You are on page 1of 5

ISSN No: 2309-4893

International Journal of Advanced Engineering and Global Technology

I Vol-03, Issue-11, December 2015

Temperature Control of Electric Furnace using Genetic

Algorithm based PID controller
Srilakshmi B1, Venkataratnam K2
Corresponding Mail id:
M.Tech student , Assistant Professor2 , Sri Sivani Institute of Technology, Dept of EEE, Chilakapalem,

Srikakulam, A.P, India.

Abstract –This paper presents a design of PID controller be compared with traditional methods included Ziegler-
for furnace temperature control system. Currently, PID Nichols [10], Cohen-Coon [11] and Direct Synthesis [12].
controller has been used to operate in electric furnace
temperature control system because its structure is II. PID CONTROLLER
simpler compared to others. However, the issue of PID controller consists of Proportional, Integral and
tuning and designing PID controller adaptively and Derivative control. Proportional control is responsible for
efficiently is still open. This paper presents an improved faster enter steady state, Integral control is responsible for
PID controller efficiency from tuning by Genetic reducing overshoot in steady state and Derivative control is
Algorithm method. The parameters of PID controller responsible for making the system more stable. This paper
shall be obtained from the Genetic Algorithm introduces a single-input single-output (SISO) PID
optimization procedure. Errors between desired controller, which consists of PID controller D(s) and
magnitude response and actual magnitude response are controlled plant G(s) are shown in Fig. 1 which is simple
calculated by using the Integral of Absolute Error and
(IAE). The proposed Genetic Algorithm based PID effective.
design method is simpler, more efficient and effective
than the existing traditional methods included Ziegler
Nichols, Cohen-Coon, Direct Synthesis and Genetic
Algorithm. Simulation result shows that the
performance of PID controller using this proposed
method is better than traditional methods.
Keywords- Electric furnance , PID Controller, PID
parameters, Genetic algorithm optimization.

I. INTRODUCTION Where D(s) is transfer function of PID Controller, G(s) is

Electric furnace is one of many furnaces available today. It transfer function of controlled plant, w(t) is input signal to
uses electricity as its main power source to generate heat controlled plant, e(t) is the system error, u(t) is controlled
which widely uses in various industrial production input and y(t) is output signal.
processes. However, the current controller design that is From Fig.1, the equation of standard PID Controller is
popular for use with electric furnace, such as PID control
[1,2], neural network [3] and adaptive fuzzy control [4-8].
The PID control design is popular and easiest way for
electric furnace, but it is also a problem for the design is
nonlinear system [9] and time delay. Nowadays, there are
many methods for tuning PID, such as Ziegler-Nichols , and can be written in the form of transfer function is
[10], Cohen-Coon [11], Direct Synthesis [12], Genetic
algorithm (GA) [13], particle swarm optimization (PSO)
[14], differential evolution (DE) [15], and multiobjective
optimization algorithms [16]. All of these methods do not
deliver good tuning since rise time, overshoot and settling Where U(s) is transfer function of controlled input, E(s) is
time still occur and may be not suitable for electric furnace transfer function of the system error e(t), Kp , Ki and Kd
temperature systems. are proportional gain, integral gain and derivative gain,
This paper proposed Nelder Mead-based PID controller for respectively.
solving these problems. It is used to determine the optimal From (2), PID controller can be written as
parameters of PID controller using the calculation of
Integral of Absolute Error (IAE), which is traditional
method for finding the best value in form of nonlinear.
After applying Nelder Mead Algorithm, then the
parameters ,Kp, Ki and Kd are obtained. These results will
ISSN No: 2309-4893

International Journal of Advanced Engineering and Global Technology

I Vol-03, Issue-11, December 2015

Approximation of (4) is

Then, from (5) and (6) will be


SYSTEM Hence, (7) is transfer function of electric furnace, which is
used for experiment in this paper.
The compositions of electric furnace temperature control
system [17] are electrical furnace, controller and IV. TUNING OF PID CONTROLLER USING GENETIC
thermocouple which controller is used to control the ALGORITHM APPROACH
temperature in electrical furnace is shown as Fig. 3.
A. Overview of Genetic Algorithm
GA is a stochastic global adaptive search optimization
technique based on the mechanisms of natural selection.
Recently, GA has been recognized as an effective and
efficient technique to solve optimization problems.
Compared with other optimization techniques. GA starts
with an initial population containing a number of
chromosomes where each one represents a solution of the
problem which performance is evaluated by a fitness
function. Basically, GA consists of three main stages:
Selection, Crossover and Mutation. The application of
these three
basic operations allows the creation of new individuals
which may be better than their parents. This algorithm is
repeated for many generations and finally stops when
reaching individuals that represent the optimum solution to
the problem. The GA architecture is shown in Fig.4.

where w is input voltage, U is output voltage from

controller, y is output voltage from thermocouple and R is
armature resistance. In this paper, transfer function of
electric furnace is chosen as [17]

, transfer function of a 1.5 time delay is

Then, transfer function of electric furnace with a 1.5 time

delay is

ISSN No: 2309-4893

International Journal of Advanced Engineering and Global Technology

I Vol-03, Issue-11, December 2015

After giving the above parameters to GA the PID

controllers can be easily tuned and thus system
performance can be improved. The system performance is
given below in fig 6,

B. Implementation of GA based PID controller

GA can be applied to the tuning of PID position controller
gains to ensure optimal control performance at nominal
operating conditions.

Fig 6 Response of the system with GA based PID controller

The block diagram for the entire system is given below in

the fig.5 and also the genetic algorithm parameters chosen
for the tuning purpose are shown below in table 1.

In the implementation of conventionally tuned PID
controller is not getting the accurate results but the proper
optimized gain values of controller are obtained with the

ISSN No: 2309-4893

International Journal of Advanced Engineering and Global Technology

I Vol-03, Issue-11, December 2015

implementation of GA based PID controller. Comparative VI. CONCLUSION

results are given below, The designed PID with GA has much faster response than
response of the classical method. The classical method is
good for giving us as the starting point of what are the PID
values. However the GA designed PID is much better in
terms of the rise time and the settling time than the
conventional method. Finally the genetic algorithm
provides much better results compared to the conventional
methods. And also the error associated with the genetic
based PID is much lesser than the error calculated in the
conventional scheme. In this paper, implementation of the
genetic algorithm based PID controller for the electric
furnace temperature systems is covered. In future GA
based PID controller will be implemented in DC motor
position control system using LabVIEW.


Fig 7:comparision of closed loop response of elctric [1] Y. han, J. Jinling, C. Guangjian, and C. Xizhen,
furnance with PID controller “Temperature Control of Electric Furnace Based on Fuzzy
PID”, IEEE Trans. ICEOE, July. 2011: V3-41-V3-44.
[2] X. Junming, Z. Haiming, J. Lingyun, and Z. Rui,
“Based on Fuzzy – PID self-tuning temperature control
system of the furnace”, IEEE Trans. ICEICE, April. 2011:
[3] W. Ding-du, “Decoupling Control of Electric Heating
Furnace Temperature Based on DRNN Neural Network”,
IEEE Trans. ICECT, May. 2010: 261-264.
Table 3.Comparative performance of Genetic Algorithm [4] F. Teng, and H. Li, “Adaptive Fuzzy Control for the
with traditional methods Electric Furnace”, IEEE Trans. ICIS, Nov. 2009: 439-443.
[5] W. Assawinchaichote, and S. K. Nguang, “Fuzzy
Tunin Kp Ki Kd Maxim Rise Settling Mean control design for singularly perturbed systems: An LMI
g um time(s time(se square approach”, Proc. ICAIET, (Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia),
Meth Oversh ec) c) error 2002: 146-151.
od oot [6] W. Assawinchaichote, S. K. Nguang, P. Shi, and M.
Direc 2.515 0.457 2.2864 4.9888 2.9390 8.8976 64.2609 Mizumoto, “Robust H∞ control design for fuzzy singularly
t 2 perturbed systems with Markovian jumps: an LMI
synth approach”, 43rd IEEE Conference on Decision and
esis Control, 2004: 803-808.
Cohe 3.993 0.414 2.6267 20.7739 1.7562 20.8644 76.4116 [7] S. K. Nguang, W. Assawinchaichote, P. Shi, and Y. Shi,
n- 1 4 “H∞ fuzzy filter design for uncertain nonlinear systems
Coon with Markovian jumps: an LMI approach”, Proceedings of
NM 3.791 0.632 5.5941 5.4392 1.3524 8.6316 45.1523 the American Control Conference, 2005: 1799-1804.
meth 8 4 [8] W. Assawinchaichote, “Further results on robust fuzzy
od dynamic systems with D-stability constraints”, Int. J.
Z-N 4.457 1.143 4.3455 41.0473 1.2679 10.5398 67.8036 Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Vol.24, No.4,
meth 3 0 2014: 785-794.
od [9] S. K. Nguang, W. Assawinchaichote, and P. Shi, “H∞
Genet 3.144 0.562 5.151 1.2647 0.7889 0.9387 33.0015 filter for uncertain Markovian jump nonlinear systems: An
ic 6 LMI approach”, Int. J. Circuits Syst. Signal Process,
Algor Vol.26, 2007: 853-874.
ithm [10] P. M. Meshram, and R. G. Kanojiva, “Tuning of PID
Appr Controller using Ziegler-Nichols Method for Speed Control
oach of DC Motor”, Proc. IEEE Trans. ICAESM, March. 2012:
[11] R. Gamasu, and V. R. B. Jasti, “Robust Cohen-Coon
Controller for Flexibility of Double Link Manipulor”,
SERSC, Vol.7, No.1, 2014: 357- 368.

ISSN No: 2309-4893

International Journal of Advanced Engineering and Global Technology

I Vol-03, Issue-11, December 2015

[12] H. Wang, and X. Jin, “Direct Synthesis Approach of Based on Differential Evolution Algorithm”, IEEE Trans.
PID Controller for Second-Order Delayed Unstable ICACC, March. 2010: 348-351.
Process”, IEEE Trans. WCICA, Vol.1, June. 2004: 19-23. [16] A. Gambier, “MPC and PID Control Based on Multi-
[13] H. Zhang, Y. Cai, and Y. Chen, “Parameter objective Optimization”, IEEE Trans. American Control
Optimization of PID Controllers Based on Genetic Conference, June. 2008: 4727-4732.
Algorithm”, IEEE Trans. EDT, Vol.1, April. 2010: 47-49. [17] J. Paulusová, and M. Dúbravská, “Application of
[14] M. Rahimian, and K. Raahemifar, “Optimal PID Design of PID Controller for Continuous Systems”, FEI
Controller Design For AVR System using Particle Swarm STU, Slovak Republic, 2012.
Optimization Algorithm”, IEEE Trans. CCECE, May. [18] W. Y. Yang, W. Cao, T.S. Chung, and J. Morris,
2011: 337-340. [15] Y. LUO, and X. CHE, “Tuning PID Applied Numerical Methods Using MATLAB, John Wiley
Control Parameters on Hydraulic Servo Control System & Sons, Inc. 2005.