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A

Summer Training Report

On

“Industrial automation”

Completed at

INFOWIZ, Bhatinda

Duration

02-July-2018 to 27-Aug-2018

Submitted by

Aakash kumar

Roll no. - 1511160901

B.Tech,4th Year

Electrical Engineering Department

Ch. Devi Lal State Institute of Engineering& Technology,

Panniwala Mota,Sirsa-1250777

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all I would like to thank the Almighty, who has always guided me to work on the right
path of the life. I acknowledge with deep sense of gratitude and most sincere appreciation, the
valuable guidance and unfailing encouragement rendered to me by “ER.SURNEEL
GOYAL”(Training guide) for his proficient and enthusiastic guidance, useful encouragement
and immense help. I have been deep sense of admiration for them inmate goodness and
inexhaustible enthusiasm.

My heartfelt gratitude and indebtness goes to all teachers and guidance group who with their
encouraging, caring words, constructive criticism and segmentation have contributed directly or
indirectly in a significant way towards completion of this training. My special thanks go to my
friends whose support and encouragement have been a constant source of assurance, guidance,
strength, and inspection to me.

I am immensely grateful to my parents, my family. They have always supported me and taught
me the things that matter most in life. I am proudly grateful to all of them.

Aakash Kumar

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DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the work entitled (“ PLC & SCADA”) is an authentic record of my own work
carried out at INFOWIZ as requirement of training for the award of degree of B.-Tech.
(ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING), “Bhatinda” under the guidance of ER.SURNEEL GOYAL
,from 2 july To 27 August 2018).

(Signature of student)

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CONTENT PAGE NO.
List of Figures:....................................................................................................................................... 6
1.INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................. 7
4.METHODLOGY .............................................................................................................................. 11
PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER.............................................................................. 11
ARCHITECTURE OF PLC............................................................................................................ 13
PARTS OF PLC .............................................................................................................................. 14
PIN DIAGRAM:-............................................................................................................................. 15
INPUTS AND OUTPUTS OF PLC................................................................................................. 16
INPUTS ........................................................................................................................................ 16
OUTPUTS .................................................................................................................................... 17
Expansion I/O modules ................................................................................................................... 17
PROGRAMMING OF PLC ............................................................................................................ 17
PLC INSTRUCTIONS .................................................................................................................... 21
Timers: ............................................................................................................................................. 23
TON Timer: ................................................................................................................................. 24
T-OFF Timer: .............................................................................................................................. 24
Retentive Timer (RTO): .............................................................................................................. 25
Counters: ......................................................................................................................................... 25
Counter UP (CTU): ..................................................................................................................... 26
Counter Down (CTD): ................................................................................................................. 26
Screenshots of PLC programs:........................................................................................................ 28
SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition System)....................................................... 30
Systems concepts.............................................................................................................................. 31
SCADA SYSTEM ............................................................................................................................ 32
Hardware Solutions ......................................................................................................................... 32
Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) ......................................................................................................... 33
Supervisory Station ......................................................................................................................... 33
Operational philosophy ................................................................................................................... 33
Communication infrastructure and methods ................................................................................. 34
SCADA Programming ..................................................................................................................... 34
5.MODIFICATION FOR SCADA: .................................................................................................... 36

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Screenshots of SCADA programming ............................................................................................ 37
On-off belt: ................................................................................................................................... 37
Movement of bottle on Belt: ........................................................................................................ 38
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE ............................................................................................ 40
FUTURE ADVANCEMENTS: ........................................................................................................... 41

List of Figures:

Figure1: Programmable logic controller (PLC)


Figure2: Architecture of PLC
Figure3: PLC Pin Diagram
Figure4: Simple ladder logic
Figure5: PLC Trainer Kit
Figure6: Latch output and Unlatch output
Figure7: TON timer
Figure8: T-OFF timer
Figure9: Retentive Timer (RTO)
Figure10: Counter UP (CTU)
Figure11: Counter DOWN (CTD)
Figure12: Modification of Scada.

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1.INTRODUCTION

The aim of this project is to design a PLC (Programming Logic Controller) Training kit that
helps to study about the basic programming and wiring of PLC. It also includes programming
logics like start stop, timer and logic gates .

• A Programmable Logic Controller, PLC or Programmable Controller is a digital computer


used for automation of electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery on factory
assembly lines.
• The abbreviation "PLC" and the term "Programmable Logic Controller" are registered
trademarks of the Allen-Bradley Company.
• Programmable logic controller (PLC) is a digital electronic device that uses a programmable
memory to store instruction and to implement specific functions such as logic, sequence, timing,
counting and arithmetic to control machines and process.
• PLCs are used in many industries and machines. Unlike general-purpose computers, the PLC is
designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements, extended temperature ranges, immunity to
electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and impact.
• A PLC is an example of a hard real time system since output results must be produced in
response to input conditions within a limited time, otherwise unintended operation will result
• PLC began in the 1970s, and has become the most common choice for manufacturing controls.
• “MODICON” was the first company of PLC.
• Software used in PLC is RsLogix 500.

The project also include the basic study of ladder logic(Programming Language).

Commonly, the language or command for PLC designing base on the ladder
logic diagram. There have numerical of symbol that have been used to developed the ladder logic
diagram which every symbols represent the different functions.

The formats for designing the ladder logic diagram are:


 Circuits are arranged as a series of horizontal lines containing inputs & outputs.

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 Inputs must always go before outputs and are in the form of normally open and normally closed
contacts.
 There must always be at least one output on each line. An output is for example,a PLC output
relay. The ladder symbol for a PLC output is drawn either as two parentheses close together, i.e.
or as a circle.
 The numerical assignment for the inputs and outputs form part of the ladder diagram.
 Other elements such as timers, counters and shift registers can be implemented in ladder
diagrams.

2. LITERATURE SURVEY

PLC Control Engineering has evolved over time. In the past humans was the main method for
controlling a system.

More recently electricity has been used for control and early electrical control was based on
relays. These relays allow power to be switched on and off without a mechanical switch. It is
common to use relays to make simple logical control decisions.

So, before the PLC, control, sequencing, and safety interlock logic for manufacturing
automobiles was accomplished using hundreds or thousands of relays, cam timers, and drum
sequencers and dedicated closed-loop controllers. The process for updating such facilities for the
yearly model change-over was very time consuming and expensive, as the relay systems needed
to be rewired by skilled electricians.

Then came the digital computers. The development of low cost computer has brought the most
recent revolution, the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC).

In 1968 GM Hydromantic (the automatic transmission division of General Motors) issued a


request for proposal for an electronic replacement for hard-wired relay systems.

The winning proposal came from Bedford Associates of Bedford, Massachusetts. The first PLC,
designated the 084 because it was Bedford Associates' eighty-fourth project, was the result.
Bedford Associates started a new company dedicated to developing, manufacturing, selling, and
servicing this new product: Modicum, which stood for Modular Digital Controller. One of the

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people who worked on that project was Dick Morley, who is considered to be the "father" of the
PLC. The Modicum brand was sold in 1977 to Gould Electronics, and later acquired by German
Company AEG and then by French Schneider Electric, the current owner.

One of the very first 084 models built is now on display at Modicum’s headquarters in North
Andover, Massachusetts. It was presented to Modicum by GM, when the unit was retired after
nearly twenty years of uninterrupted service. Modicum used the 84 moniker at the end of its
product range until the 984 made its appearance.

Early PLCs, up to the mid-1980s, were programmed using proprietary programming panels or
special-purpose programming terminals, which often had dedicated function keys representing
the various logical elements of PLC programs. Programs were stored on cassette tape cartridges.
Facilities for printing and documentation were very minimal due to lack of memory capacity.
The very oldest PLCs used non-volatile magnetic core memory.

Now a day’s PLC Kit is available which is used for the programming of PLC. The abbreviation
"PLC" and the term "Programmable Logic Controller" are registered trademarks of the Allen-
Bradley Company. The first PLC training kit was manufactured by by Allen Bretly Company.

But these training kits are very costly. So, we have decided to make a basic PLC training kit
which is cost effective. The PLC training kit is not made by anyone before in our college. Also,
PLC not being in our syllabus, we want to make the students aware of the component and give
the basic knowledge about is, as automation is a booming industry these days.

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3. PROBLEM FORMULATION

 We were able to learn the wiring, the connections , the programming language(ladder
language) and implement various applications using this language.

 Also this training kit is the best training kit for a beginner.

 PLC not being in our syllabus was altogether a new thing to learn. So, we wanted the
other students to have a overview about this concept so that they can learn a new thing n
might have interest in learning more about PLC.

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4.METHODLOGY

PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER


Automation of many different processes, such as controlling machines, basic relay control,
motion control, process control is done through the use of small computers called a
programmable logic controller (PLC). This is actually a control device that consists of a
programmable microprocessor, and is programmed using a specialized computer language.

A programmable logic controller (PLC) or programmable controller is a digital computer


used for automation of electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery on factory
assembly lines, amusement rides, or lighting fixtures. PLC’s are used in many industries and
machines, such as packaging and semiconductor machines. Unlike general-purpose computers,
the PLC is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements, extended temperature ranges,
immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and impact. Programs to control machine
operation are typically stored in battery-backed or non-volatile memory. A PLC is an example of
a real time system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a
bounded time, otherwise unintended operation will result.

A modern programmable logic controller is usually programmed in any one of several languages,
ranging from ladder logic to Basic or C. Typically, the program is written in a development
environment on a personal computer (PC), and then is downloaded onto the programmable logic
controller directly through a cable connection. Programmable logic controllers contain a variable
number of Input/output (I/O) ports the programmable logic controller circuitry monitors the
status of multiple sensor inputs, which control output

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Figure1: Programmable logic controller (PLC)

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ARCHITECTURE OF PLC

Figure2: Architecture of Plc

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PARTS OF PLC

POWER SUPPLY: PLC requires 24V switch mode power supply for its operation.

MCU: Its full form is microcontroller unit. It is the processor of PLC. It is basically the brain of
PLC. It performs various control operations of PLC.

INPUTS AND OUTPUTS: PLC has a set of isolated inputs and isolated outputs. Different
PLC’s have different number and different type of inputs and outputs.Like in Micrologix 1000
we have total number of 6 inputs and 4 outputs whereas in Micrologix 1100 we have 10 inputs
and 6 outputs.

EXPANSION PORT: In PLC there is an expansion port which is used for the addition of any
other equipment with PLC. For example analog cards.

MEMORY MODULE: The memory module in PLC is used for the storage of program in PLC
for future use.

COMMUNICATION PORT: The communication ports are used in PLC to communicate with
the computer. In PLC there are two types of communication ports i.e. RS 232 comport and
Ethernet port.

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PIN DIAGRAM:-

Figure3:- Pin Diagram Of PLC

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INPUTS AND OUTPUTS OF PLC
PLC programs are made up of a combination of the "gates" together with inputs, outputs, timers,
counters, internal memory bits, analog inputs, analog outputs, mathematical calculations,
comparators etc.

INPUTS
These are the physical connections from the real world to the PLC. They can be limit switches,
push buttons, and sensors, anything that can "switch" a signal on or off. The voltages of these
devices are usually, but not always, 24 Volt DC. Manufacturers make inputs that can accept a
wide range of voltages both ac and dc. It should be remembered that an input will be ON, "status
1", when the voltage is present at the input connection and OFF, "status 0", when the voltage is
no longer present at the input connection.
TYPES OF INPUTS OF PLC:-
USER TYPE: These are the inputs and outputs that are physically present and are practical to
the inputs and outputs of the PLC.
BIT TYPE: These are the inputs and outputs that are not physically present and are functional in
the PLC only. These inputs/outputs are basically used to drive each other in the ladder logic
programming.

 XIO (Examine if close):


I/P O/P

0 0

1 1

 XIO (Examine if open):

I/P O/P

0 1

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1 0

OUTPUTS
These are the connections from the PLC to the real world. They are used to switch solenoids,
lamps, contactors etc on and off. Again they are usually 24 Volt DC, either relay or transistor,
but can also be 115/220 Volt AC.

Expansion I/O modules


If an application requires more I/O than the built-in I/O provided by the MicroLogix 1100
controller, you can connect up to four 1762 expansion I/O modules to the MicroLogix 1100
controller to provide expanded I/O capacity. You can use digital and analog I/O modules in
many combinations. The current loading capacity of the controller’s built-in power supply may
limit the number of I/O modules that can be connected to the controller. MicroLogix 1100
expansion I/O modules include an integral high-performance I/O bus. Software keying prevents
incorrect positioning within the system.

You may install expansion I/O modules to the right of the MicroLogix 1100 controller either on
a panel with two mounting screws or on a DIN rail. Each expansion I/O module includes finger-
safe terminal blocks for I/O wiring and a label to record I/O terminal designations.

PROGRAMMING OF PLC
PLC programs are typically written in a special application on a personal computer, and then
downloaded by a direct-connection cable or over a network to the PLC. The program is stored in
the PLC either in battery-backed-up RAM or some other non-volatile flash memory. Often, a
single PLC can be programmed to replace thousands of relays.

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Under the IEC 61131-3 standard, PLCs can be programmed using standards-based programming
languages. A graphical programming notation called Sequential Function Charts is available on
certain programmable controllers.
Recently, the International standard IEC 61131-3 has become popular. IEC 61131-3 currently
defines five programming languages for programmable control systems: FBD (Function block
diagram), LD (Ladder diagram), ST (Structured text, similar to the Pascal programming
language), IL (Instruction list, similar to assembly language) and SFC (Sequential function
chart). These techniques emphasize logical organization of operations.
While the fundamental concepts of PLC programming are common to all manufacturers,
differences in I/O addressing, memory organization and instruction sets mean that PLC programs
are never perfectly interchangeable between different makers. Even within the same product line
of a single manufacturer, different models may not be directly compatible.
In Allen Bradley PLC’s the logic used for the programming is ladder logic. Ladder logic is a
programming language that represents a program by a graphical diagram based on the circuit
diagrams of relay-based logic hardware. It is primarily used to develop software for
Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) used in industrial control applications. The name is
based on the observation that programs in this language resemble ladders, with two vertical rails
and a series of horizontal rungs between them.

An argument that aided the initial adoption of ladder logic was that a wide variety of engineers
and technicians would be able to understand and use it without much additional training, because
of the resemblance to familiar hardware systems. This argument has become less relevant given
that most ladder logic programmers have a software background in more conventional
programming languages, and in practice implementations of ladder logic have characteristics—
such as sequential execution and support for control flow features—that make the analogy to
hardware somewhat imprecise.

Ladder logic is widely used to program PLCs, where sequential control of a process or
manufacturing operation is required. Ladder logic is useful for simple but critical control
systems, or for reworking old hardwired relay circuits. As programmable logic controllers
became more sophisticated it has also been used in very complex automation systems.

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Figure4: Simple ladder logic

The language itself can be seen as a set of connections between logical checkers (contacts) and
actuators (coils). If a path can be traced between the left side of the rung and the output, through
asserted (true or "closed") contacts, the rung is true and the output coil storage bit is asserted (1)
or true. If no path can be traced, then the output is false (0) and the "coil" by analogy to
electromechanical relays is considered "de-energized". The analogy between logical propositions
and relay contact status is due to Claude Shannon.

Ladder logic has contacts that make or break circuits to control coils. Each coil or contact
corresponds to the status of a single bit in the programmable controller's memory. Unlike
electromechanical relays, a ladder program can refer any number of times to the status of a single
bit, equivalent to a relay with an indefinitely large number of contacts.

So-called "contacts" may refer to physical ("hard") inputs to the programmable controller from
physical devices such as pushbuttons and limit switches via an integrated or external input
module, or may represent the status of internal storage bits which may be generated elsewhere in
the program.

Each rung of ladder language typically has one coil at the far right. Some manufacturers may
allow more than one output coil on a rung.
--( )-- a regular coil, energized whenever its rung is closed
--(\)-- a "not" coil, energized whenever its rung is open
--[ ]-- A regular contact, closed whenever its corresponding coil is energized

--[\]-- A "not" contact, open whenever its corresponding coil is energized.

The "coil" (output of a rung) may represent a physical output which operates some device
connected to the programmable controller, or may represent an internal storage bit for use
elsewhere in the program.

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Figure5: PLC Trainer Kit

The above figure shows the view of PLC trainer kit. On this kit various operations performed. It
has following components mounted:

PLC MicroLogix1000

SMPS (220V AC-24V DC)

A Contactor Relay

An Electromechanical Relay

Normally open Switch (4)

Normally closed Switch (4)

Output LED’s (4)

RS 232 Comport for communication with PC.

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PLC INSTRUCTIONS
There are various instructions which are useful for making ladder logic for PLC programming.
These are as follows:

 XIC (Examine if closed):


Use the XIC instruction in your ladder program to determine if a bit is ON. When the instruction
is executed, if the bit addressed is on (1), then the instruction is evaluated as true. When the
instruction is executed, if the bit addressed is off (0), then the instruction is evaluated as false.
 XIC (Examine if closed):

I/P O/P

0 0

1 1

Examples of devices that turn on or off include:


• A push button wired to an input (addressed as I:0/4).
• An output wired to a pilot light (addressed as O:0/2).
• A timer controlling a light (addressed as T4:3/DN).

 XIO (Examine if open):


Use the XIO instruction in your ladder program to determine if a bit is OFF. When the
instruction is executed, if the bit addressed is off (0), then the instruction is evaluated as true.
When the instruction is executed, if the bit addressed is on (1), then the instruction is evaluated
as false.

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 XIC (Examine if open):

I/P O/P

0 1

1 0

Examples of devices that turn on or off include:


• Motor overload normally closed (N.C.) wired to an input (I:0/10).
• An output wired to a pilot light (addressed as O:0/4).
• A timer controlling a light (addressed as T4:3/DN).

 Output Energize (OTE):


Use the OTE instruction in your ladder program to turn on a bit when rung conditions are
evaluated as true. An example of a device that turns on or off is an output wired to a pilot light
(addressed as O:0/4).

OTE instructions are reset when:


• The SLC enters or returns to the REM Run or REM Test mode or
Power is restored.
• The OTE is programmed within an inactive or false Master Control
Reset (MCR) zone.
 Output Latch (OTL) and Output Unlatch (OTU):

OTL and OTU are retentive output instructions. OTL can only turn on a bit, while OTU can only
turn off a bit. These instructions are usually used in pairs, with both instructions addressing the

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same bit. Your program can examine a bit controlled by OTL and OTU instructions as often as
necessary.

Figure 6: Latch output and Unlatch output

Timers:

Timers are used to perform the timing operations. Time base is the minimum value of time in
second that can be taken by the timer. Preset value is the total number of the seconds for which
the timing operation has to be done Accumulator starts increasing the time in seconds up to the
preset value. Upto the preset value of the accumulator the enable bit of timer is high & the timer
runs. When accumulator reaches the preset value then the timer stops and the done bit of the
timer becomes high.

The timer has following bits and these bits are useful in the operation of timer:
• EN- Enable- This bit will high when the input is given to the timer
• TT - Timer timing bit - This bit will be high during the timing process. It remains
high till accumulator value becomes equal to preset value
• DN – Done – This bit will be high when the timing process is ended. It set to high
when the accumulator value becomes equal to preset value.
In Micrologix 1000 and 1100 PLC there are three types of timers i.e.
 TON Timer

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 T-OFF Timer
 Retentive Timer ON (RTO)

TON Timer:
Use the TON instruction to turn an output on or off after the timer has been on for a preset time
interval. The TON instruction begins to count time-base intervals when rung conditions become
true. As long as rung conditions remain true, the timer adjusts its accumulated value (ACC) each
evaluation until it reaches the preset value (PRE). The accumulated value is reset when rung
conditions go false, regardless of whether the timer has timed out.

Figure7: TON timer

T-OFF Timer:

Use the TOF instruction to turn an output on or off after its rung has been off for a preset time
interval. The TOF instruction begins to count time base intervals when the rung makes a true-to-
false transition. As long as rung conditions remain false, the timer increments its accumulated
value (ACC) based on the time base for each scan until it reaches the preset value (PRE). The
accumulated value is reset when rung conditions go true regardless of whether the timer has
timed out.

Figure8: T-OFF timer

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Retentive Timer (RTO):

Use the RTO instruction to turn an output on or off after its timer has been on for a preset time
interval. The RTO instruction is a retentive instruction that begins to count time base intervals
when rung conditions become true.
The RTO instruction retains its accumulated value when any of the following occurs:

• Rung conditions become false.


• You change processor operation from the REM Run or REM Test
Mode to the REM Program mode
• The processor loses power (provided that battery backup is maintained)
• A fault occurs.

When you return the processor to the REM Run or REM Test mode and/or rung conditions go
true, timing continues from the retained accumulated value. By retaining its accumulated value,
retentive timers measure the cumulative period during which rung conditions are true.

Figure9: Retentive Timer (RTO)

Counters:

Counters are used to count the number of operations. Its function is same as the timer accepts
that the timer counts the number of seconds and the counter counts the number of operations or
pulses. At each operation the value of the accumulator increases and when the value of the
accumulator comes to the preset value of the counter then the counter stops.
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Counter bits:
• TT - Timer timing bit - This bit will be high during the counting process. It remains
high till accumulator value becomes equal to preset value
• DN – Done – This bit will be high when the counting process is ended. It set to high
when the accumulator value becomes equal to preset value.

In Micrologix 1000 and 1100 PLC there are three types of timers i.e.

 CTU- COUNTER UP

 CTD-COUNTER DOWN

Counter UP (CTU):
The CTU is an instruction that counts false-to-true rung transitions. Rung transitions can be
caused by events occurring in the program (from internal logic or by external field devices) such
as parts traveling past a detector or actuating a limit switch. When rung conditions for a CTU
instruction have made a false-to-true transition, the accumulated value is incremented by one
count, provided that the rung containing the CTU instruction is evaluated between these
transitions. The ability of the counter to detect false-to-true transitions depends on the speed
(frequency) of the incoming signal. The accumulated value is retained when the rung conditions
again become false. The accumulated count is retained until cleared by a reset (RES) instruction
that has the same address as the counter reset.

Figure10: Counter UP (CTU)

Counter Down (CTD):


The CTD is an instruction that counts false-to-true rung transitions. Rung transitions can be
caused by events occurring in the program such as parts traveling past a detector or actuating a
limit switch. When rung conditions for a CTD instruction have made a false-to-true transition,

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the accumulated value is decremented by one count, provided that the rung containing the CTD
instruction is evaluated between these transitions. The accumulated counts are retained when the
rung conditions again become false. The accumulated count is retained until cleared by a reset
(RES) instruction that has the same address as the counter reset.

Figure11:Counter Down (CTD)

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Screenshots of PLC programs:

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SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition System)

SCADA stands for Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition. It generally refers to an industrial
control system: a computer system monitoring and controlling a process. The process can be
industrial, infrastructure or facility based as described below:

 Industrial processes include those of manufacturing, production, power generation, fabrication,


and refining, and may run in continuous, batch, repetitive, or discrete modes.
 Infrastructure processes may be public or private, and include water treatment and distribution,
wastewater collection and treatment, oil and gas pipelines, electrical power transmission and
distribution, civil defense siren systems, and large communication systems.
 Facility processes occur both in public facilities and private ones, including buildings, airports,
ships, and space stations. They monitor and control HVAC, access, and energy consumption.

A SCADA System usually consists of the following subsystems:

 A Human-Machine Interface or HMI is the apparatus which presents process data to a


human operator, and through this, the human operator monitors and controls the process.
 A supervisory (computer) system, gathering (acquiring) data on the process and sending
commands (control) to the process.
 Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) connecting to sensors in the process, converting sensor
signals to digital data and sending digital data to the supervisory system.
 Programmable Logic Controller (PLCs) used as field devices because they are more
economical, versatile, flexible, and configurable than special-purpose RTUs.
 Communication infrastructure connecting the supervisory system to the Remote Terminal
Units

There is, in several industries, considerable confusion over the differences between SCADA
systems and Distributed control systems (DCS). Generally speaking, a SCADA system usually
refers to a system that coordinates, but does not control processes in real time. The discussion
on real-time control is muddied somewhat by newer telecommunications technology, enabling
reliable, low latency, high speed communications over wide areas. Most differences between
SCADA and DCS are culturally determined and can usually be ignored. As communication

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infrastructures with higher capacity become available, the difference between SCADA and DCS
will fade

Systems concepts

The term SCADA usually refers to centralized systems which monitor and control entire sites, or
complexes of systems spread out over large areas (anything between an industrial plant and a
country). Most control actions are performed automatically by remote terminal units ("RTUs") or
by programmable logic controllers ("PLCs"). Host control functions are usually restricted to
basic overriding or supervisory level intervention. For example, a PLC may control the flow of
cooling water through part of an industrial process, but the SCADA system may allow operators
to change the set points for the flow, and enable alarm conditions, such as loss of flow and high
temperature, to be displayed and recorded. The feedback control loop passes through the RTU or
PLC, while the SCADA system monitors the overall performance of the loop.

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SCADA SYSTEM

Data acquisition begins at the RTU or PLC level and includes meter readings and equipment
status reports that are communicated to SCADA as required. Data is then compiled and
formatted in such a way that a control room operator using the HMI can make supervisory
decisions to adjust or override normal RTU (PLC) controls. Data may also be fed to a Historian,
often built on a commodity Database Management System, to allow trending and other analytical
auditing.

SCADA systems typically implement a distributed database, commonly referred to as a tag


database, which contains data elements called tags or points. A point represents a single input or
output value monitored or controlled by the system. Points can be either "hard" or "soft". A hard
point represents an actual input or output within the system, while a soft point results from logic
and math operations applied to other points. (Most implementations conceptually remove the
distinction by making every property a "soft" point expression, which may, in the simplest case,
equal a single hard point.) Points are normally stored as value-timestamp pairs: a value and the
time stamp when it was recorded or calculated. A series of value-timestamp pairs gives the
history of that point. It's also common to store additional metadata with tags, such as the path to
a field device or PLC register, design time comments, and alarm information.

Hardware Solutions

SCADA solutions often have Distributed Control System (DCS) components. Use of "smart"
RTUs or PLC’s, which are capable of autonomously executing simple logic processes without
involving the master computer, is increasing. A functional block programming language, IEC
61131-3 (Ladder Logic), is frequently used to create programs which run on these RTUs and
PLC’s. Unlike a procedural language such as the C programming language or FORTRAN, IEC
61131-3 has minimal training requirements by virtue of resembling historic physical control
arrays. This allows SCADA system engineers to Since about 1998, virtually all major PLC
manufacturers have offered integrated HMI/SCADA systems, many of them using open and non-
proprietary communications protocols. Numerous specialized third-party HMI/SCADA
packages, offering built-in compatibility with most major PLC’s, have also entered the market,

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allowing mechanical engineers, electrical engineers and technicians to configure HMI’s
themselves, without the need for a custom-made program written by a software developer.

Remote Terminal Unit (RTU)

The RTU connects to physical equipment. Typically, an RTU converts the electrical signals from
the equipment to digital values such as the open/closed status from a switch or a valve, or
measurements such as pressure, flow, voltage or current. By converting and sending these
electrical signals out to equipment the RTU can control equipment, such as opening or closing a
switch or a valve, or setting the speed of a pump.

Supervisory Station

The term "Supervisory Station" refers to the servers and software responsible for communicating
with the field equipment (RTUs, PLC’s, etc), and then to the HMI software running on
workstations in the control room, or elsewhere. In smaller SCADA systems, the master station
may be composed of a single PC. In larger SCADA systems, the master station may include
multiple servers, distributed software applications, and disaster recovery sites. To increase the
integrity of the system the multiple servers will often be configured in a dual-redundant or hot-
standby formation providing continuous control and monitoring in the event of a server failure.

Initially, more "open" platforms such as Linux were not as widely used due to the highly
dynamic development environment and because a SCADA customer that was able to afford the
field hardware and devices to be controlled could usually also purchase UNIX or OpenVMS
licenses. Today, all major operating systems are used for both master station servers and HMI
workstations.

Operational philosophy

For some installations, the costs that would result from the control system failing are extremely
high. Possibly even lives could be lost. Hardware for some SCADA systems is ruggedized to
withstand temperature, vibration, and voltage extremes, but in most critical installations
reliability is enhanced by having redundant hardware and communications channels, up to the
point of having multiple fully equipped control centers. A failing part can be quickly identified
and its functionality automatically taken over by backup hardware. A failed part can often be
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replaced without interrupting the process. The reliability of such systems can be calculated
statistically and is stated as the mean time to failure, which is a variant of mean time between
failures. The calculated mean time to failure of such high reliability systems can be on the order
of centuries.

Communication infrastructure and methods

SCADA systems have traditionally used combinations of radio and direct serial or modem
connections to meet communication requirements, although Ethernet and IP over SONET / SDH
is also frequently used at large sites such as railways and power stations. The remote
management or monitoring function of a SCADA system is often referred to as telemetry.

This has also come under threat with some customers wanting SCADA data to travel over their
pre-established Many of these protocols now contain extensions to operate over TCP/IP. It is
good security engineering practice to avoid connecting SCADA systems to the Internet so the
attack surface is reduced.

RTUs and other automatic controller devices were being developed before the advent of industry
wide standards for interoperability. The result is that developers and their management created a
multitude of control protocols. Among the larger vendors, there was also the incentive to create
their own protocol to "lock in" their customer base. A list of automation protocols is being
compiled here.

Recently, OLE for Process Control (OPC) has become a widely accepted solution for
intercommunicating different hardware and software, allowing communication even between
devices originally not intended to be part of an industrial network.

SCADA Programming
The SCADA system used by us is SCADA RSVIEW32. This SCADA system is created by
Rockwell Automation. It has variety of commands, tool library and many other features required
for programming. RSView®32™ is an integrated, component-based HMI for monitoring and
controlling automation machines and processes. RSView32 is available in English, Chinese,
French, German, Italian, Japanese, Portuguese, Korean, and Spanish. RSView32 expands your

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view with open technologies that provide unprecedented connectivity to other Rockwell
Software products, Microsoft products, and third-party applications

RSView32 was the first HMI software to:

 Open its graphic displays as OLE containers for ActiveX® controls — with thousands of
third-party ActiveX controls to choose from, you can drop ready-made solutions right
into your projects
 Develop an object model to expose portions of its core functionality, allowing RSView32
to interoperate easily with other component-based software products
 Integrate Microsoft's popular Visual Basic® for Applications (VBA) as a built-in
programming language allowing almost unlimited ways to customize your RSView32
projects
 Support OPC standards as both a server and a client for fast, reliable communications
with a wide variety of hardware devices

Conversion of PLC program into Scada Compatible Form

Fig no 12.1

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A Program that is made in the PLC can be used by the SCADA system. That program can be
controlled from the SCADA system directly without pressing any switch. Some modification is
necessary to make the program compatible to SCADA. For the program to be used through
SCADA it is necessary that each bit & switch should be companied by another bit. That bit is
called SCADA bit. SCADA bit is inserted in parallel with the parallel bit & is inserted in series
with the series bit.

Then the tagging process is done in SCADA. In tagging process the address of each SCADA bit
is given to the particular switch in SACDA. Means that the start button in SCADA will be given
the tag name of the start SCADA bit in the input rung of the original program

5.MODIFICATION FOR SCADA:

Fig no 12.2

In this the start bit B3:0/1 is tagged to the start button in the SCADA display & stop bit B3:0/1 is
tagged to the stop button in the SCADA display. Using those start & stop buttons the program
can be controlled directly from the scada screen without actually pressing the buttons. In this

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way to control each operation the corresponding scada bit must be inserted in the PLC program
so that Scada can communicate with the PLC program.

Screenshots of SCADA programming


On-off belt:

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Movement of bottle on Belt:

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CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE

 Industrial processes include those of manufacturing, production, power generation,


fabrication, and refining, and may run in continuous, batch, repetitive, or discrete modes.
 Infrastructure processes may be public or private, and include water treatment and
distribution, wastewater collection and treatment, oil and gas pipelines, electrical power
transmission and distribution, civil defense siren systems, and large communication
systems.

Making this project gave us a great experience of learning the things practically that we earlier
did theoretically in our 6 months training.

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FUTURE ADVANCEMENTS:

This training kit can be modified to a great extent in future and can be used in the following
applications:

 Production units: PLC can be used in production units of various beverage, clothing, and
perfumes industries.
 Security applications: Security of bank accounts.
 Industrial automation can and will generate explosive growth with technology related to
new inflection points: nanotechnology and nanoscale assembly systems; MEMS and
nanotech sensors (tiny, low-power, low can and will generate explosive growth with
technology related to new inflection points: nanotechnology -cost sensors) which can
measure everything and anything; and the pervasive Internet, machine to machine (M2M)
networking.
 Real-time systems will give way to complex adaptive systems and multi-processing. The
future belongs to nanotech, wireless everything, and complex adaptive systems.
 Major new software applications will be in wireless sensors and distributed peer-to-peer
networks – tiny operating systems in wireless sensor nodes, and the software that allows
nodes to communicate with each other as a larger complex adaptive system. That is the
wave of the fut can and will generate explosive growth with technology related to new
inflection points: nanotechnology

INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION basically is a skill that we used to implement


in the industries. So, we should have to know everything about the
programming included in this. We are going to cover many such projects that
are used in industries and it includes many different type of tools that we are
going to use is as:-

 XIC (Examine if closed):


I/P O/P

0 0

1 1

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 XIO (Examine if open):
I/P O/P

0 1

1 0

 Output Energize (OTE):

This is a simple ladder logic program diagram :-

Figure6: Simple ladder logic

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