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OMG, Noida

Structural Design Basis


25 April 2018

CONSULTANT
BALDRIDGE AND ASSOCIATES STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING, INC.
1164 BISHOP ST., SUITE 600
HONOLULU, HI, USA 96813
PH.: +1-808-534-1300
WWW.BASEENGR.COM

REVISION
Revision Date Title Prepared By Checked By
0 03SEP2014 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ACK SB
1 25APR2018 STRUCTURAL DBR ACK SB
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1.1 General Project Descriptions  Duplex Levels: Levels 27-38


 Terrace and Sky bar: Level 39
This report discusses the structural systems and design assumptions along with
applicable building codes that are to be used in the structural design of the OMG, ii) Tower
Noida project. T h e r e p o r t a l s o i n c l u d e s a d e t a i l e d l o a d i n g b a s i s f o r g r a v i t y a n d The Tower portions, mid-rise hotel and high-rise residential, of the structure start at
lateral loading. the podium levels approximately 39 m above grade and are integrated into the parking
and retail levels below. The residential tower extends to a height of approximately
The structural design is primarily based on the current Indian Codes of
170 m.
practice in effect during the approval of the project . American codes and
literature were used in conjun ction with Indian Codes where more iii) Retail Levels
information was required. The following is a general description of the space The retail complex consists of four levels of retail and international brand stores from Ground
planning on the OMG project: Floor Level to Level 3, totaling approximately 30,000 SQM. A Food Court with access to a
landscaped deck is located on Level 3. The floor to floor height on the retail levels is 5.1 m.
i) General
The project located is located in Noida, India and consists of a mixed -use development iv) Parking

that includes multi-level shopping, several levels of parking above and adjacent to the Two oval speed ramps connect the rise up alongside the building to provide access to five
retail space creating a large podium over most of the site. Above the podium, the levels of parking. The typical parking levels at Level 4 to Level 8 have a floor-to-floor height of
structure steps in to create two five story hotel wings surrounding a recreation deck, 3.15 m, while the stacked parking on the Basement 2 and Basement 1 have floor heights of 4.5
which further steps in to a 39-story tower of Simplex & Super Studios. The total areas of m and 5.1 m respectively.
structural construction include approximately 176311 SQM allotted to the various uses
v) Basements
as follows:
The complex has two levels of basement area beneath the towers and retail areas. The
ground floor serves mainly as a retail space with entry lobbies and vertical
 Parking: Two (2) levels below grade
transportation for the retail and residential towers above. This floor also has service
 Retail: Ground floor and Levels 1- 3 areas and loading docks along with entry ramps for the parking levels above and into
 Podium Parking: Levels 4-8 the basements below. Mechanical equipment rooms are located in the Basement 2
 Service Floors: Level 9 and 15 level. Water tanks and a sewage treatment plant area are located at this level as well.
 Hotel Floors: Level 10-14
 Recreation Decks: Levels 3, 9 and 16
 Simples Studio Tower Levels: Levels 16-21
 Super Studio Levels: Levels 22-26

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Figure 1: REVIT model Figure 2: Building Cross-section

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2.1 General Description foundation system selected for the project consists a piled raft varying in thickness
from 2.75 m to 3.5 m thick under the high rise structure . Individual piles or piles in
The structural framing system for the project consists of concrete load bearing walls
groups of 2 support the loads of the low -rise structure. Alternatively, a mat
and columns. The load bearing walls will also serve as “shear walls” to resist the
foundation could be used in the low -rise and mid-rise portion.
earthquake and wind loads. Average grid spacing is 8.5m to accommodate 3 parking
stalls between columns. The slabs on the podium level are one-way post-tensioned The piles supporting the towers are 1000 mm in diameter with lengths ranging from
banded slabs, with slab thickness selected to satisfy str ength and serviceability 30 m to 35 m and have allowable load carrying capacity in the range of 450 MT to 830
requirements as per the applicable building design code. To provide flexibility for the MT.
future usage, slabs in B1 floor to Level 3 will be designed as conventional reinforced
concrete slabs, while the podium slabs above Level 4 including hotel/residential slabs The lowest basement level is founded below the water table and is subject to
will be designed as post-tensioned slab. hydrostatic uplift pressures. A 300 mm stitch slab, supported by 2000 mm wide x 650
mm deep banded slab at column grids has been designed for the hydrostatic
Basement parking level consists of 225 mm thick RC slab spanning between band pressures. The pile’s tension capacity is utilized to resist the uplift pressures.
beams and Ground floor to Level 3 retail floors consist of 250 mm thick RC slab
spanning between band beams, while Post-tensioned slab on Level 4 and above will be 2.1.1.2 Shoring

200 mm thick. Post-tensioned transfer girders will be required to support the In order to maximize the available site area, the basement footprint extends to the limits

Landscape deck on Level 4 in addition to post -tensioned transfer girders on Level 9. of the site minus the required 6 m setbacks around the building. In order to excavate
down to the foundation level, a perimeter shoring system consisting of secant piles have
Interior partition walls are comprised of AAC light-weight blocks to minimize the to be provided all around the building perimeter.
impact on foundation loads.
The secant piles are already in place along two edges of the building which are flanked by
The structural wall thicknesses range from 400 mm thick to 800 mm thick. The the National Highway on the North-Eastern side and frontage road on the North-western
horizontal framing system in tower consists of one-way post-tensioned reinforced side.
concrete slab spanning between bearing walls with perimeter beams and Link beams
The floor slabs will be designed to be supported vertically by the secant piled wall. Pour
across the corridor.
strips will be provided along the piled wall to minimize the shrinkage cracks.

A detailed discussion of the various components is as follows:

2.1.1 Substructure
2.1.1.1 Foundations

Based on the soil investigation and the Geotechnical Engineer’s reco mmendations, the

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Figure 3: Site Plan


indicating shoring
options

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2.1.1.3 Basements 2.1.2 Superstructure


The project consists of two basement levels that house various services such as the The structural system for the building’s superstructure can be divided into two
Sewage Treatment Plant, water tanks, the Diesel Generators (DG) and various distinct components that interact together to provide the required strength and
mechanical plant rooms. The basements also have 2 parking levels at Basement 2 and stability to the building:
Basement 1, which provide parking up to 1036 cars. The floor to floor height in the
Basement 2 and Basement 1 are 4.5 m and 5.1 m respectively. Both levels have been  Gravity Force Resisting System

designed to have stacked parking.  Lateral Force Resisting System

2.1.2.1 Lateral Force Resisting System


The floor system consists of a conventionally reinforced concrete sla b supported on
band beams spanning between columns. Localized areas have thicker slabs and beams The main purpose of the lateral force resisting system is to provide resistance to the
to support larger mechanical openings and ventilation shafts. lateral loads that the structure might encounter during its life span namely loads due
to wind and earthquake. It also serves as part of the gravity system in supporting the
vertical floor loads.

The proposed lateral force resisting system is a Ductile Shear Wall system that
consists of shear walls linked together via strong link beams to form a robust
mechanism that acts efficiently to counter the lateral loads applied to the building.
The building has concentrated shear walls around the elevator cores and stairwells
and distributed shear walls in other parts . Due to the slender form of the tower,
additional lateral stiffness is needed to meet the performance criteria such as building
drift and human comfort due to wind accelerations. Demising walls between Super
Studio units are linked together to form a coupled shear wall.

Coupled shear walls are more efficient than individual shear walls because the
overturning forces are resisted by a combination of flexural and axial forces. In a
single cantilevered shear wall, the entire overturning moment is resisted only by
flexural stress in the wall.

Figure 5: Stitch slab spanning between banded slab (at Basement 2)

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during the design stages. There is adequate headroom in these levels to allow for a
drop panel at the columns while retaining the functionality of the space.

Parking Levels

The parking levels are comprised of post -tensioned flat plates that are supported on
columns. Longer spans within this floor plate are supported by shallow band beams.
Band beams allow longer spans while keeping the o verall slab thickness the same.

Recreation Decks and Service Floors

The recreation decks, landscape slabs and service floor are supported by post-
tensioned slabs, supplemented by post -tensioned beams at longer spans and other
heavily loaded areas.

Studio and Super Studio Levels


Figure 6: Single vs Coupled Shear Walls
At the studio and super studio levels, demising walls between units are comprised of
reinforced concrete walls, which provide support both gravity and lateral loads. All
Due to the slender form of the tower, the building is dynamically sensitive to wind concrete demising walls are linked together by 500 mm deep coupling beams.
loads. As a result, a detailed wind tunnel study was conducted by Windtech to derive
The super studio levels have a mezzanine floor level contained within the floor height.
the structural design loads under the actions of wind. Based on the results of the
The mezzanine floor is a light weight steel structure that is supported by steel
analysis, it was found that the building has adequate stiffness to provide resistance to
columns that rest on the post -tensioned concrete slab. The typical floor slab at these
wind loads and the wind induced accelerations were within the prescribed
levels is a 200 mm thick post -tensioned concrete slab.
internationally accepted range for residential towers .

2.1.2.2 Gravity Force Resisting System The mezzanine level is designed to be suppo rted by low-profile steel beams
comprised of hollow box sections. The steel beams will be supported by the demising
Retail Levels
wall on one side and by concrete stub columns embedded in the masonry partition

The horizontal gravity framing system for the retail levels consist of a conventionally wall on the other side.

reinforced concrete slabs supported on band beams spanning between columns. The
framing system provides some flexibility for future tenants that are not ident ified

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Figure 7: Partial View of Mezzanine Framing

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3.1 General Criteria relevant Indian Standards and Codes and shall comply with the local authorities’
regulations. Generally, the adopted Codes and regulations will include the following:
The structure is classified as a Group A Residential Building, Sub -division A-4
(Apartment Houses) as per Section 3.1.1 of Part 4 Fire and Life Safety (NBC 20 05). Codes / Standards Description

The structure is being designed as Type 1 construction as per Section 3.3.1 of Part 4 IS 875 : 1987 (Parts 1 to Code of Practice for unit weights, Imposed Loads and wind Loads for
3) Buildings & Structures
(NBC 2005).
IS 1893 : 2002 (Part 1) Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures

The fire resistance ratings of the various structural elements are indicated below: IS 4326 : 1993 Code of Practice for Earthquake Resistant Design & Construction of
Buildings
Required Fire Rating
Element IS 13920 : 1993 Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures Subject to Seismic
(Hours) Forces
Bearing walls, bearing partitions, columns 4 IS 456 : 2000 Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Beams/Girders supporting more than one floor 4
IS 1343 : 1980 Code of Practice for Pre-stressed Concrete
Beams/girders/floor construction supporting one floor 3
Fire enclosures of exitways, hallways and stairways 2 IS 800 : 2007 Code of Practice for General Construction in Steel

IS 1904:1987 Code of Practice for Structural Safety of Buildings: Foundation


NBC 2005, Tables 2 to 18 establish the dimensions and fire rating for various building
components such as walls, columns, beams and floors. The members shall have IS 2911 (Part 1): 1979 Code of Practice for Design and Construction of Pile Foundation
adequate thickness and cover.
IS: 1905 : 1987 Code of practice for Structural use of unreinforced masonry
Element Min. dimension Minimum cover (mm)
(mm) IS 1080 : 1985 Design and construction of shallow foundations in soils (other than Raft,
Ring & Shell)
Columns 450 40 *
IS 1904 : 1986 Design and construction of foundations in soils: General Requirements
Load bearing Walls 240 40 *
Concrete Beams (non-Prestressed) 240 40 IS 2950 (Part I) :1981 Design and construction of Raft foundations – Part I: Design
Transfer Girders (prestressed) 240 80
35 NBC 2005 National Building Code of India
Concrete floors 150 20 (when screed is present)
IS 8009 (Part I) : 1976 Calculation of settlement of shallow foundations: Part 1 Shallow
foundations subjected to symmetrical static vertical loads
* Measured to face of the longitudinal bar
ASCE 7-05 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings

ACI 318-11 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary
3.1.1. Codes and Standards

The structural design and documentation will be carried out in accordance with

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3.1.2 Concrete Grades 3.1.4 Gravity Loads

Generally the following concrete grades (28 day cube compressive strength) will be Generally the following loadings shall be adopted in the design, which shall comply
adopted in design. with the latest codes and building regulations.

Concrete Strength Modulus of Elasticity


Grade 3.1.4.1 Residential Levels
(N/mm2) (N/mm2)
M30 30 27386 Live Load Partition Serv./Ceiling Finishes
Floor Usage
M35 35 29580 (kN/m2) (kN/m2) (kN/m2) (kN/m2)

M40 40 31623 Roof (accessible) 1.50 - 0.5 1.5

M45 45 33541 RC Flat Roof (with landscape) 4.0 - 0.5 soil loading**

M50 50 35355 Plant room/ Electrical Room 5.0 - 1.5 1.25


Dining and Kitchen 2.0 * 0.25 1.25
M60 60 38730
Balconies 3.0 * 0.25 1.25
The concrete strength for the various structural members is as follows:
Stairs, Landing 3.0 - 0.25 1.25
Concrete Strength Lobbies, Hallways Corridors 3.0 - 0.25 1.25
Element
(N/mm2) Sky terrace/Refuge Areas 4.0 - 0.25 soil loading **
Columns and Shear walls M40, M50 and M60 Toilet Rooms 2.0 ** 0.25 1.25
Raft and Pile caps M40 Duplex floors 2 2.25 0.25 1.25
Typical Floor slabs and beams M40 Super Studio floors 2 1.985 0.25 1.25
Link Beams M40, M50 and M60 Studio floors 2 1.45 0.25 1.25
Retaining Walls M40 Hotel floors 2 1.45 0.25 1.875
Piles M30, M35 Parking ( Single Stack) 2.5 0.25 0.5
Parking ( Double Stack) 5 0.25 0.5
3.1.3 Reinforcement ** Additional finishes as shown on architectural drawings.
*As per the residential units
High yield strength bars conforming to IS 1786 shall be used for the OMG, Noida
project. Bars shall have a strength grade of Fe 500. To satisfy IS 13920-1993 Section
9.1.6, the maximum bar diameter does not exceed ten percent of the wall thickness.

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3.1.4.2 Retail Levels 3.1.6 Wind Loads

Live Load Partition Serv./Ceiling Finishes Wind loads will be computed based on IS 875: Part 3 – Code of Practice for Design
Floor Usage
(kN/m2) (kN/m2) (kN/m2) (kN/m2) Loads for Buildings and Structures. A basic wind velocity of 47 m/s(3 second gust, 50
Stairs, Landing 3.0 - 0.25 1.25 year return period) will be adopted for the design. Modification factors to modify the
Lobbies, Hallways Corridors 3.0 - 0.25 1.25 basic wind velocity to take into account the effects of terrain, local topography, size of
Retail Shops 4.0 1 0.25 3.25 structure etc. will be included.

Wind Load Design


Adopted Values Remarks
3.1.4.3 Parking Levels Parameters
Basic Wind Speed V = 47 m/s Wind Velocity for Noida
Live Load Partition Serv./Ceiling Finishes
Floor Usage Probability factor k1 = 1.0 General Buildings and Structures
(kN/m2) (kN/m2) (kN/m2) (kN/m2)
Stairs, Landing 3.0 - 0.5 - Terrain Factor k2 = 1.24 For Category 2 Terrain and Class C structure
Lobbies, Hallways Corridors 3.0 - 0.5 - Topographic Factor k3 = 1.0 Terrain slopes less than 3º
Stack/Puzzle Parking 5.0 - 0.5 -
Regular Parking 2.5 - 0.5 - Due to the flexibility, height and slenderness of the structure, a wind tunnel study was
conducted to determine the wind loads. The wind loads were derived based on the
3.1.5 Live Load Reduction dynamic properties of the structure provided below . (The table below has not been
In accordance with Section 3.2 of IS: 875 (Part 2) -1987, live loads may be reduced as updated for the properties based on the revised tower confi guration. It is recommended
follows: to get the revised feedback from WINDTECH for the redesigned tower )

Number of floors (including roof) to be carried


Percentage Reduction Period Frequency
by member under consideration Mode
(seconds) (cycles/second)
1 0%
1 6.77 0.148
2 10%
2 5.281 0.189
3 20%
3 4.947 0.202
4 30% 4 1.7 0.588
5-10 40% 5 1.582 0.632
>10 50% 6 1.217 0.822

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Figure 8: Wind Tunnel Model (Future surrounding buildings scenario, view from
North)

Figure 9: Seismic Zoning Map of India


3.1.7 Seismic Loads

Noida is located in Seismic Zone IV as per the seismic zoning map given in the Indian
Standard IS 1893 (Part 1):2002. Table 2 classifies the same as “severe”

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In accordance with Clause 7.8.2, t he design base shear V b in each direction is scaled to
match the base shear calculated using the fundamental period of the structure defin ed
in IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002. A damping ratio of 5% of critical is used for the building
analysis.

Description Value Reference

Seismic Zone Factor 0.24 (IV) IS 1893: Clause 6.4.2, Table 2

The geotechnical investigation report indicates that the base strata is sand with Structure Importance Factor (I) 1.0 IS 1893: Clause 6.4.2, Table 6
traces of silt with N-values ranging from 15-35. Soil type II (Medium Soil) is assigned Site Classification Medium Soil IS 1893: Table 1
to the site based on Table 1 of IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002. 4
Response Reduction Factor (R) IS 1893: Clause 6.4.2, Table 7
Ductile Shear walls
Since the building lies in Seismic Zone IV and its height is greater than 90 m, dynamic 25% (LL < 3 kPa)
% of Live load considered in
analysis needs to be performed as per Clause 7.8 of IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002. Response IS 1893: Clause 7.3.1,Table 8
seismic analysis 50% (LL > 3 kPa)
spectrum method is used for the building design. The response spectrum function
used in the analysis is the function of the soil type as shown in the figure below.
3.1.8 Load Combinations

The following load combinations have been used in the strength design of the
structure

Load Type
Load
Dead Imposed Earth and Water Wind Seismic
Combination
Adverse Beneficial Adverse Beneficial Adverse Beneficial

Dead & Imposed 1.5 1.0 1.5 - 1.5 1.5 -


Dead & Wind 1.5 0.9 - - 1.5 1.5 1.5 -
Load
Dead & Seismic
1.5 0.9 - - 1.5 - 1.5
Load 1.5
Dead, Imposed and
1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 -
wind Load
Dead, Imposed and
1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 - 1.2
Seismic Load

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3.1.9 Deflection Criteria


3.1.9.1 Lateral Deflection (Wind)
The maximum lateral movement or “drift” of the structure under service level wind
loading with 10 year recurrence interval shall be limited to H/500, where “H” is the
height of the structure measured from the ground level.

The maximum acceleration at the highest inhabited floor level for a 10 year return period
wind shall not be exceed15 milli-g for the residential tower. This has been verified by the
wind tunnel tests and actual acceleration is well within published international
standards.

3.1.9.2 Lateral Deflection (Seismic)


The maximum lateral movement or “drift” under strength level seismic loading shall be
limited to an inter-story drift ratio of h/250 (or 0.004 * h), where “h” is the story heigh t.
This is in accordance with Clause 7.11.1 of IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002

3.1.9.3 Vertical Deflection (Gravity Loads)

S/No Item Component Limit

Concrete
1.0
Flat Roofs (Also check to ensure that ponding Immediate Deflection due to Live load. L/180
1.1
does not occur)

Floors and flat roofs not supporting brittle Total Deflection due to Dead + Live Load,
1.2 L/250
non-structural elements where no camber provided

Floors not supporting brittle non- structural Immediate Deflection due to live load L/360
1.3
elements

Floors and roofs supporting brittle non- Total deflection occurring after Lesser of L/500
1.4 attachment of non-structural elements or 20mm
structural elements

Floor supporting brittle non- structural Total Deflection due to Dead + Live Load,
2.3 L/200
elements where no camber provided

Floors and roofs supporting brittle Total deflection occurring after attachment Lesser of L/500
2.4
non-structural elements of non-structural elements or 20mm

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4.1 Overview region of a slab as a frame (or design strip), and then analyzing the frame/strip using
variations of conventional frame or moment distribution analysis techniques. There are
BASE utilizes state-of-the-art technology in order to design efficient and economical
two limitations to this approach. First, in irregular structures, the approximation of the
structures. On the OMG project, BASE is utilizing three main analysis packages: RAM
real structure into a frame model could be grossly inaccurate and designing with the
Concept for concrete slabs, ETABS for building frame analysis, and SAFE for raft
analysis results might not even satisfy equilibrium requirements in the real structure.
foundation analysis and design. All of these packages include design capabilities for the
Indian codes. In addition to these, BASE also utilizes numerous other software packages The second limitation is that even in regular structures with regular loadings, the frame
including custom spreadsheets. The Indian Building Code has been used in all aspects of analysis approximates the slab/column interaction and provides no information
the design, with American codes and resources serving as references on matters the regarding the distribution of forces across the design strip.
Indian code does not specifically address.
RAM Concept enables the design of post-tensioned and reinforced concrete slabs using a
Seismic loads for OMG, Noida are determined in accordance with IS 1893-2002. Building finite element model of the entire slab. Concept can predict the elastic behavior of a slab
periods are generally calculated in accordance with Section 7.6.2. However, this much more accurately than frame models. In addition, the finite element method
calculation is based only on the building height and plan dimensions and does not account guarantees that the analysis satisfies all equilibrium requirements, regardless of a
for actual structural behavior. As a result, the calculated period can vary greatly from the structure's irregularities. In addition, Concept includes all relevant IS 456 code checks.
actual building performance, leading to inaccurate design lateral forces. To reduce the
excess conservatism inherent in this approach, the code ASCE 7 -05 expression for
4.3 ETABS 2016
building period was implemented. The actual building period used to determi ne forces
ETABS is a sophisticated special-purpose analysis and design program developed
was capped by the Cu factor of 1.4 from American codes.
specifically for building systems. ETABS 2016 features an intuitive and powerful graphical
Member forces for seismic design are determined using a Response Spectrum dynamic interface coupled with modeling, analytical, and design procedures, all integrated using a
analysis, with the resulting base shear scaled to 100% of the base shear calculated under common database. According to Computers and Structures, Inc. (CSI), ETABS is used by
the code equations for static forces thousands of structural engineers in over 160 countries worldwide. CSI has an office in
New Delhi and maintains relationships with universities across India. ETABS incorporates
4.2 RAM ConcePT Indian design codes for both steel and concrete buildings. For concrete structures, the
following design codes are implemented.
RAM Concept is an analysis and design program that uses the finite element method for
elevated concrete floor systems. The floors can be post -tensioned concrete (PT), a) IS 456-2000 - Concrete Member Design
reinforced concrete (RC), or hybrid (a mixture of PT and RC). Concept is extremely
b) IS 1893-2002 - Seismic Loads
powerful, allowing the design of an entire floor in one model as well as the design of
individual strips or beams. c) IS 13920-1993 - Ductile Detailing of Concrete Members

Historically, the vast majority of concrete floors have been analyzed by approximating a

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4.4 SAFE 2014


SAFE is a program from Computers and Structures, Incorporated for the design of slabs
and raft foundations. Loads and reactions from ETABS are imported directly into SAFE
for the design of the rafts. The design of concrete cross-sections is based on IS 456-2000.

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