECTROLUMINESCENCE | LIGHT-EMTTING DIODES (LED) > MATERIALS. PROJECTS . PEP) > MATERIALS. MATERIALS. PRODUCTS.

*384 BC) This book is suitable for students. Buildings and life in our buildings have changed over the last 25 years. and ecological and economic constraints. for compact materials and products reacting to sensors and actuators and the increasing global demand on expensive energy sources and raw materials. practitioners and teaching staff active in the fields of architecture. which are usually too brief. Much of what they foresaw just never happened as they said it would. In addition to his activities as a freelance architect and designer. Currently the use of smart material is made necessary by the wish for more automation. futurologists and even some politicians have developed scenarios of how the world of tomorrow will look. sight is not lost of the well-being of the occupants and they are given the opportunity of self-determination. which are extremely ecological in their behaviour through the intelligent use of functionally adaptive materials. To cure the problem. the control was made less sensitive and the number of possible switching processes reduced. The author would be delighted to receive information about new materials at: info@ritter-architekten. as the majority of these materials and products take up energy and matter indirectly or directly from the environment. This creates new tasks for the designers and planners of these buildings. the desire for new means of expression. We are standing at the threshold of the next generation of buildings: buildings with various degrees of high technology. it is now possible to design buildings that are clearly different from those of previous decades. and to the frequent predictions for worldwide omnipresence of the phenomena.com The author has been involved in the development and application of smart materials and adaptive and kinetic structures in the fields of experimental architecture and innovative design for more than ten years. which is undergoing a continuous and rapid change of appearance in some districts. on the look out for new materials and products of use in the future or for those who just wish to be inspired. it is above all the changes in building technology and automation. it is not spectacular buildings and housing types that define our times.” (Aristotle. products and constructions. In particular this applies to the timeframes envisaged. the move to endow buildings with more functions. Apart from a few exceptions. at short intervals and sometimes even under a heavily overcast sky. . they must be given the opportunity to step in when the need arises to have things how they would like them. Metropolises like Tokyo. In the past they have seldom been proved right. for example as would arise through conventionally networked automation products. who must ensure that. To do this in the design process requires knowledge and integration of as many of these parameters as possible. suggestions and ideas relating to this publication are expressly welcomed. Depending on the future popularity of use of smart materials and the visible effects on our buildings. That all too sensitive adaption processes are not always advantageous can be seen with the 1987 Institut du Monde Arabe (IMA) building in Paris by Jean Nouvel. Through the development of innovative materials. Time and time again utopians. Criticism. in achieving what is technically feasible. the author has published articles on the subject and presented invited lectures.“The whole is more than the sum of its parts. products and constructions and are able to react to changes in their direct or indirect surroundings and adjust themselves to suit. This approach does not entail any other related requirements. They took place all the time. show that people are capable of living with permanent architectural change. Energy and matter flows can be optimised through the use of smart materials. design and art: for all who are open to innovative technology. The central role of technology and automation of processes must not lead to people being deprived of their right to make decisions. which was fitted with a multitude of mechanical photo-shutters to control light transmission: people inside the building found the repeated adaption sequences a nuisance. our picture in relation to our built environment will change from what we are used to seeing as architecture.

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COLOUR/APPEARANCE - CycleBowl - SOUND (NOISE) - ODOUR (SCENT) Dufttunnel CycleBowl Dufttunnel .

The TRON Intelligent House - InHaus - - hydrophil-hydrophob - hydrophil-hydrophob II .

DESIGN AND ART - - DIRT-REPELLENT CLOTHING INCORPORATING NANOPARTICLES SHAPE-CHANGING CLOTHING INCORPORATING SHAPE-MEMORY ALLOY (SMA) Oricalco - opposite: Oricalco .

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COLOUR-CHANGING CLOTHING WITH THERMOCHROMIC DYES Skirteleon - LIGHT-EMITTING CLOTHING INCORPORATING ELECTROLUMINESCENT CABLE (EL CABLE) KineticDress CLIMATE-REGULATING CLOTHING INCORPORATING SHAPE-MEMORY POLYMER (SMA) - - CLIMATE-REGULATING CLOTHING INCORPORATING PELTIER ELEMENTS (PE) - - Skirteleon KineticDress .

SCENT-CHANGING CLOTHING INCORPORATING CYCLODEXTRINS - SUPERINSULATIVE CLOTHING INCORPORATING AEROGEL Absolute Frontier - DEFENSIVE CLOTHING WITH ELECTRON-EMITTING TEXTILES AND LEDs The No-Contact COMMUNICATING CLOTHING WITH INTEGRATED MP3 PLAYER - - Absolute Frontier No-contact .

COMMUNICATING CLOTHING INCORPORATING BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY F+R Hugs - - LIGHT-EMITTING HANDBAG INCORPORATING ELECTROLUMINESCENT FILM (EL FILM) F+R Hugs .

- COLOUR-. SOUND.AND SCENT-CHANGING AUTOMOBILE WITH ELECTROLUMINESCENT FILMS (EL FILMS) AND SCENT GENERATOR Senso - - OPTICALLY CHANGING AUTOMOBILE WITH ELECTROOPTICAL COMPONENTS Maybach 62 - SCENT-CHANGING AUTOMOBILE WITH SCENT GENERATOR Mini Concept Senso Mini Concept: Maybach 62: the .

COLOUR-CHANGING FURNITURE WITH THERMOCHROMIC DYES tictac - LIGHT-EMITTING FURNITURE INCORPORATING PHOSPHORESCENT GLAZE - LIGHT-EMITTING FURNITURE INCORPORATING LUMINATING FABRIC tictac .

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COLOUR-CHANGING ART USING SILVER NITRATE - - COLOUR-CHANGING ART USING COBALT CHLORIDE PAINTS - LIGHT-EMITTING ART USING PHOSPHORESCENT PAINT The Schattenwand mit Blitzelektronik - Tips Hygrowall: opposite: Tips: .

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RECYCLABLE MATERIALS - BIODEGRADABLE MATERIALS BIOMATERIALS NONVARIABLE MATERIALS FUNCTIONAL SUBSTANCES SMART MATERIALS HYBRID MATERIALS FUNCTIONALLY GRADIENT MATERIALS NANOMATERIALS - .

DURABLE (RESISTANT) NON.AND SEMI-SMART MATERIALS SELF-HEALING NON.AND SEMI-SMART MATERIALS - - - .

AND SEMI-SMART MATERIALS - - .- SELF-REINFORCING NON.

AND SEMI-SMART MATERIALS Depending on the material. yellow plastic body with a shaped Formetal perforated sheet. SHAPE-CHANGING NON. a force may. Expanded metal is one such material. These influences may lead to changes directly without conversion. Conventional metal can only be deformed using relatively little force if the metal is woven or stamped in advance into a more reshapable structure. | Sections of heat-shrinkable sleeve before and after heat treatment. Heat-shrinkable materials in the form of film or sleeves are among those materials and products that change their shape plastically and irreversibly in response to increased temperature. A relatively new perforated sheet made from aluminium behaves in a different way. produce reversible plastic or elastic changes in materials or products. stretched or upset. a pattern of Y-shaped holes (in the Formetal product) allows the material to be easily deformed in three dimensions. skin made from Formetal. Under certain circumstances it is worthwhile using materials or products that partially or fully dissolve after a preset period of time or at the end of their useful lives.29 | innovative materials and products Sensitive and reactive materials. . which in turn produces irreversible plastic changes in the shape of materials or products. or indirectly with conversion. For example. Although these processes are not reversible. for example. but it can only be deformed in three dimensions to a limited extent. These materials and products can be divided into different groups depending on their ability to change their properties or have them changed by outside influences. They could be temporary materials used for example during the manufacture of a component and then decomposed later by some external influence. Lamp in the shape of a bear. or a temperature increase may be converted into force. without conversion into any other form of energy. Variable/changing materials and products can be of use in this context. they promise a variety of interesting applications in architecture. products and constructions are required to help buildings react dynamically to various influences for reasons of stability and energy absorption. its thickness and final required shape. tools and machinery are normally required to deform solid metal sheets in three dimensions. In this example. | Audi-Kreationsei in a pavilion at the Volkswagen “Car City” in Dresden. temperature. Examples of their use include the manufacture of packaging and cable sleeves to protect items from moisture and hold them in position. They are capable of changing their properties themselves or their properties being changed by external influences such as the effect of light. force and/or the application of an electrical field. It can be easily worked by hand. or components in their own right that decompose themselves after they are no longer in use.

AND OPTICALLY CHANGING NON.- - - - COLOUR.AND SEMI-SMART MATERIALS - Biophan .

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Augenfeuer opposite: Augenfeuer.

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Augenfeuer

opposite

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VISCOSITY-CHANGING SEMI-SMART AND SMART MATERIALS - .

Large-scale seismic shock damper: .

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AND SEMI-SMART MATERIALS - MATTER-EMITTING NON.LIGHT-EMITTING NON.AND SEMI-SMART MATERIALS ELECTRICITY-GENERATING MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS Solare Schiller-Zitat-Tafel You’ve Gotta Have Faith .

HYBRID MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS - - NANOMATERIALS AND NANOPRODUCTS - - Utility Fog Utility Fog Hydrophobic Nanotiles nBot Nanorobotic Environments Utility Fog Utility Fog Dystopic Scenarios .

PRODUCTS.MATERIALS. PROJECTS .

45 | thermal expansion materials (TEM) / expansion materials (EM) .

pp. Thermostrictive. the near future could see other smart materials gaining in importance. then the material or product will deform on one side only. projecting into the street space . Depending on the distribution and arrangement of the sensitive components and a basic geometric shape. 154 ff. If on the other hand the passive and active components are unevenly distributed. Hinzert: inner ring structure with kinetic cladding transmitting variable amounts of light. and an evenly distributed active component. and other materials and products that retain their shape but change their dimensions.Shape-changing smart materials include materials and products that are able to reversibly change their shape and/or dimensions in response to one or more stimuli through external influences. The inherent properties of these smart materials depend on the different principles behind their deformation. pressure. or a chemical stimulus. THERMOSTRICTIVE SMART MATERIALS Excited by the effect of temperature (thermal energy).) Documentation Centre at the Former Concentration Camp. temperature. piezoelectric. due to their availability. electroactive and chemostrictive smart materials are those that are currently of the greatest interest in the field of architecture. changes may take place in all dimensions to equal or unequal extents. predicted long-term stability and other factors. The currently available shape-changing materials can be differentiated according to their triggering stimuli as follows PHOTOSTRICTIVE SMART MATERIALS Excited by the effect of light (electromagnetic energy). outer ring structure made from transparent thermal insulation | BalnaeNY: variously deformed sauna walls with EAP . Among these. Piezoelectric smart materials are discussed elsewhere (see piezoelectric ceramics/polymers (PEC. PIEZOELECTRIC SMART MATERIALS Excited by the effect of pressure or tension (mechanical energy). the carrier material (matrix). including photostrictive and magnetostrictive ones. PEP). MAGNETOSTRICTIVE SMART MATERIALS Excited by the effect of a magnetic field (magnetic energy). there are materials and products that are able to change their shape without changing their dimensions. Some are also able to change both parameters at the same time. the same applies to smart materials that are composed of a passive component. Smart materials that have a single active sensitive component generally expand or contract evenly. ELECTROACTIVE SMART MATERIALS Excited by the effect of an electric field (electrical energy). CHEMOSTRICTIVE SMART MATERIALS Excited by the effect of a chemical environment (chemical energy). Assuming successful further development and market placement. an electric or magnetic field. the effect of light. for example if two differently sensitive components are arranged in layers one on top of the other.g. e.

The temperature changes may have a passive effect by which the material continually adjusts its internal thermal state to its natural surroundings through its surface. at particular points) volume change in response to a continuous temperature change. sudden (i. The sprinkler system invented by American Henry S. 165 ff. which melted under thermal load and triggered the release of the extinguishing water. They are called phase change materials (PCM) (see phase change materials (PCM). ALCOHOLS Glycerine. . They are referred to accordingly as positive thermal expansion materials (PTEM). negative thermal expansion materials (NTEM) and zero thermal expansion materials (ZTEM).). They may also have an active effect. Galileo Galilei is credited with inventing the first temperature gauge (1592-98). whilst other EMs undergo a discontinuous.e. liquid media such as ethyl alcohol and mercury were also in use. PROJECTS Thermostrictive smart materials have inherent properties that enable them to react to ambient temperature changes by reversibly changing their shape and/or dimensions. e. Depending on the material.g. Materials and components generally used include among others: ALKANES (EXPANSION WAX) Other thermostrictive smart materials are: THERMOBICOMPOSITE MATERIALS SHAPE MEMORY POLYMERS (SMP) SHAPE MEMORY FOAMS SHAPE MEMORY CERAMICS BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS WITH SHAPE MEMORY EFFECT n-alkanes. paraffin oils. OTHERS Tetrachloroethylene. Certain EMs can also be used as latent heat storage. which used an air-filled glass bulb. Active heating may be either direct heating by the application of an electrical field or indirect heating by heat conduction or radiation. PRODUCTS. In the field of architecture the following thermostrictive smart materials among others are currently of interest: THERMAL EXPANSION MATERIALS (TEM)/EXPANSION MATERIALS (EM) THERMOBIMETALS (TB) SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS (SMA) Thermal expansion materials (TEM) are materials with a coefficient of thermal expansion that is markedly positive or negative or one that is almost zero. The enclosed air expands depending on the prevalent air temperature and determines the height of the column of water. the extended open end of which was immersed in coloured water. Expansion materials (EM) classed as PTEMs are suitable for use as pressure-controlling media. for example by heating or cooling. By the middle of the 17th century.3-dioxolane. pp. paraffin waxes. the phase change may have different effects. For a period of several decades EMs have been used as pressure media in working elements. Glass ampoules containing thermally sensitive EMs were later developed for this role. to operate piston-controlled working elements (linear actuators).47 | thermal expansion materials (TEM) / expansion materials (EM) THERMOSTRICTIVE SMART MATERIALS > MATERIALS. Parmalee in 1874 first used fusible links. Some materials undergo a continuous change in volume in response to a continuous change in temperature. Thermometers were one of the first applications of gaseous and liquid EMs. 1.

− Since their first use in a thermometer.g. Another application is as a working medium in EM working elements. can be made in large quantities. are used for EM working elements at low temperatures. Comparatively sluggish reaction times have resulted in the EM working elements being increasingly replaced in some sectors with quicker and more precisely reactive working elements. colourless to whitish-yellow hydrocarbons. − PARAFFIN OIL. for operating valves. + Can be used in medium to high temperatures (0°C to +180°C). | Sprinkler heads with ampoules. e. may convert or break down into water and carbon dioxide on contact with air or oxygen. liquid to solid at +20°C.e. long replacement life. + Market presence. The main areas of use are in automobile construction and building technical services. PARAFFIN WAX Depending on the state. EMs in glass ampoules are still used today as components in sprinkler systems. for example with electrorheologic fluids (see p.g. maintenance-free. Sprinkler ampoules during manufacture | Sprinkler ampoules filled with coloured thermally sensitive EMs. in heating thermostats. at particular points) expansion behaviour. EM working elements are sometimes used as actuator or positioner drives in greenhouses and building facades in energy-autonomous. expansion materials (EM) have been developed into a wide range of products and brought on to the market for a wide range of applications. As above. controlling gases and liquids. inflammable gases may form in contact with air. used for EM working elements with continuous linear or discontinuous sudden (i. Major leakages may be hazardous to ground water. Otherwise as above. . decentralised room ventilation systems. many years of practical use. previously unexploited possibilities are appearing for some applications. New. insensitive to mechanical vibrations.48 | shape-changing smart materials The following EMs are among those of interest in architecture: N-ALKANES C10 TO C18 Colourless hydrocarbons. can be used in low temperatures (–16°C to +40°C). including some in the field of architecture. e. paraffin waxes solid at +20°C cannot liquidise in the presence of air. liquid at +20°C. 38).

can operate at different electrical voltages (low voltage). Their rather sluggish reaction times are normally adequate for many applications. Electricity supply required for PTC thermistors. piezoelectrically operated actuator and positioner drives. pp. + No heat-conducting medium required. 154 ff. − EM working elements with elastomeric insert and PTC thermistor. can be damaged if the thermal load significantly exceeds the operating range. not noisy. relatively better thermal overload resistance compared with purely thermally controlled actuator and positioner drives. or discontinuous. − stroke* working piston elastomeric insert expansion material electrical connection housing ACTUATOR AND POSITIONER DRIVES (LINEAR ACTUATORS) WITH PTC THERMISTORS (POSITIVE TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT THERMISTORS) thermistor (PTC) * the working piston stroke is dependent on the electrical heating electrical connection EM working elements fitted for direct heating: they have an electrically heated positive temperature coefficient (PTC) thermistor manufactured from doped polycrystalline ceramic with barium titanate (see piezoelectric ceramics/polymers (PEC. can be thermally or electrically controlled. + Create continuous. sudden movements depending on the EM used. or by the incorporation into passive components of varying complexity. Various assemblies with different actuator or positioner drives can be constructed by fitting different add-on pieces such as connecting plates and/or lever mechanisms. Architectural applications may require longer travel distances and therefore greater actuating forces than drives in the automobile industry or building technical services. Relatively sluggish reaction times compared with e. Otherwise as above. piezoelectrically operated actuator and positioner drives. relatively long actuator path (here the lifting range for positioning components) compared with e. They have been developed and manufactured in various sizes and with different container materials for a variety of functions.). no electricity supply required. almost linear. The piston moves back either under the action of a return spring or an external force. PEP). relatively inexpensive. | Operation of EM working elements | Typical dimensions.49 | thermal expansion materials (TEM) / expansion materials (EM) EM working elements: ACTUATOR OR POSITIONER DRIVES (LINEAR ACTUATORS) These devices generally consist of a pressure-resistant vessel filled with an EM that expands on being heated to displace an actuating piston outwards. .g. which leads to quicker response times and possible reduced size. relatively compact construction.g.

Products currently used in architecture include: RAW OR END PRODUCTS: WORKING ELEMENTS with EMs Assemblies with working elements with EMs . Other than the already mentioned use in sprinkler ampoules. Otherwise as for actuator and positioner drives. quicker response times compared with conventional actuator and positioner drives. Two projects where thermo-.50 | shape-changing smart materials Assemblies of working elements with EM: full stroke ACTUATOR AND POSITIONER DRIVES WITH LEVER MECHANISM zero position current on current off time EM working elements fitted with a lever mechanism to amplify the travel distance and an integrated reset spring to return the actuator piston. special connections can be fitted. − General recommendations: To guarantee the proper functioning of the EM working elements over a long period. expansion materials (EM) have also been used for decades as heating thermostat components. the thermal load must not significantly exceed the specified operating range (normally 12 K to15 K) as the excessive expansion of the EM could destroy the elements. Several EM working elements can be fitted in parallel and/or series to increase the capacity when used as an actuator or positioner drive. there has been no use of EMs in conjunction with automatically guided systems to form adaptive. or light. Although the idea might seem obvious. light-directing or shade-creating systems. stainless steel or copper. For some years now.and thermosensitive EM working elements are used as actuator or positioner drives to manipulate architectonic structures are outlined below. Otherwise as for actuator and positioner drives. the pressure-resistant vessel can be made of brass. + Relatively long travel paths. Depending on the installed heat-transmitting medium or the surrounding environment. mechanical. Can be damaged if the thermal expansion is constrained. aluminium. Otherwise as for actuator and positioner drives. automatic ventilation units have been available that open and close at certain temperatures to allow enclosed rooms to be ventilated. They usually work by raising or lowering some part of the roof or may be designed as special ventilation elements in building facades.

Self-Constructing Tower: illustration. whilst during cold nights or bad weather it would retract into the window arch. For safety reasons it was necessary to specify a clear area of at least 20 m around the structure. The EM working elements were designed to operate in three axes arranged around a central node. The installation was planned for a site on the bank of the River Avon: placed on the wall coping above an arched window of a derelict warehouse. . Great Britain Kinetic room installation for the Bath Festival | Bath. designed in Scotland in 1996 by Scottish artist Peter Linnett together with architect Toby Blunt for the Bath Festival.51 | thermal expansion materials (TEM) / expansion materials (EM) Monosmart material | Monosmart application Shape-changing smart materials: EM WORKING ELEMENTS (LINEAR ACTUATORS) Temperature-dependent kinetic structure Peter Linnett. | Sketch showing possible positions. the kinetic three-dimensional installation called Self-Constructing Tower. air temperature and water level. was designed to react automatically to its immediate environmental surroundings and unfold or close up like a flower. 6 m long aerofoil elements would change its position by means of temperature-reactive actuating processes: on mild days the structure would unfold up to a height of 15 m. the three-part moving structure. insect-like in the proportions of its body. could be used in shape-varying roomforming structures. described by the designers as thermohydraulic actuators. Each of the two projecting. In place of this dynamically reactive tower the visitors to the Bath Festival were presented with a simple structure without EM working elements. | Model in bad and in changeable weather. carbon-fibre. depending on wind. sun. Great Britain (1996) Although it remains to be built. | opposite: Time-stroke graph. shows how EM working elements. Toby Blunt.

embracing one another. The walls forming the foyer consist of a circular. Hinzert: perspective side view. was held in 2004. are suggestive of “barbed wire” and “threat. clearly sets them apart from the right-angled geometry of the former concentration camp buildings. The architect adopted this rounded shape as the main design and organisation principle of his dynamic reinterpretation. transmits variable amounts of light and has diagonally divided panels that pivot to open to varying degrees. frameless glass facade construction with an outside cladding which is kinetic. some conically tapering and cut at an angle. The circular shape of the existing 1986 memorial and parts of the route the visitors take. To limit thermal effects and to ensure that light alone is the controlling stimulus. The partly open space included between them acts as a foyer. At the same time the individual corners of the dynamic facade slabs.” Solar cells and collectors on the roofs complete the energy concept. moving outwards over a large area in response to light. partially open. | Perspective overhead view/plan. Germany Kinetic facade for a documentation and meeting centre on the former SS Special Camp/Concentration Camp at Hinzert | Germany (2004) An architectural competition for the planned construction of a new documentation and meeting centre on the site of the former concentration camp at Hinzert. Thin film solar cells are used with PTC thermistors in the EM working elements to allow the cladding automatically to control the amount of light inside the building.52 | shape-changing smart materials Monosmart materials | Polysmart application Shape-changing smart materials: EM WORKING ELEMENTS (LINEAR ACTUATORS) WITH PTC THERMISTORS Electricity-generating smart materials: THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS Light.and temperature-dependent kinetic structure Axel Ritter. the EM working element housings are enclosed individually in thermal insulation. The two outer rings contain the library and conference room whilst another takes the form of a three-storey glass cylinder inserted into the rings to create two exhibition areas with quite different atmospheres. . His design creates a structure based on four rings. Germany. | Detail of kinetic facade. Documentation Centre at the Former Concentration Camp.

made from metals with different thermal expansion coefficients.53 | thermobimetals (TB) Thermobimetals (TB) are laminated composite materials and consist of at least two components. modulus of elasticity and strength of components should not be exceeded. a high modulus of elasticity (Young’s modulus). and with electrical control as components in mechatronic systems. Today they are mainly used in measurement and control systems. iron-nickel-manganese and copper TBs can be made corrosion-resistant by plating with chrome and copper. the one with the higher coefficient active. TB strips with nickel-cobalt-iron (Superinvar) as the passive component and manganesenickel-copper as the active one. manganese-nickel-copper. which are permanently bonded to one another. high strength and predictable behaviour. for example by plating. As passive components they include: ALLOYS Iron-nickel (Invar). Specific dimensional relationships are to be maintained.g. Furthermore. as thermostats. Depending on the way the temperature changes over time. nickel-cobalt-iron (Superinvar) As active components they include: ALLOYS Iron-nickel-manganese. The component with the lower coefficient of thermal expansion is called passive. and their electrical conductivity improved for active heat gain by incorporating a layer of copper between the two components. TBs are relatively old smart materials and have been around since the beginning of the industrial revolution. usually bands or strips. the components used and their geometries. a certain range of divergent behaviour regarding the melting point. the composite takes up a curved shape and can be used for various applications and purposes. hot and cold ductility. Components for the manufacture of TBs should possess good platability. The terms used in Europe to describe TBs refer to the composition of the active component alloy. e. a high melting point. whilst the Americans refer to that of the passive component. .

many years of practical use. − REVERSE STRIPS They can also be installed as clamped on one or both ends. | Helix. mostly for specific applications. As above. TB creep-action discs. almost linear movement. Many years of market presence and continuous further development. can be used in various ways as a variable force spring. particularly in relation to the manufacture of complicated shapes and assemblies. relatively inexpensive compared with other control elements. intermediate and end products depending on the number of process steps and the intended purpose. | Spirals with corrosion-resistant chromium coating. can be made in large quantities. can also be made in small quantities. Relatively expensive compared with component combinations without e. + Can be used as actuator or positioner drives to create continuous. Otherwise as for alloys above.54 | shape-changing smart materials The following component combinations are among those of interest in architecture: NICKEL-COBALT-IRON (SUPERINVAR) WITH MANGANESE-NICKEL-COPPER + Market presence. Otherwise as above. medium movement capacity. have meant that today complex products made of thermobimetals (TB) are manufactured. TBs may be produced as raw. can be made resistant to rusting and other corrosion effects by additional rolled-on layers. − .g. Superinvar as the active component − NICKEL-COBALT-IRON (SUPERINVAR) WITH IRON-NICKEL-MANGANESE AND COPPER + − Suitable for applications using direct electrical heating. Otherwise as above. Otherwise as for alloys above. As above. U-PROFILE CURVED STRIPS They can be installed as clamped at one or both ends. + Simple strips with different shapes and component combinations. TBs currently available as raw material products include: TB bands: SIMPLE STRIPS. Can achieve relatively longer straight-line movements compared to e.g. wide range of applications. excellent thermal sensitivity. Relatively sluggish reaction times compared with other actuator or positioner drives.

+ Can be used as actuator or positioner drives for creating continuous linear movements. Relatively expensive compared with bands and parts made from TBs. Otherwise as above. . As above. Otherwise as above. or in series to amplify the effect. + Complex two-dimensional shapes possible. | Creep-action discs with corrosion-resistant copper coating. Otherwise as above. held in position at their centres or in a sleeve. + Special connections and complex three-dimensional shapes can be fabricated. As above. + Can be used as actuator or positioner drives for creating continuous and sudden (at preset points) linear movements. − SNAP-ACTION DISCS They can be installed in the same way as creep-action discs. HELICES They can be installed as clamped at one end. + Spirals.55 | thermobimetals (TB) SPIRALS. − ASSEMBLIES WITH TBs: BANDS. − STAMPED PARTS They can be clamped in various ways depending on shape and function. − Parts made from TBs: CREEP-ACTION DISCS They can be used singly. As above. PARTS MADE FROM TBs AND OTHER MATERIALS Can be installed in the same way as stamped parts. Otherwise as above. As above. helices They can be installed as clamped at one end. three-dimensional shapes can be produced by folding. − Snap-action discs. Otherwise as above.

This applies in particular to their use for actuation. is outlined below. A possible architectural application of a polyreactive mechanomembrane. which would react to outside temperatures. As an extension of their usual scope of applications. Several TB elements can be arranged in series and/or in parallel to increase the performance capacity especially when used as actuating elements. Products currently in use in architecture or likely to become relevant in the future include: RAW OR END PRODUCTS: TB BANDS PARTS MADE from TBs ASSEMBLIES with TBs INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS: ACTUATOR or POSITIONER DRIVES MADE from or incorporating TBs CONTROL and REGULATING ELEMENTS made from or incorporating TBs SPRING ELEMENTS with variable/varying spring force made from or incorporating TBs COMPENSATING ELEMENTS made from or incorporating TBs . So far. control and regulation. but so far no practical solutions have been implemented. however. thermobimetals (TB) can also be used directly in architecture. The application of an additional rolled-on layer of stainless steel should be applied as a means of preventing rust and other corrosion phenomena. a self-actuated clamping mechanism based on TBs for use with less expensive fire protection doors is being developed. The clamping mechanism prevents the door from warping and releasing combustion gases into other parts of the building. and as spring and compensation elements. few applications in architecture have become known or documented. It should also be possible to develop self-actuating air intake and exhaust openings for facades. which could be further developed for large-scale use as part of a weather-sensitive building envelope. Automatically opening and closing ventilation flaps have been developed and installed in greenhouses and for use as self-closing fire protection flaps. Currently. depending on the expected environment and the component combinations.56 | shape-changing smart materials General recommendations for use: to ensure a long replacement life the products should not be loaded up to their limits.

Polyreactive mechanomembrane: building elements. the ability to change colour by going brown or reddening and the ability to regulate temperature by actively exuding liquid and exploiting the resulting cooling effect of evaporation.57 | thermobimetals (TB) Monosmart materials | Polysmart application Shape-changing smart materials: COLOUR INDICATOR BALLS WITH THERMOBIMETAL AND HYGROBICOMPOSITE SPIRAL SPRINGS (TB. modular units with six balls have been developed. Like the reactions of the skin and the connected nerve systems. The following abilities. In his design approach based on a technical implementation of the model of the human skin as a building envelope. the reactions of the technical membrane would be determined by the weather. given appropriately reactive structures and the use of smart materials: the ability to reversibly deform in three dimensions by expanding in response to direct mechanical load or by active contraction of the skin muscles. demonstrates how. The construction of a technology demonstrator was to prove the feasibility of such a membrane and its suitability for daily use. a bionically inspired membrane with weather-sensitive components. in combination with three variously arranged projecting support arms. The membrane was to have an adequate elastic matrix to resist mechanical loads. the author has analysed its anatomy and characteristics. . be able to change colour in response to changes of temperature and humidity in the surrounding air. For this. which. form three-dimensional structures and are flexibly joined to one another by elastic bands. of the human skin to react to outside influences looked promising for a building envelope and appeared capable of being adapted and technically implemented. HB) Weather-dependent kinetic colour-changing structure Axel Ritter. which accommodate all the different functional units and other autonomic reactive components. in future constructions. | opposite: Assembly with EM working element: actuator and positioner drive with lever mechanism. The effectiveness of the mechanical processes involved is ensured by acrylic glass balls of various diameters. in particular. building envelopes can be made to resemble highly complex mechanical systems. Germany Weather-sensitive kinetic building envelope | Germany (1997) The development of the polyreactive mechanomembrane. and regulate its own temperature like its natural role model by taking up or exuding the required moisture through the membrane in the form of rainwater. especially its ability to change.

thus imitating the changing surface structures of the human skin. The other balls are fitted with TB spiral springs only.) Number of external covering membranes 1 Number of water reception balls 42 Number of water storage balls 42 Number of colour indicator balls 40 Number of TB spiral springs 60 Number of hygrobicomposite spiral springs 20 Number of pairs of hairs 21 Number of transpirator rings 42 Polyreactive mechanomembrane: colour indicator ball on support arm | Module tied in by two elastic bands | Overall view. Main details of a technology demonstrator: Length 1.30 m (max.58 | shape-changing smart materials Each module consists of two balls with openings to take in water. from which a further laterally connected support arm extends and carries a colour indicator ball. One half of the 40 colour indicator balls is fitted with TB spiral springs and a composite material that is sensitive to air humidity. rear side. the membrane has a flexible. The hairs are able to stand out or contract depending on the energy state. On the outside. A TB spiral spring attached to the underside of each base plate reacts to temperature by bringing a connected wick. A transpirator ring of water-absorbing porous ceramic material is mounted on a base plate around each one. into contact with the transpirator ring and thus initiates the evaporation process. They contain a strip filter to separate rain water.24 m (min. which displace the colour and colour filter surfaces in response to temperature and air humidity and thus indicate the energy and constituent states of the surrounding air. which ends in a water storage ball.25 m (max.25 m (max. which are kept apart by a tension spring.) Width 0. fine-meshed textile covering membrane with a narrow opening in its rainwater inlets near each water receiving ball. The outside structure is changed in response to the weight of the water storage balls by means of pairs of V-shaped spring steel hairs that are attached on their inside to the water storage balls and on their outside project through the textile membrane.) to 0.) Height 1. . on the bottom two silicone hoses are connected. to protect the mechanical structure and enclose the building. the rearmost one of which flows into a larger water storage ball carried on a moving support arm.

Phase change between high temperature phase (austenite) and low temperature phase (martensite). TWO-WAY EFFECT): In contrast to the one-time effect. easily deformable. consist of at least two different metallic elements and have the property. MECHANICAL MEMORY EFFECT (SUPERELASTICITY. Above a critical temperature the metals have a hard. The same effect was noticed in a copper-zinc alloy in 1956. also called shape memory metals or memory metals.59 | shape memory alloys (SMA) austenite deform Shape memory alloys (SMA). martensitic crystal lattice structure. here the component returns to the original shape on subsequent cooling. ONE-WAY EFFECT): temperature he co ol at martensite If a shape memory alloy component is permanently mechanically deformed in the low temperature phase (martensite) and then heated above the transformation temperature. it is called an intrinsic two-way effect. after a thermomechanical treatment. reversibly and temperature-dependent. There are three different memory effects: THERMAL MEMORY EFFECT (ONE-OFF EFFECT. a shape they were given earlier. this is called an external (extrinsic) two-way effect. austenitic crystal lattice structure. Deformation is reversed through warming. The crystal structures were named after the materials scientist Sir William Chandler RobertsAusten (1843 to 1902) and the metallurgist Adolf Martens (1850 to 1914) respectively. the crystal structure changes to form austenite. . if it is caused by thermomechanical treatment of the component. In 1961 the strongest shape memory effect up to this day was discovered by the American Naval Ordnance Laboratory in a nickel-titanium alloy. to take up. which was given the commercial name of Nitinol to reflect the names of its constituent elements and its place of discovery. This effect relies on a repeatable phase change between two crystal structures. for example a spring or a weight. high-strength. below this temperature it changes to a soft. The phenomenon of the shape memory effect was discovered in a gold cadmium alloy at the beginning of the 1930s by Swedish researcher Arne Ölander. THERMAL MEMORY EFFECT (REPEATABLE EFFECT. If the return to the original shape on cooling is caused by the action of an outside force. This is due to the mechanical change of the crystal structure. and the component takes up its original shape and retains that original shape even after subsequent cooling. PSEUDOELASTICITY): Some shape memory alloys are about 20 times more elastic at constant temperature than conventional metals.

Relatively expensive compared with TB alloys. the hysteresis range. NITINOL) + Market presence. strong shape memory effect. such as the transformation temperature. Weaker shape memory effect.g.G. hafnium or zircon is added to nickel-titanium alloys. many years of practical use. Nitinol). poorer tensile strength and elongation at break compared with nickel-titanium alloys. iron-platinum (FePt). specific properties can be achieved by additional alloy elements. gold-cadmium (AuCd) Alloying with other elements like copper or iron allows various properties to be influenced. (after [5]) The following alloys are among those of interest in architecture: NICKEL-TITANIUM (NiTi. such as are necessary for example to meet the safety requirements of the automobile industry. Otherwise with the limitations as above. wide range of applications.60 | shape-changing smart materials Materials and components in use include: BASIC ALLOYS Nickel-titanium (NiTi. Otherwise as above. In conjunction with the increased interest in smart materials. can be made in large quantities. the strength of the effect. E. If for example gold. then this produces alloys with higher transformation temperatures. . the possibilities presented by shape memory effects are bringing out ideas from a wide range of professions on how SMAs could be used in everyday products. can also be supplied in small quantities. − Shape memory alloys (SMA) have lost none of their fascination since their discovery. e. − COPPER-ZINC-ALUMINIUM (CuZnAl) + Relatively easy to machine compared with nickel-titanium alloys. copper-zinc-aluminium (CuZnAl). long-term stability and mechanical properties of the alloy. better tensile strength and elongation at break compared with other SMAs.

Today SMAs are used in air and space travel as decoupling mechanisms and tube connectors. installed as endless. for fuel pipes in satellites. . can be used as active components in drives to create rotational movements and in textiles. depending on the diameter and mesh size. copper-zinc-aluminium alloy wire in diameters of approx. 1 mm upwards. | SMA springs with two-way effect. 16). In household electronic appliances these alloys are already replacing some TB components. Plastics have also been developed that display similar behaviour when stimulated by light or temperature changes. almost linear or discontinuous. No market-ready products with SMAs have been developed for use in architecture yet. measurement and control technology. relatively long actuator paths compared with piezoelectrically operated actuating and positioning drives. 0. They can be clamped at one or both ends. who developed a satellite dish that folded out under the influence of solar radiation. + Depending on the shape memory effect they can be used as actuating and positioning drives to provide continuous. although the number of designs involving smart materials produced by universities has been on the increase for years. Future research is likely to involve light-stimulated shape memory plastics (memory polymers). and weaved manually or mechanically. Raw or end products made from SMAs currently available include: Wires and rods made from SMAs FULL-SECTION SMA WIRES AND RODS Nickel-titanium alloy wire is available in diameters of approx. silent. e. may have bending-.61 | shape memory alloys (SMA) Among the first users of SMAs was NASA.g.018 mm to 5 mm from stock. microsystem technology. sudden movements. The following is an overview of the currently available semifinished products. where stents are used to widen blood vessels. electrical and automobile engineering. piezoelectrically operated actuating and positioning drives. Otherwise as for alloys above. Other fields of application include medicine. Otherwise as for alloys above. in particular in medical devices.g. Relatively sluggish reaction times compared with e. as elastic elements/components and as structural components.and shape-changing properties. − SMA springs with superelasticity and corrosionresistant chromium coating. torsion. They have also found their first uses in the consumer goods sector and in functional textiles (see p. tension-. compression-.

0. 0. SMA SHEETS Nickel-titanium alloys are available in thicknesses of approx. guided through their centres or enclosed in a sleeve.000 mm and sizes of up to < 95. As above.410 mm from stock. normal state closed. + Quicker reaction times than full-section wires and rods. only available in relatively small diameters.200 mm to 1. + − As above. + − As above. − Technology by EADS: hook and loop fastener with nickel-titanium alloy hooks. which can provide additional or all of the heat stimulus. can be clamped at one or both ends or can be installed as circumferentially restrained. open after the effect of heat. + Can be used as active components in self-healing and self-shaping surface-forming components. Shape recovery performance is limited by geometry. guided through their centres or enclosed in a sleeve.62 | shape-changing smart materials SMA HOLLOW WIRES AND RODS (TUBES) Nickel-titanium alloy tubes are available in diameters of approx. . − SMA SPRINGS Are available as compression or tension springs in the dimensions listed above for wires and rods. can be clamped at one or both ends. Otherwise with the limitations as above. SMA bands and sheets: SMA BANDS AND STRIPS Nickel-titanium alloy bands are available in thicknesses of approx.520 mm from stock. Otherwise as above. for example cladding.000 mm x 400.013 mm to 0. used individually or in layers for multiplication of the effect. Otherwise with the limitations as above. 0. As above. can be clamped at one or both ends. As above.200 mm to 4. suitable for carrying liquids.000 mm from stock.

They can be installed and clamped in various ways depending on geometry and use. SMA WIRES. + Products currently in use in architecture and likely to become more relevant in future include: RAW OR END PRODUCTS: − Can be used to create reversible. they can also be manufactured using laser cutting machines. + − Complex two. Otherwise as above. multi-dimensional connections. Germany. for as yet only at the technology demonstrator stage. for example with respect to the number of possible change cycles and their corrosion resistance. TUBE CONNECTION ELEMENTS MADE from SMA with one-way effect ACTUATING and POSITIONING DRIVES made from or incorporating SMAs CONTROL and REGULATING ELEMENTS made from or incorporating SMAs SPRING ELEMENTS with variable spring force made from or incorporating SMAs HOOK and LOOP FASTENERS made from SMAs TEXTILES with SMA threads Construction membranes with a tensegrity structure of SMA wires PASSIVE STRUTS made from SMAs with pseudoelastic behaviour in bridges . Relatively expensive compared with standard shapes. Currently available or developed SMA intermediate and end products include: SMA variable connection devices: HOOK AND LOOP FASTENERS A technology demonstrator for a hook and loop fastener with nickel-titanium alloy hooks was designed and manufactured by the Corporate Research Centre (CRC) of EADS in Ottobrunn. complex. Otherwise as above. It can be attached as strips or patches on stiff components and textiles. or by adhesive.and three-dimensional geometries can be created. Nickel-titanium alloys have somewhat better long-term stability than for example copper-zinc-aluminium alloys. connections can be separated perpendicularly with no force and reformed again. All products should not be loaded up to their limits. either mechanically. Several components can be fitted in parallel and/or series to increase their performance especially when used as actuating or positioning drives. Otherwise as for nickel-titanium alloys above.63 | shape memory alloys (SMA) Special shapes in SMAs: SMA CLAMPS AND STENTS Clamps and stents can be designed and manufactured to suit specific requirements. Otherwise as for nickel-titanium alloys above. RODS. by sewing. e.g. TUBES SMA BANDS and SHEETS SPECIAL SHAPES in SMAs SMA ASSEMBLIES INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS: The alloys perform differently depending on their composition. Relatively expensive compared with conventional hook and loop fasteners. can be used on various substrates in a number of ways.

Anja-Natalie Richter. The SMA members are intended to attenuate any seismically induced forces in the structure. geometrically changing assembly. Already established in the automobile industry.g. Construction membranes with a tensegrity structure of SMA wires (Nitinol): smart membrane. In 1995 Anja-Natalie Richter. e. or changeable textiles for interiors. transparent. 2003 saw the first functioning technology demonstrators of textiles with interwoven SMA wires that were specifically designed for use as room dividers or curtains. a bridge has been built with passive struts made from SMAs with pseudoelastic properties.64 | shape-changing smart materials There are various possible uses of shape memory alloy (SMA) products in architecture. variable connection elements in conjunction with changeable roofs. tube connection elements made from SMAs with one-way effect could be used in the future in the construction of skeletal building elements such as lattice beams. The type of shape memory effect determines their particular suitability. It would be feasible to install the previously described hook and loop fasteners as temperaturesensitive. opaque etc. On the grounds of cost they will be limited initially to relatively light constructions with small diameter members. . then a student at the Bartlett School. London. In Italy. developed a smart membrane which integrated SMA wires into a tensegrity structure to create a room-forming. in order to allow them to have different light transmission properties at the contact points.

inclined or horizontal window and door openings. The professor at the School of Design at the University of Leeds used textiles woven from conventional threads and incorporated parallel strands of SMA wires at a few places in the surface for her Shape Memory Interior Textiles. The openings would change their effective width throughout the day in response to room temperature and degree of folding. Earlier forms included among others a curtain that could be installed inside a building in front of a roof window. This type of arrangement gives the temperature-sensitive wires adequate space for contraction while creating more or less pronounced linear or irregular structures. Shape Memory Interior Textiles: various designs of textiles incorporating SMA threads. or as components of room divider and wall cladding systems. Great Britain Textiles with SMA for use in rooms | Great Britain (2003) These structures are intended to be functional and have high aesthetic appeal: textiles with SMA threads for use in building interiors. For this curtain. | Possible use as room divider. depending on the temperature. | Actual application as a curtain. a textile to allow temperature-dependent control of the amount of admitted light was produced with SMA wires and several horizontally running elongated openings.65 | shape memory alloys (SMA) Monosmart material | Monosmart application Thermostrictive smart materials: TEXTILES WITH SMA Temperature-dependent kinetic structures Yvonne Chan Vili. Yvonne Chan Vili has designed and manufactured several technology demonstrators in various patterns and colours. . This produces functional textiles suitable for black-out or privacy coverings for vertical.

electrically conductive layer of. and it was only in the last 15 years with the use of new materials and increasing success that they became of interest as smart materials. the materials are called electronic EAPs. graphite powder. Materials and components generally used include among others: Other electroactive smart materials not discussed in detail here include: ELECTROSTRICTIVE PAPERS ELECTROSTRICTIVE CERAMICS ELECTROSTRICTIVE GRAFT ELASTOMERS Electrostrictive ceramics include unpolarised lead-magnesium-niobate (PMN).” [6] EAP-based actuators that curve. pp. Later followed the development of polymers that could react to chemical.). PEP). PEP). The development of EAPs goes back to 1880 and Röntgen’s experiments with an elastic band. thermal. for example. through the principle of winding and by combination. 154 ff. pp.66 | shape-changing smart materials ELECTROACTIVE SMART MATERIALS > MATERIALS. the capacitor becomes electrically charged and the electrostatic attraction forces of the electrodes press the elastic polymer film together in the through-thickness direction. Among the dielectric EAPs developed in recent years are conventional polymer films (acrylbased). “After the application of an electrical voltage. By the use of repeated layering in their construction. a wide variety of active.). The following electroactive smart materials are currently of interest to architects: ELECTROACTIVE POLYMERS (EAP) Electroactive polymers (EAP) are polymers that are able to change their shape under electric stimulation. As early as 1949 the first polymers were stimulated by contact with acidic and alkaline solutions to contract and expand. including bender actuators. If the shape change is caused by electrostatic forces produced by electrical charges. 154 ff. PRODUCTS. the electrostatic forces of the electrodes disappear and the elastic film contracts back to its original shape. EAPs were first considered insignificant because of their low output. optical or magnetic influences. which was fixed at one end and attached to a weight at the other. ionic EAPs include conductive polymers (CP). which is also used in components in piezoelectric ceramics (PEC) (see piezoelectric ceramics/polymers (PEC. PEP). . ionic EAPs. form of restraint and construction. a piezoelectric polymer which reacts to a direct current electrical field (see piezoelectric ceramics/polymers (PEC.) electrode elastomer film electrode short-circuited activated Schematic representation of the construction and functioning of an actuator made from dielectric elastomer film with electrodes applied to both sides (electronic EAP). expand or contract can be created through the appropriate choice of geometry. which causes it to expand laterally together with the coating. which are designed to be stimulated by an electrical field like a flexible capacitor and therefore are coated on both sides with an elastical.154 ff. The band. shortened when an electric charge was applied by an electrical field. pneumatic. In 1925 followed the development of electret. pp. and if due to diffused ions. As soon as the capacitors are short-circuited. adaptive structures. PROJECTS The inherent properties of electroactive smart materials allow them to reversibly change their shape in response to neighbouring electrical fields. they were based on Katchalsky’s research into collagen filaments. Electronic EAPs include dielectric EAPs. can be produced (see piezoelectric ceramics/polymers (PEC.

67 | electroactive polymers (EAP) Electronic EAP components: DIELECTRIC EAP Organic dielectric elastomer film: e. CPS) Organic conductors: e. Not available in large quantities. acryl-based or silicon-based. carbon black. graphite.g. wide range of uses. relatively high activation voltage (kV) required.g.g. acryl-based transparent films coated on both sides with graphite as electrodes. + Relatively simple to produce through the use of commercially available components. wide range of uses. polypyrrol-based (e. Not available in large quantities. − PPy-CF3SO3 Polypyrrol-based conductive composite polymer. 38) The following component combinations are among those of interest in architecture: ACRYL-BASED COMPONENTS WITH GRAPHITE Commercially available. performance can be multiplied by layering or winding. PPy-CF3SO3. relatively large changes of shape possible (expansions of up to 380 %). Inorganic electrodes made from electrically conductive particles: e. − Acryl-based dielectric film. + Larger movement capacity than with TFSI as component. Other electronic EAPs include: FERROELECTRIC POLYMERS Electrostrictive graft elastomers Other ionic EAPs include: IONIC POLYMER GELS (IPG) Electrorheological fluids (ERF) (see p. . PPy-TFSI).g. film is hygroscopic. Ionic EAP components: ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS (CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS. performance can be multiplied by multi-layering and winding (increased activation forces).

existing products will have to be suitably adapted and will therefore have completely new properties. dielectric EAPs require a very high voltage for activation (kV). Technology by EMPA: Technology demonstrator of inflated dielectric elastomer film with electrodes attached on both sides (balloon actuator. wide range of uses. | Wound linear actuator (“artificial muscle”) with dielectric EAPs. Actuating and positioning drives based on fibres. Not available in large quantities. In order to use EAPs as actuating and positioning drives (linear actuators. By combining several bender actuators it was furthermore possible to make gripping actuators. Among these were trials in which bender actuators clamped on one side and incorporating EAPs were used as windscreen wiper blades. participating in an arm-wrestling competition at the SPIE Symposium (EAPAD) 2005 in San Diego. it can be provided by the addition of one or more components with this effect. Several of these basic components can be arranged in parallel or series to multiply their performance. performance can be multiplied by layering or winding. coils and composites are among the earlier types of devices that can be deformed along their longitudinal axes by electrical stimulation. | Robot with several linear actuators incorporating dielectric EAPs arranged in parallel. If the selected EAP itself does not have a shape restoration effect. not activated and activated. In recent years they have also been used in trials of artificial muscles. At the moment. films. bender actuators) or as components of assemblies. intermediate and end products. EAPs were mainly developed for trials and demonstrations because of their relatively large deformations and small actuation forces. In the past. One possible solution to this could be a future reduction in film thickness. Future applications of EAPs are likely to include adaptive wing sections and elastic tubes that are able to change their local diameters. + Greater flexibility than can be achieved with CF3SO3 as component. − Products incorporating electroactive polymers (EAP) are being developed all over the world. | opposite: Technology by EMPA: Technology demonstrator of a rocker driven by two EAP muscle pairs and able to perform mechanical work by alternately lifting two metal balls. EAPs may be produced as raw. The glued or mechanical bond between the components transmits forces and is permanent. depending on the number of process steps and the intended purpose. electronic EAPs).68 | shape-changing smart materials PPy-TFSI Polypyrrol-based conductive composite polymer. .

ACTUATING and POSITIONING DRIVES made from or incorporating EAPs SPRING ELEMENTS with variable/varying spring force made from or incorporating EAPs ROBOTS with actuating and positioning drives incorporating EAPs NEOPRENE MEMBRANE with EAP .G. FILMS (E. low mechanical strength of individual yarns. low mechanical load capacity. + Can be used in medium temperatures ranges (< –20°C to > +50°C).G. TECHNOLOGY BY EAMEX) They can be made out of conductive polymers (CPs) and can be installed as clamped at one end. TECHNOLOGY BY EMPA) They can be made from dielectric EAPs. Otherwise as for PPy-CF3SO3 and PPy-TFSI above. Otherwise as for PPy-CF3SO3 and PPy-TFSI above. relatively low movement capacity. as this could seriously reduce the dielectric strength of the hygroscopic films. − COILS (E.G. + Can be used to create continuous linear movements by grouping actuating and positioning drives. Otherwise as for PPy-CF3SO3 and PPy-TFSI above. − STRIPS. Not universally available. No water should be allowed to enter EAP actuators. SANTA FE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY) They can be made from conductive polymers (CP). Otherwise as for acryl-based components with graphite. handled and processed with limitations similar to those of conventional yarns and textile fibres. + Can be used to create linear movements by grouping actuating and positioning drives. various uses as fabrics. it should be ensured that where layers of dielectric and electrically conductive materials are placed upon one another. Otherwise as for acryl-based components with graphite. Relatively low movement or spring capacity. − Products currently in use in architecture and likely to become more relevant in future include: RAW OR END PRODUCTS: EAP fibres EAP strips and films EAP coils INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS: These products should also not be loaded up to their limits. and as spring elements. Depending on the product and design principle. Otherwise as for PPy-CF3SO3 and PPy-TFSI above. they do not become separated by moisture entry. can be grouped as actuating or positioning drives to produce linear movements. Depending on the intended application they can also be given additional protective coatings and/or claddings. YARNS (E.69 | electroactive polymers (EAP) Raw material or end products made from EAPs which have been developed and are available to some extent include: FIBRES. can be used to form casing components for example. can be cut to size. installed as clamped at one or both ends. No very small bevels or folds can be made.

electrically deformable.70 | shape-changing smart materials As it is only in recent years that products with adequate reversible and reproducible shapechanging properties have been developed and given that they are still mainly implemented as technology demonstrators. For the time being the existing available drives will continue to be used but perhaps with modifications or suitable connections. in particular as actuating or positioning drives. and this is normally a lengthy process. In the short term. . depending on future uses. large surface-forming components could be made from EAP films to produce various textures in wall coverings or wallpaper. These drives are most likely to appear first as trials because new construction products require official approval. there are likely to be no products available for widespread use in the field of architecture in the foreseeable future.

The electromagnetic radiation generated by people and their mobile phones. into the walls of the shower enclosures and into the facade. Boyer applied his design to a fun bath in New York’s busy SOHO district. proposed a system of sensors and actuators that would react dynamically to the various activities taking place in the course of a day. is picked up and converted into kinetic spatial changes by an EAP The material is integrated into an additional interme. BalnaeNY. In this particular case. the American designer Bryan Boyer showed how the activities that arise in a certain built area can be used to enrich the experience for those who visit it through deformable walls and floors. USA Electromagnetically sensitive thermal baths with kinetic surface-forming components | New York. motor vehicles etc. thus forming a walk-in cave. then a student at Future Studio. diate neoprene floor close to the water surface of the pool. The walls forming the narrow sides of the pool also consist of EAPs and shape themselves. For example. BalnaeNY: perspective view from above of the swimming pool with the emerging and submerging wave profile of the neoprene membrane. part of the intermediate floor containing a grid of EAP strips will take up a wave profile and emerge to a greater or lesser extent above the water’s surface. into variously sized niches that can be used as individual sauna areas. USA (2003) With his 2003 design.71 | electroactive polymers (EAP) Monosmart material | Monosmart application Electroactive smart material: NEOPRENE MEMBRANE WITH EAP Kinetic structures responding to electromagnetic radiation Bryan Boyer. or they can take up another shape to function as a splash guard. a special department at the Rhode Island School of Design. The niches may project into the street space to various extents so that the activity is also visible from outside the building. depending on the time of day. The shower walls can adopt a spiral shape in plan when they function as a shower enclosure and offer privacy. . Boyer. | Unwinding shower enclosures. | Individual sauna areas. depending on the activities taking place. | Scenario of deforming sauna walls projecting into street space | Section through swimming pool with neoprene membrane | View into interior of cave.

ELECTROCHROMIC. GASCHROMIC. PIEZOCHROMIC. electrons or ions (electrical energy).and optically changing smart materials include materials and products that are able to reversibly change their colour and/or optical properties in response to one or more stimuli through the external influence of light. ELECTROOPTIC (E. CHEMOCHROMIC (E. hydrogen. 24). salt content (pH value). Assuming further development and market placement. the following are of interest for architectural applications and will be dealt with in more detail below: photochromic. An application of hygro-/hydrochromic smart materials can be found elsewhere (see p. Of the above smart materials. MECHANOCHROMIC (E. tension or friction (mechanical energy). due to their availability and other factors. an electrical or magnetic field and/or a chemical stimulus. . e. thermochromic. a solution or water. IONOCHROMIC) SMART MATERIALS These materials change their colour and/or optical properties when excited by the effect of electrical fields. housewarming III: room installation with thermochromic wall and seat surfaces. gaschromic and halochromic smart materials could gain in importance in the near future. chromogenic smart materials. The general term.G. thermotropic. electrochromic and electrooptic smart materials. compression.G. The currently available colour.and optically changing smart materials can be differentiated according to their triggering stimuli as follows: PHOTOCHROMIC SMART MATERIALS These materials change their colour when excited by the effect of light (electromagnetic energy). TRIBOCHROMIC) SMART MATERIALS These materials change their colour when excited by the effect of compression.Colour.G. THERMOCHROMIC. THERMOTROPIC SMART MATERIALS These materials change their colour and/or optical properties when excited by the effect of temperature (thermal energy). is also used. oxygen. HYGRO-/ HYDROCHROMIC) SMART MATERIALS These materials change their colour and/or optical properties when excited by the effect of a chemical environment (chemical energy). piezochromic. HALOCHROMIC. temperature. such as the anticipated long-term stability.g. SOLVATOCHROMIC.

The following applies to certain organic PCs: if form A is colourless or slightly yellow and form B is coloured then this is called positive photochromism. which can be simultaneous or step-wise (sequential). PRODUCTS. In 2001 Japanese scientists at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology developed a new photochromic glass based on silver ions and nitrate without the use of environment. spironaphthoxazines). bakteriorhodopsin (BR) INORGANIC COMPOUNDS Silver halides (e. photochromism. IR light. In less frequent cases if form A is coloured and form B is colourless. The thermodynamically more stable form A is transformed by irradiation into form B. Two mechanisms may be involved in the process: with the one-photon mechanism. The following photochromic smart materials are currently of interest to architects: PHOTOCHROMIC MATERIALS (PC) Photochromic materials (PC). chromenes. spirooxazines (e.and health-damaging halogens. by the absorption of electromagnetic radiation. photochromics and UV-sensitive materials are materials or components that are able to reversibly change their colour in response to light. spiropyranes. UV light. azo compounds. silver bromide (AgBr).g. the phenomenon is referred to as onephoton or two-photon photochromism. In 2004 a photo-electrochromic system consisting of a dye solar cell with an electrochromic component was developed in Germany at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems. Materials and components generally used include among others: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS These materials and products include: PHOTOCHROMIC PIGMENTS PHOTOCHROMIC GLASS PHOTOCHROMIC PLASTICS Photochromic plastics are also known as photochromic polymers (PCP) Naphthopyranes. The conversion is triggered. In 1899 a photochromic effect was discovered by Markwald in tetrachloronaphthaline in the solid state. diarylethenes. fulgides. Fatigue-proof derivates of spirooxazines and chromenes were developed in the 1980s. which is the most common case. each with different absorption spectra. PROJECTS Their inherent properties enable them to react to light (visible light. spirodihydroindolizines. which established the term phototropy for what he saw as a merely physical phenomenon. Freiburg. The reverse reaction may be thermal (T-type photochromism) or photochemical (P-type photochromism) (according to: [7]). B is formed by the absorption of two photons.g. silver chloride (AgCl). and the resulting upper excited state. Hirshberg suggested the term in use today. silver iodide (AgI)) . whilst with the two-photon mechanism. electromagnetic radiation) by changing their colour.73 | photochromic materials (PC) PHOTOCHROMIC SMART MATERIALS > MATERIALS. which is derived from Greek. then the colour is bleached by light and this is called negative photochromism. B is formed from the initial singlet or the triplet excited state or both. Photochromism describes the reversible conversion of materials or components between two forms A and B. in one or both directions. Accordingly. In Israel in 1950.

form B: approx. relatively large number of possible cycles of colour change (> 105). biologically degradable. form A not transparent. Currently. + Can be made in large quantities. 350 nm to 450 nm. Uses include the display. SPIRODIHYDROINDOLIZINES Organic chemical compounds.). This contains the information for the production of the modified BR. ketones and esters among other liquids. biologically degradable. relatively large number of possible cycles of colour change (> 106). SPIRONAPHTHOXAZINES). relatively good lightfastness compared with spiropyranes. blue or red (form B).g. the so-called purple membrane. − BACTERIORHODOPSIN (BR) A protein isolated from the cell membrane. ether. form B available in all spectral colours. + Market presence. can be made in large quantities. can be used in low to medium temperatures (–40°C to +150°C). available as a powder in one colour only. solid at +20°C. The time over which this takes place can be controlled and influenced by the genetic modification of the protein. pp. in aqueous solution or in dry form respectively). It reacts to the influence of light by undergoing a reversible colour change from violet to yellow. for the manufacture of dyes). relatively expensive compared with spiropyranes or silver bromide. non-toxic. Not soluble in water.g. Currently at the market introduction phase. They react to the influence of visible and UV light by undergoing a reversible colour change from colourless or slightly yellow (form A) to coloured. Little market presence. SPIROOXAZINES (E. Otherwise as above. relatively wide absorption spectrum (form A: approx. relatively large number of possible cycles of colour change (> 106). Some spiropyranes show the opposite behaviour (negative photochromism) and are thermochromic (see thermochromic smart materials. + Can be used in low to high temperatures (–40°C to +250°C). Available as powders. Available as powders and aqueous solutions (suspensions). | Clones of halobacterium salinarum on an agar plate. − Diagram of the chemical structure of naphthopyrane and spironaphthoxazines before and after the exposure to UV light. e. can be used in low to medium temperatures (–20°C to +80° or +120°C. toluene. relatively good lightfastness compared with spiropyranes. 500 nm to 100 nm wavelength).G. non-toxic. form B: approx. optical films are among the products manufactured from Bacteriorhodopsin (BR).and optically-changing smart materials The following PCs are among those of interest in architecture: SPIROPYRANES. Solid at +20°C. water-soluble. . − NAPHTHOPYRANES. of the saltloving archaebacteria of the species halobacterium salinarum. also soluble in water by substitution (e. soluble in ethanol. 380 nm to 780 nm. form B: 410 nm wavelength). storage and processing of optical information. None known. | Different colours of BR pigments. 80 ff.74 | colour. DIARYLETHENES As above. relatively inexpensive compared with BR. relatively wide absorption spectrum (form A: 570 nm. relatively wide absorption spectrum (form A: approx. 380 nm to 295 nm wavelength).

toxic. for example photochromic glass. many years of practical use. One of the most widely known applications of photochromic materials (PC) are self-colouring sunglasses. they can also be used in control technology. such as spirodihydroindolizines. with an aqueous solution of a bromide salt. which have been on the market for over 20 years. dental sealant materials (fissure sealants) based on spirodihydroindolizines have appeared on the market. − In addition to the above materials and components. not resistant to rust and other corrosion products in contact with metals. They change colour from transparent to blue after a few seconds of exposure to a polymerisation lamp and provide quality control [8]. . usually silver nitrate.). including red and blue. relatively large number of possible cycles of colour change (> 105). By means of applied or embedded inorganic silver halide crystals the lenses change to various shades of grey. depending on the intensity of light. relatively good lightfastness compared with organic PCs such as spiropyranes. relatively inexpensive compared with BR. Doping with sensitising dyes allows also lower energy light colours such as red light to be absorbed. EO). were brought on to the market at the beginning of the 1990s by Mattel. can be used in low to high temperatures (< –20°C to > +250°C). a large US-American toy manufacturer. PCs find use in other consumer goods as well. An inorganic chemical compound formed as the greenishyellow precipitate of the reaction between silver salts. In the meantime.75 | photochromic materials (PC) SILVER BROMIDE (AgBr) Sometimes called bromic silver. Relatively narrow absorption spectrum. can be made in large quantities. 89 ff. A number of different chromogenic products for children. by the addition of gold or palladium. Solid at +20°C. or brown. often calcium bromide. | Sunglasses and six plastic lenses incorporating organic PCs (ophthalmic lenses) before and after excitement with light. pp. the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems has developed a new photochromic system in which electrochromic tungsten oxide is used: this is described in the appropriate section (see electrochromic/-optic materials (EC. Other colours. Technology by James Robinson: illustration of the positive photochromic effect in sunglasses with plastic lenses incorporating organic PCs. form B only available in one colour (various shades of grey). problematic recyclability. Decomposes under the influence of high energy shortwave blue or violet light into black-coloured silver and bromine. can be produced by the addition of organic PCs. + Market presence. Apart from toys. some of them photochromic. The compound is used in photography as the light-sensitive component of emulsions on films and in other light-sensitive coatings.

Information can be written on it using a light pen. spironaphthoxazines). TECHNOLOGY BY JAMES ROBINSON) They can be applied by brush. PMMA.g. PVB. plastic. As above. cardboard. spironaphthoxazines). for example. diarylethenes. Otherwise as above. paper. can be made in large quantities. casting or injection moulding into various forms. . for example thermoplastics such as PE. | opposite: Schematic representation of the construction of photochromic and photo-electrochromic glass systems.76 | colour.and optically-changing smart materials A promising application of BR could be in aqueous solutions or as dyes on. | Photochromic BR-based film. good adhesion. good batchability. They can also be incorporated into plastics. spirooxazines (e. PVC. diarylethenes. and duroplastics like PUR and be thermally treated for extrusion. Otherwise as above. PP .G. Otherwise as for naphthopyranes. TECHNOLOGY BY JAMES ROBINSON) Photochromic powder made from naphthopyranes or spironaphthoxazines. The following products made from or incorporating PCs are among those of interest for architectural applications: Dyes made from photochromic organic compounds: DYES MADE FROM PC (REVERSACOL. | Photochromic BR-based paints produced by chemical derivatisation. + − High flexibility. films for the display. They can be added to inks and paints as dopants or to various solvents such as ethanol and toluene.g. spirooxazines (e. can be embedded in different plastics. textiles. concrete and masonry. DISPERSION-BASED (E. + Market presence. Other products incorporating photochromic organic compounds include: GRANULATES INCORPORATING PCs THREADS INCORPORATING PCs Technology by Chromatic Technologies Inc. EVA. Relatively expensive. roller or spray to surfaces such as wood. Otherwise as for naphthopyranes. | Technology by Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems: technology demonstrators of photochromic and photo-electrochromic glass systems before and after excitement with light. storage or processing of optical information. WITH REVERSACOL DYES. − Paints incorporating photochromic organic compounds: PAINTS INCORPORATING PC. can be used in low to high temperatures (–40°C to +250°C. depending on the matrix among other parameters). “Photochromic Wet Slurry”) before and during excitement with light. largely lightfast.: photochromic paint (DynaColor.

technology by James Robinson) The use of organic compounds such as naphthopyranes.g. silver halides) . spirooxazines (e. hence edge covering is necessary. higher costs of replacement of damaged panes. During darkness decolouring takes place by recombination reactions. naphthopyranes.g. relatively easy to use.g. in terms of their colourfastness. e.77 | photochromic materials (PC) Glass incorporating electrochromic inorganic compounds: illumination => colouring glass Glas light glass dark => decolouring GLASS SYSTEMS INCORPORATING ELECTROCHROMIC MATERIALS (EC) (TECHNOLOGY BY FRAUNHOFER INSTITUTE OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS) Photochromic system consisting of electrochromic tungsten oxide and a dye solar cell. relatively heavy. Under the influence of light. + switch open + illumination => colouring glass light glass Suitable for darkening rooms. work is on-going with encapsulated dyes. printing inks) incorporating PCs (e.) GRANULATES incorporating PCs (e.g. SILVER HALIDES) Products currently used in architecture include: RAW OR END PRODUCTS: DYES made from PCs (e. can be made in small quantities only. e. − switch closed => decolouring dye Other products incorporating photochromic organic compounds include: GLASS SYSTEMS INCORPORATING PCS (E. This can be increased by further additives. Reversacol dyes. spironaphthoxazines) (e. inks. for example. HALS (hindered amine light stabilisers). technology by Chromatic Technologies Inc.g. e. At the moment in this context. photochromic dyes FILMS incorporating PCs.g. largely lightfast. DynaColor. Otherwise with the limits mentioned above for tungsten oxide and dye solar cells. Lack of market presence.g. BR) DYES (e.g. spironaphthoxazines) (e. spironaphthoxazines) and diarylethenes allows products to be made that have relatively good long-term light stability. naphthopyranes.g. no electrochromic or dye coatings can be applied to the edge of cells. thus allowing clean details. electrons in the solar cell layer become excited and are injected into the tungsten oxide. spironaphthoxazines) THREADS incorporating PCs (e. including UV absorbers. naphthopyranes. photochromic dyes TEXTILES incorporating PCs.G.g. Toxic products such as those with layers of silver halides should be used as little as possible. SUSPENSIONS incorporating PCs (e. with resulting higher installation costs.g.g. no external electricity supply required. spironaphthoxazines) INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS: PAPERS incorporating PCs. can be installed in conjunction with adjacent conventional glazing. which will probably respond less spontaneously. At the same time cations from the electrolyte are taken into the layer and the tungsten oxide turns blue. The photo-electrochromic version can be controlled by the user by means of a switch.g. naphthopyranes. antioxidants. photochromic yarns GLASS SYSTEMS incorporating PCs (e. Otherwise with the limits mentioned above for tungsten oxide and dye solar cells.

78 | colour. it has not been successful so far because of its inadequate long-term behaviour. They range from UV-sensitive wallpapers to textiles that are further processed into clothing or room textiles.and optically-changing smart materials Until recent years there had been very few realised applications of photochromic materials (PC) in the fields of art (see p. While in the beginning the emphasis was on the aesthetics of the colour change. 24) or architecture. or of changes in surface temperatures. there are currently no known large-scale uses of these systems. Accordingly. Although the use of self-colouring glass in windows or facades is an obvious application. Among the first projects involving PCs in a building envelope was the entry from Becker Gewers Kühn & Kühn Architects for the 1992 design competition for the Museum of Modern Art in Munich. researchers are currently seeking to let these products take on further functions. such as the indication of energy state or time. sensitivity to heat and relatively high manufacturing costs. by Becker Gewers Kühn & Kühn Architects. particularly in the universities. Model of a photochromatic glazed building envelope: Museum of Modern Art. Since that time a number of other applications incorporating PCs have been proposed. Munich. .

which can reversibly change from a monochromic to a bichromic red under the influence of light. Charlotte von der Lancken. Appearing Pattern Wallpaper is intended to demonstrate to the observer in a poetic way how everyday objects can change over time under the influence of only subliminally perceived forms of energy. left monochromic. including designers and manufacturers. Sweden Wallpaper | Sweden (2005) The Appearing Pattern Wallpaper project by the Interactive Institute’s Power Studio in Eskilstuna seeks to raise awareness of energy forms that show themselves in less obvious ways than. The institute works with others. . Anna Lindgren and Katja Sävström developed a wallpaper with UV-sensitive inks. right bichromic with the fully developed pattern. electric current. on energy-related project themes. For their project STATIC! designers Sofia Lagerkvist.79 | photochromic materials (PC) Monosmart material | Polysmart application Colour. Appearing Pattern Wallpaper: patterns (shown here in three sequential photographs) gradually changing during the absorption of UV light.and optically changing smart material: PHOTOCHROMIC DYE (INK) Indication of UV light and time through colour change Interactive Institute: Power Studio. for example.

Harnik and G. and J. among others. Thermochromic materials and components generally used include among others: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS These materials and products include among others: THERMOCHROMIC PIGMENTS THERMOCHROMIC GLASS THERMOTROPIC GLASS THERMOCHROMIC PLASTICS Thermochromic plastics are also known as thermochromic polymers (TCP). 76° C. Prague chemist Hans Meyer observed thermochromic behaviour in certain organic compounds.F Mills and S. thermotropic materials (TT) and thermotropics are materials or components that are able to reversibly change their optical characteristics (e. 79° C). In 2003 in Germany. . Choleristic compound cholesteryl-pelargonate at different temperatures (75° C. INORGANIC COMPOUNDS Metal oxides (e.C.M. mercury(II)-iodide). vanadium oxide (VaO).g. vanadium tungsten oxide (VaWO). leuco dyes (e.and optically-changing smart materials THERMOCHROMIC AND THERMOTROPIC SMART MATERIALS MATERIALS. 1954 and 1963 respectively in the Journal of the Chemical Society. Cholesteric liquid crystals (e. The following thermochromic and thermotropic smart materials are currently of interest to architects: THERMOCHROMIC MATERIALS (TC) THERMOTROPIC MATERIALS (TT) Thermochromic materials (TC) and thermochromics are materials or components that are able to reversibly change their colour in response to light.J. An explanation for this phenomenon was not found until E. yet they move like liquids. PRODUCTS. copper oxide (CuO)). 77° C. spiropyranes.80 | colour. the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research in Golm near Berlin succeeded in developing microencapsulated thermochromic composites incorporated in various plastics. and a form of thermotropic solar protection. transparency) in response to temperature.D. In contrast. Schmidt.g.g. In these phases they have directionally dependent physical properties. London.g. These phases are also known as mesomorphs. such as those found in crystals. cholesterylesters). Certain liquid crystals that do not change directly from the crystalline to the liquid state when heated but go through one or more intermediate phases are classed as thermochromic materials. fulgides). Nyburg published several articles about thermochromism in . Metal iodides (e. zinc oxide (ZnO).g. PROJECTS Their inherent properties enable them to react to temperature (thermal energy) by reversibly changing their colour and/or their optical characteristics. bismuth oxide (BiO). In 1909.

a reasonable number of cycles of possible changes of colour. FULGIDES) See products. non-toxic. HYBRID ORGANIC-INORGANIC COMPOUNDS Hydrogels. suitable for precise applications. resins. blue to violet and back again to black.g. polystyrene-co-HEMA/polypropylenoxide). black background required to maximise the colour effect. can be used in low to medium temperatures (< –20°C to > +100°C). salt hydrates). phase change materials (PCM) (e. relatively low colour intensity. CHOLESTERYLESTERS) Various organic compounds such as cholesterylesters. “thermochromic UV screen”). green. Technology by Chromatic Technologies Inc. lyotropic liquid crystals. yellow.81 | thermochromic/-tropic materials (TC. TT) Thermochromic materials or components also include: MINERALS Rutil.G. thermochromic gemstones. Thermotropic materials and components in use include among others: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Polymer blends (e. The following TCs/TTs could be of interest in the field of architecture: CHOLESTERIC LIQUID CRYSTALS (E. switching at 31°C or at 45°C. Market presence. can be made in large quantities.G.g. They react to a continuous temperature rise by changing colour from black through red. Special manufacturing technology required. LEUCO DYES (E.g. orange. paraffin).: thermochromic paints (type DynaColor. SPIROPYRANES. INORGANIC COMPOUNDS Phase change materials (PCM) (e. . relatively expensive.

Lack of market presence. each of which were mixed with one concentrate (candy red or candy yellow). They react to a temperature rise by reversibly changing their optical characteristics from almost transparent to translucent (milky-white turbidity). or drinking vessels or straws that change colour when in contact with hot or cold drinks. relatively high transparency when switched off (approx. 90 %). a number of consumer products were enhanced with thermochromic characteristics and brought on to the market. processing them under industrial conditions has proven too costly. + Can be made in large quantities.82 | colour. . a relatively large proportion of NIR and IR radiation is reflected. can be used in low to high temperatures (< –30°C to > +120°C). where a further thermotropic system is described. on bodily contact. The following products made from or incorporating TCs and TTs are of interest for architectural applications: Technology by Alsa Corporation: colour changes of a thermochromic paint (Xposures) on contact with water as the heat carrier. non-toxic. which can still be found on sale today.g. They can be used in thermotropic layers. However. Also known in this context are toothbrushes made from coloured plastic that undergo a reversible colour change at the contact points where they have been held in the hand. As a result. The most well known include the mood rings from the 1970s. Towards the end of the 1900s.). for example as solar protection. The mesophases can only be formed in mixtures. e. 165 ff. One of the first developments in the field of thermotropic products were switching hydrogels that are enclosed between glass substrates and have impressive optical characteristics. − The use of phase change materials (PCM) in thermotropic layers in more complex systems is also interesting and is dealt with in more detail in the relevant chapter (see phase change materils (PCM) pp. relatively large number of possible cycles of changes between turbidity and clarity. they change from black to red or from black to yellow respectively instead of from black to white. | Functioning of two thermochromic paints set to 31°C (Eclipse). in which solar protection based on phase change reversibly changes from almost transparent (90 %) to translucent. A new use has been developed by the German Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research in Golm near Berlin.and optically-changing smart materials LYOTROPIC LIQUID CRYSTALS Various organic compounds.

+ Eight different colours available. TT) Dyes made from thermochromic organic compounds: LEUCO DYES INCORPORATING TC Powdered microencapsulated thermochromic dyes made from. Can be applied by brush. e. + Market presence. roller or spray to surfaces such as metal. Available as paint only. The colour change takes place only when incorporated in a matrix.g. relatively good mechanical load capacity compared with earlier products. a reasonable number of cycles of possible changes of colour.83 | thermochromic/-tropic materials (TC. can be processed with other decorative paints and concentrates on the same basis. depending on temperature. Only available in two colours. | Thermochromic polymer gel heated in a waterbath. the organic compounds switch between black or blue to white and back again. Not particularly suitable for precise applications. Available as powder or paint. plastic. roller or spray to surfaces such as metal. . resistance to wear with an additional protective lacquer. − PAINTS INCORPORATING TC AS PART OF A PAINT SYSTEM (XPOSURES. − Technology by Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research: powdered microencapsulated TCs (composites). relatively good UV light resistance compared with earlier products. plastic. switching temperature +72°C to +74°C. TECHNOLOGY BY ALSA CORPORATION) Monochromic colour changers. violet. + Market presence.g. non-toxic. which consist of organic compounds dissolved in a liquid carrier. simple to clean. glass. − Paints with thermochromic organic compounds: PAINTS INCORPORATING TC AS PART OF A PAINT SYSTEM (ECLIPSE. They react to a temperature rise by reversibly changing colour from transparent to coloured. | Duroplastics: moulded thermochromic disc. showing different colours at different temperatures. As for liquid crystals above. | Thermochromic polymer material. depending on the temperature.g. highly transparent extruded thermochromic polymer film. good dirt resistance. can be made in large quantities. the liquid crystals change from an initial colour (e. wood. plastic. blue) through a variety of other colours (brown. which enables other high temperature paints to be produced. e. fabric and leather. | Extruded thermochromic polymer strings. can be used in low to medium temperatures (< –20°C to > +80°C). encapsulated spiropyranes or fulgides. can be processed with other decorative paints and concentrates on the same basis. violet and green) and back again. capable of being extruded and used as dopants in various plastics. yellow. | Hydrogels: thermochromic polymer gel. Can be applied by brush. relatively expensive. good adhesion. glass. TECHNOLOGY BY ALSA CORPORATION) Polychrome colour changers that consist of liquid crystals dissolved in a liquid carrier.g. wood. | Thermoplastics: extruded thermochromic polymer film. fabric and leather. e. Otherwise as above and for liquid crystals. can be used in low to medium temperatures (< –20°C to > +130°C). Highly transparent in all phases.

84 | colour- and optically-changing smart materials

Plastics incorporating thermochromic organic compounds:
MICROENCAPSULATED TC (COMPOSITES) (TECHNOLOGY BY FRAUNHOFER INSTITUTE FOR APPLIED POLYMER RESEARCH)

TCs that are microencapsulated, e.g. with transparent polymers; often powdered thermochromic composites. Can be incorporated as dopants into various plastics, e.g. in thermoplastics such as PE, PP PVC, PES, ABS, PA, PC, PMMA, duroplastics such as PES, , PUR and in paints, coatings and resins. Can be heat-treated for extrusion, casting or injection moulding into various shapes. They are currently in the development phase (technology demonstrators).
+

Can be made in large quantities, can be used in low to medium temperatures (–20°C to +100°C), largely lightfast, good batchability, can be embedded in various plastics, can be made into relatively large, uniformly coloured moulded parts and films, resistant to compression and temperature. Lack of market presence.

Products currently used in architecture include:
RAW OR END PRODUCTS:

LEUCO DYES incorporating TCs PAINTS incorporating TCs as part of a paint system (Eclipse, technology by Alsa Corporation) PAINTS incorporating TCs as part of a paint system (Xposures, technology by Alsa Corporation) DYES (e.g. inks, printing inks) incorporating TCs (e.g. naphthopyranes, spironaphthoxazines) (e.g. DynaColor, technology by Chromatic Technologies Inc.) MICROENCAPSULATED TCs (compounds) (technology by Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research) THREADS incorporating TCs (technology by Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research) Hydrogels incorporating TCs (technology by Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research)
INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS:

PAPERS incorporating TCs, e.g. thermochromic dyes FILMS incorporating TCs, e.g. thermochromic dyes TEXTILES incorporating TCs, e.g. thermochromic yarns GLASS SYSTEMS incorporating TTs (technology by Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research)

85 | thermochromic/-tropic materials (TC, TT)

Applications involving thermochromic materials (TC) are more common than applications involving photochromic materials (PC). This applies as much to the fields of art and design as it does in architecture. Among the first architectonic applications was a wall covered with a thermochromic paint in the Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris by the German artist Sigmar Polke in 1988. Other artists and architects have since accepted the material and some of their works have included walls coated with thermochromic latex paints. In addition, thermochromic components have been incorporated into a small number of furnishing items. In addition to new textiles that are used e.g. as table covers (see p. 22) and as wall coverings, room dividers or curtains, the first ceramic sanitary fittings such as wash basins and baths have been coated with appropriately sensitive dyes. It is hoped in particular that thermotropic layers in e.g. glass systems will become an important tool for autonomously regulating the amount of light entering buildings. The use of TCs to indicate energy consumption also appears promising. The Power Studio of the Swedish Interactive Institute used TCs as part of its STATIC! project. In 2005, conventional ceramic wall tiles in a shower were given a floral decoration of multi-coloured thermochromic stickers. During each shower the dyes reacted, above a certain temperature, to the heat of the shower water by gradually decolouring and hence indicating the intensity of the shower, its duration and consumption of hot water.

Technology by Alsa Corporation: wash basin with thermochromic coating, initially black. | opposite: Technology by Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research: behaviour of a thermotropic glass system as solar protection, based on reversible temperature-dependent phase transitions from transparent to translucent.

86 | colour- and optically-changing smart materials

Monosmart material | Monosmart application Colour- and optically changing smart material: THERMOCHROMIC PAINT (LIQUID CRYSTALS WITH A SYNTHETIC BINDER) Indication of temperature differences (weather) by colour change

Sigmar Polke, Germany Wall installation | Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, ARC, Paris, France (1988) Two years after completing his Hydrowand for the German pavilion at the XLII. Biennale in Venice the artist covered a convex-curved wall with a large area of temperature-sensitive, colour-changing paint composed of liquid crystals and a synthetic binder. Through the use of three different types of liquid crystal that changed colour over three different temperature ranges, the Thermowand was meant to show the daily path of the sun by reacting to the sunlight falling upon it. The thermochromic dispersion paint used liquid crystal substances specifically selected to cover the temperature ranges 20°C to 22°C, 20°C to 25°C and 27°C to 33°C. The canvass for his painting was a damp-proof aluminium membrane glued to the wall. The paint contained toluene. It was therefore poisonous and had to be applied wearing a breathing mask. The possible colour spectrum ranged from black (cold, < 20°C) through violet-red, red, yellow, yellow-green and green-blue to turquoise (warm, > 26°C). The plan was that the roof construction would create a permanently changing “shadow drawing”. As the sunlight did not manage to reach the Thermowand as planned, an infrared lamp was installed to demonstrate how the wall worked.

Thermowand: wall with the applied thermochromic paint in the cold state (black). | Detailed photograph of paint coatings at different temperatures.

. was created for the Galerie magnusmüller to be on display from 17 September to 10 November 2005. for example as a self-darkening exterior paint that would heat up in winter by absorbing sunlight. The idea of using a similar thermosensitive paint on exterior surfaces.87 | thermochromic/-tropic materials (TC. was rejected due to high manufacturing costs and inadequate UV resistance. Visitors can leave temporary images of their presence by touching the thermosensitive areas. jagged bands and isolated thermosensitive. the pigment was added to ordinary latex wall paint for interior application. develops further Friedrich Kielser’s idea of melding architecture and art with the observers by having them become part of the exhibit. Mayer H. Germany Room installation | Galerie magnusmüller. Mayer H. has exhibited works incorporating thermochromic paints at several international exhibitions. TT) Monosmart material | Monosmart application Colour. The thermochromic paint pigment was set for the human body temperature and decolours where touched. Berlin. A version of his installation IN HEAT. brown polygons on the white walls of the gallery is reminiscent of the colour experiments seen at the end of the 1960s. Mayer H. from April to May 2005. the ceilings and floors were left blank. . Originally developed by NASA to signal overheating of mechanical parts. housewarming III with its intensively pink-coloured. horizontally running. housewarming III: room installation. New York.and optically changing smart material: LATEX PAINT WITH THERMOCHROMIC PIGMENTS Indication of temperature differences by colour change J. Unlike the rigorous interpretation of this concept in IN HEAT. J. which could be seen at Henry Urbach Architecture gallery. Germany (2005) The Berlin architect and designer J. Through the possibility of interaction with the room.

Further interesting possibilities are opening up for the use of Chronos Chromos Concrete with the thermal energy given off in rooms. Mehin and Rosen. or lines of less intense colour. Local colour changes are produced on the surface. the colour changes can also be produced by indirect heating. Great Britain Thermochromic concrete | Great Britain (2004) Students at the Innovation Unit of the Royal College of Art (RCA) in London developed a thermochromic concrete with which it was possible to use concrete as a display surface. This was done by adding thermochromic inks to the concrete and applying heat directly by currentcarrying nickel-chromium wires.and optically-changing smart materials Monosmart material | Monosmart application Colour. for example from the heat given off by underfloor heating. would be produced in response to the heat given off by people.88 | colour. As an alternative to direct heating. which may appear in the shape of dots.and optically changing smart material: CONCRETE WITH THERMOCHROMIC PIGMENTS Displays of graphics and characters through temperature-dependent colour changes triggered by electric current Chris Glaister. Graphics and alphanumeric characters were created on the surface by means of electric currents. The students’ first proposed application was for oversized digital clocks integrated into walls and balustrades. . as suggested by Glaister. could be formed in concrete that would display partial colour changes produced by the heat given off by people standing and moving on them. This technology could also be beneficial in swimming pools and bathrooms. For example. whenever the difference between the room temperature and the surface temperatures of the people in the room was large enough. Afshin Mehin. the trafficked floor surfaces in the Tate Gallery. | Partial colouring of the floor of the Tate Gallery triggered by human body heat. standing or in motion. lines or patches depending on the spacing of the wires. | Thermopool. Simulations: a digital clock integrated into a balustrade at the Tate Gallery. Tomas Rosen. London. Spots of intense colour. | A digital clock integrated into a wall.

electrooptic materials (EO) are materials or components that are able to reversibly change their optical characteristics (e. Sol-Gel technology or electrochemically. which are coated on the inner sides with a transparent conductive oxide (TCO). transparency) in response to temperature.89 | electrochromic/-optic materials (EC. a photo-electrochromic system consisting of a combination of a dye solar cell with an electrochromic cell was developed in Germany at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems. commonly indium tin oxide (ITO). On top of this is placed the first anodic electrochromic layer of e. Electrochemical cells are required in order to use the phenomenon of electrochromism. This type has two films of different electrochromic components combined with one another. These cells can be differentiated according to their four basic types. EOs include liquid crystals that have been processed into films in order that they can be used as electrooptic layers. among other properties. The rest of the construction is the reverse of the above. These materials and products include: ELECTROOPTIC GLASS SYSTEMS INCORPORATING POLYMER-DISPERSED LIQUID CRYSTALS (PDLC) ELECTROOPTIC GLASS SYSTEMS INCORPORATING SUSPENDED PARTICLE DEVICES (SPD) ELECTROCHROMIC GLASS SYSTEMS INCORPORATING METAL OXIDES Systems incorporating suspended particle devices (SPD) will not be dealt with in more detail here. which established the principles of modern electrochromism. a polymer electrolyte. Deb published his research work on thin films of molybdenum and tungsten trioxide.g. Also in 2004. In 1969 and 1973 S. They differ from each other in their number of combined electrochemical switchable films. EO) ELECTROCHROMIC AND ELECTROOPTIC SMART MATERIALS > MATERIALS. Liquid crystal films (LC films) in principle consist of several functional layers: two PET substrate layers. Freiburg. In principle. a researcher at Xerox Parc. Electrochromism became known in 1953 following the work of Kraus on tungsten trioxide. On the European market the first commercial electrooptic glass was introduced under the brand name PRIVALITE in 1991. These liquid crystals are also known as polymerdispersed liquid crystals (PDLC).g. Then follows an electrolytic layer of e. At the moment type 1 is the most popular. Another metal oxide such as niobium oxide (Nb2O5) or a conductive polymer such as polyaniline can be used as the second cathodic electrochromic layer. American researchers working with Fred Wudl at the University of California made public their development of a green electrochromic polymer which together with the already available red and blue electrochromic polymers enables any other colour to be created. PRODUCTS. In 2004. . This system is still available today and is based on liquid crystals. to serve as electrodes. which is responsible for the colour change. PROJECTS Their inherent properties enable them to react to electrical fields by reversibly changing their colour and/or their optical characteristics. type 1 consists of several functional layers placed one upon the other as follows: a transparent conductive layer (TCO).g. The following electrochromic and electrooptic smart materials are currently of interest to architects: ELECTROCHROMIC MATERIALS (EC) ELECTROOPTIC MATERIALS (EO) Electrochromic materials (EC) and electrochromics are materials or components that are able to reversibly change their colour in response to light.K. indium tin oxide (ITO). is deposited as an anode on a supporting first substrate layer such as glass.g. e. tungsten oxide (WO3). sputtering). enclose a polymer matrix in which the liquid crystals are embedded. as well as a photochromic system. In contrast to this. It switches reversibly between transparent and opaque. developed the first electronic paper (e-paper). It can be applied by vacuum technology (vapour deposition. In the 1970s Nick Sheridon. which should be as good as possible at conducting ions but at the same time be a poor electrical conductor. which he found changed colour to deep blue after the application of an electric field.

and optically-changing smart materials EC materials and components generally used include among others: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Cathodic colouring viologenes (bipyridinium salts) Anodic colouring polymers (e. nickel oxide (NiO). polythiophene derivates) INORGANIC COMPOUNDS Cathodic colouring metal oxides (e. They react to the influence of a DC electrical field by electrochemical oxidation with the simultaneous taking-in of charge-neutralising cations (e. relatively poor lightfastness compared with inorganic electrochromic compounds based on metal oxides. reversibly colouring between three oxidation stages. can be made in large quantities. polythiophene derivates) Cathodic colouring polymers (e. + Market presence. relatively large number of cycles of possible changes of colour (> 105).g.g. can be used in low to high temperatures (< –40°C to > +120°C). Li+).90 | colour.g. tungsten oxide (WO3). as anodic colouring compounds in electrochromic layers (films). changing colour from transparent through green to violet. Cannot form neutral colours (green and violet are considered less suitable for some applications). Can be used e.g. − . Aniline is available as a liquid. niobium oxide (Nb2O5)) Anodic colouring metal oxides. other metal compounds (e.g.g. H+. polypyrrol. Reversing the polarity reverses the colour change. iridium oxide (IrO2). ferric hexacyanoferrate (Prussian blue)) EO materials and components generally used include among others: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Liquid crystals (stilbene derivates) The following ECs and EOs could be among those of interest in architecture: POLYANILINE DERIVATES Electrically conductive polymers that can be made by the electrochemical polymerisation of aniline (derivates). Solid at +20°C. molybdenum oxide (MoO3). non-toxic. polyaniline.

relatively large number of cycles of possible changes of colour (> 105). can be used in low to high temperatures (< –20°C to > +100°C). Otherwise as above. can be used in low to high temperatures (< -40°C to > +120°C). React to the influence of a DC electrical field by electrochemical reduction with the simultaneous taking-in of charge-neutralising cations (e. Otherwise as above.g. H+.and trans-stilbenes. Tungsten oxide (WO 3) | Prussian blue.g. can be made in large quantities. cannot form neutral colours (blue is considered less suitable for some applications). can be made in large quantities. Li+). cannot form neutral colours (red and blue are considered less suitable for some applications). Solid at +20°C. + Market presence. even by the user himself. + − Market presence. non-toxic. relatively good lightfastness compared with organic electrochromic compounds based on polymers. STILBENE-DERIVATES (C14H12) Aromatic hydrocarbons with the isomer forms cis. + Market presence. as cathodic colouring compound in electrochromic layers (films). relatively large number of possible cycles of colour change (> 105). Is being currently tried as a replacement for tungsten oxide. relatively poor lightfastness compared with inorganic electrochromic compounds based on metal oxides. They can be used e. − NIOBIUM OXIDE (NB2O5) A metal oxide that can be made by the oxidation of the heavy metal niobium with pure oxygen. Other colours are possible depending on the derivate. Only reversibly colouring between two oxidation stages. Reacts by changing from transparent to brown. Reversing the polarity reverses the colour change. + − Can form a neutral colour (brown). changing colour from red to blue. It reacts to the influence of a DC electrical field by electrochemical reduction with the simultaneous taking-in of chargeneutralising cations (e.91 | electrochromic/-optic materials (EC. . Li+). − TUNGSTEN OXIDE (WO3) A metal oxide that can be made by the oxidation of the heavy metal tungsten with pure oxygen and by heating tungstic acid. Thiophene is available in powder form. changing colour from transparent to blue. non-toxic. Available as a yellow powder.g.g. EO) POLYTHIOPHENE DERIVATES Electrically conductive polymers that can be made by the electrochemical polymerisation of thiophene (derivates). Not known. Only reversibly colouring between two oxidation stages. Otherwise as above. H+. as cathodic colouring compounds in electrochromic layers (films). can be used in low to high temperatures (< –40°C to > +120°C). Available as a powder. It can be used e. Solid at +20°C. Reversing the polarity reverses the colour change. Only reversibly colouring between two oxidation stages. Solid at +20°C.

Reversing the polarity reverses the colour change. as well as in electrochromic layers in glass systems. Depending on the colouring compounds used. in the on state approx. | Technology by Gesimat: electrochromic glass system. relatively heavy. e.g. | Smart window in different reflective and transparent states. a permanently applied electrical field is not required for the transparent state. The maximum dimensions of the currently manufactured panels (technology demonstrators) are 120 cm x 80 cm. e.92 | colour. and by interaction they determine the overall colour effect of the system. Liquid crystals are found today in displays. As liquid crystals eventually emerged as the more suitable materials. antidazzle layers in automobile mirrors and as electronic inks (e inks). 8 %).g. largely lightfast. Otherwise as for tungsten oxide. | Technology by LBL: technology demonstrator of a smart window with an electrically switchable mirror (TMSM). electrochromic coating of the edges of the cells is not possible. for active solar protection of rooms. higher costs of replacement. medium to long replacement life (approx. + Can be used in low to medium temperatures (< –20°C to > +80°C). small formats). ECs were first tried in displays. Otherwise as for tungsten oxide. 200 000 switching cycles. requires a relatively low switching voltage (< 5 V DC). tungsten oxide with Prussian blue). can be used adjacent to conventional glass construction. of damaged panes. hence edge covering is necessary. so-called electronic paper (e paper). left glass in the decoloured state.and optically-changing smart materials In contrast to electrochromic materials (EC). suitable for room darkening (light transmittance in the off state approx. top half transparent. Prussian blue above. efforts are now concentrated on electrically switchable filters and mirrors. e. after the application of a DC electrical field two filters with different transmission colours that absorb different radiation spectra of natural light are created. relatively easy to use. can be made only in small quantities. with resulting higher installation costs. The following products made from or incorporating ECs and EOs are of particular interest for architectural applications: Transparent layers with electrochromic organic or inorganic compounds: GLASS SYSTEM INCORPORATING EC (TECHNOLOGY BY GESIMAT) Type 1 electrochemical cells consisting of two different electrochromic layers of cathodic and anodic colouring compounds (e. Current products are about to enter the pilot production stage. therefore allowing clean detailing. joined together with a polymer electrolyte layer and enclosed between electrically conductive glass substrates (2 mm x 4 mm or 2 mm x 6 mm).g. relatively inexpensive to manufacture compared with glass systems based on liquid crystals. . − Technology by Gesimat: two mounted glass panels with tungsten oxide as the cathodic colouring electrochromic layer in combination with Prussian blue as the anodic colouring electrochromic layer. right glass in the coloured state. adequate fire resistance. bottom half reflective. The colour depth and transparency and therefore the absorption capacity can be controlled electrically. 75 %. Prussian blue above. Lack of market presence. in televisions. electrooptic materials (EO) have performed relatively well on the market. e.g. as displays in e-books.g. The glass system provides active solar protection of rooms and can be used like conventional glass systems.

glass). 200 000 switching cycles. Otherwise as for liquid crystals above. requires a relatively low switching voltage (< 50 V DC.g. adequate fire resistance. in combination with other capsules. The maximum available dimension of a panel is 300 cm x 100 cm. a permanently applied electrical field is not required to maintain any state. depending on the system. can be used adjacent to conventional glass construction. Little market presence. which. relatively easy to use. therefore allowing clean detailing. Currently they are in the market introduction phase. be used like conventional displays. polyethylenterephthalate (PET). medium to long replacement life (approx. produces the overall colour of the system. long replacement life (over 15 years in use). The distribution of pigment changes in response to the polarity of the DC electrical field on each side of a capsule. − Technology by E INK and others: technology demonstrator of a flexible digital clock (Citizen). can be made in large quantities. depending on components). among other parameters). 1700 euro/m2 to 2000 euro/m2. of damaged panes. higher costs of replacement. TECHNOLOGY BY SGG) Basic type (laminated glass) consisting of two laminated films between glass substrates (2 mm x 5 mm). relatively heavy. + Market presence.Philips LCD. a permanently connected electrical field is required for the transparent state.93 | electrochromic/-optic materials (EC. The system is used to display graphics and alphanumeric characters and can. Europe). The glass system provides active privacy or a projection surface and can be used like conventional glass systems. which are joined to one another by an electrooptic film of liquid crystals in a polymer matrix with electrically conductive coatings (ITO) on both sides. the previously transparent layer becomes translucent (milky white turbidity) due to the irregular orientation of the crystals within the liquid crystal layer. Polymer Vision). The individual capsules are electrically controllable. with resulting higher installation costs. . Otherwise as for liquid crystals above. Relatively high switching voltage required (100 V AC. supplied and installed). depending on the system.g. Upon the application of an AC electrical field. e. expensive to manufacture and install (currently approx. The crystals assume their regular orientation and the turbidity clears when the polarity is reversed. not suitable for darkening rooms (light transmittance in the off state approx. electrooptic coating of the edges of the cells is not possible. which can then reflect or absorb different spectra of natural light. 76 %). EO) NON-FLEXIBLE AND FLEXIBLE DISPLAYS INCORPORATING EC (TECHNOLOGY BY E INK AND OTHERS) These consist of capsules of black and white pigment chips suspended in a clear liquid enclosed between two electrically conductive substrates (e. Transparency and the amount of absorption and reflection can be set electrically. hence edge covering is necessary. can be used in low to medium temperatures (–20°C to +60°C). | Technology demonstrators of flexible E INK paper displays (LG. among other parameters). + Can be used in low to medium temperatures (< –10°C to > +60°C. with limitations. − Transparent layers incorporating electrooptic organic compounds: GLASS SYSTEM INCORPORATING EO (PRIVA-LITE. Reversing the polarity reverses the colour change.

In addition. e.94 | colour. With all glass. technology by SGG). by compression. technology by LBL) POLYMER SYSTEM incorporating ECs (technology by E INK) GLASS SYSTEM incorporating EOs (PRIVA-LITE. the substrate must not be overstressed.and optically-changing smart materials The requirements for handling and processing the products depend on the technology and the EC or EO used.g. Some electrochromic and electrooptic glasses are not suitable for installation as overhead roof lights. Moisture must also not be allowed to penetrate the electrical connections. the specified voltages must not be exceeded. Products currently used in architecture include: RAW OR END PRODUCTS: DYES incorporating ECs (technology by E INK) FILMS incorporating ECs (technology by E INK) FILMS incorporating ECs (technology by Gesimat) FILMS incorporating EOs (PRIVA-LITE. . technology by SGG) INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS: GLASS SYSTEM incorporating ECs (technology by Gesimat) GLASS SYSTEM (mirrors) incorporating ECs (TMSM. which may arise from inadequately specified installation tolerances.and plastic-laminated transparent systems.

| opposite: Technology by SGG: electrooptic glass system.L. joint venture and fitted with electrochromic glazing supplied by FLABEG. in particular the PRIVA-LITE product manufactured by Saint Gobain Glass (SGG). Two German companies are FLABEG and Gesimat. The objective was to test the long-term behaviour of the glass under real operating conditions. Apart from dividing walls. Here two switchable panes were fitted with the help of putty into the external window frames of a conventional wooden box window. mainly because Gesimat and other companies do not yet have an electrochromic system in series production. in translucent and transparent states. doors etc. Germany (1996 to 2002). Technology by Gesimat: a two-casement box window with electrochromic glazing. Electrooptic switchable systems are currently becoming more popular worldwide.U. EO) There are only a few companies in the world that can manufacture electrochromic glass. Unlike the situation with electrooptic systems. | Separating wall with electrooptic glass (PRIVA-LITE): Burnett (SGG). which was designed by the S. the world’s largest contiguous switchable electrooptical surface to date was built into a facade in Tokyo in 2004.B. that have been manufactured and installed to provide temporary optical separation to parts of rooms. . so far there have been only a few completed applications of electrochromic systems in Europe. One completed application was an accessible glass roof over the main reading room of the Landesbibliothek Dresden. This glazing was later replaced by conventional glazing. | Informational display at the EXPO 2005 in Japan (E INK. TOPPAN-KANBAN).95 | electrochromic/-optic materials (EC. The following example shows that electrochromic glazing can also be used in old buildings.

which are controlled by three main control computers and 65 000 microcomputers capable of processing a total of over 32 trillion commands per second. .and optically changing smart material: ELECTROOPTIC GLASS Light-emitting smart material: LIGHT EMITTING DIODES (LED) Communication and advertising with electrooptic glass Peter Marino Associates. which allows the 56 m high building to take on different appearances throughout the day. By day the electrooptic glass and hence the whole facade is switched to the transparent state.and optically-changing smart materials Monosmart material | Polysmart application Colour. reminiscent of Chanel’s signature tweed pattern. gives the building an elegant appearance. By night the glass is switched to opaque and the facade provides a projection surface for the 700 000 LEDs. which. Next follows a gap and an electrooptic switchable layer of PRIVA-LITE. Its 910 m2 display facade. a concert hall and a restaurant. | General view. The ten-storey highrise contains a 1300 m2 shopping centre.96 | colour. The view into the building is unobstructed. It consists of a laminate with several functional layers. is currently the only one of its type in the world. The internal face is formed from a two-pane laminated safety glass interrupted by horizontally running aluminium rails in which a double row of white LEDs are integrated. USA High rise facade | Tokyo. The display facade can show still images as well as video presentations. rhombic-honeycombed structure. in conjunction with the directly adjacent stainless steel. The outer curtain wall is formed of grey glass. Chanel Ginza: facade at night in an animated state. Japan (2004) A new headquarters for the fashion group Chanel was completed in 2004 in the Tokyo district of Ginza.

97 | electrochromic/-optic materials (EC. | Trial construction from inside. . EO) Chanel Ginza: simulation of possible effects.

Depending on the stimulus involved adhesion-changing smart materials can be differentiated as: PHOTOADHESIVE SMART MATERIALS Change the attraction forces of adsorption or absorption of atoms or molecules of solid. dipolar bonding and secondary valency bonding between different components. The processes can be generally differentiated as: PHYSICAL ADHESION The main attraction forces are due to adsorption. liquid or gaseous component in response to a stimulus. electrostatic bonding. . This may take place due to the effect of light. the adsorbent. The release of a previously adsorbed or absorbed atom or molecule is termed desorption (see matter-exchanging smart materials. van-der-Waals forces. temperature.Adhesion-changing smart materials include materials and products that are able to change reversibly the attraction forces of adsorption or absorption of an atom or molecule of a solid. MECHANICAL ADHESION These attraction forces arise mainly from interlocking. anchoring or intermeshing between different components. secondary bonding. Whilst adhesion describes the attraction forces between atoms and molecules of different components. 174). Absorption describes an inclusion of an atom or molecule of a component into the free volume of a material and/or product. liquid or gaseous components in response to light. cohesion is the attraction of forces between atoms and molecules of the same component. Adsorption is the attachment of an atom or molecule of a component to an inner surface of a material or product. CHEMICAL ADHESION Chemical bonding provides the main attraction forces between different components. the absorbent. Example of adhesion on a hibiscus flower. liquid or gaseous components in response to temperature. an electrical field or a liquid and/or biological component. p. THERMOADHESIVE SMART MATERIALS Change the attraction forces of adsorption or absorption of atoms or molecules of solid.

). 148 ff. water). Bioadhesive smart materials can be considered to include living bacteria on a nutrient and carrier layer (e.g.g.g. functioning by hydroadhesion. .99 | adhäsionsvariierende smart materials ELECTROADHESIVE SMART MATERIALS Change the attraction forces of adsorption or absorption of atoms or molecules of solid. BIOADHESIVE SMART MATERIALS Change the attraction forces of adsorption or absorption of atoms or molecules of solid. HYDROADHESIVE SMART MATERIALS Change the attraction forces of adsorption or absorption of atoms or molecules of solid. liquid or gaseous components in response to liquid components (e. which is cooled electrically by a Peltier element (PE) to such an extent that it freezes to form a firm bond on contact with water-soaked textiles (see [9]).and hydroadhesive smart materials are of particular relevance in the field of architecture. bacteria).g. liquid or gaseous components in response to biological components (e. Photoadhesive smart materials change e. Electroadhesive smart materials are able to generate an electrostatic field in response to a stimulus and reversibly bond with ionised particles floating in the air. liquid or gaseous components in response to an electrical field. | Garden Chapel: self-cleaning construction membrane with TiO 2. Hydroadhesive smart materials include materials that generate water in response to light by electrical conversion. in the form of polysaccharide fibres in response to light or nutrients. the wetting angle of liquid components applied to solid components in response to light. pp. They create a temperature-dependent bond between different components. Monte Verde: self-cleaning facade with TiO 2. e. One publication describes a gripping mechanism. photo. The use of PEs in architecture will be dealt with in greater detail elsewhere (see thermoelectric generators (TEG). Currently. which secrete adhesive substances. to give an example. agar). the water might act as the adhesive medium between two solid components.g. Thermoplastic plastics are one example of smart materials that have strong thermoadhesive properties.

TiO2 has also been used as a foodstuff additive. depending on the applied source material). effects are light-dependent. In Germany. It occurs naturally as the crystal lattice structures (also described as modifications) rutile.100 | adhesion-changing smart materials PHOTOADHESIVE SMART MATERIALS > MATERIALS. can be made in large quantities. non-toxic. better covering properties compared with the anatase modification. From 1958 also the chloride process has been in use. Raw materials for production are a titanium iron ore by the name of ilmenite. − ANATASE MODIFICATION (TETRAGONAL TiO2 CRYSTALS) + Used as a white pigment. Here chlorine is added to the ore. Materials and components in use include: MODIFICATIONS Rutile. anatase and brookite. used in particular as a white pigment and as a photocatalyst for converting pollutants and for creating a hydrophilic effect. TiO2 has been produced from ilmenite (titanium iron ore) using the sulphate process by the addition of sulphuric acid. both of these are obtained from opencast mines. After its photocatalytic effect had been discovered. non-consumptive. a less iron-rich titanium ore. − TiO2 powder. it was manufactured from 1924 as Degea-Titanweiß. in particular as a photocatalyst for converting organic pollutants and for creating a hydrophilic effect. In architecture the following photoadhesive material and products manufactured from it are of interest: TITANIUM DIOXIDE (TiO2) Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is currently the most technically important compound of titanium. Otherwise as above. 2002 saw the first self-cleaning glass with TiO2 appear on the European market. only about 5 % of the solar radiation (absorption of radiation < 413 nm wavelength) can be used. PROJECTS Their inherent properties allow products based on photoadhesive materials to change reversibly their adhesion in response to light. a shiny black mineral. It is lightfast and temperature-stable (its melting point is at 1855°C). diluted acids and alkalis. TiO2 is insoluble in water. In recent years Japan also developed paper and building membranes with photocatalytic effects. Since 1968. . and rutile. Not available everywhere. organic solvents. PRODUCTS. TiO2 was first used as a white pigment. at first as the anatase modification and then from 1938 in the rutile form. the Japanese were successful in 1995 in using TiO2 in ceramic surface coatings. It was made in the USA and sold from 1909 under the name Kronos titanium white. Only about 5 % of the solar radiation (absorption of radiation < 388 nm wavelength) can be used. Otherwise as above. anatase Both modifications are of interest in architecture: RUTILE + Market presence. usable over a comparatively large temperature range (< –10°C to > +80°C). Since 1917.

The cellulose in the paper is hygroscopic and adsorbs water vapour. to purify water. Photocatalytic papers are expected to be further developed for the European market. The most important products developed over recent years are those in which the anatase modification has been applied insolubly using the Sol-Gel process. The first marketable product was developed in Japan in the form of ceramic slabs which had self-cleaning properties and were able to break down pollutant gases.” (after [10]) Various products with surfaces made of TiO2 and capable of changing reversibly their adhesion in response to UV light have been developed for architectural applications. for example as wallpaper. | Illustration of the photocatalytic conversion of organic pollutants. Silicones are used to achieve this effect in certain photocatalytic facade paints. Honda described the photocatalytic process as follows: “When UV light strikes the surface of the TiO2 anatase crystal. In the presence of water.101 | titanium dioxide (TiO2) One of the successful areas of application of titanium dioxide (TiO2). it releases negatively charged electrons from the surface leaving behind positively charged holes. which uses the UV light to oxidise organic molecule pollutants and odours in the air and convert them into substances such as carbon dioxide and water. Water droplets immediately spread on the hydrophilic surface and form a compact film with the result that the contact angle is very low.g. By the choice of components used the products have no overall light-dependent hydrophilic properties but show a permanent hydrophobic effect. breaking down pesticides and pharmaceutical residues. From this have followed construction membranes. Fujishima and K. Illustration of the self-cleaning effect. In the 1970s American scientist A. is in photocatalytic paper. glass panes and other products for various applications. In addition there are various products on the market that use TiO2 solely for breaking down organic pollutants. especially in Japan and also in Germany. The bond is so strong that further layers of H2O on the monomolecular OH-layer are physically adsorbed and other substances repelled from the surface. In Japan it has occasionally been incorporated in coverings for room dividers for domestic use. therefore the product has no significant self-cleaning properties. . Further similar products with a photocatalytic effect are interior paints and plasters. creating an easy-to-clean. with the help of sunlight. hydrophilic surface. OH-groups are adsorbed on the TiO2 surface. Heller and Japanese scientists A. e. TiO2 can also be used. preferably on to smooth surfaces.

Otherwise as above for the anatase modification. PVC. . can be handled and used like conventional facade slabs and tiles. | Ceramic wall and floor tiles with TiO 2. bird droppings. PTFE) with a TiO2 surface coating. can be made in large quantities. | Photocatalysis with UV light and TiO2. Only a few manufacturers. Otherwise as above for the anatase modification. Only a few manufacturers. − Ceramic facade slabs with TiO2. long replacement life. Available in rolls in various dimensions depending on the manufacturer. Otherwise as above for the anatase modification.g.102 | adhesion-changing smart materials Below are described some products specifically developed for architectural uses and equipped with the ability to change reversibly their adhesion in response to UV light: CERAMIC SLABS WITH TiO2 Ceramic slabs with a surface coating of baked-on TiO2. largely maintenance-free. Otherwise as above for the anatase modification. applicable in conjunction with conventional facade substructures. with dimensions 592 mm x 284 mm x 15 mm) and as wall and floor tiles. relatively inexpensive compared with conventional ceramic slabs. tar). best suited for use where self-cleaning is desirable (no knowledge of its suitability for air quality improvement by breaking down organic pollutants. currently available as facade slabs (e. preferably the anatase modification. + Market presence. possible release of toxic components in the event of fire. − CONSTRUCTION MEMBRANES WITH TiO2 Textile membranes fully coated with plastic (e. extensive cutting to shape required. tar). reactivation by additional cleaning is required where there is severe dirt contamination (e. long replacement life. fireresistant. can be made in large quantities. They are intended for use where their self-cleaning properties and their ability to improve the air quality by breaking down organic pollutants are important. may have a plastic odour. can be prefabricated to suit the customer’s requirements as conventional construction membranes.g.g. the release of volatile components from the plastic shortly after installation and at high temperatures may present problems). preferably the anatase modification.g. | opposite: Illustration showing the self-cleaning effect: without TiO 2. reactivation by additional cleaning is required where there is severe dirt contamination (e. | Subsequent hydrophilic effect. bird droppings. largely maintenance-free. can be used for a wide range of applications and integrated into various membrane construction types. + Market presence.

Otherwise as above for the anatase modification. long replacement life. bird droppings.g. − Available or developed products useful in architecture include: RAW OR END PRODUCTS: FINE GRANULATE (powder) TiO2 (e. rutile modification. Otherwise as above for the anatase modification. They are best suited for use where self-cleaning and air quality improvement by breaking down organic pollutants is desirable. Available as flat glass in various sizes depending on the manufacturer.103 | titanium dioxide (TiO2) GLASS PANES WITH TiO2 Conventional glass panes with a TiO2 surface coating. can be made in large quantities. tar). preferably the anatase modification.g. not adhesion-changing) INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS: PAPER containing TiO2 (not adhesion-changing) CERAMIC SLABS with TiO2 CONSTRUCTION MEMBRANES with TiO2 GLASS PANES with TiO2 .g. Reactivation by additional cleaning is required where there is severe dirt contamination (e. largely maintenance-free. They can be prefabricated to suit the customer’s requirements as conventional glass panes. anatase modification) PAINTS containing TiO2 (e. can be used for a wide range of applications and integrated into framed and frameless construction types. + Market presence. extensive cutting to shape required.

In addition to smaller areas on buildings. who has limited the award of licences to several companies in Japan as well as in China. the technology has been used on comparatively large complex areas of glass to reduce running costs by dispensing with time. | Technology by Pilkington: glass construction with TiO 2. European and US-American markets. the home of the system developer Taiyo Kogyo Corporation. clear of distracting attachments. Following the successful construction in Japan of the first building with facade slabs incorporating TiO2.and cost-intensive cleaning routines and permanently installed cleaning platforms. Since its introduction in Europe in 2002 all well-known major manufacturers now offer a selfcleaning glass product. facades are now appearing in Europe with photocatalytic. The main country where construction membranes containing TiO2 are used is still Japan. As the additional cost is small compared to conventional float glass. Taiwan and Thailand. it has already been used in projects by private and public clients. The acquisition of a traditional German company means that self-cleaning membranes and textile structures can be expected to become more common in Europe as well. and to give the building an uncluttered appearance. . Technology by Deutsche Steinzeug: ceramic slabs with TiO 2.104 | adhesion-changing smart materials Products incorporating titanium dioxide (TiO2) with the properties detailed above have become well established worldwide and particularly in Japanese. | Technology by Taiyo: various construction membranes with TiO 2. Licences for the use of the technology mainly based on the patents of US and Japanese companies have been granted to several manufacturers. self-cleaning properties.

The earlier disadvantage was that if maintenance was neglected or cleaning was not carried out or was inadequate then the membranes would become unsightly after a few years. a chapel was built which incorporates a white construction membrane. . Garden Chapel: night view and daylight view. The surface that is exposed to rain was given a self-cleaning coating containing TiO2.105 | titanium dioxide (TiO2) Monosmart material | Monosmart application Adhesion-changing smart materials: CONSTRUCTION MEMBRANE WITH TiO2 Self-cleaning surfaces Obayashi Corporation. Osaka. surface texture and permanent self-cleaning white colour of the structure suggest a lightweight bridal gown moving in the wind. self-cleaning membrane skin | Hyatt Regency Hotel. It is clad externally with numerous rows of tied filigree rhomboids on which about 50m2 of the membrane were applied. In January 2001 in the garden of a luxury hotel in Osaka. Japan. Japan (2001) Membranes can be formed into technically and geometrically complex textile structures which can possess a special aesthetic charm. Japan Chapel with photocatalytic. load-bearing structure of the chapel is open on two sides and has four supports. The doublecurved. The shape.

assuming that enough natural light of the correct wavelength range strikes the facades. AN_architects. photocatalytic ceramic facades would help to ensure that air pollution does not increase. Austria High-rise with photocatalytic self-cleaning ceramic facade | Vienna. Any dirt particles. In correspondence with the characteristics of the coating. blue-green glaze on which the titanium oxide-containing “Hydrotect” surface coating was applied by spray as a transparent liquid and then baked on. Pro-rata the 6800 m2 ceramic facade of the Monte Verde would be the equivalent of 476 similar trees. e.g. The 182 apartment building is in the shape of a flat cuboid standing on its end.106 | adhesion-changing smart materials Monosmart material | Monosmart application Adhesion-changing smart materials: CONSTRUCTION MEMBRANE WITH TiO2 Self-cleaning surfaces Albert Wimmer. a new district in south Vienna. put aside its additional qualities and functions such as the oxygen production. is the location for architect Albert Wimmer’s 77 m high. glistening apartment tower Monte Verde for which AN_architects were engaged to design the photocatalytic facade. green. with additional smaller cuboids individually superimposed upon its surface. The ceramic facade slabs used here have a specially designed. Monte Verde: general view. rust or dust. In addition to the self-cleaning effect there is also a light-responsive air cleaning effect due to activated oxygen. Scientific tests have shown that 1000 m2 of photocatalytic-coated facade surface achieved an air cleaning effect that was the equivalent of 70 medium-sized deciduous trees. . which is generated by the free electrons formed at the surface of the coating. deposited out of air are more easily washed off along with the rainwater drops flowing off the surface. While the narrow ends of the tower in the north and south have conventional facades. Austria (2004) Wienerberg City. the facade is able to use light to form a hydrophilic surface on which the water drops striking it form a compact film due to their reduced contact angle. For some cities with severe air pollution. the sides with the superimposed parallelepipeds facing west and east have a self-cleaning photocatalytic facade system. | Sections of photocatalytic facade.

107 | titanium dioxide (TiO2) Monte Verde: facade section. .

In general terms luminescence can be differentiated as: PHOTOLUMINESCENCE An optical phenomenon in which a molecule is excited and emits light due to the effect of light. and emit heat as well as light. | Lost Embryo: threads with flourescent pigments. Currently. These molecules take up a temporary higher energy state and emit visible electromagnetic radiation. TRIBOLUMINESCENCE An optical phenomenon in which a molecule is excited by a mechanical effect to emit light. This happens as a result of the molecules taking up a temporary state of higher energy before leaving it again. at which time part of the energy taken up is emitted in the form of visible electromagnetic radiation. without the simultaneous emission of considerable thermal radiation. CRYSTALLOLUMINESCENCE An optical phenomenon in which a molecule is excited due to crystallisation and emits light. ELECTROLUMINESCENCE An optical phenomenon in which a molecule is excited and emits light due to the effect of an electrical field. Leuchtzimmer: paper with fluorescent paint. . the effects of light or an electrical field. to emit light. e. This optical phenomenon is called luminescence. These materials are not considered as smart materials and are not dealt with further in this book. for instance the direct or indirect application of heat. but the larger part of the energy emitted is thermal radiation. RADIOPHOTOLUMINESCENCE (THERMOLUMINESCENCE) An optical phenomenon in which a molecule is excited by the effect of radioactive radiation followed by thermal radiation to emit cold light.Light-emitting smart materials include materials or products with molecules that become excited by the effect of energy. CHEMOLUMINESCENCE An optical phenomenon in which a chemical reaction occurs to excite a molecule to emit light. In the near future bioluminescence and triboluminescence will be among those gaining in importance. RADIOLUMINESCENCE An optical phenomenon in which a molecule is excited by the effect of radioactive radiation and emits light. there are also materials or products with molecules that become excited by the effect of energy. BIOLUMINESCENCE An optical phenomenon in which a chemical reaction occurs to excite a molecule in a living organism to emit light. In contrast. the most important architectural applications are photoluminescence and electroluminescence.g.

PROJECTS Photoluminescent materials and products can be classed as fluorescent or phosphorescent depending on the properties of their luminous behaviour with respect to time. cyclam. the transition from the excited state back to the ground state is accompanied by delayed light emission. The effect can be increased if an artificial ultraviolet light source is used. by absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the form of light. Materials or components that are UV-luminous include: INORGANIC MATERIALS Zinc sulphide cadmium sulphide mixed crystals. PRODUCTS. rhodamine. This effect is particularly clear under overcast skies or at dusk. in particular by its ultraviolet radiation component. Materials or components with a reversible capability for fluorescence are capable.g. the transition from the excited state back to the ground state is accompanied by almost simultaneous light emission.111 | fluorescence PHOTOLUMINESCENT SMART MATERIALS > MATERIALS. they convert the ultraviolet light generated there into white light Materials or components used as phosphors include: INORGANIC MATERIALS Rare earths (e. | Daylight-luminous pigment from fluorescene. particularly in darkened rooms. PHOSPHORESCENCE The excitement of a molecule by light radiation. FLUORESCENCE The excitement of a molecule by light. . PHOSPHORESCENT MATERIALS OR COMPONENTS These materials are used for example in fluorescent tubes. UV-LUMINOUS MATERIALS OR COMPONENTS These materials emit light only when they are exposed to an artificial ultraviolet radiation source. of emitting light almost exactly on transition from the excited singlet state back to the ground state. yttrium oxide) Solid organic daylight-luminous pigments. Depending on the usable light spectrum or on the particular application. perylene. fluorescent materials or components can be further divided into: DAYLIGHT-LUMINOUS MATERIALS OR COMPONENTS These materials emit light during the day by absorbing the invisible ultraviolet component of daylight and emitting light almost simultaneously. within a period not greater than 10 –8 seconds [11]. Some materials or components that are daylight-luminous include: ORGANIC MATERIALS Fluorescene.

simple to clean. textiles. for example. + Good resistance to mechanical loads.112 | light-emitting smart materials Fluorescent materials or components include: MINERALS Scheelite (blue. yellow luminescence). Limited lightfastness. wide choice of colours. semifinished and end products have been developed and made commercially available for a wide range of applications. roller or spray to surfaces such as metal. | opposite: Polyacryl-based granulate. or processed into further products: Paints containing daylight-luminous organic pigments: DAYLIGHT-LUMINOUS DISPERSION-BASED PAINTS They can be applied by brush. cardboard. + Market presence. some of which can be applied directly to walls. halite. high brilliance and intensity of colour. CYCLAM. Limited lightfastness. good adhesion.g. The materials of most interest to the field of architecture are: FLUORESCENE. wood and glass. paper. Limited lightfastness − Daylight-luminous paint based on twocomponent acrylate-based paint system. free of heavy metals. resistance to wear with additional protective coating. DAYLIGHT-LUMINOUS PAINTS BASED ON TWO-COMPONENT ACRYLATE-BASED PAINT They can be applied by brush. highly dirt-repellent. inexpensive. In architecture there is particular interest in the following products involving daylight-luminous organic pigments and UV-luminous inorganic pigments. versatile range of applications. They extend from pigments and paints through composite materials with e. − A long-term market presence means that raw. calcite (orange-red luminescence). good adhesion. . plastic. paper to carpets and complex plastic housings. can be made in large quantities. also available in small quantities. depending on type. + − High flexibility. non-toxic. sodalite. concrete and masonry. many years of practical use. roller or spray to surfaces such as wood. RHODAMINE. PERYLENE Organic materials for the manufacture of daylight-luminous pigments. resistance to particular chemicals and high temperatures.

with fluorescent inks CARPET e. The colours light blue and light yellow are suitable for indoor use only as they luminesce under artificial ultraviolet light only. + − Can be processed like ordinary yarn and with other types of yarn.g. + − Good adhesion.113 | fluorescence Paints made from UV-luminous inorganic pigments: ALCOHOL-BASED UV LIQUIDS They can be applied to textiles and other absorbent materials by soaking. for example.g. fluorescene INORGANIC PIGMENTS e. Limited lightfastness.g. from fluorescent yarns . Limited lightfastness PAPER e.g. the products should not be applied too thinly.g. Limited lightfastness Threads from daylight-luminous organic pigments: POLYACRYL-BASED WOOL (WOOL YARN) They can be processed manually and by machine into various textile fabrics. zinc sulphide cadmium sulphide mixed crystals PAINTS containing luminous organic pigments PAINTS containing fluorescent inorganic pigments GRANULATES containing fluorescent organic pigments THREADS with fluorescent organic pigments INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS POLYESTER-BASED YARNS (SEWING YARNS. SPUN YARNS) They can be processed manually and by machine to form various textile fabrics and seams. Granulates from daylight-luminous organic pigments: GRANULATES (COMPOUNDS) BASED ON POLYACRYL They can be heated and cast or injection moulded into different shapes. a transparent lacquer. + − Accurate batching. from fluorescent wool CLOTH e. Resistance to abrasion can be increased by the application of an additional protective coating. with fluorescent organic pigments FILM e. can be processed with other polyacryl-based granulates.g. − ORGANIC PIGMENTS e. Limited lightfastness. + Currently available or developed products useful in architecture include: RAW OR END PRODUCTS Can be processed like ordinary wool and with other types of wool. To ensure the long service life of the product and to improve colour intensity.

114 | light-emitting smart materials

Fluorescent products of interest in architectural applications, in particular for interiors, include daylight-luminous dispersion-based paints, specially for wall paints on plaster substrates, and daylight-luminous films that can be applied to smooth substrates such as door panels, tiles, floor coverings, metal cladding etc. As fluorescent coatings and claddings would gradually become bleached over the longer term and this leads to an irreversible loss of function, steps should be taken to reduce exposure to damaging energy radiation peaks, both in summer and winter. This can be achieved by applying the coatings in sheltered areas only or by constructional measures, for example, by using selective elements (filters) to place the coatings behind temporary or permanent features that reflect or filter sunlight. In recent years some aesthetically impressive works exploring the theme of fluorescence have been produced by designers and artists.

Paper with blue fluorescent granulate, paper with green fluorescent yarns: UV-Lichtpapier, Anke Neumann. | Fluorescent film: Creeping Buttercup, Ruth Handschin.

115 | fluorescence

Monosmart material | Monosmart application Light-emitting smart material: PAPER WITH FLUORESCENT INK Fluorescent wall surfaces

Ruth Handschin, Germany Light installation | Künstlerhaus Bethanien, Berlin, Germany (1990) Her installation Leuchtzeichnung (Luminous drawing), shown in 1990 in the Künstlerhaus Bethanien art centre in Berlin, was the first major public work of the Swiss artist Ruth Handschin. Consisting of a tangle of crossing double lines with embedded random shapes, some serrated, some rounded, the work is reminiscent of the outlines of a road network populated by insect-like organisms. Ruth Handschin describes her work as “nocturnal.” She wrote about it in 1990: “Pale by day, scarcely visible, (the drawing) starts to luminesce at dusk. First light yellow on light violet-grey, then later in full darkness, shocking yellow on violet-blue. The human eye, overloaded by this extreme contrast of bright and dark, begins to leap from line to line. The whole network raises itself off the floor and walls.” The installation consists of fluorescent strips of paper, which are precisely cut on site then stuck on to two walls, two columns and the floor of the exhibition room and excited by UV light. The effect is distorted to an extent which depends on the position of the observer in the room and the angle of view of the Leuchtzeichnung. Only when viewed from one particular position can the Leuchtzeichnung be seen as a true two-dimensional, undistorted luminous surface.

Leuchtzeichnung from different angles.

116 | light-emitting smart materials

Monosmart material | Monosmart application Light-emitting smart material: PAINT WITH FLUORESCENT PIGMENTS Fluorescent window surfaces

Christina Kubisch, Germany Light installation | Theatre Altes Schloss Ettersburg, Weimar, Germany (2004) Near Weimar, in the man-made natural surroundings of one of the Englishstyle parks designed by Prince Pückler-Muskau, stand the old and new chateaux of Schloss Ettersburg, which were used in summer 2004 as part of a newly established festival by artists Christina Kubisch and Bernhard Leitner for their exhibition “Zeitversetzt” (“Shifted in Time”). Given that the chateaux were located in the immediate vicinity of the Buchenwald concentration camp and requisitioned by the SS in February 1945, the intention was to revive the cultural tradition by giving attention to this particular history. For one of her three installations Christina Kubisch chose a large glass window, which was located behind the stage of a room formerly used as a theatre in the west wing of the old chateau. Inspired by the rooms, the events of earlier times and the idea of bringing the stage back to life for a short time, the artist created an installation of light and sound. She applied a special fluorescent coating to the large glass window, in three-parts and divided by bars, which had at its rear face a brightly lit corridor; the corridor and had originally provided a form of background lighting. The aim of the design was to create “fragile layers of time.” The coating, which, when looked at more closely, is reminiscent of frosted glass and consists of several wafer-thin glazes of greenish white fluorescent pigment with an unspecified binder, was applied over several days to cover the individual glass panes. Four UV lamps, which were concealed so that they could not be localised by the observer, were used to activate the pigment in the coating. A black cloth was suspended over the corridor-facing rear face of the wall to darken the stage and the visitors’ room. Together with the sounds of a glass harmonica, sometimes occurring individually, sometimes overlapping at irregular intervals, Zwei Räume (Two Rooms) gives the impression of an “imaginary theatre piece,” in which the luminous surface is the stage and the characters enter in the form of sounds.

Zwei Räume (Two Rooms): detail of the fluorescent coating. | Window front of the theatre from outside, untreated. | Window front of the theatre from inside, fluorescent coating.

and other areas where the threads are not laminated and therefore fully exposed. anxieties and pains into her subsequent projects. This creates areas where the fluorescent threads are overlaid by the polyester material. Lost Embryo. Germany (2003) During the preparations for her first exhibition in 1986. Lost Embryo: general view. Berlin and elsewhere. convoluted tubular shapes and attached in a grid pattern to the full room height. . which threatened to rob her of all movement in her right hand. Germany Light installation | Embassy of the Republic of Korea. | Detail of fluorescent threads in the tubular structures. Traumatised by this event she tried to incorporate her inner conflicts. Canada. attempts to represent artistically the inside of an over-sized womb. Each individual tubular shape is made up of numerous fluorescent threads which are thermally laminated between two transparent polyester strips and patched together to form convoluted threedimensional tubes. first presented to the public in 1999 in Vancouver. creates a fascinating interplay of form and colour. The use of different colours for the threads and polyester strips.117 | fluorescence Monosmart material | Monosmart application Light-emitting smart material: YARN WITH FLUORESCENT PIGMENTS Fluorescent wall surfaces EunSook Lee. monochrome walls at intervals of about 25 cm. Korean artist EunSook Lee suffered severe burns. Between 600 and 700 embryos are symbolised by 20 cm long. excited by the long ultraviolet lighting tubes attached to the ceiling. With her installation Lost Embryo EunSook Lee was able to visually express the depths of her feelings and her love of nature in a fantastic way.

magnesium sulphide crystals. Depending on the length of the afterglow luminescence process. Some persistently phosphorescent materials or components are: INORGANIC MATERIALS OR COMPONENTS Rare earths (e. This occurs when a molecule absorbs light and emits light again during the transition from an excited triplet state to the ground state over a period of greater than 10 –8 seconds ([11]). PERSISTENTLY PHOSPHORESCENT MATERIALS OR COMPONENTS (AFTERGLOWS) These materials luminesce for a comparatively long time and have high excitement sensitivity. luminescence may persist. | Granulate (compound) and a polyacryl-based plastic profile produced from it. alkaline earth aluminate crystals) Phosphorescent materials also include: MINERALS Lapis Solaris (“Bolognian Phosphorus”) As these materials or components also absorb the ultraviolet radiation contained in daylight and emit it as light. the phosphorescent materials or components can be differentiated into: PHOSPHORESCENT MATERIALS OR COMPONENTS These materials luminesce for a comparatively short time and have only a slight excitement sensitivity. Materials or components that have this ability to persistently emit light are described as phosphors. This is the case in particular for alkaline earth aluminate crystals. even on days when no or only inadequate further excitement is taking place. | Phosphorescent paint by day and at night. Some phosphorescent materials or components are: INORGANIC MATERIALS OR COMPONENTS Zinc sulphide crystals.g. Alkaline earth aluminate crystals. with sufficient excitement. .118 | light-emitting smart materials In contrast to fluorescence the optical phenomenon of phosphorescence in materials or components involves some afterglow luminescence.

Today. while from 1950 cheaper strontium90 and yttrium-90 were used. Limited lightfastness. MAGNESIUM SULPHIDE CRYSTALS These materials are excited by natural and artificial light. many years of practical use. very long afterglow (several hours). − The first phosphorescent products were timepieces and instruments that were mainly used by the military. + Market presence. versatile range of applications. very short excitement time (a few minutes). inexpensive compared to alkaline earth aluminate crystals.119 | phosphorescence The following are currently of interest to architecture: ZINC SULPHIDE CRYSTALS. also available in small quantities. − ALKALINE EARTH ALUMINATE CRYSTALS These materials are excited by natural and artificial light. After excitation ceases the luminance falls to 10 % or less of its original value within 20 minutes. resistance to particular chemicals and high temperatures. available in small quantities. for the manufacturing of phosphorescent products the above-mentioned zinc sulphide. In architecture there is particular interest in the following products involving phosphorescent inorganic pigments. Dial faces and hands were given a luminous coating that normally contained radioactive substances. very high brilliance and intensity of colour. which resulted in wrist complaints due to beta radiation. . for example. and by radiation from radioactive substances. They have been developed for a wide range of applications and are mature products on the market. Expensive compared to zinc sulphide crystals or magnesium sulphide crystals. + Market presence. no lead or chromium pigments. high brilliance and intensity of colour. long afterglow (several hours). short excitement time. or which can be processed into further products: Phosphorescent glass blocks (Veluna). no radioactive substances. some of which can be applied directly to walls. magnesium sulphide and alkaline earth aluminate crystals are used. versatile range of applications. and by radiation from radioactive substances. | Phosphorescent glass tiles (Onda) by day and at night. can be made in large quantities. resistance to particular chemicals and very high temperatures. depending on type. Until 1950 this was mainly radium-226.

+ Can be used in low to medium temperature ranges (–40°C to +80°C).g. largely lightfast (outside). good dirt resistance. PC. very long persistence. phosphorescent inorganic pigments GLASS with e. available in various luminous intensities and film thicknesses.g. ABS. concrete and masonry.g.g. The abrasion resistance of the paint can be enhanced by the application of a transparent protective lacquer. phosphorescent inorganic pigments PLASTICS with e. . roller or spray to surfaces such as wood. FILMS INORGANIC PIGMENTS from e. Limited lightfastness (outside). can be manufactured using compounds or master batches capable of being heated. .g.g. wood and glass.g. plastic. + High excitement sensitivity. phosphorescent inorganic pigments (e. the phosphorescent layer and a UV-stabilised transparent finishing coat. can be processed with other thermoplastic-based granulates. PP PVC. paper.g. which could be of particular interest in wall claddings. PES. accurate batching. good adhesion. − Currently available or developed products useful in architecture include: RAW OR END PRODUCTS General recommendations for use: The luminous effect depends not only on the pigment used but also considerably on the concentration. polycarbonate panels) FABRICS with e. textiles. PA. phosphorescent inorganic pigments FILMS with e. + Good resistance to mechanical loads. application surface. + − High flexibility. limited choice of colour (predominantly green).g. ENCAPSULATED MASTER BATCHES) BASED ON POLYETHYL VINYL ACETATE PAPER with e. simple to clean. PHOSPHORESCENT PAINTS BASED ON TWO-COMPONENT ACRYLATE-BASED PAINT They can be applied by brush. phosphorescent threads They can be incorporated into various thermoplastics such as PE. phosphorescent inorganic inks CONCRETE with e. PMMA. coating thickness and the colour of the substrate. Limited lightfastness. Limited choice of colour (predominantly green). and heated for casting or injection moulding into various shapes. resistance to wear with an additional protective lacquer. PUR and amino plastics. − Granulates containing persistently phosphorescent inorganic pigments: GRANULATES (COMPOUNDS. phosphorescent threads FABRICS incorporating metal with e. roller or spray to surfaces such as metal. can be used in low to medium temperature ranges (–40°C to +80°C). cardboard. Limited lightfastness. zinc sulphide crystals PAINTS containing phosphorescent inorganic pigments GRANULATES containing phosphorescent inorganic pigments THREADS containing phosphorescent inorganic pigments INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS Laminate comprising a white primer. duroplastics such as PES.120 | light-emitting smart materials Paints containing phosphorescent inorganic pigments: PHOSPHORESCENT DISPERSION-BASED PAINTS They can be applied by brush. − Complex three-dimensional shapes. good adhesion.

. Kirakira-Komichi. | opposite: Phosphorescent pavement. With suitable yarns. artists.g. and increasingly designers and architects. like marking escape routes with directional arrows or as a visibility aid on the front edges of stairs. + − Can be processed like ordinary wool and with other types of wool. Footway covering with phosphorescent glass fragments and other luminescent components: Maya Mountain Street. seating or textile wall coverings. POLYESTER-BASED YARNS (SEWING YARNS. Anke Neumann. vertical blinds. Limited lightfastness. By the use of appropriate materials and products in their projects.121 | phosphorescence Threads with phosphorescent inorganic pigments: POLYACRYL-BASED WOOL (WOOL YARN) They can be processed manually and by machine into various textile fabrics. Phosphorescent paints are currently mainly used in architecture for safety-related applications. Limited lightfastness. for example in spatial installations. in carpets. | Paper with green phosphorescent pigments: Phos-Licht-Papier. roller blinds. phosphorescent textile fabrics such as curtains. Kobe. SPUN YARNS) They can be processed manually and by machine to form various textile fabrics and seams. are confronting the wider public with more than the conventional applications. wall coverings or room dividers can be manufactured. Wool yarns can be used e. + − Can be processed like ordinary yarn and with other types of yarn.

The rooms are completely redesigned roughly every three years. ceiling and floor surfaces Ruth Handschin. a “gallery hotel. after a delay. wall and floor. which were applied as paint with an acrylic binder in thin lines on the ceiling. and at night give up. Leuchtzimmer: luminous drawings by day.” and an „art hotel“. | Luminous drawings at night. The large format motifs depict the outlines of leaves and extend over several surfaces. The drawings were created using a mixture of fluorescent and phosphorescent pigments. In the latter each one of the eight rooms is made into a walk-in work of art. They use the ultraviolet radiation contained in natural light over the day. For the redesign in July and August 1994 the artist Ruth Handschin provided one of the rooms with various light drawings. . Switzerland (1994) At the Teufelhof Hotel in Basel. turning it into a Leuchtzimmer (Luminous Room). In addition to the gastronomy area there is a theatre. the natural and/or artificial light taken in during the day.122 | light-emitting smart materials Polysmart materials | Monosmart application Light-emitting smart materials: PAINT WITH FLUORESCENT AND PHOSPHORESCENT PIGMENTS Fluorescent and phosphorescent wall. Germany Light installation | Hotel Teufelhof. By the addition of various types of luminescent pigments the motifs emit light both day and night. Basel. Monica and Dominique Thommy-Kneschaurek seek to provide a gastronomic as well as a cultural experience to their guests.

The sugar component did not lose its inherent hygroscopic property. UCL. Filigree Wallpaper is based on a wallpaper design by William Morris. The house. which was then crystallised out by moistening and drying. the people. She had entered a fairytale world that would become more and more real for her”. the countryside. the addition of pigments and the egg white component did not have any moisture-stabilising effect. Curtains were given more materiality by stiffening and thus became more immediate. The properties of the added phosphorescent pigments on the other hand were successfully preserved: Filigree Wallpaper luminesced after 15 minutes of excitement by natural light. Great Britain Luminous wallpaper | Great Britain (2004) “Everything around her was different. who in 2004 studied with Jonathan Hill at the Bartlett School of Architecture. Filigree Wallpaper by day and at night. which was applied to a sheet of glass following the wallpaper pattern. the curtains. Alice in Wonderland was the unusual design theme of Juliet Quintero. the panes of glass.123 | phosphorescence Monosmart material | Monosmart application Light-emitting smart material: PAINT (SUGAR SOLUTION) WITH PHOSPHORESCENT PIGMENTS Phosphorescent wall surface Juliet Quintero. hot water and phosphorescent pigments. the mirror. This was achieved by filling the sewn curtain materials with sugar. London. smog. The paint was a sugar solution made of egg white mixed with royal icing sugar. the artificial stone was made out of caramelised sugar and the glass from invert sugar. which means the paint has remained extremely sensitive so that Filigree Wallpaper is mainly suitable for interiors and the paint for indoor application. It was to be left to change over time in the London mist. . Everything possible in “Alice’s House” was to be made completely or in part from sugar: the walls. Instead of traditional building materials. the wallpaper. Equally unusual was the material that was to contribute to the transformation of her work. Contrary to expectations. which was called “Alice’s House”: sugar. rain and/or light and in this way undergo a transformation.

Depending on the cut and the dimensions.124 | light-emitting smart materials Monosmart material | Monosmart application Light-emitting smart material: MIXED FABRIC WITH PHOSPHORESCENT THREADS Phosphorescent lights. Finland Luminous fabric | Finland (2005) Finnish designer Hannaliisa Hailahti developed a fine luminous fabric made from phosphorescent and metallic silver reflective threads. at the same time she wanted to avoid complete darkness. room dividers or curtains. this kind of fabric can be used as lights. The designer sought a vision for energyautonomous lighting elements with the aim of creating a more appealing nocturnal atmosphere and allowing safe movement around the house at night without the use of further light sources. The bending stiffness of the metal allows the fabric to be hand-formed into different shapes. . Shush as an unfolded room divider at night and closed by day. room dividers and curtains Hannaliisa Hailahti. | Shush as a luminous source. In the dark. the light emitted from the phosphorescent threads is reflected by the adjacent metallic threads to increase the luminous effect.

It remained in the laboratory however until the late 1960s. + Market presence. crystal growth. depending on type. Electroluminescent materials or components in the field of injection electroluminescence include: INORGANIC COMPOUNDS Materials and products from the field of injection-. in its encapsulated version free of toxic substances. PROJECTS An optical phenomenon in which a molecule emits light due to the effect of the electrons in an electrical field. high brilliance and intensity of colour. It is embedded between two electrodes which are encapsulated by light-transparent plastic to separate them from their surroundings. − . PRODUCTS. For a long time only red. The following is currently of interest to architecture: DOPED GALLIUM ARSENIDE This semiconductor is doped with different metals. but with the development of blue LEDs. versatile range of applications. Doped gallium arsenide acts as the lumninescent material in LEDs. in which the charge carriers are introduced from outside by a so-called injection current and light is emitted by the recombination of electrons and holes. thick film. Based on the current stage of development electroluminescence can be differentiated as follows: INJECTION ELECTROLUMINESCENCE POWDER ELECTROLUMINESCENCE THIN FILM ELECTROLUMINESCENCE THICK FILM ELECTROLUMINESCENCE POLYMER-/SMALL MOLECULE ELECTROLUMINESCENCE Injection electroluminescence is the fundamental principle behind semiconductor light sources such as light-emitting diodes (LED). many years of practical use. yellow and green LEDs were available. is expensive. other gallium compounds. The latter are currently in the market introduction phase.125 | injection electroluminescence | light-emitting diodes (LED) ELECTROLUMINESCENT SMART MATERIALS > MATERIALS. also available in small quantities. resistance to particular chemicals and high temperatures. now even white LEDs can be produced by combinations of different light colours. limited number of available light colours. this was not an initial success. which has only recently extended the range of possible light colours.and polymer-/small molecule electroluminescence are considered in detail below. Only manufactured by a few specialist factories. The method used for production. Doped gallium arsenide. The aim had been to develop an alternative to incandescent bulbs as a light source. French scientist Georges Destriau discovered electroluminescence (EL) as early as 1936.

in the entertainment field. . Depending on their different output classes LED can be categorised as: STANDARD LED These LEDs can be soldered or inserted into circuit boards or clamped or screwed to electrically conductive substrates. e. This is done by using a single or a few centralised light sources with connected flexible fibre-optic cables to illuminate the various positions. | opposite: LEDs in plastic housing (Solarbrick). with these techniques LEDs attached to the end faces direct their light into the main faces of the panels. small diameter light-transmitting glass or plastic can be placed in front of the LEDs. comparatively inexpensive. + Comparatively long replacement life. Special LEDs are available for use outdoors. also available in small quantities. Taking the opposite approach. Today the aim is to restrict the number of LEDs in applications where previously a high number of LEDs had been used. are used for illumination. combinations of various colours of LED can produce coloured or even white moving film sequences comparable to television pictures. In a manner similar to fibre-optic cables. PMMA. | LEDs in glass. This arrangement avoids any impression of point light sources. 2 W high output LEDs | RGB multi-LED. In recent times this application has become increasingly popular as a replacement for conventional large projected images.126 | light-emitting smart materials The first use of light-emitting diodes (LED) was in electronic devices. such as in cars. glass or transparent plastic panels. where for many years they were utilized for function control and operational data displays. e. | Lamp with high output LED. versatile range of applications. limited number of available light colours. | Complex arrangement of light sources formed with several LEDs for a car. | High output LEDs with optical lenses. which often had up to 200 LEDs. | Facade with LEDs in plastic housings in combination with solar cells: South Korea. comparatively low power consumption. No ability to illuminate areas. by arranging the LEDs densely in the main face in relation to the viewing distance and having individual control of each LED. cables etc. | Colour-on-demand LED. which would be the case with LEDs incorporated into the main panel faces. the luminous effect can be increased by the use of lenses etc. generally resistant to particular chemicals and high temperatures. | LEDs in metal mesh (Mediamesh) | Highrise facade with LEDs in and before stainless steel mesh (Mediamesh and Illumesh): project by Benjamin Romana.g. − If necessary.g. Where there is restricted room for installation.

Several LEDs are combined into one unit for particular applications. They can be used in architecture wherever high light output is required and the necessary electrical energy is available. + − Can provide up to 100 times the light output of standard LEDs.127 | injection electroluminescence | light-emitting diodes (LED) HIGH OUTPUT LED As they have been developed for a wide range of applications. Standard light-emitting diodes (LED) are finding increasing use in architecture. room dividers etc. clusters etc. Cannot be used everywhere. and fitted with optical lenses for combining the emitted light. for example. Currently available or developed products useful in architecture include: RAW OR END PRODUCTS STANDARD LEDs HIGH OUTPUT LEDs RGB multi-LEDs COLOUR-ON-DEMAND LEDs INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS GLASS with LEDs GLASS with LEDs in combination with solar cells METAL FABRIC with LEDs PLASTIC FABRIC with LEDs . they are available with a number of different connection types. comparatively expensive. banisters. Ultraflat LEDs integrated into glass panes that can be supplied with electricity through almost invisible cableways are used for illuminating transparent balustrades. They can be supplied in modules.

and controls the duration of illumination appropriately for one. . each of these 5000 25 cm diameter leaves is fitted with a solar cell. The building. The future guests and staff will enjoy the benefits of an artificial forest of leaves that forms the external skin of the new Hotel Habitat H&R. yellow and cyan. By using LED combinations. which is covered with a stainless steel mesh on which a multitude of artificial leaves with electronics are attached. combinations of two LEDs produce the colours magenta. Depending on the season and the energetic conditions. The electrical current created during the day is stored temporarily in an accumulator and directed to one-. two.or threeRGB LEDs at night by a processor (CPU). while switching on all three LEDs gives a white light. SOLAR CELLS Colour and light changes dependent on light and software CLOUD 9. Spain (2007) “Your room in a tree” is the concept for a new hotel to be completed in the Hospitalet district of Barcelona by 2007. green and blue achieved by switching on the appropriate single LED in each case. two or three LEDs. Barcelona. designed by Spanish architect Ruiz-Geli and his CLOUD 9 practice with other partners. consists of a comparatively simple highrise with a conventional glass facade.128 | light-emitting smart materials Polysmart materials | Monosmart application Light-emitting smart materials: METAL FABRIC WITH LED. The processor analyses the state of charge of the accumulator and the energy consumption of the LEDs. at night the building skin will change automatically by putting on illuminated clothes of different colours. Hotel Habitat H&R: illustration of general view. a total of seven colours can be created: in addition to the standard colours red. Spain Light-kinetic curtain-wall facade | Hotel Habitat H&R. Placed at a distance of 57 cm apart.

RGB LEDs. | Basic colours of artificial leaves (red.129 | injection electroluminescence | light-emitting diodes (LED) Hotel Habitat H&R: illuminated model. | Prototype of an artificial leaf with solar cell. blue and white). | Partial view of model. . green. processor and accumulator.

The following are currently of interest to architecture: DOPED ZINC SULPHIDE This is a semiconductor doped with different metals to create different colours of light. EL films and EL cables are two of the products developed from this technology. electrically conductive metal layer is used as a front electrode and an electrically conductive metal layer as the back electrode. is much thicker than that used in thin film technology. years of practical use. which is why they are also called luminescence diodes. which can be applied to plastic and glass. | EL film. | EL ink printed on speedometer. EL cable. The construction is the same as a capacitor. When an electrical field is applied. also available in small quantities. The thickness of the light-emitting layer. the deposited luminous pigment (phosphorus) is excited and emits a cold light. − Unlike those based on thin film technology. comparatively inexpensive. + Market presence. organic or ceramic binder.130 | light-emitting smart materials Thick film electroluminescence is a possible principle of operation for in most cases flat light sources made from electroluminescent material (EL). It is based on the interaction of several functional layers. A relatively high alternating current is required. also called the emitter layer. although their design principle is virtually identical. ELs or components in the field of thick film electroluminescence include: INORGANIC COMPOUNDS Doped zinc sulphide. limited number of available light colours. thick film technology products have established themselves on the market. . To apply an electrical field to the top (layer) a very thin transparent. Both mix the luminescent pigments with a transparent.

One variant is EL strip. safety-related products etc. EL CABLE Currently available or developed products useful in architecture include: RAW OR END PRODUCTS They can be attached to surfaces by staples. also available in small quantities. smooth flicker-free luminous surfaces. comparatively inexpensive. additional electronics required. can be customised in various ways. infinitely dimmable. some resistance to UV light. they were developed first as luminescent film. EL STRIP EL CABLE EL INKS. adhesives or by sewing. also called EL film. generally resistant to moisture and high temperatures (< –20°C to > +50°C).131 | thick film electroluminescence | electroluminescent materials (EL) Originally in competition with the incandescent light bulbs. as liquid crystals cannot emit light themselves. PAPER with EL CABLES FABRIC with EL PRINT PANELS with EL PRINT METAL FABRIC with EL CABLES . EL FILM. The following are of current and future interest to architecture: EL FILM One-sided and double-sided luminous films are available. Further areas of application include luminous advertising boards. EL products are used for backlighting LCD displays. comparatively high mechanical loading capacity. additional electronics required. can be operated using low voltages. The electricity supply electronics must be suitably adjusted to volume of power consumption and size of the luminous surface area. unbreakable. + Comparatively long replacement life. They can be used on flat and on curved substrates and can be attached mechanically or by adhesives. + Comparatively long replacement life. Alternating current supply required. PRINTING INKS INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS − The general recommendations for use are those for EL film. light. which emits cold area light from its surface. Later came electroluminescent material (EL) strips and EL cables. which as well as emitting visible light convert the majority of the absorbed energy into heat and like LEDs provide a point source of light. cannot be bent to shape. cannot be bent to shape. comparatively low power consumption. very short reaction times. 360° light emission. Alternating current supply required. impact resistance. available up to 250 m long. An important advantage over incandescent light bulbs is that by using suitably flexible layer components even curved substrates can be clad with appropriate products. − Film can be cut with scissors to create complex luminous shapes without affecting functionality. versatile fields of application. can be used in low to medium temperatures (< –20°C to > +50°C). which were developed using the same principle.

Although they are now mass-produced and the available dimensions have continuously increased.132 | light-emitting smart materials EL INKS Can be applied to various surfaces using printing techniques. phosphorus crystals were used as the luminous medium. Glass and other materials were used in the panels. The images can be created on a personal computer or scanned. Anke Neumann. + Can be used in low to medium temperatures (< –20°C to > +50°C) and for comparatively complex luminous surfaces. The walls were made from sheet metal and porcelain. Specialist manufacture necessary. Model room with EL panels from 1957. Evidence that such panels were already commercially available is to be found in an article in the German magazine Hobby – Das Magazin der Technik ([12]) entitled: “.und es leuchten die Wände” (and the walls provide the light). They can. − The first architectural use of electroluminescent material (EL) elements was in 1957. 112 square luminous surfaces were built into a model room. . EL films are currently used in architecture in interiors and exteriors..g. Uses for EL films and EL strips include large format displays in public areas. EL cable can be used to create shapes and edges on buildings or for creating linear features on luminous surfaces or luminous pictures on facades. usually the silk-screen printing process. currently the only way to create relatively large luminous surfaces is by grouping several smaller EL films together. | Illustration of the “Electron lights” (1957) | Paper with EL strips: Ellum-Lichtpapier. luminous floor coverings.. e. in television studios and in works of art. EL inks offer the architect a lot of possibilities. for example. be applied using the silk-screen printing process as a coloured pattern to facade elements.

allows each area to be individually supplied with current and hence controlled. different in colour and made to surround the individual patterned areas ornamentally. in London shows how traditional decorative floral patterns can be used in conjunction with EL technology for the development of innovative room dividers. which were first developed as functional technology demonstrators. The pattern consists of a four-part leaf motif that. – Rachel Wingfield.133 | thick film electroluminescence | electroluminescent materials (EL) Monosmart material | Monosmart application Light-emitting smart material: FABRIC WITH EL PRINT Illuminations depending on light and software Loop. Blumen room divider with a section of pattern (technology demonstrator). It would be possible for example to have room dividers in which a varying number of areas would luminesce. Mathias Gmachl. pattern-forming illumination of individual patterned areas. wide. depending on the desired louvre dimensions. | Detailed photograph of Blumen room divider. The room dividers.pH Ltd. which in its turn. They are arranged side by side to open in a space-saving manner in their own guide rails. textile louvres suspended from the ceiling. The pattern was made to luminesce by an electroluminescent ink. Great Britain Light-kinetic room dividers | Great Britain (2004) The work Blumen (Flowers) by designers Rachel Wingfield and Mathias Gmachl at their company Loop. can be extended by simply adding more patterns to the sides or above and below. With the right control system the patterned areas could illuminate to create their own patterns. . Thin electrical wire. when reflected eight times. depending on the current state of light conditions. With specially developed software the room dividers can be designed to react to various stimuli depending on the characteristics of the sensors used. forms a square basic shape and is arranged in a larger square pattern. | Partial. which was applied to the textile using a special inkjet printer.pH Ltd. consist of several similar shaped.

Mathias Gmachl. Five horizontally aligned display panels are placed in the recesses of the narrow false windows in the upper storey of the art gallery facade. – Rachel Wingfield. according to the sensory data provided. by means of the aesthetic and kinematic of the light patterns. where they can be witnessed by passers-by. square weather map was designed in which. Weather data is collected by a compact weather station. | Weather Patterns by day and at night. temperature. London. Great Britain (2005-2010) This light installation. . Each of the displays consists of a panel printed with electroluminescent inks and encapsulated between a sheet of hardened glass and a mirror. The aim of this installation is to draw the nocturnal passerby’s attention. | Different sections of pattern that can be activated. concentric spiral-shaped areas can be switched on and off by a computer programmed with specially developed software. during the night converts the local weather events into visual effects on the building. humidity. on display since October 2005 and intended to last for five years at the York Art Gallery in London. in this case a Davis-Vantage Pro2 with sensors for atmospheric pressure. Weather Patterns: complete pattern. to the global warming caused by Man. above the entrance to the classical Italian Renaissance-style building.134 | light-emitting smart materials Monosmart material | Monosmart application Light-emitting smart material: PANELS WITH EL PRINT Illuminations depending on light and software Loop. It demonstrates the combination of traditional shapes with contemporary display technology based on electroluminescence. Great Britain Light installation | York Art Gallery. rainfall as well as wind speed and direction. It is positioned on the portico roof over the entrance. To visualise the different weather conditions an ornamental-looking. | Possible patterns depend on the weather conditions.pH Ltd.

on which a cathode of e. in which long-chain polymers are applied by rotation coating or pressure coating on to an electrode (POLED). e. In 1990. The bottom layer. In some cases this layer may be used to produce a smooth surface.g. depending on the pigment used. acts as a substrate to carry the layers above it. e. On top of the HTL layer there is another layer. semiconductor polymers. On this goes the anode. The first designs for OLEDs were produced in the USA. indium tin oxide (ITO). electroluminescence was discovered in polymers and OLEDs were then also made using Cambridge Display Technology processes. Another layer may be applied between the ITO and the HTL layers. Today sees the two technologies in competition with each other. On top of this comes the electron transport layer (ETL). to be excited and emit white or coloured cold light. On top of this follows the hole transport layer (HTL). Since then there have been numerous developments of OLEDs mainly in the USA. a glass plate.g. Japan and Germany. where positive and negative charges meet (known as the recombination layer). OLEDs with particular flexibility or those in which phosphorescent components are used are sometimes also called FOLEDs or PHOLEDs respectively. e. Application of an electrical field causes the pigment in the emitter layer. known as the emitter layer (EL). . Transport layer Emitting layer Transport layer Emitting layer Transport layer Transport layer NOVALED innovative technology: Doped OLED structures with in-house developed materials transparent conductor (ITO) hole transport layer emitting layer electron transport layer metal cathode glass substrate Schematic representation of the construction of a SMOLED and a POLED. or small molecules. and those OLEDs manufactured with small molecules the abbreviations SOLEDs or SMOLEDs. which like the latter emit cold light by the absorption of electrons. The patent application was for organic luminous diodes based on small molecules deposited in a vacuum (SMOLED). calcium or aluminium is deposited. OLEDs generally consist of several functional layers placed one upon the other. a glass plate.g. which is formed with a small amount of pigment (approx.g. where an international photographic company submitted the first patent application in the 1980s.135 | polymer / small molecule electroluminescence | organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) Organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) are normally manufactured as flat LEDs based on organic. Finally a covering layer is applied. 5 % to 10 %) or may consist of 100 % pigment. Depending on the components used. organic LEDs manufactured with polymers are given the abbreviation PLEDs or POLEDs.

3V to 5V). can be applied to various substrates such as glass and plastic. + Market presence. many years of practical use.g. suitable for the manufacture of colour displays and light sources. Relatively expensive manufacturing process under vacuum conditions and therefore comparatively expensive to use. − POLYPHENYLENVINYLENE (PPV). − Green and red crystals as p. red and blue fluorescent pigments).g. aluminium-tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3) + polymer. . Limited number of available luminous colours. POLYFLUORENE Organic semiconductor polymers luminescent in RGB colours. The following are of interest to architecture: ALUMINIUM-TRIS(8-HYDROXYQUINOLINE) (ALQ3) Organic semiconductors. relatively good photoconductivity and electroluminescence. low electrical voltage required (e. aluminium-tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3). POLYTHIOPHENE. polythiophene and polyfluorene (green. SEMICONDUCTING POLYMERS Metal-organic complexes (phosphorescent pigments). suitable for the manufacture of colour displays and light sources. many years of practical use. 3V to 5V). Materials and components generally used for POLEDs include among others: ORGANIC. low electrical voltage required (e. INORGANIC-ORGANIC. relatively good optical properties.136 | light-emitting smart materials Materials and components generally used for SMOLEDs include among others: SMALL MOLECULES E. + Market presence.and n-dopants for the manufacture of SMOLEDs.g. polyphenylenvinylene (PPV). can be applied to various substrates such as glass and plastic. SEMICONDUCTING POLYMERS E.g.

there are only a few products available on the market in series production. a Japanese manufacturer has already introduced the first device with a 40 inch (diagonal) screen to the public.137 | polymer/small molecule electroluminescence | organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) As the principle of this type of electroluminescence is comparatively new and still has a certain number of weak points.9. dimmable. limited UV light resistance. | Coloured-light-emitting SMOLED displays. 160°). driven by low voltages. + Market presence. can be used in low to medium temperature ranges (< –20°C to > +80°C). In 2005. limited impact resistance. in housings etc.g. Glass is one of the materials that can be used as a substrate. therefore an edge cover is required. In the consumer sector in particular. on the one hand as a replacement for conventional electroluminescent products and on the other in the development of new applications. a small lighting unit for use in automobiles was presented at the international automobile exhibition in Frankfurt (IAA). − Technology by Novaled: white-light-emitting SMOLED display. either attached mechanically or by adhesive and are currently available in 0. have meant that this technology has made steps to establish itself in numerous areas. . such as emitting area light unlike LEDs. no illumination of the edge of the display. | Technology by Osram Opto Semiconductors: coloured-light-emitting POLED displays. but it will still require some years of development work before it is ready for the market and has a consumer-friendly price tag. relatively low power consumption. The following products with organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) are of current and future interest to architecture: NON-FLEXIBLE OLED DISPLAYS Available as SMOLEDs and POLEDs. Relatively sensitive to moisture.2 and 1. as a result of cooperation between two German companies in the automobile sector. smooth and flicker-free luminous surface. With reference to larger display dimensions. cannot be bent. relatively short life compared with LCD displays.6 inch diagonal sizes. 1. the lack of need for backlighting unlike LCDs. varying durability of pigment. suitable displays are already on the market for small portable electronic devices like MP3 players and mobile telephones. like the in many cases inadequate long-term stability for some colours and its moisture susceptibility. and the greater possible luminance (brightness) compared with EL film. Its many advantages. very short reaction times. relatively large viewing angle (e.. They can be applied to smooth surfaces.

very small bevels or folds not possible. can increase the life of the display. Lack of market presence.g. + Can be attached mechanically or by adhesive to curved or flexible substrates. therefore can stand alone or be attached mechanically or by adhesives to smooth substrates such as walls or ceilings. e. relatively long replacement life (approx.. Glass is one of the materials that can be used as a substrate. depending on the application). otherwise as above. like conventional glass or EL films.AND SEMITRANSPARENT OLED LIGHT SOURCES (E. cannot be processed. Light sources were developed as technology demonstrators. or 400 Cd/m² in future) compared with conventional light sources. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is one of the materials that can be used as a substrate. frames etc. edge cover required.G. e. which were made up of several tiles (SMOLEDs) in a 2 inch x 3 inch (approx. unbreakable. TECHNOLOGY BY FRAUNHOFER INSTITUTE FOR APPLIED POLYMER RESEARCH) Available as SMOLEDs and POLEDs. frames etc. 5000 to 200 000 hours. Flexible displays using OLEDs (e. threedimensional curved membranes. edge cover required.G. They can have their own housings. 5 cm x 7. TECHNOLOGY BY NOVALED) Technology demonstrators based on SMOLEDs. cannot be bent or curved. − NON. TRANSPARENT OLED LIGHT SOURCE (E. e.g. cannot be bent or curved.138 | light-emitting smart materials FLEXIBLE OLED DISPLAYS (E. by dimming the light. 3000 hours). TECHNOLOGY BY OSRAM OPTO SEMICONDUCTORS) Limited availability as SMOLEDs and POLEDs. SMOLEDs) INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS Light sources (large) using OLEDs (SMOLEDs) Transparent light sources/day-night window using OLEDs (SMOLEDs) Emergency lighting using OLEDs (SMOLEDs) . Lack of market presence. depending on the application). Glass is one of the materials that can be used as a substrate. + − As above. + Can be used in low to medium temperature ranges (< –20°C to > +80°C). Temporary reduction of the output. relatively high brightness possible (< 100 Cd/m² to > 5000 Cd/m². POLEDs) Light sources (small) using OLEDs (e. otherwise as above. cut..g.g. They can have their own housings. The non-luminous edge zones can result in unwanted blank areas. − Currently available or developed products useful in architecture include: RAW OR END PRODUCTS Several displays can be placed adjacent to one another to create large and/or curved surfaces.6 cm) format. relatively low brightness (250 Cd/m². therefore can stand alone or be attached mechanically or by adhesives to smooth substrates such as walls or ceilings or into housings. Lack of market presence.G. relatively short life (approx.g.

Technology by Osram Opto Semiconductors: technology demonstrator of an OLED light source consisting of two white-light-emitting tiles. | Technology by Novaled: technology demonstrator of a transparent OLED light source. Currently. . which allows natural sunlight to enter by day and serves as an artificial light source at night. development is taking place of a so-called day-night window based on small molecule technology. Comparatively small light sources with uses such as emergency lighting are among the first products that will be available in the foreseeable future. until now only a limited number of applications have been realised and given publicity.139 | polymer/small molecule electroluminescence | organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) Due to the fact that currently few products incorporating organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) for use in architecture are available on the market. | Weakly and strongly luminous examples. | opposite: Technology by Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research: technology demonstrator of a flexible POLED display. OLEDs are of particular interest as area light sources.

in which are incorporated by means of pockets a thermally insulative aerogel and latent heat storage. WITH ORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS (OPV). While the outside layer forming the external facade skin consists of a transparent. the latter in the form of phase change material (PCM). an architectural practice based in Philadelphia. FILM WITH PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS (PCM) Kieran Timberlake Associates. . New York. polyvalent building skin which. USA (2003) SmartWrap is the name of an innovative. on which different electronic smart materials can be applied by rolling and printing. it is expected to open up new possibilites for the industrial and cost-efficient use of smart materials in the future. In the pavilion only a small section of the building skin was fitted with the innovative layer system. Pennsylvania. with thin film batteries to store electrical energy. SmartWrap was developed as a two-layer coating system by Kieran Timberlake Associates. elastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET). printed circuits and organic thin film transistors (OTFT) for distributing the electricity and for controlling functions. USA Pavilion with polyvalent building skin | Cooper Hewitt National Design Museum. this construction formed the main exhibition piece of the August 2003 SOLOS exhibition at the Cooper Hewitt National Design Museum. on the basis of a newly developed transfer technology. the inside room-forming layer mainly supports thermal insulation and heat storage materials. and with chromatic solar protection for controlling the transmission of light and heat. in conjunction with students and partner companies. The larger part simulated the possible appearance of SmartWrap using a printed PET film. In New York a pavilion was designed to demonstrate its components and technology. which is formed with the help of the offset inner skin. SmartWrap will allow future building skins to appear on the market that will have all the components required to convert and manage solar radiation. The external skin is fitted with organic photovoltaic cells (OPV) to collect and convert sunlight. with conductive.140 | light-emitting smart materials Polysmart materials | Polysmart application Light-emitting and heat-storing smart materials: FILM WITH ORGANIC LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES (OLED). Adjacent to the outer skin there is a permanent thermally insulative layer of air. with polymer-based OLEDs for lighting and electronic displays.

| Building skin with SmartWrap. | View between the room-forming layer with PCM and facade-forming layer with OLEDs. .141 | polymer/small molecule electroluminescence | organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) SmartWrap: view into the pavilion. simulated with a printed PET film. | Night view. thin film batteries and organic photovoltaic cells. | Preprinted roll machine.

a resistance load) in response to one or more stimuli from outside influences. Chemical elements that for example consist of different noble metals and depend on the presence of an electrolyte such as salt water in order to generate an electric current are not classed as chemoelectric smart materials. MATscape: detail of building skin with wind quills on the north side that are connected to piezoelectric cells. As the less noble electrodes in these elements dissolve over time (“sacrificial electrodes”). 66 ff. They are able to generate electric charges from the effect of compression or tension.Electricity-generating smart materials include materials and products that are able to generate an electric current with a connected consumer (e. CHEMOELECTRIC SMART MATERIALS After the connection of a consumer these materials generate an electric current when excited by the effect of a chemical environment (chemical energy). Piezoelectric smart materials are inverse smart materials. or changes in temperature and/or pressure. and in reverse change their shape on application of an electrical field.g. The currently available electricity-generating smart materials can be differentiated according to their triggering stimuli as follows: PHOTOELECTRIC SMART MATERIALS After the connection of a consumer these materials generate an electric current when excited by the effect of light (electromagnetic energy). . the effect of light. THERMOELECTRIC (PYROELECTRIC) SMART MATERIALS After the connection of a consumer these materials generate an electric current when excited by the effect of temperature (thermal energy).). they will not be dealt with any further here. Both effects are discussed extensively in the following sections and hence they are omitted from the chapter on electroactive smart materials (pp. PIEZOELECTRIC SMART MATERIALS After the connection of a consumer these materials generate an electric current when excited by the effect of compression or tension (mechanical energy).

Ruthenium complexes (e. which may be an iodine solution. e. or component respectively. A number of research bodies have been working since then on optimising the technology. pp. Efforts have concentrated mainly on the search for suitable. N3. 100 ff. Organic dyes: anthocyanin (natural plant dyes. adequately cycle-stable dyes. 41 f. An Australian company has just commenced series production of modules. bacterial chlorophylls (e. They are currently in the market introduction phase (see p.g. They are based on a comparatively new technology in which the synthetic organic polymers. electromagnetic radiation) by generating an electric current with a connected consumer.g. by dipping. in purple bacteria) Dye mixtures: porphyrins and phthalocyanines The following material. UV light. photo-electrochemical solar cells or nano solar cells (the latter name refers to the dimensions of the semiconductor component normally used. the leading research countries are Germany and Australia.g. The final layer is a substrate layer with a prefitted transparent electrode. is currently among those of interest in architecture: . They are also known as Grätzel cells (named after the Swiss developer of the basic technology).g.g. In principle. The following photoelectric smart materials are currently among those of interest to architects: DYE SOLAR CELLS (DSC) Dye solar cells (DSC) are layer composites in which dyes among others are used as components that generate an electric current with a connected consumer by the absorption of light (electromagnetic radiation). and an electrolyte layer. such as thin film solar cells and organic solar cells. anthocyanin). Patenting followed in 1992. PRODUCTS. 41 f. OPV) Silicon solar cells are based on comparatively old technology and are being increasingly superseded by new developments. titanium dioxide TiO2) (also see titanium dioxide (TiO2). Apart from Switzerland. perhaps only a few microns thick. Materials and components generally used include among others: INORGANIC AND ORGANIC DYES Other photoelectric smart materials include: SILICON SOLAR CELLS THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS (organic photovoltaics. PROJECTS Their inherent properties enable them to react to light (visible light. platinum or graphite. DSCs consist of several functional layers placed one upon the other: a transparent anode. commonly tin oxide. Switzerland. A paste of TiO2.). red dye. in hibiscus blossom and bilberry juice). In these experiments. e.). black dye). After this comes the coating of the TiO2. which acts as a catalyst.143 | dye solar cells (DSC) PHOTOELECTRIC SMART MATERIALS > MATERIALS. Information about new developments in silicon-based solar cells can be found on p. is screen-printed and baked on top of the tin oxide to form a nanocrystalline semiconductor layer. Depending on the dye used (e. at the beginning of the 1990s. are often interlayered between flexible substrate layers.g. is deposited on a supporting first substrate layer such as glass. dye solar cells can also be classed as organic solar cells. The development of the DSC goes back to the experiments by Michael Grätzel and his research team at the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne. dye and TiO2 were tried in solar cells instead of silicon. the development of leakproof cells and on increasing the achievable effect. osmium complexes. as light-sensitive components. with a layer of e. with a light-absorbing dye.

g. | Technology by Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems: optimisation and manufacture of pastes. − Technology by Dyesol: screen-printed nanocrystalline TiO 2 layer. | Introduction of dye into cells. much longer replacement life compared with e. very large number of absorption and emission cycles possible (up to about 50 million). | Baking of TiO 2. + Market presence. . anthocyanins. Relatively expensive compared with anthocyanins. can be used in low to medium temperatures (< –20°C to > +80°C).144 | electricity-generating smart materials RUTHENIUM COMPLEXES Dyes based on the metallic element ruthenium and an organic solution. colloids in the manufacture of DSCs.

145 | dye solar cells (DSC)

A number of different institutions are currently working on the optimisation of dye solar cells (DSCs). One aspect under investigation is the sealing of the edges of the cells, which is still a weak point. With a technology recently developed by the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems in Freiburg, Germany, the goal of long-term stability in excess of 10 years can now be achieved. This technology seals the modules with a glass solder to prevent leakage of liquid electrolyte and protect sensitive internal components from premature degradation. So far the technology is not yet ready for widespread market success, as its currently achievable efficiency is generally below 5 % (in Japan an efficiency of 10.4 % has been achieved on a 1 cm2 surface) and an efficiency of about 12 % can be obtained from today’s silicon-based solar cells. In spite of this, international companies based for example in Australia are trying to establish DSC modules on the market albeit in small numbers; they aim especially at the German market, where the contribution of regenerative sources of electrical energy to the national grid is subsidised by the government. DSCs are currently or likely to be available in the future as:
DSC MODULES (TECHNOLOGY BY DYESOL)

Several DSCs grouped into modules, with striped channels. They are available in individual housings, or housings or frames accommodating several modules (panels), which allow them to be stand-alone products or be attached mechanically or glued to flat surfaces, e.g. walls or roofs.
+

Market presence, generation of electric current with little light, can be used in low to medium temperatures (< –20°C to > +80°C), relatively long replacement life (approx. 500 to 5000 hours). Low efficiency (< 5 % under standard testing conditions), cannot be bent or curved, cannot be handled like conventional glazing e.g. cut to shape, relatively expensive compared with modules of conventional silicon solar cells.

Technology by Dyesol: module of six DSCs. | Transparent effect of dye used. | Supported panel of several modules.

146 | electricity-generating smart materials

DSC MODULES (TECHNOLOGY BY FRAUNHOFER INSTITUTE FOR SOLAR ENERGY)

Technology demonstrators of DSCs comprising of several modules arranged together with meandering channels, sealed with screen-printed glass solder. They are available in individual housings or housings or frames accommodating several modules (panels), which allow them to be stand-alone units or be attached mechanically or glued to flat surfaces, e.g. walls or roofs. The maximum size of modules so far (technology demonstrators) is 30 cm x 30 cm, voltage approx. 4.2 V, current approx. 0.8 A.
+

Generation of electric current (electron-hole pairs) with low quantities of light, can be used in low to medium temperatures (< –20°C to > +80°C), edge areas have a long-lasting seal of glass solder, strength from the meandering bond pattern with the glass substrate. Lack of market presence, low efficiency (2.5 %, may rise to 5 % under standard testing conditions in future, depending on various aspects including printing techniques), transparency limited due to meandering bond pattern with the glass substrate, cannot be bent or curved, cannot be handled like conventional glazing e.g. cut to shape, relatively expensive compared with modules of conventional silicon solar cells.

The edge areas between the two glass substrates must not be allowed to leak, otherwise the long-term functionality of DSCs cannot be guaranteed. It is important to avoid excessive onesided alternating thermal loads, such as arise with use as window glazing. This applies in particular to cells and modules with striped channels.

Products currently in use in architecture or likely to become relevant in future include:
RAW OR END PRODUCTS

DSCs (technologies by Dyesol and Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems)
INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS

DSC modules (technologies by Dyesol and Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems) DSC panels (technologies by Dyesol and Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems)

147 | dye solar cells (DSC)

Dye solar cells (DSC) can be generally attached like conventional silicon or thin film technology solar cells in front of facades and on building roofs or integrated into them. As long-term stability of up to 5000 hours (technology by Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy) is still relatively low at the moment, it would be prudent to ensure that the units can be easily disassembled for maintenance and repair and replaced. The edges should be protected against large mechanical and thermal loads, e.g. by thermal separation or offset frames. The way DSCs work means that they are coloured and this makes them particularly interesting to the architect as formal or contrasting design objects in facades and roofs or, when dispensing with coloured filters, by integrating DSCs optically into similarly coloured roof areas. The cells are transparent and hence can be used as glass components in facades and windows. The use of red dye without additional colour filters limits the scope of application as the admitted light, depending on the proportion and positioning of the active areas, will always be some shade of red. Another field of application is in areas that are permanently or temporarily subject to relatively small quantities of light (e.g. north-facing facades). Complicated adaptive tracking systems would then not have to be employed as often. Up to now there have been only a few published implementations of DSCs in buildings.

Technology by Dyesol: building in Australia with DSC panels integrated into the external skin | opposite: Technology demonstrators by Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems: single-colour module 30 cm x 30 cm composed of six DSCs. | Multicolour module, colours achieved by the use of photoactive, selective light-absorbent metal-organic complexes (dyes). I Module with printed graphic lightscattering layer (yellow area). All modules have a lasting seal based on a glass soldering technique developed at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems.

which are connected to one another at one point and by their generation of thermovoltages can be used to measure temperatures. TEGs function as electron pumps. Today the search is for TEGs that can use the waste heat from combustion processes or solar radiation. Their functional principle is similar to the solar cell. By around 1960 a great number of semiconductor materials were being examined for their suitability in TEGs.and n-conducting semiconductors. Among the first users were NASA and the military. The following thermoelectric smart materials are currently of interest to architects: THERMOELECTRIC GENERATORS (TEG) Thermoelectric generators (TEG). They cannot generate large voltages and therefore are generally not suitable for use as sources of electric current. They are electrically in series and thermally in parallel to increase output. semiconducting. also known as thermogenerators. . less often from two wires of different metals. thick film TEGs or macro-TEGs. The development of TEGs goes back to Thomas Johann Seebeck and the Seebeck effect named after him. consist of thermoelectric components mainly made from highly doped p. PROJECTS Their inherent properties allow them to react to temperature differences (temperature gradients) by absorbing heat (thermal energy) and generating an electric current with a connected consumer. including bismuth telluride. similar to a solar cell. In 1834 Jean Peltier discovered the reverse effect named after him: the creation of a temperature difference from an electric current. PRODUCTS. ELEMENT-BASED TEG A relatively new development in which the TEGs consist of differently doped. thick film TEGs and macro-TEGs. which is still in use today. Manufacturing technology provides the market with thin film TEGs (thickness of semiconductor layers < 100 µm). for example iron and copper-nickel. They therefore act as electron-hole pair generators. They can be classified as thin film TEGs. stripe-forming elements. In 2004 a new technology was introduced in which silicon was used as the semiconductor material to generate. In 1821 he discovered that a closed circuit of two wires of different metals produces a magnetic field due to the voltage they create when a temperature difference exists between the two contact points. which accelerate electrons or generate electron-hole pairs by absorbing heat (thermal energy) in reaction to a temperature gradient. depending on the thickness of the semiconductor film. Radionuclide batteries are thermoelectric generators that can generate thermovoltages by absorption of the decay heat from radioactive isotopes. normally block-forming thermocouples produced by doping with different foreign atoms.and n-conducting semiconductors: THERMOCOUPLE-BASED TEG Other thermoelectric smart materials are: THERMOELEMENTS RADIONUCLIDE BATTERIES These are TEGs that consist of semiconducting. Thermoelements consist of pairs of wires of different metals.148 | electricity-generating smart materials THERMOELECTRIC SMART MATERIALS > MATERIALS. In the 1950s Abram Fedorovich Ioffe and his colleagues developed the concept of thermoelectric conversion on which today’s theories are founded. Depending on their functional and constructional principles TEGs can be differentiated as p. Their uses include space travel among others. electric current by forming electron-hole pairs. In the 1920s new semiconductor materials were developed that were used in TEGs.

. gas burners). cobaltate ceramics. Is used for thermocouple-based TEGs. This alloy can be further processed into p. can be used in low to medium temperatures (> +300°C).g.layer p . gas burners). It is used in thermocouple-based and element-based TEGs. Cannot be used in strongly oxidising atmospheres (e. can be used in low and high temperatures (< +800°C). 3 %. can be used in strongly oxidising atmospheres (e.or silver-doped tellurium).and n-conducting semiconductors by doping with different foreign atoms.149 | thermoelectric generators (TEG) Materials and components in use for thermocouple-based TEGs include the following: DOPED INORGANIC SEMICONDUCTORS Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3). depending on temperature difference among other parameters). technology by Micropelt) and an element-based TEG (technology by SAM).layer p .g.g. IRON DISILICIDE (FeSi2) Inorganic semiconductor alloy composed of metallic iron and metallic silicon. Low efficiency (approx. GRADED DOPED INORGANIC SEMICONDUCTORS Bismuth telluride/iron disilicide (Bi2Te3/FeSi2) DOPED INORGANIC SEMICONDUCTORS Silicon germanium (SiGe). 8 %. relatively expensive. − heat flow heat source hot side n . silicon-germanium (SiGe). This alloy can be further processed into p. n . Market presence. depending on temperature difference among other parameters).layer contact + Market presence. iron disilicide (FeSi2).and n-conducting semiconductors by doping with different foreign atoms. The following materials and components are relevant for architectural uses or could be in the future: BISMUTH TELLURIDE (BI2TE3) Inorganic semiconductor alloy of metallic bismuth and metallic telluride (with gold. good efficiency (approx.layer contact heat sink cold side Schematic representation of construction and functioning of a thermocouple-based TEG (e.

| Polycrystalline solar grade silicon.and n-conducting semiconductors by doping with different foreign atoms.5 W to 19 W from relatively large temperature differences of up to several 100 K. it will also find future use in element-based TEGs.g. other manufacturers concentrate on larger and more powerful TEGs and offer modules with electrical outputs rated at between 2. While some manufacturers offer very small. Universities in the USA and Europe are working on the development and testing of facade systems with PEs or PMs for active climatisation of rooms. depending on temperature difference among other parameters). thin film technology TEGs with only a small electrical output of a few 100 µW that generate less than 100 mV voltage from relatively small temperature differences. There are no known TEGs that have been developed specially for use in architecture and have reached market readiness. Must be processed in purer form than e. . bismuth telluride. These are temperatures typically obtained by concentrating solar radiation by the use of prepositioned lenses. For example. the semiconductor alloys can be doped with various foreign atoms. maximum size 5 mm x 5 mm. Bismuth crystal. | Tellurium crystal. can be used in low and high temperatures (< +500°C). which is quoted as between 3 % to 4 % (in contrast to efficiencies of more than 12 % with conventional technologies). can be used in strongly oxidising atmospheres (e. thermoelectric generators (TEG) are different to Peltier elements (PE) or modules (PM). + Market presence. As well as in solar cells. In certain situations there may be higher numbers of thermocouples in TEGs than in PEs. − Although reversibly operable. This alloy can be further processed into p. The reason that TEGs have been nowhere near successful on the market is their lower efficiency. gas burners). Manufacturers of TEGs have generally concentrated on one of the above technologies. Solder cannot be used in contact with heat sources at a temperature of more than 250°C. very good efficiency (> 15 %.150 | electricity-generating smart materials SILICON GERMANIUM (SiGe) Inorganic semiconductor alloy composed of purified metallurgical grade silicon and germanium.g.

their electrical output is less than 600 µW. 10 V/cm2 from a temperature difference of 5 K (in: [13]). glass or membranes. depending on the module and temperature).151 | thermoelectric generators (TEG) A development in the field of textiles from 2002 could be transferred to find applications in architecture. 100 000 hours. e. voltage below 100 mV. Low efficiency (< 5 %.g. . The latter application is of special interest in architecture.0 mW and no-load voltages of approx. relatively long replacement life (approx. cannot be bent or curved. by grading different materials. They use the small temperature difference between the inside and outside of the textiles to generate typical power outputs of approx.G. e. − Technology by Micropelt: schematic representation of the construction of a microscale TEG. Integrable into fabrics. MICROSCALE TEG (E. + Market presence. | Three microscale TEGs. In addition to optimising semiconductors. 1. current less than 40 mA. can be used in low to medium temperatures (< +250°C hot sides). the products are used either in the heat given off by combustion processes or in concentrated solar radiation. either mechanically or by adhesive. a voltage of 2. developers have also sought to establish new silicon-based technologies. generation of electric current from small temperature differences. less than 100 µm thick semiconductors (thin film TEGs) grouped into modules. A technology demonstrator currently being developed has given an electric output of 0. They can be used to provide an independent energy supply or energy support to sensors and other microsystems. As efficiency depends on the size of the temperature difference. The following TEGs are either currently or likely to be available in the future and of use in the field of architecture: MODULES OF THERMOCOUPLE-BASED.045 W. The maximum size of the modules manufactured to date is 5 mm x 5 mm.075 A from a temperature difference of 33 K. from a temperature difference of less than 20 K. comparable with silicon solar cells). TECHNOLOGY BY MICROPELT) Several thermocouples of block-forming.g. These products can be fastened to smooth and flexible substrates. silicon thermogenerator chips have been developed to provide a battery-free electricity supply to various consumers incorporated into textile clothing. but so far this technology has not been able to succeed in the market due to its low efficiency. The use of TEGs to generate electric current is not new.1 V and a current of 0.

glass or membranes. the modules are capable of generating an electrical output of 19 W. cannot be bent or curved.G. glass or membranes.g. componentdependent). These products can be fastened to smooth and flexible substrates. technology by Hi-Z ). MACROSCALE TEG (E. can be used in low to very high temperatures (in future < +1500°C hot side. depending on the module and temperature).g. | Technology SCTB NORD: thermoelectric module. . 500 to 5000 hours). the modules are capable of generating a voltage of approx. either mechanically or by adhesive. around 1958. a voltage of 5 V. MACROSCALE TEG (TECHNOLOGY BY SAM) Several elements of band-forming semiconductors (thin or thick film TEGs) grouped into modules. Low efficiency (4. designed by the RCA research department. | opposite: PM-based air conditioning system integrated into a building in 1958. 2 V. either mechanically or by adhesive. Lack of market presence. + Generation of electric current (electron-hole pairs) from small temperature differences. in future very good efficiency (up to approx. in future very long replacement life (> 100 000 hours. from a temperature difference of approx. 400 K. These products can be fastened to smooth and flexible substrates. − Technology by Micropelt: illustration of PE. Up to now with a maximum size of 75 mm x 75 mm. | Refrigerator with PMs. can be used in low to medium temperatures (< +230°C. | Technology by FerroTec: special constructional form of PEs. from a temperature difference of 200 K. Up to now with a maximum size of 20 mm x 25 mm x 30 mm.152 | electricity-generating smart materials MODULES OF THERMOCOUPLE-BASED. hot sides). 154 US $/HZ-20 module. | Technology demonstrators by SAM: module made up of a layered block of elements. 30 %. e. generation of electric current from small temperature differences.5 %. They can be used to provide an independent energy supply or energy support to sensors or micro/ macrosystems and as a universally usable source of electricity. a current of 8 A. − MODULES OF ELEMENT-BASED. < 1 euro/W). comparable with silicon solar cells). e. TECHNOLOGY BY HI-Z) Several thermocouples of block-forming semiconductors less than 100 µm thick (thin film TEGs) grouped into modules. 8 A. in future relatively inexpensive (approx. relatively expensive (approx. + Market presence. They can be used to provide an independent energy supply or energy support to sensors or other macrosystems and as a universally usable source of electricity. relatively long replacement life (approx. depending on module and temperature). a current of approx. cannot be bent or curved.

153 | thermoelectric generators (TEG) In order to ensure the long-term functionality of TEGs they must not be subjected to temperatures above those specified for the particular product. macroscale TEGs (technology by SAM) . with Bell Telephone and Westinghouse. A more complex development that uses PEs with two hot sides comes from the USA. vibration-free air conditioning system for buildings. technology by Hi-Z) MODULES of element-based. who.g. At the moment there are no known applications of thermoelectric generators (TEG) to generate electric current in building envelopes. they could independently generate electric current for active cooling when temperatures rise too high inside the glazed building. technology by Hi-Z) ELEMENTS for the manufacture of macroscale TEGs (technology by SAM) INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS MODULES of thermocouple-based. macroscale TEGs (e. which was the first of its kind at that time. while the outside skin generates the required electric current from its flat arrangement of photovoltaic elements. moist and/or corrosive media must be prevented. Around that time RCA developed a refrigerator with the same technology. by mechanical loads such that they are reduced in cross section. TEGs could also find use in building envelopes. the inner skin actively climatises the rooms with its flat. In the two skin system. Products currently in use in architecture or likely to be relevant in future include: RAW OR END PRODUCTS THERMOCOUPLES for the manufacture of microscale TEGs (e. If the costs drop in future below 1 euro/watt as predicted. then coating it with PVC and finally passing it through an automatic production line to produce individual TEG modules in a preset pattern to create electrical contact. two-sided.g. as active climatisation components in greenhouses. That this idea is not new is shown by the earlier development at the end of the 1950s from the American company RCA. Current research mainly in the USA and Europe is examining the use of the Peltier effect in building envelopes to climatise rooms by active cooling and heating processes.g. e.g. e. technology by Micropelt) THERMOCOUPLES for the manufacture of macroscale TEGs (e. This could be achieved in the first instance by weaving a membrane in a conventional way incorporating electrically conductive threads. Direct contact with water. encapsulated between two conventional glass panes. for example by the integration of suitable converters in textile membrane skins for residential and leisure buildings. active heatable PEs. Suitably configured. Current researchers are seeking to integrate Peltier elements (PE) in multilayer systems for building envelopes. microscale TEGs (e. In addition the electrical connections must not be broken or damaged.g.g. worked on a number of applications for “thermionic converters” and in 1958 demonstrated a suitably equipped electronic. technology by Micropelt) MODULES of thermocouple-based.

spread adoption of piezoelectric instrumentation technology. Among the first uses were ultrasound transducers and quartz resonators for frequency stabilisation. often referred to as piezoceramics and piezopolymers. when under a mechanical load. barium titanate (BaTiO3). Crystals of sodium potassium tartrate found earlier use in the manufacture of sound pick-up cartridges. natural quartz crystals and tourmaline crystals. Materials and components generally used as QPEPs include among others: ORGANIC ELECTRET POLYMERS electric field mech. Materials and components generally used as PEPs include among others: ORGANIC POLYMERS Polyvinylidenfluoride (PVDF). they can change their shape by the application of a voltage. These charges are proportional to the magnitude of the load.g. stress Polyolefines (polyethylene (PE). These phenomena are described as the piezoelectric and the inverse piezoelectric effect respectively. tourmaline and quartz crystals. The following piezoelectric smart materials are currently of interest to architects: PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMICS (PEC) PIEZOELECTRIC POLYMERS (PEP) Piezoelectric ceramics (PEC) and piezoelectric polymers (PEP). polypropylene (PP)). in particular for sensor and actuator technology. Today it is predominantly polycrystalline ceramics and polymers that are used. . Schematic representation of the piezoelectric and inverse piezoelectric effect on the cubic and tetragonal structure of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and barium titanate (BaTiO 3). 1969 saw the discovery of the first highly active piezoelectric polymer materials. The piezoelectric effect was discovered in 1880 by the Curie brothers in natural Rochelle salt (or sodium potassium tartrate tetrahydrate. for example. PROJECTS These types of smart materials have inherent properties that enable them to generate electric charges when deformed by mechanical effects. e. In 1950 a patent for a charge amplifier was granted to Walter P Kistler. which helped ensure the wide. Materials and components generally used as PECs include among others: DOPED INORGANIC COMPOSITE CERAMICS Other piezoelectric smart materials are: PIEZOELECTRIC MONOCRYSTALS Piezoelectric monocrystals include. In the late 1990s a Finnish company developed a quasi-piezoelectric electret film.154 | electricity-generating smart materials PIEZOELECTRIC SMART MATERIALS > MATERIALS. The first piezoelectric sensors were developed about ten years later. compression. lead magnesium niobate (PMN). PRODUCTS. In reverse. generate electric charges on their surfaces as a result of deformation through changes of charge distribution. are inorganic or organic materials that. which is mainly used for sensors in a number of different applications. which have good piezoelectric properties but are only of secondary importance in their technical application. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT). also known as Seignette salt). They found that electrostatic charges result from mechanical loading of the crystal surfaces.

high dielectric constant. limited formability. highly elastic. Can only be used in low temperatures (–20°C to +50°C). + Market presence. − POLYVINYLIDENFLUORIDE (PVDF) Semicrystalline thermoplastic plastic synthesised from hydrofluoric acid and methylchloroform. | Various piezoceramic powders. oxygen (O) and titanium (Ti) or zirconium (Zr). One of its uses is for high voltage actuators. . highly elastic. insensitive to moisture. Limited formability. Soft ceramics are more easily changed by electrical fields than hard ceramics. Their piezoelectric properties are the result of thermoelectric treatment by sintering and then polarisation under the influence of an electrical direct current field.155 | piezoelectric ceramics/polymers (PEC. Their uses include sensors among others. colour digitally enhanced. can be made in large quantities. + Market presence. − POLYOLEFINES (POLYETHYLENE (PE). low UV resistance. can be made in large quantities. | SEM photograph of multilayer polyolefin-based electret film. relatively expensive compared with PZT. So-called hard and soft ceramics can be produced by doping with foreign atoms. relatively inexpensive compared with PZT. Its uses include sensors. + Market presence. high stiffness. Its piezoelectric property is the result of mechanical-electric treatment by stretching and then polarisation under the influence of an electrical direct current field. PEP) The following electrically charging materials and components are or could be important in the future in the field of architecture: LEAD ZIRCONATE TITANATE (PZT) Inorganic compound of lead (Pb). Their quasi-piezoelectric properties are the result of electrical treatment by the permanent electrostatic charging of gas bubbles previously injected under high pressure. can be made to almost any shape. non-toxic. Sensitive to moisture. relatively inexpensive compared with PVDF . low UV resistance. non-toxic. can be made in large quantities. − SEM photograph of the crystal structure of barium titanate (BaTiO 3). toxic. low tensile and shear capacity. insensitive to moisture. POLYPROPYLENE (PP)) Semicrystalline thermoplastic plastic synthesised from olefines such as ethylene or propylene in the presence of catalysts by polymerisation. many years of practical use.

Ceramics and polymers have been only used to a secondary extent as piezoelectric generators because the obtainable power and current from the currently available products are very low in comparison with solar cells. | Various prestressed multilayer linear actuators. to provide an independent electricity supply to remote control sensors in switches. Technology by PI Ceramic: various multilayer bender actuators with connection wires. microprocessor to equalise sizes. | CFP structure with integrated multilayer linear actuators (PICA actuator). Some of these products were developed for use in architecture. some fitted with connection wires.g.and macroscale systems in the field of sensor technology. internationally active manufacturers of piezoceramic materials and products have developed and brought on to the market none or very few of their own generators. They are of interest to architects because they can be used in a relatively simple way to generate electric charges from building vibrations caused by the wind or the movement of people. which can indicate the load on the floor from the changes in charge caused by people walking on it. While large.156 | electricity-generating smart materials Piezoelectric ceramics (PEC) and piezoelectric polymers (PEP) can generate electric charges under the effect of mechanical loads and the resulting deformations. a few specialist companies have concentrated on the development and marketing of generators of various sizes for use in energy-independent micro. Socalled bender actuators are very suitable for this as they can have relatively large travel distances compared with linear actuators. | Various multilayer bender actuators with integrated positioning sensors. actuators made from piezoceramic materials can also be used as generators. | Various multilayer linear actuators with ceramic insulation. While the piezoelectric effect is mainly of use in sensor technology. Foils have been developed for use under the walking surfaces of floors. the inverse piezoelectric effect is used primarily for actuators. they can also generate deformations under the effect of electrical fields. . e. In principle.

very long replacement life (> 1000 000 cycles).157 | piezoelectric ceramics/polymers (PEC.e. stacked piezoceramic layers with internal electrodes.g. relatively short travel distance achievable compared with multilayer linear actuators (< 200 µm.or disc-shaped. i. Otherwise as for PZT above. 50 µm thick piezoceramic layers with internal silver palladium electrodes and ceramic insulation. They can be attached mechanically on flat surfaces. energy-independent sensors (piezoelectric effect) and for micropositioning and vibration absorption (inverse piezoelectric effect) on micro. 10 % in excess of the actuator’s travel distance. dependent upon dimensions and voltages among other parameters). They can be used for example as piezoelectric generators. e. | Seven piezosensors arranged adjacent to one another on transparent plastic support. dependent on PZT modification among other parameters). | Sensor band for measuring pulse rates. very long replacement life (> 1000 000 cycles). PEP) The following products based on PECs and PEPs are among those currently or likely to be available in the future and of use in architecture: MULTILAYER BENDER ACTUATORS MADE FROM LEAD ZIRCONATE TITANATE (PZT) (E. or by gluing the top or bottom pieces of the unit in place.G. approx. relatively low actuating force achievable compared with multilayer linear actuators. | 50 bending sensor array for crash tests. dependent on PZT modification among other parameters). + Market presence. − MULTILAYER LINEAR ACTUATORS (STACK TRANSLATORS. max. Otherwise as for PZT above. with ceramic insulation largely insensitive to moisture. which are sintered together to form a monolith. . Generates relatively small voltages (< ±30 V). can be used in low to medium temperatures (< +250°C. 25 µm to 100 µm thick block. + Market presence. Generates relatively small voltages (< ±30 V). They can be used as piezoelectric generators. relatively large travel distances achievable compared with multilayer linear actuators (> 2 mm.and macroscale systems. energy-independent sensors (piezoelectric effect) and for micropositioning and vibration absorption (inverse piezoelectric effect) on micro.g. LINEAR CONVERTERS) MADE FROM LEAD ZIRCONATE TITANATE (PZT) (E. 10 % in excess of the actuator’s travel distance. deformations must be within the permissible limits. − Technology by Mirow: various polymer film sensors (pressure converters) made from piezoelectric PVDF films: piezosensor array for flow analysis. with ceramic insulation largely insensitive to moisture. deformations must be within the permissible limits. max. i.e.G. TECHNOLOGY BY PI CERAMIC) Linear converters made from e. by clamping. dependent upon dimensions and voltages among other parameters). can be used in medium temperatures (< +250°C. TECHNOLOGY BY PI CERAMIC) Linear monolithic bender actuators made from approx.and macroscale systems. They can be clamped at one or both ends depending on the shape and design.

both sides are enclosed in thin aluminium foil. long replacement life (> 1000 000 cycles). Other protective coatings could be added. long replacement life (> 1000 000 cycles).G. high compressive strength. − Technology by Emfit: schematic representation of the construction and functioning of an electret polymer film sensor. or with so-called control units. | Rolled-up electret polymer film sensor with connection lead for connection to a control unit. which act as electrodes. These products can be fastened to smooth and flexible substrates. round and flexible substrates by mechanical fixings or by gluing.G. insensitive to impact. Only relatively low to medium voltages can be generated (< ±200 V/µm). of vapour-deposited metals. Otherwise as for polyolefines above. high compressive strength. which at the moment require a separate power supply. either mechanically or by adhesive. To amplify their output they can be placed in series with voltage or charge amplifiers. on or under floor coverings. | Technology by EnOcean: piezo radio transmitter module PTM 100 with rocker model. electrostatically charged gas bubbles. Other protective coatings could be added. surrounded by metal films or conductive plastic films. can be bent (depending on the electrodes used). + Market presence. Otherwise as for PVDF above.g. on seating or beds. They can be attached to flat. Otherwise as for polyolefines above. insensitive to impact. cannot be bent. Otherwise as for PVDF above.g. for example as 580 mm wide rolls. e. . e. Available in different sizes.or multiple-layered transparent film layers (films) of polyvinylidenfluoride (PVDF). which act as the electrodes. They can be used as energy-independent sensors (piezoelectric effect) and for deforming (inverse piezoelectric effect) on micro. can be cut to shape. Only relatively low to medium voltages can be generated (< ±200 V/µm). can be cut to shape. for optical or acoustic indication. They can be used as energy-independent sensors (quasi-piezoelectric effect). deformations must be within the permissible limits. deformations must be within the permissible limits. + Market presence.158 | electricity-generating smart materials Osther constructional forms of actuators based on PECs are: LAMINAR ACTUATORS (CONTRACTION ACTUATORS) TUBE ACTUATORS (TUBES) SHEAR ACTUATORS PIEZOMECHANICS WITH INTEGRATED LEVER RATIO SETTING PIEZO STAGES POLYMER FILM SENSORS (PRESSURE CONVERTERS) MADE FROM POLYVINYLIDENFLUORIDE (PVDF) (E. TECHNOLOGY BY EMFIT) Flat composites made from multiple layers of polyolefine-based film with embedded. with thin electrically conductive coatings on both sides. Available in different shapes and sizes. TECHNOLOGY BY MIROW) Flat composites made from single. − ELECTRET POLYMER FILM SENSORS (PRESSURE CONVERTERS) MADE FROM POLYOLEFINES (E.and macroscale components or systems. for example PET. for example PET.

g.g.g. Direct contact with moist and/or corrosive media is detrimental to PECs even with insulation and hence is to be prevented. technology by PI Ceramic) LAMINAR ACTUATORS (contraction actuators) made from or incorporating PZT (e.g. In addition the electrical connections must not be broken or damaged by mechanical loads with the result that they are reduced in cross section.159 | piezoelectric ceramics/polymers (PEC. technology by Emfit) .g.g. integrated multilayer linear actuators (stack translators. technology by PI Ceramic) PIEZO RADIO TRANSMITTER MODULE (technology by EnOcean) FLOOR with electret POLYMER FILM SENSOR (pressure converter) made from POLYOLEFINES (e. technology by Emfit) CFRP structure with e. linear converters) made from or incorporating PZT (e. linear converters) incorporating PZT (e. technology by PI Ceramic) SHEAR ACTUATORS made from or incorporating PZT (e.g. technology by PI Ceramic) PIEZOMECHANICS with integrated lever ratio setting made from or incorporating PZT (e. technology by Mirow) ELECTRET POLYMER FILM SENSOR (pressure converter) made from polyolefines (e.g.g. they must not be subjected to mechanical or electrical loads in excess of those specified for the particular product. technology by PI Ceramic) MULTILAYER LINEAR ACTUATORS (stack translators. PEP) In order to ensure the long-term functionality of products based on PECs and PEPs. technology by PI Ceramic) POLYMER FILM SENSOR (pressure converter) made from polyvinylidenfluoride (PVDF) (e. technology by PI Ceramic) TUBE ACTUATORS (tubes) made from or incorporating PZT (e.g. technology by PI Ceramic) PIEZO STAGES made from or incorporating PZT (e.g. Products currently in use in architecture or likely to become relevant in future include: RAW OR END PRODUCTS: MULTILAYER BENDER ACTUATORS made from or incorporating lead zirconate titanate (PZT) (e.g.

Mitchell Joachim. In Japan the Kaimin System. Building with solar cells (south side) and wind quills (north side) connected to piezoelectric cells: MATscape. Luis Rafael BerriosNegron (2005). The sensors were placed between the concrete floor surface and the linoleum floor covering. was developed. intended for use in “intelligent rooms” and fully equipped with sensors. For example. Lara Greden. The system used polymer film sensors as sleep sensors in bed heads. batteryless. One of the uses for these extremely pressure-sensitive and very thin sensors is for installation under floor coverings. . formed a special research group 409 for adaptive structures in aircraft and lightweight construction to investigate their use in other applications. An important aspect is the use of components incorporating piezoelectric materials for active sound reduction and for vibration absorption in building components. by now this group has completed its work. piezo radio switches for operating the Venetian blinds and lighting in the office rooms. Radio technology allows wiring and flush-mounted boxes to be dispensed with.160 | electricity-generating smart materials The use of bender actuators in the field of architecture is currently being studied at numerous universities. the system alerts a neighbouring station over a digital mobile phone network. The use of electret polymer film sensors also opens up some interesting possibilities. among others. Whitney Jade Foutz. In Finland in 2005 the floors of two detainment cells in a small police station were fitted with these devices as an experiment. In 1998 for example. Internal wall arrangements are more flexible and walls can be moved relatively inexpensively. the German Research Foundation (DFG). the aviva MUNICH building in Munich’s commercial district has remote-controlled. In these areas there has been cooperation with other research groups in the fields of air and space travel and materials science. If the police station is unmanned and prisoners escape from the cells. there are also some applications for products that exploit the piezoelectric effect. As well as the use of inverse piezoelectric effects. Wendy Meguro.

shape-changing smart materials: BALSAWOOD BOARDS AND STONES WITH PEC ELEMENTS (LINEAR ACTUATORS) Sound installation controlled by light and hardware Felix Hess. each sound generator was connected to four small solar panels on each side. PEP) Monosmart material | Monosmart application Electricity-generating. Sunlight entered in various qualities through three window openings. which react to changes in air pressure and brightness with sporadic. For his installation How Light Is Changed Into Sound at the Warsaw Autumn cultural festival. Depending on the transient dynamic variations in brightness in the room and the number and changes in position of observers. In both cases the sound generator consists of a wired piezo element. The electric current generated and flowing through the piezo element deforms it in a semi-rhythmic manner and excites the sounding board to vibrate. Centre for Contemporary Art. the artist set up four such sound generators on the floor in one half of a room.161 | piezoelectric ceramics/polymers (PEC. the hearer associates these sounds with the croaking of frogs. the actual sound generator is connected to a power circuit. The research physicist developed small electronic sound machines (described by him as “cracklers”). How Light Is Changed Into Sound: view into the installation room with its four “Cracklers”. Poland (1996) How Light Is Changed Into Sound is the name for a series of interactive sound installations of the Dutch artist Felix Hess. Whilst in the installation It’s in the Air the circuit boards used to react to changes in air pressure were additionally equipped with sound sensors and a conventional 9 volt block-battery. Each of these sound machines consists of a small circuit board on which the few required electronic components are soldered and connected by wires to a low voltage supply. spaced apart and connected together by a central circuit board. In addition to the circuit board. | Close-up photograph of a sound generator for the installation It´s in the Air. which works in conjunction with a small stone and a balsawood sounding board on its underside to amplify the sound. the solar panels generated varying amounts of current which enlivened the inconspicuous room with irregular clicking noises. Warsaw. Netherlands Sound installation | Warsaw Autumn. . for his installation How Light Is Changed Into Sound the artist used small solar panels. irregular clicking noises.

In addition to right. .162 | electricity-generating smart materials Monosmart materials | Polysmart application Colour. with the inner ring having two bases resting on the floor. left and straight-ahead movements. It consists of seven modules of elliptical cross section. which can change their positions in any direction. which reacts to changing internal live loads with expansions and deformations and can be called a biomechanoid. The outer and inner rings are supported at the floor by a traverse with spring bearings by means of two pairs of struts. The construction is intended to be a pavilion and is almost completely composed of glass fibre reinforced plastic. Each traverse carries a vertically moving load distribution plate. Dynaf | e x p01: demonstration model with supporting hairs equipped with piezoelectric bender actuators and individually attached electrooptic/-chromic glass elements. the traverse moves to the right. When loaded. capable of carrying foot traffic. mechanical structure. Germany Weight-controlled pavilion with optically changing building envelope | Germany (1995) Dynaf l e x p01 is a reactive.and optically changing smart materials: GLASS WITH ELECTROOPTIC COATINGS Electricity-generating smart materials: BENDER ACTUATORS WITH PIEZOCERAMIC MADE FROM PZT A construction that dynamically changes its light transmission properties in response to live loads and mechanical vibrations Axel Ritter. the lateral connection nodes move up or down to affect the openings of two neighbouring modules. Each module has an outside ring and two adjacent inner rings. This causes the cross section of the outer ring to become more circular and the connected strut pairs press the inner rings apart: as a result the pavilion changes in length depending on the deflection. left or slightly downwards. which are attached to one another at the sides at the vertices of the ellipse.

and the potential expansions and deformations deriving from it. | Connection of load distribution plate. Dynaf | e x p01: Actuating cam for changing the geometry.163 | piezoelectric ceramics/polymers (PEC. . it would be possible to display the critical loading states caused by the mechanical stresses. In addition. internal detail. inner and outer rings of a module. PEP) The external skin is formed of electrooptical glass elements. Thus the activities taking place can be discerned not only from the deformations but also from the glass elements of the external skin. which in turn causes the electrooptical layers. | Load distribution plates with traverses pressing on the outside rings. in case of use as a kindergarten an additional interior space could be provided in the morning. The principle of weight-controlled mechanical expansion as used here. This ensures that the glass elements and the support hairs are not damaged on the relatively tightly curved surfaces. to change more or less dynamically from transparent to opaque. These elements are attached in rows to the outer ring and fastened on a crown of flexible supporting hairs with round cross sections and equipped with piezoelectric bender actuators. Voltages are generated depending on the vibrations caused by wind or people. strut pair inner and outer rings. via the connected electronic units. A building designed with this principle could provide enhanced flexibility of use by temporarily claiming additional space. The loading states would be visualised in the colour changes of the glass elements of the corresponding electrochomic layers. | Internal detail. For example. can be transferred to other types of building structures. which would then be available as a playground or car park during other parts of the day.

. for these products this reversibility is normally unwelcome.Energy-exchanging smart materials. but as they lack reversibility they cannot be classed as smart materials. HEAT-STORING SMART MATERIALS These materials have inherent properties that enable them to store energy in the form of heat and cold (negative heat). and exhibit at least some reversibility. including energy-storing smart materials. A number of the systems for storing electricity in use today. HYDROGEN-STORING SMART MATERIALS These materials have inherent properties that enable them to store energy in the form of hydrogen. ELECTRICITY-STORING SMART MATERIALS These materials have inherent properties that enable them to store energy in the form of electricity. Electricity-storing smart materials are not sufficiently developed at the moment and there is little information available on them. indoor view of installed unit. The energy-storing smart materials available on today‘s market can be differentiated as follows: LIGHT-STORING SMART MATERIALS These materials have inherent properties that enable them to store energy in the form of light. Metal hydrates are particularly suitable for use as hydrogen-storing materials. and therefore light-storing smart materials are discussed in that section (see light-emitting smart materials. for example lead accumulators. New developments in this area are seeking to eliminate much of this temperature dependency. e. However. heat. have a degree of reversibility. 110 ff.). are materials and products that are able to store energy. Some light-emitting smart materials also have the ability to store light. with their reduced capacity in cold conditions. electricity or hydrogen. both sensible and latent energy. Heat-storing smart materials are discussed in the following section. pp. Technology by GLASSX: light-directing insulation glazing system with salt hydrate PCM.g. in the form of light.

below an inherent material-dependent phase change temperature. to change their state from liquid to solid by crystallisation and release a quantity of heat energy previously taken in and stored at a higher temperature. the German Aerospace Center (DLR). Paraffins. which can trigger phase changes and these are often associated with changes in elasticity. all materials that are able to reversibly change their state in response to external influences are classed as phase change materials (PCM). The following latent heat-storing smart materials are currently of interest in the field of architecture: PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS (PCM) In principle. PCMs were used first in the USA. based on sodium acetate and a heat transfer oil. chemical stimuli or the intake of matter. e. PRODUCTS. . Most of the known materials exhibit temperature-dependent phase changes. in panels and other cladding components. PROJECTS These materials have inherent properties that enable them to store energy in the form of heat and cold (negative heat) as latent energy. water. such as the colloidal state derived from gels. largely stable intermediate states. for example latent heat or latent cold storage media for the regulation of temperatures.g. salt hydrate mixtures (eutectic mixtures). The type of influence or loading that instigates the change of phase is not important. heat stored ORGANIC-INORGANIC COMPOUNDS Paraffin-salt hydrate mixtures. INORGANIC COMPOUNDS Salt hydrate. liquid and gas. They have the property. There are also other influences. water mixture. there are other. Among the first users of PCMs in the 1960s was NASA. paraffin mixtures (waxes). In addition to the states of solid.165 | phase change materials (PCM) HEAT-STORING SMART MATERIALS > MATERIALS. for use in buildings. then later in other countries including Germany. ambient temperature rises latent heat storage medium liquefies managed temperature remains constant heat released ambient temperature falls latent heat storage medium solidifies managed temperature remains constant Schematic representation of the functioning of a latent heat storage medium. water mixture. Towards the end of the last century. Materials and components in use include among others: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Other materials and products with relatively high heatstoring capacity and/or relatively low heat dissipation are usually not counted among smart materials and will not be discussed further here. developed a latent heat storage medium. In the construction and architecture industries the term PCM has become generally applicable to materials and products that can be used as temperature-regulating media. In the course of the phase change from solid to liquid and during the heat energy input the temperature of the material remains constant. who experimented with these materials and various applications in the field of space flight.

many years of practical use. + Leaks are not hazardous to groundwater. + In powder form one of its suitable uses is for filling containers. This can be achieved by encapsulation (micro-. maintenance-free. When used in building materials or components. can be used over a relatively large temperature range (approx. volume change at phase change. | Conventional photograph of salt hydrate crystals. volume change at phase change. relatively expensive compared with water-based PCMs and still expensive compared with salt hydrate-based PCMs. relatively inexpensive compared with paraffin-based PCMs. Otherwise as above. depending on the application.and salt hydrate-based PCMs. + Market presence. including negative melting salt-water eutectics). no tendency to segregate. wide range of applications. − . can be made in large quantities. Relatively poor thermal conductivity compared with paraffin. can be used over a relatively large temperature range (approx. –70°C to +120°C. Microscopic-scale photograph of salt hydrate crystals. PARAFFIN MIXTURES The melting temperature depends on the particular paraffin used and any added constituents. + Non-combustible. proportion of composite material approximately 40 %.166 | energy-exchanging smart materials Materials and components for the manufacture of PCMs must be able to function over a comparatively high number of charging and discharging cycles and. tendency to segregate. − SALT HYDRATE. − WATER. WATER MIXTURE The melting point of water is 0°C. relatively little volume change at phase change. direct contact points should be eliminated as far as possible to prevent structural damage. can be used over a relatively large temperature range (approx. –40°C to +100°C). Highly combustible. | Conventional close-up photograph of slightly heated salt hydrate (part of following photograph). undergo relatively little change in volume. − SILICATE Used in the form of powder as the carrier medium for embedding various PCMs. relatively inexpensive compared with paraffin. tendency to promote corrosion. volume change at phase change. long replacement life. SALT HYDRATE MIXTURES The melting temperature depends on the particular salt hydrate used and any added constituents. The following PCMs are among those of interest in architecture: PARAFFINS. Tendency to supercool when used for cold storage. insensitive to mechanical vibrations. –12°C to +180°C).and salt hydrate-based PCMs. None known. macroencapsulation).

Their solid walls enable many old buildings to buffer temperature peaks so that for example their rooms stay comfortably cool for longer in the summer months. can be incorporated into different construction materials. and in refrigeration and heating systems. They are mainly used for passive climatisation of e. Otherwise as above for paraffins. cannot be used alone because of inadequate fire resistance (fire safety).g.g.G. Products are now available that can be used in existing and new buildings. wall and ceiling components. as external panels and partitions. | Dispersion with Micronal microcapsules. internal walls and ceilings. Compact external walls with highly heat-insulative and heat-storing components can be constructed by the intelligent incorporation of latent heat-storing products based on PCMs. Not universally available. intermediate and end products on the market. cutting. a relatively large number of products for architecture have been developed and brought to the market. available as various end products such as PCM plaster. . paraffin mixtures. In recent years. + Market presence. can be made in large quantities. plaster or even complex facade systems. only approved end products can be used. These range from granulates to composite materials with graphite to complex light-directing insulation glazing systems with integral salt hydrate-filled plastic panels. for example in clothing textiles. MICRONAL. TECHNOLOGY BY DASF) Plastic-encapsulated paraffin-based PCMs for passive climatisation of e. Existing buildings can be improved by increasing their storage mass by retrofitting PCM-containing products. | Plaster pattern with Micronal microcapsules. in motor vehicles. chipboard and fillers. There are various raw. Some more ambitious applications are now being tried following a phase of observation and testing in small projects.g. among others. as a powder for incorporation into other construction materials such as plaster.167 | phase change materials (PCM) Phase change materials (PCM) have a wide range of uses. in products that store latent heat and regulate temperature: MICROENCAPSULATED PCM (E. | Technology by Dörken: aluminium composite bag with salt hydrate filling. such as appropriately designed gypsum plasterboards. but new buildings usually lack these thermal storage masses. e. available e.g. | Microscopicscale photograph of an individual Micronal microcapsule. Otherwise as above for paraffins. paraffin mixtures. Of the products on the market incorporating PCMs the main interest in architecture for the foreseeable future is. resistant to mechanical damage. − Technology by DASF: microscopic-scale photograph of Micronal microcapsules with diameters of 2 µm to 20 µm.

may cause property damage. + Market presence. made from metal) and can for example be applied to suspended ceilings.g. − ALUMINIUM FOIL BAGS WITH PCM (E. easy to apply. + Thermal conductivity comparable with that of conventional plasterboard. TECHNOLOGY BY DASF) Include microencapsulated paraffin-based PCMs.168 | energy-exchanging smart materials PLASTER WITH PCM (E. can be made in large quantities.g. TECHNOLOGY BY DASF) Currently available as 2000 mm x 1250 mm x 15 mm board. Not universally available. Relatively expensive compared with conventional plasterboard. Otherwise as above. Otherwise as above for paraffins.G. Otherwise as above. − GYPSUM PLASTERBOARD WITH PCM (E. Otherwise as above for salt hydrate. can be handled and applied as conventional plaster. Otherwise as above. + Market presence. easy to apply. | Operating principle at high and low solar positions. additional laminar components required. as it is not solid it does not damage cladding materials.G.G. ceilings will improve thermal conductivity if placed adjacent to components with good conductivity (e. can be handled and fixed as conventional plasterboard or fibre-cement boards. TECHNOLOGY BY DÖRKEN) Aluminium foil bags with salt hydrates or salt hydrate mixtures for passive climatisation of e. can be made in large quantities. for passive climatisation of internal walls and ceilings. . salt hydrate mixtures. can be coloured by the application of paint or the addition of pigments. paraffin mixtures. relatively expensive compared with conventional plasters. Overhead leaks are hazardous to health. − Technology by GLASSX: section through light-directing insulation glazing system with salt hydrate PCM.

g.g. Higher replacement cost of defective panes and PCM containers. microencapsulated PCMs (e. Otherwise as above for salt hydrate. Micronal) ALUMINIUM FOIL BAGS filled with PCMs (salt hydrate. can indicate charge state. panels) e. e. e. can be made in large quantities.g. Otherwise as above. Micronal) COMPOUNDS (granulate. e.g. PCM/graphite. PCM/plastic INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS: PLASTER containing microencapsulated PCMs (paraffin.g. salt hydrate mixtures) LIGHT-DIRECTING INSULATION GLAZING SYSTEM with macroencapsulated PCMs (paraffin) LIGHT-DIRECTING INSULATION GLAZING SYSTEM with macroencapsulated PCMs (salt hydrate) . + Market presence. relatively heavy with consequences for installation costs. The system provides passive climatisation of the facade and can be used in almost the same way as conventional insulation glazing systems.169 | phase change materials (PCM) LIGHT-DIRECTING INSULATION GLAZING SYSTEM WITH MACROENCAPSULATED PCM (TECHNOLOGY BY GLASSX) Insulation glazing system consisting of four panes positioned one behind the other with external integrated light-directing prismatic plastic panels and internal integrated transparent plastic containers filled with salt hydrate. can be incorporated alongside conventional glazing allowing the detailing to be simple.g. − Currently available or developed products relevant to architecture include: RAW OR END PRODUCTS: POWDER e. Micronal) DISPERSION e.g. high manufacturing and installation costs compared with conventional insulation glazing. Micronal) FILLER containing microencapsulated PCMs (paraffin. relatively easy to install. microencapsulated PCMs (e. Micronal) GYPSUM PLASTERBOARD containing microencapsulated PCMs (paraffin.g. salt hydrate mixtures.

.170 | energy-exchanging smart materials A number of different products incorporating phase change materials (PCM) have been in use in architecture for several years now. Germany. Among the first applications in existing and new buildings were microencapsulated PCMs. using a capillary tube mat. To optimise temperature management in another building. latent heat storage was incorporated into the plaster of a chilled ceiling. In 2001 the internal walls of a low-energy building. Macroencapsulated PCMs so far have only been used in new buildings. 500 m2 gypsum plasterboard panels incorporating microencapsulated paraffinbased PCM were used. this glazing system was approved exclusively for use as a construction product. architect Dietrich Schwarz installed macroencapsulated PCM in the southern facade of a solar house in Ebnat-Kappel. in Ludwigshafen. In 2005 the classrooms of a high school in Lauffen am Neckar. which is described briefly below. a so-called 3-litre-house. In 2004 a relatively large building complex with 20 senior citizens’ apartments was built using this system. Sonnenschiff. Switzerland. using salt hydrate held in transparent plastic containers. were plastered with gypsum plaster containing microencapsulated PCM. one of Berlin’s refurbished residential and office complexes on the Spree River. the Swiss architect developed a light-directing insulation glazing system with macroencapsulated paraffin as the PCM and used this for his innovative temperature-regulating facade. Due to the high inflammability of the paraffin a comparable insulation glazing system was developed soon after. were built using lightweight construction in which approx. equipped with gypsum plasterboard panels with microencapsulated paraffin-based PCM. In 2000. Germany. In conjunction with a south German company.

Switzerland Senior citizens’ apartments with a latent heat-storing glass facade | Domat/Ems. which is determined by the different phases of the salt hydrate: if the facade looks opaque (seen from outside through the prismatic panels or from the inside). Called GLASSXcrystal. If it appears translucent (seen from outside through the prismatic panels) or transparent (from the inside. then the salt hydrate is uncharged. On the south side of this complex the architect installed a new design of a latent heat-storing insulation glazing system filled with salt hydrate over an area of 148 m2. Switzerland. the 78 mm wide system is con-structed like an ordinary triple insulation glazing unit. the salt hydrate crystallises and releases its stored heat energy into the room. which stores heat at +26°C to +28°C. in addition to their latent heat-storing properties. If the room temperature falls below +26°C. The charge state of this latent heat-storing glass facade can be observed directly from its optical appearance. During the winter the lower sun angle allows the solar radiation to pass almost unimpeded into the facade construction. used as latent heat storage facade elements in the south facade of a zero energy house in Ebnat-Kappel. perhaps at night or on cloudy days. due to fire safety reasons. with no printed pattern).171 | phase change materials (PCM) Monosmart material | Monosmart application Heat-storing smart material: INSULATION GLASS WITH PCM (SALT HYDRATE) Intelligent management of solar radiation Dietrich Schwarz. . Switzerland (2004) Swiss architect Dietrich Schwarz has shown in several of his buildings how. for this project a salt hydrate was used as the PCM. where it hits the PCM panel. but with a light-directing prism panel outside and a PCM panel inside. In contrast. the ability of PCMs to change their optical appearance can also be used in a facade. | Inside view of latent heat-storing facade. In summer the solar radiation is reflected back outside by the prismatic panels. Senior citizens’ apartments: view of south facade. The initial solution involved pure paraffin in transparent hollow plastic blocks. consisting of polycarbonate containers filled with a salt hydrate mixture. is converted into thermal radiation and stored by the melting of the salt hydrate. the salt hydrate is being charged or is fully charged. | Side view of south facade.

. | Detail of latent heat-storing facade. uncharged state (opaque).172 | energy-exchanging smart materials Senior citizens’ apartments: outside detail of latent heat-storing facade. charged state (translucent).

e.g. . This is in contrast to conventional methods of storing matter.. and in certain situations through other influences (e. Examples of this would be containers and natural or synthetic sponges. electrical or electromagnetic fields to absorb particles. a museum of the future for Bangkok. they are excited and desorb the stored matter. Hydroabsorber foils: detail of several cells with roughly half-swelled AP crystals. by embedding hydrophilic components in a shape-giving matrix.. increased temperatures). through electrostatic surfaces. which are mainly based on mechanical principles. they can become excited and desorb the stored matter. Materials and products that can become electrostatically charged as a result of a stimulus are also examples of particle-storing smart materials. e.Matter-exchanging smart materials.g. give an indication of how electrostatically charged surfaces could be incorporated into buildings with their design Dusty Relief/B-mu. as gaseous. Through contact with another medium such as air. through hygroscopic surfaces. to bind and release matter either in the form of molecules. among others. liquid or solid components by various physical and/or chemical processes. or through magnetic surfaces. Architects R&Sie. by the creation of an electromagnetic field. which can also be the triggering stimulus: GAS/WATER-STORING SMART MATERIALS They are excited by gas and/or water to adsorb or absorb them. e.g. including matter-storing smart materials. by the creation of an ionised electrical field. The taking-up and -in of matter may be activated.g. When the field is removed. PARTICLE-STORING SMART MATERIALS They are excited for example by ionised. are materials and products that are able to reversibly take up and/or in. The matter-storing smart materials currently available on the market can be differentiated on the basis of the type of matter stored.

98 ff. may take place. Absorption describes the taking-in of an atom or molecule of a component into the volume of a material and/or product. In recent years there has been an increased use of natural and synthetic zeolites. the adsorbent. reversibly change their viscosity. PROJECTS The inherent properties of these materials allow them to react to the influence of gases and/or water in the form of water vapour. 38). the absorbent. MAd materials and components in use include: INORGANIC COMPOUNDS Silica gels. The following gas/water-storing smart materials are currently of interest to architects: MINERAL AD-/ABSORBENTS (MAd. By the 1920s artificial MAds were being produced. Bentonites are clays and minerals containing smectite. activated alumina. gypsum. and through this a release of energy. which are often modified for different applications. In conjunction with their function as absorbents. where necessary.). This was also around the time that silica gel was developed at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. water or aqueous solutions by attaching them to their inner surfaces or taking them into their volume. Depending on the process involved. cobalt chloride (CoCl2). for example as process heat from exothermic reactions. they may reversibly change their volume. dry clays (e. The release or removal of a previously adsorbed or absorbed atom or molecule of a component is termed desorption (see adhesionchanging smart materials. a particular chemical environment or the removal of an electrical field release the previously attached or embedded matter. pp. MAds include some natural dry clays and synthetically produced silica gels. PRODUCTS. in suspension form. mortar and render for shelters and houses. MIXTURES INCORPORATING INORGANIC COMPOUNDS Other gas/water-storing smart materials include: OTHER INORGANIC ADSORBENTS (IAd) ORGANIC ADSORBENTS (OAd) OTHER ORGANIC ABSORBENTS (OAb) Calcium bentonite/calcium chloride (CaCl2). mineral absorbents (MAb) are materials or components with a liquid or solid phase that are able to take up liquid components on their inner surfaces and take them into their volume and. optical properties and/or their energy state. even under pressure. MAbs mainly include natural bentonites. loam). Adsorption describes the taking-up of an atom or molecule of a component on to an inner surface of a material or product. By contrast. which are specially developed for today‘s new applications. MAb) ABSORBENT/SUPERABSORBENT POLYMERS (AP/SAP) Mineral adsorbents (MAd) are materials or components with a liquid or solid phase that are able to take up gaseous components on to their inner surfaces and as a result reversibly change their volume. The storage may also involve a conversion of the matter taken up or the components. ADDITIONAL COMPONENTS Colour indicators (e. density and optical properties and/or their energy state. the high swelling capacity of some of these materials is of special interest. the effect may be classed as adsorption and absorption. One or several stimuli such as the influence of a certain temperature. as materials and for products with thixotropic properties (see p.g. usually montmorillonite. Depending on the mechanism of the taking-up of the components.175 | mineral ad-/absorbents (MAd.g. Since 1987 bentonite in Germany has been in use in mats for sealing. density. Maryland. USA. calcium bentonite. MAb) GAS/WATER-STORING SMART MATERIALS > MATERIALS. Loam has been in use as a construction material for thousands of years in various forms including stones. methyl orange) . Bentonites are also used as desiccants and. as well as other minerals such as mica and zeolites. molecular sieves (synthetic zeolites). These liquid components are not to be released.

paper. IAb). As they can also be used for other purposes. Bentonite in particular is one of these materials in which both the take-up and take-in mechanisms can occur. uses include desiccants. usable over a comparatively large temperature range (ca. and therefore mineral ad. they will not be dealt with further here. The following MAds and MAbs are among those of interest in architecture: SILICA GELS They are made synthetically using sodium silicate and a silicic acid in various particle shapes (irregular. MIXTURES INCORPORATING INORGANIC COMPOUNDS Bentonite mixtures. 8 mm grain size and with different pore diameters. non-combustible. small particle size means suitability as bag fillings. leather. relatively large amount of dust released. this so-called photocatalytic paper cleans the room air of pollutants with the help of light (see titanium dioxide (TiO2). –30°C to +80°C).and absorbents (IAd. MAb) will be brought together in one chapter. + Market presence. not sensitive to mechanical vibrations. raffia among the ranks of organic adsorbents (OAd) and they are able to adsorb only relatively small quantities of water in the form of vapour. Materials and components for the manufacture of MAds and MAbs must be able to perform through a relatively high number of cycles of exchange of gaseous or liquid components without any noticeable loss of capacity. 100 ff. . The use of mineral absorbents (MAb) to waterproof buildings has become part of the current state of the art. can be made in large quantities. relatively poor air circulation and low adsorption speed compared with spherical silica gels. and contain no volatile toxic substances. moisture buffers and heatemitting smart materials. In this context it should be mentioned that the hygroscopic property of paper in conjunction with a photocatalyst is used in Japan among other places. These smart materials are classed as inorganic ad. natural sodium bentonites.and absorbents (MAd. spherical) up to approx. many years of practical use. Relatively short replacement life (< 10 regeneration cycles). pp. can incorporate colour indicators. maintenance-free. and can be regenerated at temperatures of +130°C to +200°C. will burst in direct contact with water. MAb materials and components in use include: INORGANIC COMPOUNDS Calcium bentonites (unactivated bentonites). these smart materials will be considered only to a limited extent here. sometimes the accompanied development of heat may be undesirable.). They are available in various ranges of effectiveness to achieve different air moisture contents. activated bentonites (or active bentonites).176 | matter-exchanging smart materials As there are many natural materials such as wood. − Bentonite swelling.

calcium bentonites and zeolites. Otherwise as above. Otherwise as for silica gels above. lower adsorption speed compared with silica gels. + Relatively long replacement life (> 10 regeneration cycles). They can be regenerated at temperatures of +250°C to +400°C or under negative pressures (evacuation). − ZEOLITES Natural and synthetic alumino-silicates with a well-defined cluster structure. uses include moisture buffers and seals (due to their moisture-sensitive volume change).g. for sealing soil layers. As the hygroscopic effect of gypsum is well known it will not be discussed further here. can be processed e. They can be regenerated in the presence of air. They can be regenerated in the presence of air. can be processed into clay bricks or clay render among others. − Silica gel granulate without and with indicator. suitable for use in bentonite suspensions e. as heat-emitting smart materials. natural sodium bentonites are used e. . uses include desiccants. | Silica gel granulate with methyl orange as indicator in unsaturated (inactive) and saturated (active) state. + Relatively long replacement life (> 10 regeneration cycles). Natural zeolites can be used. non-hazardous. which can be further processed in various ways. usable over a comparatively large temperature range (< –30°C to > +80°C). | Bentonite granulate.177 | mineral ad-/absorbents (MAd. Otherwise as for silica gels above. moisture buffers and seals (due to their moisture-sensitive volume change). Otherwise as for silica gels above. + Usable over a relatively large temperature range (< –30°C to > +80°C). Relatively high regeneration temperatures required. Volume changes may be undesirable for certain applications. − ACTIVATED BENTONITES.g. synthetic zeolites for drying gases (e. available as powder and granulate. Not suitable or only suitable under certain conditions for processing into clay bricks or render. among others. for sealing soil layers. suitable as moisture buffers. Otherwise as for silica gels above. usable over a comparatively large temperature range (< –30°C to > +80°C). catalyst for conversion of pollutant gases and as a heat-emitting smart material. Relatively poor adsorption capacity. MAb) CALCIUM BENTONITES Natural clay mineral. sand and other components. air). into clay bricks or render.g. can be used over a comparatively large temperature range (< –30°C to > 400°C) as desiccant or filtration media.g. activated bentonites. | Gypsum wallboard with zeolite. − LOAMS Mixtures composed of various ratios of clay. | Silica gel bags. NATURAL SODIUM BENTONITES Clay minerals with mainly sodium ions in the intermediate layers. available as powder or granulate. + Relatively long replacement life (> 10 regeneration cycles). which can be further processed in various ways.

e.g. in particular in lightweight timber constructions that may still have a relatively high moisture content. Bentonites are also used in architecture. Flexible tubes of foil are filled in sections with MAds and sold in strips of different lengths. In addition to loose powdered and granulated fillings the following products incorporating MAds or MAbs are of interest in architecture: BAGS WITH MAd FILLING MAds enclosed in water vapour-permeable foil or paper are used to dry the air in transport containers or electronic equipment. either with different fillings or simply with silica gel in buildings. can be made in large quantities. To improve handling and for dust protection MAds are often packed in water vapour-permeable bags. bentonite being one of them. can be attached to or incorporated into many different types of construction. highway. relatively little or no dust released. The sealing effect of these products relies on their ability to absorb relatively high volumes of aqueous components and swell to form sealing gels. the use of paper alone does not provide adequate fire resistance. Otherwise as for MAds above. e. Mineral absorbents (MAb) are familiar as moisture and odour absorbents in cat litter. MAds are also used in museums. and when colour indicators are incorporated at least one side of the bag is transparent or translucent to make the contents visible. activated bentonites and natural sodium bentonites are used in suspensions for their supporting and sliding properties. Calcium bentonites. . | Mat (geotextile) with MAb (bentonite). Not universally available. In the non-dehydrated state they are used as water vapour-sensitive moisture buffers in a number of fields. Areas of application include hydraulic. | Installation of bands and mats with MAb (bentonite). | Sealing effect of mats with MAb (bentonite). wide range of products available. where they are found in glass display cabinets containing moisture-sensitive articles such as pictures or metal artefacts. They are often used to prevent the growth of moulds and their spores. This is done by installing several strips on the inner side of the cladding. + Market presence. for the separation of gases and stored parts of water vapour. which fill or close any cracks or other weak spots. relatively poor air circulation and low adsorption speed compared with nonfoiled MAds. The swelling pressure also fixes the products more firmly in place.g. − Band (strip) with MAb (bentonite). tunnel and landfill construction as well as use as seals around basement walls. relatively inexpensive. easy to apply. for constant air moisture content in rooms and transport containers. Otherwise as for MAds above. The latter are also incorporated into mats and panels. resist mechanical loads and direct application of water. where they are contained in textiles or cardboard in various ways. foundations etc. approval may be required for certain applications in some countries. joints between buildings.178 | matter-exchanging smart materials Mineral adsorbents (MAd) such as silica gels and activated alumina are used in the dehydrated state as desiccants.

ground water. silica gel) GYPSUM WALLBOARDS incorporating MAds (zeolite. can be used where sealing by watersensitive volume change is required. natural sodium bentonite) . Available or developed products useful in architecture include: RAW OR END PRODUCTS: − POWDERED MAds or MAbs (e. relatively good UV resistance. can be used over a comparatively large temperature range (–18°C to +80°C). maintenance-free. natural sodium bentonite) bound in a matrix with one side having a stabilising textile webbing and/or covered with a self-adhesive strip for attaching to a component are currently available for example in sizes 25 mm x 12 mm and 25 mm x 19 mm. calcium bentonite) GRANULATED MAds or MAbs (e.g.g. calcium bentonite) BANDS (strips) incorporating MAds or MAbs (e. Relatively expensive compared with conventional gypsum wallboards. Otherwise as above and for MAds. As above and for MAds. can be made in large quantities. relatively long replacement life (> 10 regeneration cycles). MAb) STRIPS WITH MAd FILLING MAds enclosed in water vapour-permeable foil or paper are used to dry components with residual moisture content. GYPSUM WALLBOARDS INCORPORATING MAd Zeolites (in particular clinoptilolites) enclosed in gypsum wallboards are currently available in sizes 2000/3000 mm x 1200/1300 mm x 12. easy to use. + − Can be suspended in place. + Market presence.g.g. silica gel) INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS: Other products incorporating MAbs include: MATS INCORPORATING MAbs PANELS INCORPORATING MAbs BAGS with MAd fillings (e. insensitive to mechanical vibrations.g. natural sodium bentonite) PANELS incorporating MAbs (e. and are regenerated to a certain extent in the presence of air. can be made in large quantities. Otherwise as for MAds above. − BANDS (STRIPS) INCORPORATING MAb Bentonites (e. non-combustible. relatively low absorption speed compared with powdered MAbs and superabsorbent polymers.g.g.g.5 mm and can be used like conventional gypsum and fibre cement wallboards. They are especially suitable for sealing components in contact with earth against aqueous solutions. Not dimensionally stable enough for some applications. and for the adsorption of water vapour. in particular clinoptilolite) MATS (boards) incorporating MAbs (e. easy to use.179 | mineral ad-/absorbents (MAd. They are especially suitable where air quality improvement by conversion and some binding of pollutant gases and unwanted odours is required. those made from wood. e. Otherwise as for MAds above.g. + Market presence. e.

180 | matter-exchanging smart materials Bentonite has been the main mineral adsorbent (MAd) product in use in architecture to date. The first projects have already been realised using this product. stronger swelling sodium bentonites are also used. and seals the system against further entry of water. Generally it has been used in suspensions to seal layers of soil in earthworks. standing ground water or water from surface water soakaways. They are used in the so-called “braune Wanne” or brown tank technique for sealing building basements at the external walls and in the foundation area. . can improve room air quality by binding and converting odours and pollutants. in addition to their inherent sound-absorbing and air moisture-buffering properties. Rather new on the market are multifunctional acoustic gypsum wallboards incorporating MAds. They can be classed as mineral absorbents (MAb). There are also systems of cardboard containers filled with bentonite powder or coarse granules on the market. which.g. swells the edges of the boards and any other points of weakness. e. Any water encountered. Apart from calcium bentonites.

die fabrik: view at night. Following information from a major German manufacturer about the advantages of a new type of acoustic gypsum wallboard that improves room air quality by the action of its incorporated zeolite. where heavy looms once worked under a barrel roof. because of incorporated additional layers of catalytic zeolite powder (clinoptilolite <10 %). There is no possibility of pure ad. benzene from motor vehicle exhaust gases and paints. | View into the call centre with air-cleaning ceiling formed with curved gypsum wallboard incorporating zeolite. the column-free hall in the roof story of the industrial monument die fabrik (the factory) in Cottbus had to have good room acoustics. air cleaning Marco Duchow. the decision was made to use the material for cladding the curved soffit of the roof construction. can also bind or convert various odours and pollutants.181 | mineral ad-/absorbents (MAd. carpet and mattress odours and the dodecene incorporated in the products. aromatic hydrocarbons in printed products and cleaning agents can be significantly lowered. Hamburg architects Marco and Alexander Duchow had been commissioned to give the historic room. The actual physical and chemical processes involved are not fully understood at the moment. MAb) Monosmart material | Monosmart application Gas/water-storing smart material: GYPSUM WALLBOARDS WITH ZEOLITE Sound absorption. . Alexander Duchow. a more modern character without losing the aesthetic of the old factory. Germany (2005) For its use as a call centre.or absorption processes without the conversion of these substances taking place or of the boards becoming saturated over time. Trials have shown that levels of cigarette smoke and the pollutants it contains (such as formaldehyde and acetaldehyde). With gypsum as the main constituent (90 %) the boards have moisture-regulating properties and. Germany Industrial monument with multifunctional catalytic gypsum wallboard ceilin | Cottbus.

its high suction property made it useful in hygiene products. there must be no loss of capacity and no significant reduction in speed of absorption after at least 10 cycles. Before SAPs were developed. even under pressure. These liquid components are not released. aromatics. Accordingly. the quantity of the absorbing polymer granulate and the surface area/ volume ratio. APs and SAPs must often be UV-stable and contain no volatile toxic components. odour absorbers. density and/or optical properties. depending on the type of sorbent.182 | matter-exchanging smart materials Absorbent polymers (AP) are synthetic hydrophilic three-dimensionally cross-linked polymers that are able to take up liquid components (e. which have also found new uses. in a relatively short time. . e. As well as meeting these requirements. water. silicates. These materials are called superabsorbers or superabsorbent polymers (SAP). depending on the liquid to be absorbed (the sorbent). Currently.g. can absorb volumes of liquid some 30 times their initial volume.g. In addition to Germany. cellulose was used instead. e. Since then cellulose has been increasingly replaced in suitable products by SAPs. mineral dust Materials and components for the manufacture of APs/SAPs must in some cases be able to perform through a relatively high number of cycles of exchange of liquid components without any noticeable loss of absorption properties. in disposable nappies. Materials and components in use include: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Sodium polyacrylate ADDITIONAL COMPONENTS Pigments. It is their ability to absorb large amounts or water and aqueous solutions very quickly that makes these products particularly interesting in the field of architecture. Modifications to long chain molecules allow these products to be adapted and optimised for a wide range of uses.g. the most important manufacturing countries are the USA and Japan. as soil additives in agriculture. In 1986 the world’s first facility for the production of SAPs was brought into operation in Germany. and reversibly change their volume. This time may be anything from a few seconds to a few minutes. there are APs available that. aqueous solutions. oil) on to their internal surfaces and take them into their volume. in the case of deionised water 500 times.

moving and/or heated air. They can be added to natural or artificial soils as a soil additive in the form of burnt expanded clay or may be the single ingredient of a synthetic soil. aromatics. Available for a range of applications. Manufactured synthetically by the polymerisation of various components. composite SAPs mixed with mineral components are used as soil improvers. They can be regenerated for example by contact with still. maintenance-free. Further applications include their use in underwater high voltage cable installations to prevent water entry in the event of damage and in packaging.183 | absorbent/superabsorbent polymers (AP SAP) . A relatively new development is a chair with SAPs incorporated into the chair back upholstery. some have low UV resistance. In addition to the available performance range of powder and coarse granulate absorbents that can be further optimised by addition of other ingredients. silicates. insensitive to mechanical vibrations. Some have relatively short replacement lives (< 10 regeneration cycles). can be combined with pigments. A number of products have been specially developed in this area. As well as loose fillings made from powdered and granulated APs and SAPs. as water absorbers or hydrogels that reversibly change from opaque to translucent. non-combustible when carrying absorbed water. can be used as heat-emitting (latent heat creating) smart material. many years of practical use. odour absorbers. the main products of interest in architecture are those available as composites with other components: Superabsorber powder made from SAP in varying states of saturation. APs as well as SAPs can find applications in flat or slightly sloping roofs. and could be found useful in green roofs in the future. They can be further processed into powders and granulates.g. especially in difficult soil and climate conditions. When the chair is in use. − The main areas of use of absorbent/superabsorbent polymers (AP/SAP) are in hygiene products and agriculture. + Market presence. . availability in small particle sizes means suitability as bag fillings e. In agriculture. Although not developed specially for use in architecture. there are various intermediate and end products available. which is later released in contact with air when the chair is not in use. They can also be used to provide a nutrient subsoil. The following APs and SAPs could be among those of interest in architecture: CROSS-LINKED SODIUM POLYACRYLATE Three-dimensionally cross-linked hydrophilic polymers appropriately modified to suit their applications. less air circulation and slower absorption speed if allowed to clump. it binds any sweat. usable over a comparatively large temperature range (< –10°C to > +80°C). can be made in large quantities. mineral dusts.

. Otherwise very similar to crosslinked sodium polyacrylate. Uses include the manufacture of various composites. Not universally available. relatively high tendency to clump compared with coarsely granulated APs and SAPs. + Can be used in and on various types of construction. Not universally available. can be installed in or on many types of construction. | Section through band composite with empty AP channel (above foam band). − SUPERABSORBER POWDER MADE FROM SAP Fine white granulates of cross-linked superabsorbent sodium polyacrylate. Otherwise very similar to crosslinked sodium polyacrylate.g. relatively little tendency to clump compared with powdered APs and SAPs. Otherwise very similar to cross-linked sodium polyacrylate. − Technology by Rascor: compression of purplecoloured AP in a daywork joint. bodily fluids and oil) and the continuous supply of water to plants. relatively slow desorption speed compared with absorption speed. the quick absorption of a range of liquid media (e. irregularly shaped with a grain size of about 1 mm. for example textiles. approval may be required for certain applications. water. | Installed band composite with AP not yet compressed. Otherwise very similar to cross-linked sodium polyacrylate. relatively slow absorption speed compared with powdered SAPs.184 | matter-exchanging smart materials Non-composites: HYDROCRYSTALS MADE FROM AP Pigmented granulates of cross-linked normal absorbent polyacrylate are manufactured in almost any colour as irregular particles of up to about 4 mm grain size and used for keeping plants continuously supplied with water and in place in their containers. + Relatively good regeneration performance. approval may be required for certain applications.

Composites: BAND COMPOSITES INCORPORATING AP Hydrogel made from polyacrylate. + Market presence. + Market presence. produced from two liquid components immediately before application. | Cultivation trial in a greenhouse at the Justus Liebig University. Gießen. can be made in large quantities. availability in small particle sizes means suitability as bag fillings e. an irreversible colour change (e.g. maintenance-free. Germany. is compressed into a hollow cell plastic profile with an additional foamed material band. . | Plant with SAP in the root area. the hydrogel band. Not universally available. relatively long replacement life (> 10 regeneration cycles). − AGRO-COMPOSITES INCORPORATING SAP (E. relatively good UV resistance. insensitive to mechanical vibrations. Their uses include continuously supplying water and support to plants whilst keeping the soil surface open. can be made in large quantities. relatively long replacement life. e. non-combustible. Currently available with the dimensions 30 mm x 20 mm x 2000 mm.g. as water absorbers and heat-emitting (latent heat creating) smart materials. Not universally available. against the entry of ground water under pressure. cannot change reversibly from opaque to translucent (mineral components). purple to colourless) indicates hydrogel. can be installed in or on different types of construction. initially uncross-linked and later normally absorbent. relatively poor absorption capacity and slow absorption speed compared with powdered SAPs.G.185 | absorbent/superabsorbent polymers (AP SAP) . maintenance-free.g. can be used over a comparatively large temperature range (< –10°C to > +80°C). can be used over a comparatively large temperature range (< –10°C to > +60°C). | Demonstration of the swelling capacity of a compressed cube. The products are used to absorb aqueous solutions and for sealing. can be used as a water absorber. − Technology by Geohumus: agro-composite incorporating SAP before swelling. TECHNOLOGY GEOHUMUS) Irregularly shaped composite granulates with grain sizes up to about 4 mm made from cross-linked superabsorbent sodium polyacrylate with incorporated silicates and mineral dusts.

other uses of absorbent polymers (AP) and SAPs in architecture are currently still insignificant. Suitable polymers could also be used to store rainwater. depending on the layer materials and SAP used they can be used over a comparatively large temperature range (< –10°C to > +80°C). when necessary. SAPs COARSE GRANULATES (e. This would include deserts (arid zones) and in particular the cultivation and long-term support of vegetation layers. + Market presence. relatively poor air circulation and slower absorption speed compared with coated APs and SAPs. e. sometimes together with cellulose. into building components in contact with inside or outside air. They could be used. when the room air is too dry and/or surface temperatures are too high. − Whilst superabsorbent polymers (SAP) have in a few cases been successfully used as soil additives in green roofs. can be made in large quantities.g. Membranes. It is feasible to incorporate APs and/or SAPs into wallpapers. uses include water absorbers and heat-emitting (latent heat creating) smart materials.186 | matter-exchanging smart materials LAYER COMPOSITES INCORPORATING SAP Irregularly shaped. SAPs INTERMEDIATE OR END PRODUCTS BAND COMPOSITES incorporating APs AGRO-COMPOSITES incorporating SAPs LAYER COMPOSITES incorporating SAPs FILMS incorporating APs . possibly on a large scale. Their uses include the absorption of liquids in packaging. and release it.g. wall coverings and room dividers. could incorporate APs and SAPs in pockets or bubbles. may be combustible depending on the layers used. where it would be possible to install sufficiently coarse. Relatively short replacement life (< 10 regeneration cycles) depending on the layer material and SAPs used. perhaps made from textiles or ETFE film. crystals) of APs. for difficult soils and in hot and dry climates. Currently available or developed products relevant to architecture include: RAW OR END PRODUCTS FINE GRANULATES (powders) of APs. insensitive to mechanical vibrations. perhaps temporarily. non-woven fabric so that the granulate could be permanently contained in place even after complete absorption has occurred. maintenance-free. relatively good UV resistance. fine. white granulates of cross-linked superabsorbent sodium polyacrylate that are interlayered between textile layers.

light transmission-changing foils | Germany (1994) These two technology demonstrators show how APs could be integrated into foil membranes to create light transmission and colour changing building envelopes. commercially available bubble wrap. | Several cells with fully swelled crystals (opaque). The cells were then half-filled with water to allow maximum swelling volume. | Several cells. For the prototype. The contact with water initiated swelling in the crystals and thus produced changes in light transmission and colour. Germany Water-sensitive. Enclosed in the hemispherical cells of an ordinary. . Hydroabsorber foils: detail of several cells with roughly halfswelled crystals (semitransparent: transparent/opaque). AP crystals were placed in the cells. some with completely swelled and some with unswelled crystals (semitransparent: transparent/opaque). Gravity caused them to accumulate at the bottom of each cell with the result that the foil remained generally transparent. these colour-pigmented AP granulates were tested to see if they were able to permanently change the transparency of foil membranes under the influence of water and the hydrogels formed.187 | absorbent/superabsorbent polymers (AP SAP) . Monosmart material | Monosmart application Water-storing smart material: FOILS INCORPORATING AP Water-sensitive light transmission-changing surfaces and building envelopes Axel Ritter.

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145. 1994 Mann. 55. 2nd and 3rd from top. 68. expert-Verlag: RenningenMalmsheim.06. 46 top (graphic: Axel Ritter). H.. Mathias Gmachl): 133. No. Werkstoffe. right 1st from top. No. Sabine: Der beabsichtigte Zufall und [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] die gewollten Veränderungen im malerischen Werk Sigmar Polkes. 84 (photo: Armin Okulla). Eidgenössische Materialprüfungsund Forschungsanstalt (EMPA).: legierungen. pp. H. 166 1st from top (photo: GlassX). 174 (photo: Axel Ritter). 138 (photo: Armin Okulla) © Fraunhofer ISE: 76 right. 81. in: hobby – Das Magazin der Technik. transparent. right © Fraunhofer IAP: 83 (photos: Armin Okulla). Tomas Rosen: 88 © CLOUD 9 (Enric Ruiz Geli): 128. Stuttgart. 147 © EADS: 62 east Hamburg: 104 4th from top Eike Becker Architekten: 78 © E Ink / Citizen: 93 1st from top © E Ink / LG.190 | sources NOTES ON THE TEXT [1] http://kdg.11. 104 1st from top © DieMount: 126 left 3rd from top.mit. 116. 102. 19 left 1st. 11.: Organic Photochromism. 170 Bayer: 20 2nd and 3rd from top © Behr Thermot-tronik: 49. May 1993 van Hees. p. 15. 163 (photos: Axel Ritter).: Technischer Einsatz Neuer Aktoren – Grundlagen. Designregeln und Anwendungsbeispiele. 119 2nd and 3rd from top (photos: Sabrina Rothe) © Grado Zero Espace: 17. 75 © KieranTimberlake Ass. 134 © 2004–2006 Lord Corp. in: Jendritza. 57. Grabmeier. Dissertation. 12/2002 ILLUSTRATION CREDITS AGROB BUCHTAL: 99 top. Bonn Blasse.edu/Matrix/matrix. Dübendorf dated 22. 69 © EnOcean: 158 3rd from top © EunSook Lee: 110 bottom. 144 4th from top. Fachbereich 11 Maschinenbau und Produktionstechnik der Technischen Universität Berlin. 167 right 2nd from top © Dyesol: 144 1..: 140. 67. company publication by the Deutsche Steinzeug Cremer & Breuer AG.. 129 © 2006 Cute Circuit: 18.: 38 left 2nd. 14 top (all photos: Thomas Mayer) © Autostadt: 14 bottom © Axel Ritter: 11 left (photos: Axel Ritter). 56. 187 (photos: Axel Ritter) © BASF: 165. Institut für Technologie der Malerei. 95 left 1st from top GKD / ag4: 127 right GlassX: 164 (photo: Gaston Wicky). 177 2nd from top (photo: Axel Ritter). et al. 2004. 141 © Knauf Gips: 177 right 2nd from top (photo: Albert Weisflog). ästhetisch. 35 © Micropelt: 151.html [2] Hofmeister.nl/~ E-mail from Herbert Enzler. Masch. ETH Patrick Lochmatter. 172 (photos: Gaston Wicky) © G. 91. 20 1 st from top © DaimlerChrysler: 21 left 4th from top © Daniel Pelosi: 41 3rd and 4th from top dECOi Architects: 12 © Deutsche Steinzeug Cremer & Breuer: 101. 168 (photo and graphics: GlassX).tudelft. Mayer H. Martin: . 106. 54. 74. company publication by Ivoclar Vivadent AG. Berlin. 113 (photo: Axel Ritter). Nicole Hüttner): 23 right (photos: Lucas Roth).. 52 (graphic: Axel Ritter). P Aktoren mit Formgedächtnis. 152 1st from top © Minimax: 48 2nd and 3rd from top © Mirow Systemtechnik: 157 © © © © © © . 87 © Juliet Quintero: 123 Kowa / Kirakira-Komichi: 120. 77. 71 © Bugatti: 16 © Christina Kubisch: 116 © Christopher Glaister. No. Jörg: Beitrag zum Greifen von Textilien. 171. 183. 76 left 1st. 117 © European Bioplastics: 30 1st from above (photo: Treofan).: 72 (photo: Uwe Walter).Philips LCD: 93 2nd from top © E Ink / Polymer Vision: 93 3rd from top © E Ink / Toppan Printing: 95 right 1st from top © Emfit: 155 3rd from top.pH (Rachel Wingfield. 162. 100. Rau: 53. pp.2005 Schmidt-Mende. 121 2nd and 3rd from top (photos: Anke Neumann). November 1958. right 1st and 2nd from top FZ Jülich: 155 1st from top 2006 G+B pronova: 32 right Geohumus International: 185 Gesimat: 92 1st and 4th from top. 1998 E-mail from Dipl.2006 Bouas-Laurent. No.. 2nd and 4th from top © Hannaliisa Hailahti: 124 hobby – Das Magazin der Technik. 2nd ed. Schaan. August 1957. at: http://www. 61 © Gruppe RE (Silke Warchold. in: Angewandte Chemie. 132 3rd and 4th from top lif Germany: 127 left 3rd from top © Loop. 164: 153 © Jaithan Kochar: 42 right 2nd and 3rd from top © James Robinson: 74 1st and 2nd from top. 2nd and 3rd from top. August 1957. Dürr. technical assistant at the Institut für Polymerwerkstoffe und Kunststofftechnik of the TU Clausthal dated 14. 75 and 77: 132 1st and 2nd from top hobby – Das Magazin der Technik. 3404–3418 Helioseal Clear Chroma – farbverändernd. Rob: Laboratory Profile: Conservation Techniques. Lichtenstein Stephan. right 1st from top © Ewald Dörken AG: 166 2nd and 3rd from top. 58 (photos: Axel Ritter). February 2001 Keramische Fliesen mit Hydrotect OberflächenVeredelung. 181 (photos: Albert Weisflog) © J. 8. 167 left. 2nd from above (photo: Novamont) © Felix Hess: 161 © FerroTec: 152 3rd from top © Fludicon GmbH: 38 left 1st from top. 50 © BMW Group: 21 right © Bryan Boyer: 46 bottom. 146 © Fraunhofer TEG: 149 3rd from top Freihofer: 29 left 2nd from top. 20 2nd from top (photo: Jean-Luc Valentin) © 2006 Michael Bleyenberg: 34. 158 1st and 2nd from top © EMPA: 66. und es leuchten die Wände. 8. 85 © Anja-Natalie Richter: 64 © atelier brückner: 13. Daniel J. Afshin Mehin. 74–77 Elektronik. 3rd and 4th from top © 2006 LUMINEX: 23 left © Merck: 31 © 2006 Messe Frankfurt Exhibition GmbH: 19 left 3rd from top (photo: Jean-Luc Valentin).-Ing. 107 (photos: Pez Hejduk) © Alsa: 82. 121 top Kowa / Mamoru Nanba: 119 1st from top © LBL: 92 2nd and 3rd from top © LBM: 40 © Lichtpapier (Anke Neumann): 114 1st and 2nd from top (photos: Anke Neumann). Diplomarbeit.

137 3rd from top.V. Luis Rafael Berrios-Negron: 142. 137 1st and 2nd from top.: 99 bottom. 155 2nd from top. 139 2nd and 3rd from top © OKER-Chemie: 177 left 1st and 3rd from top. right 1st from top © Philipps-Universität / N. 178 1st. 97 left. 118 2nd and 3rd from top © Rinspeed: 21 left 1st 2nd and 3rd from top © RPM/Belgium N. 135 bottom. right 2nd from top. 76 left. 95 left 2nd from top. Whitney Jade Foutz. 160 © National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation: 39 © NAUE: 178 4th from top © 2006 NO-CONTACT (Adam Whiton. Louden. Hampp: 74 3rd and 4th from top. Hauck: 80 © Interactive Institute / Front design: 79 © Interactive Institute: 22 © UIUC: 28 wikimedia. Lara Greden. 122 © SAM – Span and Mayrhofer: 149 left. Wendy Meguro. 150 © Würth Solar / Universität der Künste Berlin: 41 1st from top © Yvonne Chan Vili: 65 © Zigan Displays: 130 . 114 3rd from top. 152 4th from top © SCTB NORD: 152 2nd from top © SensiTile Systems: 37 © SGG: 94. 98. right 1st and 2nd from top.. 156 © Prinz Optics: 32 left © Rascor International: 184 © RC TRITEC: 111 top. Yolita Nugent): 19 right © Norbulb Sprinkler Elemente: 48 © Novaled: 135 top. courtesy of the Artist and Oliver Kamm/5BE Gallery: 25 © SHARP: 41 2nd from top Sigmar Polke: 24. 105 Technische Universität Berlin / G. 97 right © Peter Yeadon: 42 left. 139 1st from top © Permalight: 118 1st from top © Peter Linnett. right 2nd from top. 111 bottom.191 | sources © Mitchell Joachim: 11 right Mitchell Joachim.org: 59. 136. 112. 86 Solitech – Innovative Solartechnik: 127 © Taiyo: 104 2nd and 3rd from top © Taiyo / Obayashi Corp. Tobi Blunt: 51 © Peter Marino Architects: 96 left. 1st and 2nd from top.. 103 © 2006 Sharon M. 115. 4th and 5th from top © PI Ceramic: 154. 2nd and 3rd from top © R&Sie. 96 right.: 176. (François Roche): 10 © Ruth Handschin: 110 top. right 1st from top © 2004 Olafur Eliasson: 33 © Osram Opto Semiconductors: 126 left 1st 2nd and 4th from top.

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