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EL RENACIMIENTO: PROPOSED HERITAGE PLAZA &


ARCHITECTURAL DOCUMENTATION OF
SPANISH COLONIAL STRUCTURES IN
GAPAN CITY, NUEVA ECIJA

A Thesis
Submitted to the Faculty of the
College of Engineering, Computer Studies, and Architecture
Lyceum of the Philippines University – Cavite

In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements of the Degree
Bachelor of Science in Architecture

LIZARONDO, VICTORIA BEA O.


TAGAYOM, MIKE ANGELO B.

May 2017

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APPROVAL SHEET

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CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

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ABSTRACT

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DEDICATION

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
APPROVAL SHEET
CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
ABSTRACT
DEDICATION
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
APPENDICES
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background of the Study
1.2. Statement of the Problem
1.3. Significance of the Study
1.4. Goals and Objectives of the Study
1.5. Definition of Terms and Acronyms
CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
2.1. Description of Method
2.2. Research Methods
2.3. Description of Sources
2.4. Description of Procedure
CHAPTER 3: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
3.1. Related Literature
3.2. Case Studies
CHAPTER 4: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Presentation of Data
4.3. City Profile
CHAPTER 5: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
5.1. Overview of the Sector Investigation

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5.2. Discussion
5.3. Macro Analysis
5.4. Micro Analysis
5.5. Community Interview
5.6. Site Development Plan
5.7. Traffic Analysis
5.8. Comparison of the Current Space vs. Demand Space
5.9. Result Analysis and Interpretation
5.10. Recommendation
CHAPTER 6: STATEMENT OF THE PROJECT PROPOSAL
6.1. Title of the Project Proposal
6.2. Project Overview
6.3. Project Goals and Objectives
6.4. Project Proponents
6.5. Funding Concept
CHAPTER 7: SITE SELECTIONS
7.1. Site Criteria
7.2. Site Selection
7.3. Evaluation
7.4. The Site
CHAPTER 8: ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPT
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Design Philosophy
8.3. Design Concept
8.4. Design Considerations
8.5. Security Concept
8.6. Planning Concept
8.7. Material Concept
8.8. Structural Concept
8.9. Design Parameters
CHAPTER 9: ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAMMING

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9.1 Introduction
9.2. Description of Offices
9.3. Matrix Diagram
9.4. Bubble Diagram
9.5. Organizational Chart
9.6. Space Computation
9.7. Behavioral Diagram
APPENDICES
REFERENCES

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LIST OF FIGURES

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LISTE OF TABLES

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APPENDICES

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I. INTRODUCTION

The Republic Act 10066 declares that “the state shall foster the preservation,

enrichment and dynamic evolution of a Filipino culture based on the principle of unity in

diversity in a climate of free artistic and intellectual expression. The Constitution likewise

mandates the State to conserve, develop, promote and popularize the nation's historical

and cultural heritage and resources, as well as artistic creations” (National Cultural

Heritage Act of 2009). The republic act came to be from the drafting of the “Omnibus

Cultural Heritage Law”, also known as the “Philippine Cultural Heritage Act” in 1994.

The law aimed to provide for the protection, preservation, and promotion of the nation’s

cultural heritage (NCCA, 2015).

In light with the “National Cultural Heritage Act of 2009”, the local government

units are encouraged to preserve, conserve, and promote built heritage present in their

land. Built heritage are the architectural and engineering features of a municipality or city

such as government buildings, ancestral houses, bridges, traditional dwellings, and other

structures of notable historical and cultural importance (National Cultural Heritage Act of

2009). With this study, the proponents are focused on the architectural built heritage,

particularly the ancestral houses of Gapan City, Nueva Ecija during the Spanish-Colonial

period.

Architectural documentation is a way to assist the city in preservation,

conservation, and promotion of their heritage houses. As shown to the proponents by

Architect Mharren C. Castro from the Historic Preservation Division of National

Historical Commission of the Philippines (NHCP), the documentation process includes

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creating as-found plans, gathering any existing original plans, photographing all the parts

of the structure, and identifying existing problems with the different features of the

building. Other documents necessary for NHCP to collect so that a site/structure may be

recognized as historic are field evaluation, archival research, and oral interviews with

knowledgeable local residents (NHCP, 2011).

1.1. Background of the Study

Mayor Emerson D. Pascual of Gapan City envisions developing a “little Vigan” in

order to grow the city’s tourism. They began this vision with the restoration of “Casa

Municipal”, also referred to as “Casa Presidencia”, with the aid of the National Historical

Commission of the Philippines. According to the tourism officer, they aim to turn the

restored old municipal hall into a museum and/or library. Other old structures near the

Casa Municipal are the heritage houses belonging to the family of Jay Taruc and Eula

Valdez. They all belong to De Los Reyes Street which is the target of the development.

However, apart from these structures, there are other ancestral properties in the city such

as the Cuison Ancestral House and Dr. Angel Del Rosario Ancestral House.

Gapan City is the oldest town in Nueva Ecija with historical data recorded

indicating that it was founded in 1595, which also makes it one of the oldest in the

country. It used to be a huge pueblo; even Cabanatuan City was a part of it being its

barrio before separating in year 1777. As the Spanish power gradually conquered the

country, this pueblo disintegrated into many towns. During 1856 to 1872, for sixteen

years, the Church of Gapan was constructed under the supervision of Father Loredo

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Conejo and Llaneza. The structure is made of bricks, adobe and lime, and is known to be

of Byzantine architecture. Nueva Ecija is represented by one of the eight rays in the

national flag as one of the eight provinces who fought the Spaniards. Thirteen heroes of

martyr killed by the Spaniards came from Gapan. The city government erected a

monument at the San Vicente Plaza with the names of these heroes as a tribute and honor

for them. In present, the city has 23 barangays with a total land area of 18,568 hectares.

(“History of Gapan City”, n.d.).

The problem with the city mayor’s vision is that the documents for it hasn’t been

finalized, hence the project may or may not push through depending on who will be

elected in the upcoming midterm elections. However, the site still has the potential to be

declared as historic center or heritage zone. According to the guidelines set by the NHCP

for the identification, classification, and recognition of historic sites and structures in the

country—a heritage center or zone is “a historic space, unit, district, or cluster of

structures and their environs, with distinctive historical importance in its entirety.” The

criteria are the following: 1, the site is associated with historical events, heroes, or

illustrious Filipinos with significant historical contribution; 2, the site bears strong

foreign historical or period influence; 3, the site has pioneer establishments in the

country; and 4, there are groups or clusters of structures whose historic significance is

seen in the entirety of the setting (NHCP, 2011). Having mentioned a brief history of the

city, it evidently passes as a site which bears strong period influence—particularly from

the Spanish period. The project to be constructed may be uncertain, but nevertheless, the

city bears the potential for heritage-tourism. Hence, the researchers propose to do an

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architectural documentation of the existing heritage houses in the city. This will help the

local government preserve, conserve, and promote their built heritage, as well as

contribute knowledge regarding the architecture during the Spanish-Colonial period in

the country.

1.2. Statement of the Problem

Generally, the study aims to provide an architectural documentation of the

heritage houses from the Spanish-colonial period in Gapan City, Nueva Ecija.

1.3. Significance of the Study

Through the documentation of 3 to 5 heritage houses in Gapan City, Nueva Ecija,

the R.A. 10066 is further encouraged, and the city can grow their tourism through this.

With this, the people will have more opportunities to create small businesses and jobs,

which will ultimately contribute to their city’s progress. The documentation will also

contribute knowledge to the field of architecture, particularly as to how Spanish

architecture was translated in this country.

Community: This study can inspire the community in which the selected houses

are situated to be aware of the value of heritage houses within their city.

With this awareness, more structures of historical significance may be

saved.

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Tourism: One of the things foreign and local tourists always look forward to is

the country’s richness in old houses. Simple stories behind ancestral

houses can encourage them to pay a visit to it.

Economy: The growth of the city’s tourism will open business and job

opportunities for the locals. Different establishments from souvenir shops

to restaurants and hotels/inns may be built for the tourists.

Students/Future Researchers: This study will benefit students, particularly those

who wish to pursue architecture. The knowledge this study can contribute

to the academe will help the students have a model or source of idea for

their future researches.

Teachers: The professors can use the discovered knowledge and teach it to their

pupils, as well as give suggestions on how to improve it so that it can be

more useful.

Heritage/History: This study aims to document ancestral houses of Spanish-

colonial period. This study will benefit history because it can save artifacts

and stories behind the ancestral houses and the city.

1.4. Goals and Objectives of the Study

1.5. Definition of Terms and Acronyms

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Ancestral. An ancestral house is the residence of origin of one’s extended family,

or the home privately owned and preserved and utilized by the same

family for several generations.

Artifacts. An object made by a human being with a cultural or historical value.

Building length. The general linear dimension of a structure typically measured

in the directions of the bearing wall for girders.

Building line. Formed by the intersection of the exterior surfaces of the enclosing

walls of a structure and the surface of the ground.

Building width. The shortest linear dimension typically measured in the

directions of the floor, beams or joists.

Built heritage. This refers to any architectural and engineering structure with

notable historical and cultural importance. Examples of this are, but not

limited to: government buildings, ancestral houses, lighthouses, traditional

dwellings, landscapes, and complexes.

Contextual architecture. Refers to quality of an architectural work that blends

and harmonizes the structure with its surrounding environment of groups

of buildings and structures.

Floor-to-floor height. The vertical/perpendicular distance between the uppermost

surface of two successive floors in a structure.

GFA (Gross Floor Area). It is the total area of a floor space within the exterior

walls of a building.

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Heritage. Designation of heritage properties is a way of publicly recognizing a

property’s value to a community. Declaring a home as a heritage house

helps ensure its conservation.

Integration. The process of introducing or fitting a new and compatible

construction, addition, component or feature into an existing building,

structure, or group of buildings, the resulting product of which is a

homogeneous entity.

Lot. A parcel of land in which a main building and its annexes are placed together

with the other required spaces. A lot can be the whole recorded plot or a

land within it.

Preservation. It emphasizes on the retention of all historic fabric through

conservation, maintenance, and repair. It gives regards to the structure’s

continuum over time, and through successive occupancies, and the

different alterations made.

Reconstruction. It has limited opportunities to re-create a non-surviving site,

landscape, building, structure, or object in all new materials.

Reference Building. This is any building or structure with special feature/s that

make it a focal point of the historic center/heritage zone.

Rehabilitation. Focuses on retention and repair of historic material, but has more

allowance for replacement because of the property being already

deteriorated before beginning of work.

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Renovation. It is any type of physical change done on a structure to improve its

value, quality, and/or aesthetic.

Repair. Any damaged or deteriorated part of a building is dealt with this remedial

work to restore the structure’s original condition.

Restoration. It is the retention of materials from the most significant time in the

history of the house, while allowing the removal of materials from

different periods.

II. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

2.1. Description of Method

For this research proposal, the proponents will be gathering information/data to

support the qualification of the structures to be documented. A descriptive method or

descriptive research will be done, using library and online sources. The researchers will

also be conducting surveys and interviews. Other methods to be done include field

evaluation and interviews to the knowledgeable locals.

2.2. Research Methods

Generally, the research is descriptive for it will be describing the structures to be

studied. They will be documented architecturally, and the proponents shall come up with

a book that can be used as reference by other researchers, particularly architecture

students.

2.2.1 Archival Research

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Archival research will be necessary since the study involves heritage

structures and is concerned about the historical value of the selected houses for

documentation. Archives are public and private documents that may be in any

format and has been selected for permanent preservation because they bear

evidences and other valuable historical information.

2.2.2. Content Analysis

Content analysis, a research method used when studying various

documents, articles, and journals which may be in different formats. The

researchers will be using this method to get patterns and trend. It is like

accumulating case studies, but instead of going in depth with each case, the

researchers are to gather the most vital information and analyze their possible

links.

2.2.3. Survey Methodology

As part of the study, the proponents will make use of survey

questionnaires to assess the point of view of different sectors concerning the

study.

2.3. Description of Sources

2.3.1. Field Evaluation

The proponents were toured around the city, particularly to the old houses

and plaza, by Ditas P. Azarcon—an office staff from the city hall. Moreover, the

researchers will be frequently visiting the selected subjects for documentation in

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Gapan City, Nueva Ecija. This is important since the documentation will concern

plans, and identification of the features present in the ancestral houses.

2.3.2. Interviews

A series of interviews has been done by the researchers with the architects

of NHCP. The interviews were consultations to determine possible procedures for

the documentation.

Knowledgeable locals from where the selected subjects are located will

also be interviewed. Other experts of the field will also be interviewed by the

researchers.

2.3.3. Online Resources

The internet is an essential study aid. The following are the primary

websites the researchers have utilized:

2.4. Description of Procedures

2.4.1. Research Work

Objective: To gather information regarding the site and ideas for the

subjects to be selected.

Procedure: Articles and journals related to the site will be accessed and

read. Thesis studies and published researches regarding sites and projects that are

related to the topic will also be read and analyzed.

2.4.2. Field Visit

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Objective: To obtain the most recent information and knowledge regarding

the site.

Procedure: The researchers will be frequently visiting the selected

ancestral houses for the documentation.

2.4.3. Survey

Objective: To determine the general point-of-view of the group/s of people

concerning the field of study.

Procedure: The following set of questions will be given to the respondents

and they will be asked to answer it accordingly.

III. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

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3.1. Related Literature

3.2. Case Studies

IV. DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

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4.1. Introduction

4.2. Presentation of Data

4.3. City Profile

The municipality of Gapan was converted into a component city of Nueva Ecija

on August 25, 2001 by virtue of Republic Act No. 9022 sponsored by Congresswoman

Julita Lorenzo Villareal. The city is comprised by 23 barangays. From Manila, the city is

96 kilometers in proximity, while 19 kilometers from Cabanatuan City.

Income Class: CY 2016 as a 4th Class City

Land Area: 18,568 hectares

Annual Income: P408, 098,372.00


2 College Schools
5 Computer Schools
1 Vocational School
4 High Schools (Private)
No. of Schools: 8 High Schools (Public)
9 Elementary Schools (Private)
33 Elementary Schools (Public)
9 Private Nurseries
19 Daycare Centers
Total No. of Population: 101,488 as of 2010 NSO Census

Projected Population for 2016: 109,660 @ Growth rate of 1.299%

Total No. of Household: 25,486 Household


Farming, slipper making,fishpond, poultry, piggery
Major source of Income:
Commercial establishments

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Political Subdivision: 23 Barangays

No. of Banks 16 Banks

Gapan City is known as the footwear capital of the north, and an inseparable part

of the rice granary of the country. The city is located in the south east of Nueva Ecija,

bounded by San Leonardo on the North, by Peñaranda and General Tinio on the East, by

San Isidro and Candaba of Pampanga on the West, and by San Miguel of Bulacan on the

South.

V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

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5.1. Overview of the Sector Investigation

5.2. Discussion

5.3. Macro Analysis

5.4. Micro Analysis

5.5. Community Interview

5.6. Site Development Plan

5.7. Traffic Analysis

5.8. Comparison of the Current Space vs. Demand Space

5.9. Result Analysis and Interpretation

5.10. Recommendation

VI. STATEMENT OF THE PROJECT PROPOSAL

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6.1. Title of the Project Proposal

6.2. Project Overview

6.3. Project Goals and Objectives

6.4. Project Proponents

6.5. Funding Concept

VII. SITE SELECTIONS

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7.1. Site Criteria

7.2. Site Selection

7.3. Evaluation

7.4. The Site

VIII. ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPT

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8.1. Introduction

8.2. Design Philosophy

8.3. Design Concept

8.4. Design Considerations

8.5. Security Concept

8.6. Planning Concept

8.7. Material Concept

8.8. Structural Concept

8.9. Design Parameters

IX. ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAMMING

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9.1. Introduction

9.2. Description of Offices

9.3. Matrix Diagram

9.4. Bubble Diagram

9.5. Organizational Chart

9.6. Space Computation

9.7. Behavioral Diagram

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