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(Biography and Politics) Report in History
Jefferson Reyes Sarah Joy Villacrusis BSA 1-30D
Don Mariano Marcos and Doña Josefa Edralin were both teachers. He posted bail in August the same year to attend the bar exams. He was captured by the Japanese but managed to survive and escape the Death March from Bataan to Central Luzon and then joined the guerrilla units in Luzon. he served in the Philippine armed forces. American archive documents show Marcos had very little or no participation in the anti-Japanese guerrilla units. after President Macapagal refused to honour their agreement and decided to run for re-election. 1954. along with his father and two uncles. Marcos became a trial lawyer in Manila. Benguet after a courtship of only eleven days. the most infamous Philippine president and one of the few prime ministers of the Philippines. During World War II. in Sarrat. The Philippine Free Press called him lawyer of the year in the November 12. Marcos was re-elected as congressman of Ilocos Norte in 1953 and again in 1957. was arrested and charged with the murder of Julio Nalundasan in 1938. Marcos served as acting temporary president of the Liberal Party and ran for a seat in the Senate during his third term. During his second term in Congress. He campaigned for a seat in Congress under the Liberal Party and in 1949. 1940 issue. In April 1964. he won the Nacionalista Party nominations for candidate in the presidential elections. he was elected a senator and served as Senate president 1963 1965. Political Careers: In 1946. at the age of 32 he became the youngest member of the House of Representatives. Marcos continued his education at the University of the Philippines in 1933. In November 1939. Marcos managed to justify his extremely high marks but was not allowed to take oath as his own trial was still pending. In 1959. In 1929. Julio Nalundasan was shot dead shortly after being declared the winner.Education: In April 1939. 1917. Ferdinand Marcos. Julio Nalundasan in the local elections.Chronology of Reports I. However. he met Imelda Romualdez in the Congress cafeteria. In 1954.000 votes (both candidates had over three million votes each). Biography: Ferdinand Edralin Marcos. Marcos transferred from school to school for his primary education during 1923 . his father and two uncles stood trial before Laoag Provincial Court of First Instance. Laurel granted Marcos acquittal after finding the prosecution's case contradictory. He married Imelda Romualdez on May 1. However. III. in 1935. However. He knew at that moment he would have to be his wife. His father was also a politician and was an assemblyman and a representative of Ilocos Norte. In September 1939. Despite the simplicity of her appearance— she was in casual houseclothes and slippers—she impressed him.1929. Marcos received Bachelors of Laws and studied for the bar examinations while in prison. Ilocos Norte. The campaigns for the presidential elections of 1965 were very expensive and vicious. Marcos returned to Manila to resume law practice and served as technical assistant to President Roxas 1946 . II. The principal sponsor was President Magsaysay and the reception was held on Malacañan Palace grounds. In November 1964. was born on September 11. His parents. Both Marcos and Macapagal spent about P32 million each. Laurel Jr. Marcos served as Macapagal's campaign manager. Some months later Marcos was found guilty by the Laoag Provincial Court and sentenced to imprisonment. Ferdinand Marcos was summoned by the university dean on suspicion of cheating in the bar exams. Marcos defeated Macapgal by just under 674. in Trinidad. Don Mariano Marcos was defeated by his political enemy. In effect. Marcos was sworn into the Nacionalista by Jose P. In 1961. . Marcos appealed to the Supreme Court and defended himself.1947. Macros. As a resulted of this. The Supreme Court under Justice Jose P. Marcos has won his first case before he had even started to practice law. Marcos gave way to Diosdado Macapagal as Liberal Party presidential candidate on the agreement that Macapagal would support Marcos as presidential candidate in the 1965 presidential elections. Marcos entered the University of the Philippines High School were he obtained his law degree with honours in 1933.
mainly being involved in civilian infrastructure projects. In August 1971. In 1969. The national problems. In Manila. New Society(First Term): Imelda began restoring Intramuros as a tourist attraction. World War II: To the surprise of many. committing all the available resources to development.000 Filipino soldiers served in South Vietnam. a bounding birthrate and mass-education. Marcos embarked on a huge infrastructure program. the burden of centuries coupled with rising expectations. Macapagal. were much graver than could be solved in any single term of office. Self-reliance and hard work to uplift the economic and social condition of all the people. that Marcos took up the leadership of a nation in crisis. social inequity and rural stagnation. Presidency(Second Term): Marcos’ four years of presidency earned him a record that surpassed that of any of the five presidents before him. Presidency(First Term): His first term was innovative and inspirational. infrastructure and industry.600 troops in 1968 and between 1966 and 1970 over 10. rails and ports. Invoking the last constitutional defense of the state. unifying the scattered islands through a network of roads. nearly the entire media turned dead set against the Administration and government was beginning to be slowed down by the intense rivalry between the political parties. but as soon as it was lifted. Combining into an explosive force were poverty.It was on December 30. Marcos was trapped between the entrenched oligarchy. He was host to the Vietnam allies at the Manila Summit of 1966. As a result of this. which controlled the Congress and the firebrands from the Manila student movement in the peasant regions of Luzon. the Marcos government gained Congressional approval and Philippine troops were send from the middle of 1966 as the Philippines Civic Action Group (PHILCAG). PHILCAG reached a strength of some 1. which saw the confrontation of the Cold War give way to peaceful negotiations. pornography and violence drove citizens from the streets. President Ferdinand E. 1972. radical agitation started again. He carefully steered the Republic’s diplomacy during a period of transition in international relations. This worked in the short term. Miss Universe contests and professional boxing matches between such reigning champions as Joe Frazier and Mohammed Ali. Despite opposition against the new plan. bridges. however. By the middle of 1972. soon after becoming president. the write of habeas corpus was suspended. suggested in 1964-1965 to send troops it had been Marcos who had led the opposition against this plan on both legal and moral grounds. Marcos declared martial law on September 21. This was followed by a film center where she could stage film festivals. VII. . VIII. VI. When the previous Philippine president. 1965. crime. The people wallowed deeper in cynicism and despair. Marcos wanted the Philippines to become involved in the Vietnam War. Marcos sent out the Army to face the resurgence of armed Communist activity and the emergence of Maoist urban guerrillas. Martial Law: The economic effects of this paralysis of government were made worse by great floods which in the Luzon plain ruined much of agriculture. He asked Congress to approve sending a combat engineer unit to South Vietnam. and embarked on intense personal diplomacy throughout the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations). She sponsored tree planting and beautification and cleanliness drives at Luneta Park and around historic cemeteries. He invigorated both populace and bureaucracy. nationalism at home and greater independence in foreign policy became the goals of Marcos’ life. IV. he was returned to a second term—the first Filipino President to be so re-elected—and with the highest majority ever recorded in Philippine electoral history. V. and started filling in waterfront on Manila Bay on which to build a sprawling Cultural Center.
IX. crime. New Society(Second Term): Land Reforms: PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. The total cost of the land. are decrees (although a decree is not exactly an order). 1972 PROCLAIMING THE ENTIRE COUNTRY AS A LAND REFORM AREA WHEREAS. . 3844. Marcos held the Constitution Convention in 1971. 1972. Marcos declared martial law on September 21. it is often derogatory. For the purpose of determining the cost of the land to be transferred to the tenant-farmer pursuant to this Decree. 2 September 26. Marcos signed Proclamation No. Many of the delegates in the convention were bribed into changing this to allow Marcos more terms. The 1973 Constitution granted the president a term of six years in office with no limit number of terms. 1972. there is pressing need to accelerate the Agrarian Reform Program of the Government for the early attainment of the objectives set forth in Republic Act No.The economic effects of this paralysis of government were made worse by great floods which in the Luzon plain ruined much of agriculture. in this sense. In non-legal English usage. PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. infrastructure and industry. the value of the land shall be equivalent to two and one-half (2 1/2) times the average harvest of three normal crop years immediately preceding the promulgation of this Decree. as amended. whether in land classified as landed estate or not. It has the force of law. WHEREAS. In Manila. 27 October 21. TRANSFERRING TO THEM THE OWNERSHIP OF THE LAND THEY TILL AND PROVIDING THE INSTRUMENTS AND MECHANISM THEREFOR The tenant farmer. In all cases. The particular term used for this concept may vary from country to country—the executive orders made by the President of the United States. the term refers to any authoritarian decision and. according to certain procedures (usually established in a constitution). A semi-parliamentary form of government was established under the new constitution. shall be deemed owner of a portion constituting a family-size farm of five (5) hectares if not irrigated and three (3) hectares if irrigated. The president was also mandated to continue in office under a period martial law. The 1935 Constitution was suspended and replaced in 1973. the landowner may retain an area of not more than seven (7) hectares if such landowner is cultivating such area or will now cultivate it. for example. A decree is a rule of law issued by a head of state (such as the president of a republic). among such objectives is to achieve dignified existence for the small farmers free from the pernicious institutional restraints and practices which have not only retarded the agricultural development of the country but have also produced widespread discontent and unrest among our farmers. Invoking the last constitutional defense of the state. Thousands of people including communists and activists were arrested and imprisoned without due process. 1081 placing the entire nation under martial law. pornography and violence drove citizens from the streets. one of the causes of the existing national emergency. The people wallowed deeper in cynicism and despair. President Ferdinand E. On September 21. The bribery scandal was exposed and this particular part of the constitution was not amended. it is believed that the lasting objectives of land reform may be sooner realized if the whole country is declared a land reform area. however. and WHEREAS. shall be paid by the tenant in fifteen (15) years of fifteen (15) equal annual amortizations. The 1935 Constitution denied him a third term in office. including interest at the rate of six (6) per centum per annum. 1972 DECREEING THE EMANCIPATION OF TENANTS FROM THE BONDAGE OF THE SOIL.
Muntinlupa. traditionally nonacademic. like cleaning their School premises. Reading. It is sometimes referred to as technical education as the trainee directly develops expertise in a particular group of techniques or technology. Pasay City and Caloocan City. PROVIDING FOR THE MECHANICS OF IMPLEMENTATION AND FINANCING THEREOF. Parañaque. Labor Reforms: PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. Forty five pesos a month for house helpers in the other chartered cities and first class municipalities. 1972 AUTHORIZING THE UNDERTAKING OF EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS. WHETHER FOR PROFIT OR NOT.English: English. in the Province of Rizal. San Juan. That the preference of an employee as to his weekly rest day shall be respected by the employer if the same is based on religious grounds. Provided. Arithmetic). and the municipalities of Makati. Back to the basic Program *Bilingual Policy. AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES Weekly Rest Day. Pasig and Marikina. Las Piñas. 99 January 15.Education Reform: PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. Navotas. 1973 PRESCRIBING A WEEKLY REST PERIOD FOR WORKING IN ANY UNDERTAKING OR ENTERPRISE. Malabon. 1973 . occupation. however. Every employer shall give his employees a rest period of not less than twenty-four consecutive hours for each period of seven days. Thirty pesos a month for house helpers in other municipalities. 143 March 3. town. Quezon City. 148 March 13. Math and Science Subjects only Filipino: Other Subjects like Filipino and MAKABAYAN *NCEE(National College Entrance Examination). 1973 PROVIDING FOR MINIMUM COMPENSATION FOR HOUSEHOLD HELPERS Sixty pesos a month for house helpers in Manila. AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES Other Reforms: *3-R(Writing. 6-A September 29. streets and plazas and to raise chickens and vegetables to contribute to the country’s economic development *Vocational Education.It is require to children and students render manual labor. Mandaluyong. PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. or vocation.High School graduate cannot pursue an Higher Education or colleges unless they passed the National College Entrance Examination *YCAP(Youth Civic Action Program).prepares trainees for jobs that are based on manual or practical activities. PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. The employer shall determine and schedule the weekly rest day of his employees. and totally related to a specific trade. subject to collective bargaining agreement and to such rules and regulations as the Secretary of Labor may prescribe.
Masagana Program Movement designed to accelerate production of yellow hybrid corn. Minimum Employable Age. Masagana 99: Masagana 99 Launched in 1973. No child below 14 years of age shall be employed by any employer. COMMONLY KNOWN AS THE WOMAN AND CHILD LABOR LAW. 1972 APPROPRIATING FUNDS FOR PUBLIC WORKS INVOLVING REHABILITATION AND CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT. to avoid economic stagnation. the implementation of the rehabilitation and reconstruction and the undertaking of other development projects would require the availment of financial assistance preferred by international lending institutions and other governments.Creating the Department of Tourism. plus income earned by its citizens (including income of those located abroad). all other things being equal. Liberal credit and extension work was the “secret” of Masagana 99 *Educated agricultural technicians .the total value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a particular year. GNP measures the value of goods and services that the country's citizens produced regardless of their location. GNP is one measure of the economic condition of a country. Manila’s Hotels.sufficiency in food. It sets its sights on self. WHEREAS.AMENDING FURTHER CERTAIN SECTIONS OF REPUBLIC ACT NUMBERED SIX HUNDRED SEVENTYNINE. minus income of non-residents located in that country. the rehabilitation and reconstruction of damaged infrastructure facilities due to the recent calamities is a primordial duty of the Government. Economic Reforms: *Increase collections of Taxes *More Foreign Loans *OFW *Vast spending on infrastructure *Annual GNP growth of 7% ==> GNP. WHEREAS. SYNCHRONIZING THE SAME WITH PREVIOUS PUBLIC WORKS APPROPRIATIONS WHEREAS. uses similar methods employed under Masagana 99. except where the child works directly under the sole responsibility of his parent or guardian. the movement aspires to have the farmers increase their production to 99 sacks of 4. 3 September 26. and input increases. AS AMENDED. PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. Basically. involving activities which are not hazardous in nature and which do not in any way interfere with his schooling. To boost the tourist industry. the president Balikbayan Program. Filipino in foreign countries the country are given reduced plane tickets by the Philippine Airlines. and other privileges. under the assumption that a higher GNP leads to a higher quality of living." Tourism: a unique who come visit lower rates in *Presidential Decree 189. Under this. program. development efforts must be carried on with even greater effect.4 tons of unmilled rice (palay) per hectare. infrastructure buildup. to bring about normality in the economic and social activities of the people. in addition to rehabilitation and reconstruction. using modern methods of irrigation.
rebellion. Mt. etc. Mt.Provided farmers with full credit support *After 3 years. 2045 *The Armed Forces of the Philippines shall continue to prevent suppress lawless crimes. Luneta Park.Ikaw Bangko Industriya Gobyerno) *Bridges: San Juanico Bridge (Samar and Leyte) *Toll-Ways: Manila North Diversion Road(North Luzon Expressway) *Roads and Highways: Marcos Highway (Baguio) Geothermal Energy *Benguet.Ikaw Bangko Industriya Gobyerno) *Government Buildings BLISS(Bagong Lipunan of Sites and Services) Pag-IBIG(Pagtutulungan sa kinabukasan. or subversion of the country *The suspension of Writ of Habeas Corpus shall continue in the two autonomous regions of Mindanao *The President shall retained strong powers to make laws and to arrest opponents XI. Laguna *Tiwi. the Philippines experienced its highest productivity increase in rice production (1976-1985) *Masagana 99 uplifted the lives of the farmers Mobilized government resources to help the farmers in rural areas (helicopters. Albay *An International Airport *Housing Projects *Restorations – Intramuros.) Infrastructures: *Hospitals Specialty Hospitals – Philippine Heart Center. insurrection. Kidney Institute. Province *Makban.: . hydroelectric plants Geothermal Energy: *Benguet. Province *Makban. Lung Center. People Power Revolution: Death of Benigno Simeon Aquino Jr. Laguna *Tiwi.. Philippine Children Hospital *Schools *Power Plants – geothermal plants. Albay X. Fourth Republic: Proclamation No. etc… *Philippine International Convention Center *Makiling Center for the Arts (National Arts Center) *Malacañang ti Amianan (Laoag) *Nayong Pilipino *Museum for Native Art (Tacloban) *Palace In the Sky (Tagaytay) *BLISS(Bagong Lipunan of Sites and Services) *Pag-IBIG(Pagtutulungan sa kinabukasan.
attended by family members and a few paid guests." On the 25th both Aquino and Marcos hold separate inaugurations. The Marcos government claimed Galman was the triggerman in Aquino's assassination. such as the airport. 1986): Appalled by the bold and apparent election irregularities. Enrile also contacted the highly influential Cardinal Archbishop of Manila Jaime Sin for his support. Other military units will be taking over key strategic facilities. They were all sentenced to life in prison. 1986 in the Philippines. after Marcos learned about the plot. The Filipino people refused to accept the results. and their shares in the stock market plummeted to record levels. Marcos and his family sneak out the back door of Malacañang Palace and take a boat across the Pasig River where helicopters are waiting. Marcos himself later conducted his own news conference calling on Enrile and Ramos to surrender. evaporate so quickly and completely. the GHQAFP in Camp Aguinaldo. another investigation found sixteen defendants guilty. Both "winners" took their oath of office in two different places. it mandated that Aquino and Laurel were the real winners of the snap elections. Air Force plane headed . After the Marcos government was overthrown. urging them to "stop this stupidity. A subsequent investigation produced controversy but produced no definitive results.Col Gregorio Honasan was to lead the team that was going to assault Malacañang Palace. February 22. At about nine o'clock that night. bodyguards were assigned to him by the Marcos government. Marcos was proclaimed by COMELEC and Batasang Pambansa as the winner amidst the controversy. This chain of events eventually led to the resignation of Marcos' Defence Minister Juan Ponce Enrile and military vice-chiefFidel Ramos. Instead. and major highway junctions to restrict counteroffensive by Marcos-loyal troops. 1986): Presidential and Vice-Presidential snap elections were held on February 7. military bases. The opposition headed by Sen.Aquino was assassinated on August 21. Edgardo Doromal. TV and radio stations. People Power Revolution(February 22-25. Marcos and former Foreign Affairs Minister and Senate President Arturo Tolentino were proclaimed winners by the Batasang Pambansa as well as the official election canvasser. leading to the People Power Revolution which precipitated Marcos's departure from the country into exile in Hawaii. Saulito Aromin and Maj. Lt. Marcos and Tolentino won by over a million votes according to the COMELEC. Over the years. the Reform the Armed Forces Movement set into motion a coup attempt against Marcos. the Commission on Elections (COMELEC) thus granting President Marcos another six-year term as President of the Philippines. but evidence suggests this was not the case. Enrile and Ramos held a press conference at Camp Aguinaldo.'s widow Corazon C. Jr. Maj. Due to the reports of fraud. The electoral exercise was marred by alleged fraud from both sides of the political fence as well as violence. some were released. and the last one was let out in March 2009. Rolando Galman. Gen Fidel Ramos. As a result. He must be astonished to see his power. COMELEC Walk-Out: On February 15. the Regular Batasang Pambansa made a people's resolution signed by 150 lawmakers which nullified the election returns that proclaimed that Marcos and Tolentino as the winners. However. At the time. who then decided to seclude themselves in the military and police headquarters at Camp Aguinaldo and Camp Crame respectively. however. Enrile and his fellow coup plotters decided to ask for help from then AFP Vice Chief of Staff Lt. where they announced that they had resigned from their positions in Marcos's cabinet and were withdrawing support from his government. The Marcos inauguration is a pathetic affair. with Aquino gaining greater mass support. Aquino and former senator Salvador Laurel refused to accept the allegedly fraudulent result. The initial plan was for a team to assault Malacañang Palace and arrest Ferdinand Marcos. Snap Election(February 7. Threatened with their impending imprisonment. Ramos agreed to resign from his position and support the plotters. the United States Senate passed a resolution stating the same. President Ferdinand E. who was also the chief of the Philippine Constabulary (now the Philippine National Police). corporations. which seemed so absolute only a few weeks ago. 1986. Another man on the plane. and presented to the international and local press some of the captured plotters. and media were hit hard. theCatholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) issued a statement condemning the elections. At Clark Air base they board a U. 1983 when he was shot in the head after returning to the country." or at least to remain in the Philippines as a private citizen. placing phone calls to influential Filipinos and begging to be allowed to stay on as an "Honorary President. Aquino also called for coordinated strikes and mass boycott of the media and businesses owned by Marcos's cronies. asserting that Aquino was the real victor. On March 24. At about 6:30pm. was shot dead on-board shortly after Aquino was killed. All 50 opposition members of the Parliament walked out in protest. Behind the scenes Marcos is maneuvering to save face. Benigno Aquino. he ordered their leaders' arrest. the crony banks.S.
Martial Law Period September 21. December 30. Labour strikes and student protests follow. 1971: Carlos Garcia dies from a heart attack. The 1935 Constitution stated that the president may not serve more than eight consecutive years in office. June 14. 1971: The 1971 Constitutional Convention is held to review and rewrite the 1935 Constitution with Carlos Garcia elected as president. Poverty and violence increase as the population grows faster than the economy. . health centres. But because the Filipino people created major political change largely without violence. militarisation. bridges.for Guam. Marcos. 1965: Ferdinand Marcos is elected president for the first time. After violent revolutions there are always scores to settle. June 1. Some delegates are bribed into voting against this in the new constitution. who ruled for twenty years as one of the world's most powerful dictators. Marcos blames the communists. 1081 which places the entire country under martial law. and the cycle of violence continues. When Marcos' departure is announced jubilant Filipinos celebrate in the streets and flood into Malacañang Palace. He maintains popularity during his first term with a spending program on public works. but it is minimal. is now just a sick old man fleeing his country like a frightened dog. Diosdado Macapagal replaces Garcia as president of the Constitutional Convention. 1969: Ferdinand Marcos is re-elected for a second term. which includes building roads. human rights violations. high student tuition fees. a communist guerrilla army. national reconciliation was that much easier. the presence of the US military bases and the subservience of the Marcos administration to US interests and policies. 1972: Marcos issues Proclamation No. Delegate Eduardo Quintero was harassed by the government for exposing the bribery attempt. January 1970: The most violent student protest takes place as thousands of students try to storm the gates of Malacañan Palace (Battle of Mendiola). 1971: A Liberal Party rally being held at the Plaza Miranda is bombed. meaning Marcos could continue in power after his second term ended. There is some fighting and retribution against citizens and troops who had been loyal to Marcos. schools and beautification projects. grudges to satisfy. The CPP also forms the New People's Army (NPA). revenge to extract. August 21. abuses of the military. Fighting erupts in Muslim Mindanao with the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF). The convention is tarnished by a number of scandals. his popularity begins to decline. Criticism begins to grow from the dishonesty of his 1969 campaign and his lack of response concerning the issue of bribery and corruption within the government. Significance of People Power Revolution: *Courage and sacrifices *Ousted dictatorship and restored Democracy *Giving an inspiration throughout the world *Miracle of God in answering their prayers ==Important Dates== The Demise of the Third Republic December 30. The Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) take advantage of the growing discontent with the Marcos administration to increase number and strength. Later into his term.
To attract foreign capital. The National Assembly declares Marcos the winner. Marcos implements a number of economic programs. Throughout the second term: To encourage economic growth. violence and intimidation. 1986: The snap elections are held. He announces the establishment of a New Republic of the Philippines. February 15. 1981: Marcos takes his oath of office for a six-year term. activists. 1972: Marcos addresses to the nation concerning the need for martial law. The business community loses confidence by the assassination and capital begins to leave the country at about US$12 million a day. 1983: Ninoy Aquino arrives at Manila International Airport after returning from the US. for a decision on the election result. Corzaon Aquino. journalists. With pay rises and selective promotions.40% of the voters names are struck from the registration lists. Cory Aquino lacks political experience as she was only a simple housewife before her husband's assassination.3 billion in 1970 to US$24. However. COMELEC reports Marcos in the lead. 1985: Ninoy Aquino's widow. declares her candidacy for president while Salvado Laurel is to run for vice-president. However. He imposes curfew. all the orders and decrees issued under martial law are still in effect. 2045.September 23. However. construction. January 17. his means of maintaining power. they work together to in an attempt to defeat Marcos. lifting martial law. The campaign is a travesty of vote buying. While the 1935 Constitution stated the president may not serve more than eight consecutive years in office. Salvador Laurel. Senator Ninoy Aquino of the Liberal Party had become increasingly popular with the people. The economic growth rate averages 6% . and extends the presidential term from four years to six with no limit on the number of terms.000 per year to 1. He is amongst the first of the 30. June 30. Debt rises from US$2. Political parties are suspended. By 1976. Martial law is lifted to show Filipinos and the world that the situation in the Philippines is back to normal and to show the 1973 Constitution and the government are working smoothly. 1973: Marcos brings in a new constitution. Corruption within the government remains high and an estimated 10% of the GNP is being pocketed. the Philippines is self-sufficient in rise and begins exporting. With his wife. while NAMFREL reports an Aquino-Laurel majority. February 7. Very few actually vote in the election. leads the United National Democratic Organisation. family and friends. The number of tourists increases from 200. which he controls.4 billion in 1983. he is shot in the back of the head by the military escort. such as tax exemption and bringing out profits in foreign currencies.000 in 1980.000. In the count.7% during 1970 . the economic boom is largely debt driven with the Philippines becoming increasingly dependent upon loans from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank with heavy borrowing from other banks and organisations. manufacturing and financial sectors (this would eventually lead to the extraction of billions from the Philippine economy). it was not very specific about how long martial law should last. August 21. communists and other such forces that contribute to deterioration of the law to be detained under martial law. Batasang Pambansa). critics. In many electoral districts 10% . Farmers are given technical and financial aid and other incentives. outlaws protest movements and takes control of the media. The Fourth Republic June 16. which replaces Congress with a National Assembly (the semiparliament. Marcos maintains his vast powers and authoritarian rule.000 people to be arrested which also includes political opposition. 1986: Marcos refers to the National Assembly. an accomplished politician. Communist guerrillas also contribute to the lifting of martial law by a campaign of bomb attacks in Metro Manila in an attempt to end martial law. December 3.1980 compared with 5% in the previous decade. NAMFREL has close connections to the Roman Catholic Church and most of the volunteer work is done at local parishes by priests and nuns. Marcos uses the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) under General Fabian Ver. The GNP of the Philippines increases from P55 billion in 1972 to P193 billion in 1980. leaving it to the president's own judgement. The only time political parties are permitted to resurface was for elections for either the National Assembly or elections held for local offices (such as mayor and governor offices). 1981: In the first election since martial law. bans public assemblies. The election is officially organised and conducted by the government's Commission on Elections (COMELEC). The National Movement for Free Elections (NAMFREL) is an organisation of 300. . As he prepares to descend the steps from the plane to ground level. he establishes monopolies in the agricultural. 1981: Marcos issues Proclamation No. January 17. Marcos is declared the winner with 88% of the vote. a coalition of opposition groups in the National Assembly. The Aquino and Laurel families are fierce rivals in Philippine politics.000 volunteers determined to protect the electoral process from fraud and abuse. and an increasing political threat to Marcos. but through the efforts of Cardinal Sin. investors are offered incentives.
freedom of assembly and a free press. which he threatens to crush using his vast powers. Only the Soviet Union ambassador attends. February 22. The officers involved want reform within the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP). by Associate Justice Teehankee. he and his party leave at dawn for Guam and then Hawaii at the insistence of President Aquino. At 11pm.The EDSA Revolution February 16. asks people to defend the rebels through the church-operated station. At 7pm. The broadcast of the ceremony is cut off just after it begins. and have Aquino and her supporters arrested. 1986: At 6am. Marcos receives a message from President Reagan that he. Secretary of Defence Enrile and vice-chief of staff. Manila. a formation of helicopter gun ships approach Camp Crame. Angry crowds gather outside Malacañan Palace in the afternoon. They have only a few hundred soldiers to defend them. Marcos could then use this to justify imposing martial law again. 1986: Most of the military have deserted Marcos in support of Aquino. 1986: Cory Aquino and almost a million of her supporters attend a rally in Rizal Park. 1986: EDSA and access to the military camps is now completely jammed. the adoption of a temporary constitution and a transitional government. Marcos telephones Enrile to ask for American protection while leaving Malacañan Palace. . They would pretend to be Aquino supporters and would go onto the streets of Metro Manila spreading terror and violence. Radio Veritas is the only station broadcasting news of the revolt. However. his political base in Northern Luzon. However. the tanks stop when they reach the crowds of people who stand their ground. American helicopters evacuate Marcos and 120 others to Clark Air Base. a single helicopter approaches the presidential residence and fires six rockets at Malacañan Palace. February 23. Marcos issues warnings against the strike movement. The crowds below can do nothing to stop an airborne attack. At 10:30pm. Later. the gun ships land at Camp Crame and the crews join the revolt.000 of her followers in an attempt to deal with her campaign of disobedience and general strikes. EDSA is one of the main and most important highways for traffic flow in Metro Manila. Marcos also tries to take office in a separate ceremony in Malacañan Palace. somewhere in the region of a million people come out to defend the military rebels. Their previous pleas for reform had been ignored by Marcos and General Ver. they hold a press conference calling for Marcos to resign. 3. A few hours later Cardinal Sin repeats Agapito's call for support. Those who escape being arrested make their way to the Ministry of Defence at Camp Aguinaldo. February 24. Marcos finds out about the coup attempt by the military rebels. Ninoy's brother. and are not prepared to kill many unarmed civilians in order to reach the military rebels. Only two hours after Aquino has been sworn in as president. 1986: A group of young officers in the military begin making their own plans to overthrow President Marcos. February 27. Radio Veritas. The EDSA Revolution or People Power Revolution begins. Marcos has left the Philippines in a bankrupt state with a debt of about US$28 billion. The naval base at Cavite reports to the rebels that warships were on station at the mouth of the Pasig River and are standing by for orders to shell Malacañan Palace. in a suburban Manila nightclub. which is the main means of access to both camps. civil war will be the outcome. In between there is the Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA). February 25. 1986: Although Marcos wants to recoup at Laoag. Aquino and Laurel are sworn in as president and vice-president respectively. The air force refuses orders from General Ver to bomb Camp Crame. A column of tanks roll down EDSA to remove the rebels. Club Filipino. Throughout the night. Enrile and Ramos appeal to the military to join them in the revolt against Marcos. The US ambassador in the Philippines personally forwards a message from the US to Marcos that if he does not step down. President Aquino immediately restores the basic civil liberties of free speech. the station's transmitters are blown up. Radio Bandido broadcasts news of the revolt. Marcos makes plans to send out some of his most loyal soldiers in civilian clothing. Marcos intends to bring back martial law and he makes plans for the arrest of Aquino and 10. This is known as the Freedom Constitution. Directly across from Camp Aguinaldo is Camp Crame. Agapito Aquino. At 9am. Lieutenant General Ramos sympathise with the officers that want reform. President Aquino issues Proclamation No. At 11am. At 9:05pm. At 11:45pm. At 6pm. the government's main broadcasting complex in Quezon City is taken over by rebels. After several minutes of hovering. The soldiers do not expect this kind of resistance. his family and close associates would be welcome to live in the US. She calls for a national campaign of civil disobedience and a general strike to commence February 25 in protest.
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