Automotive Sensors/Actuators

Sensor ± Input Actuator - output

Electro magnetic sensors
‡ By running electric current through a wire, you can create a magnetic field.
HowStuffWorks How Electromagnets Work.swf

and ‡ (2) road wheel rotational speed relative to vehicle frame for anti-lock braking (ABS) and traction control (TCS).Applications ‡ : (1) crankshaft position for ignition and fuel injection control. .

Variable reluctance type ((resistance to magnetism) .

in which a voltage is induced. ‡a metallic path (the pole piece) for carrying the magnetic flux. .‡an iron rotor with lobes on it. ‡a coil. ‡a permanent magnet. wound around the metallic path.

HALL EFFECT SENSORS ‡ The Hall element is a small section of semiconductor material such as silicon .

a current will flow in circuit 2.When a magnetic field is imposed on the Hall element. .

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Optical sensors .

Piezoceramic sensor the sensing element produces a small electric charge when it is compressed and then relaxed .

Variable resistance type sensors .

Exhaust gas oxygen sensors .

Voltaic type (Zerconia) .

EGO sensor output voltage .

Changes in the concentration of oxygen in the exhaust gas cause the resistance of the sensor material to change .The titania sensor reacts to changes in the partial pressure of oxygen in the exhaust gas.

Air flow measurement .

Karman Vortex Air Flow Meter .

Hot wire type ‡ ‡ ‡ Compensating wire and a Sensing wire The compensating wire has a small electric current passing through it and the electronic circuit is able to determine the temperature of the incoming air by measuring the resistance of this wire. The sensing wire is µhot¶. This temperature is maintained by varying the current flowing through it. ‡ . about 100 C above the temperature of the compensating wire.

Stepper motor .

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