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Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos

(Biography and Politics) Report in History

Jefferson Reyes Sarah Joy Villacrusis BSA 1-30D

Marcos was sworn into the Nacionalista by Jose P.1947. the most infamous Philippine president and one of the few prime ministers of the Philippines. Marcos continued his education at the University of the Philippines in 1933. Marcos received Bachelors of Laws and studied for the bar examinations while in prison. Marcos returned to Manila to resume law practice and served as technical assistant to President Roxas 1946 . Marcos transferred from school to school for his primary education during 1923 . In 1954. in Sarrat. . However.Chronology of Reports I. Marcos served as acting temporary president of the Liberal Party and ran for a seat in the Senate during his third term. In November 1964. Macros. During World War II. The Philippine Free Press called him lawyer of the year in the November 12. He married Imelda Romualdez on May 1. he met Imelda Romualdez in the Congress cafeteria. In September 1939.Education: In April 1939. he won the Nacionalista Party nominations for candidate in the presidential elections. In November 1939. Julio Nalundasan was shot dead shortly after being declared the winner. he was elected a senator and served as Senate president 1963 1965. In effect. Marcos gave way to Diosdado Macapagal as Liberal Party presidential candidate on the agreement that Macapagal would support Marcos as presidential candidate in the 1965 presidential elections. at the age of 32 he became the youngest member of the House of Representatives.1929. Some months later Marcos was found guilty by the Laoag Provincial Court and sentenced to imprisonment. His parents. in 1935. Marcos became a trial lawyer in Manila. He knew at that moment he would have to be his wife. Laurel granted Marcos acquittal after finding the prosecution's case contradictory. Biography: Ferdinand Edralin Marcos. The principal sponsor was President Magsaysay and the reception was held on Malacañan Palace grounds. 1917. Marcos has won his first case before he had even started to practice law. his father and two uncles stood trial before Laoag Provincial Court of First Instance.000 votes (both candidates had over three million votes each). after President Macapagal refused to honour their agreement and decided to run for re-election. 1954. II. He campaigned for a seat in Congress under the Liberal Party and in 1949. However. Marcos entered the University of the Philippines High School were he obtained his law degree with honours in 1933. In 1959. III. His father was also a politician and was an assemblyman and a representative of Ilocos Norte. He was captured by the Japanese but managed to survive and escape the Death March from Bataan to Central Luzon and then joined the guerrilla units in Luzon. he served in the Philippine armed forces. Political Careers: In 1946. American archive documents show Marcos had very little or no participation in the anti-Japanese guerrilla units. Marcos served as Macapagal's campaign manager. Julio Nalundasan in the local elections. Marcos was re-elected as congressman of Ilocos Norte in 1953 and again in 1957. Both Marcos and Macapagal spent about P32 million each. in Trinidad. The Supreme Court under Justice Jose P. 1940 issue. Marcos appealed to the Supreme Court and defended himself. In 1929. As a resulted of this. However. Ilocos Norte. Despite the simplicity of her appearance— she was in casual houseclothes and slippers—she impressed him. Laurel Jr. In 1961. Ferdinand Marcos. Don Mariano Marcos and Doña Josefa Edralin were both teachers. along with his father and two uncles. Don Mariano Marcos was defeated by his political enemy. was arrested and charged with the murder of Julio Nalundasan in 1938. The campaigns for the presidential elections of 1965 were very expensive and vicious. Ferdinand Marcos was summoned by the university dean on suspicion of cheating in the bar exams. During his second term in Congress. Marcos managed to justify his extremely high marks but was not allowed to take oath as his own trial was still pending. Marcos defeated Macapgal by just under 674. In April 1964. was born on September 11. He posted bail in August the same year to attend the bar exams. Benguet after a courtship of only eleven days.

600 troops in 1968 and between 1966 and 1970 over 10. He asked Congress to approve sending a combat engineer unit to South Vietnam. pornography and violence drove citizens from the streets. The national problems. however. a bounding birthrate and mass-education. Invoking the last constitutional defense of the state. the burden of centuries coupled with rising expectations. but as soon as it was lifted. nationalism at home and greater independence in foreign policy became the goals of Marcos’ life. In 1969. 1972. By the middle of 1972. President Ferdinand E. She sponsored tree planting and beautification and cleanliness drives at Luneta Park and around historic cemeteries. When the previous Philippine president. committing all the available resources to development. VIII. infrastructure and industry. Marcos embarked on a huge infrastructure program. bridges. he was returned to a second term—the first Filipino President to be so re-elected—and with the highest majority ever recorded in Philippine electoral history. 1965. Marcos was trapped between the entrenched oligarchy. He invigorated both populace and bureaucracy. which saw the confrontation of the Cold War give way to peaceful negotiations. He carefully steered the Republic’s diplomacy during a period of transition in international relations. Combining into an explosive force were poverty. Self-reliance and hard work to uplift the economic and social condition of all the people. VII. mainly being involved in civilian infrastructure projects. IV. the write of habeas corpus was suspended. V. soon after becoming president. rails and ports. This worked in the short term. the Marcos government gained Congressional approval and Philippine troops were send from the middle of 1966 as the Philippines Civic Action Group (PHILCAG). In Manila. radical agitation started again. He was host to the Vietnam allies at the Manila Summit of 1966. Presidency(First Term): His first term was innovative and inspirational. The people wallowed deeper in cynicism and despair. In August 1971. were much graver than could be solved in any single term of office. . Marcos declared martial law on September 21. suggested in 1964-1965 to send troops it had been Marcos who had led the opposition against this plan on both legal and moral grounds. Martial Law: The economic effects of this paralysis of government were made worse by great floods which in the Luzon plain ruined much of agriculture. This was followed by a film center where she could stage film festivals. and started filling in waterfront on Manila Bay on which to build a sprawling Cultural Center. New Society(First Term): Imelda began restoring Intramuros as a tourist attraction. VI. social inequity and rural stagnation. Despite opposition against the new plan. nearly the entire media turned dead set against the Administration and government was beginning to be slowed down by the intense rivalry between the political parties. Presidency(Second Term): Marcos’ four years of presidency earned him a record that surpassed that of any of the five presidents before him. that Marcos took up the leadership of a nation in crisis. Macapagal.000 Filipino soldiers served in South Vietnam.It was on December 30. As a result of this. which controlled the Congress and the firebrands from the Manila student movement in the peasant regions of Luzon. PHILCAG reached a strength of some 1. Marcos sent out the Army to face the resurgence of armed Communist activity and the emergence of Maoist urban guerrillas. and embarked on intense personal diplomacy throughout the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations). crime. Miss Universe contests and professional boxing matches between such reigning champions as Joe Frazier and Mohammed Ali. World War II: To the surprise of many. Marcos wanted the Philippines to become involved in the Vietnam War. unifying the scattered islands through a network of roads.

For the purpose of determining the cost of the land to be transferred to the tenant-farmer pursuant to this Decree. including interest at the rate of six (6) per centum per annum. Thousands of people including communists and activists were arrested and imprisoned without due process. The 1935 Constitution was suspended and replaced in 1973. for example. there is pressing need to accelerate the Agrarian Reform Program of the Government for the early attainment of the objectives set forth in Republic Act No. The total cost of the land. among such objectives is to achieve dignified existence for the small farmers free from the pernicious institutional restraints and practices which have not only retarded the agricultural development of the country but have also produced widespread discontent and unrest among our farmers. 3844. The particular term used for this concept may vary from country to country—the executive orders made by the President of the United States. the term refers to any authoritarian decision and. Marcos declared martial law on September 21. Many of the delegates in the convention were bribed into changing this to allow Marcos more terms. The 1935 Constitution denied him a third term in office. as amended. crime. according to certain procedures (usually established in a constitution). 1972 PROCLAIMING THE ENTIRE COUNTRY AS A LAND REFORM AREA WHEREAS. whether in land classified as landed estate or not. In all cases. it is often derogatory. 1081 placing the entire nation under martial law. On September 21. . WHEREAS. 1972. pornography and violence drove citizens from the streets. A semi-parliamentary form of government was established under the new constitution. The 1973 Constitution granted the president a term of six years in office with no limit number of terms. 1972.The economic effects of this paralysis of government were made worse by great floods which in the Luzon plain ruined much of agriculture. Marcos signed Proclamation No. shall be paid by the tenant in fifteen (15) years of fifteen (15) equal annual amortizations. however. are decrees (although a decree is not exactly an order). infrastructure and industry. The bribery scandal was exposed and this particular part of the constitution was not amended. 27 October 21. 2 September 26. the landowner may retain an area of not more than seven (7) hectares if such landowner is cultivating such area or will now cultivate it. President Ferdinand E. and WHEREAS. A decree is a rule of law issued by a head of state (such as the president of a republic). It has the force of law. In Manila. Marcos held the Constitution Convention in 1971. shall be deemed owner of a portion constituting a family-size farm of five (5) hectares if not irrigated and three (3) hectares if irrigated. The president was also mandated to continue in office under a period martial law. IX. PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. Invoking the last constitutional defense of the state. 1972 DECREEING THE EMANCIPATION OF TENANTS FROM THE BONDAGE OF THE SOIL. it is believed that the lasting objectives of land reform may be sooner realized if the whole country is declared a land reform area. New Society(Second Term): Land Reforms: PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. In non-legal English usage. one of the causes of the existing national emergency. The people wallowed deeper in cynicism and despair. TRANSFERRING TO THEM THE OWNERSHIP OF THE LAND THEY TILL AND PROVIDING THE INSTRUMENTS AND MECHANISM THEREFOR The tenant farmer. in this sense. the value of the land shall be equivalent to two and one-half (2 1/2) times the average harvest of three normal crop years immediately preceding the promulgation of this Decree.

Every employer shall give his employees a rest period of not less than twenty-four consecutive hours for each period of seven days. PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES Other Reforms: *3-R(Writing. traditionally nonacademic. 148 March 13.Education Reform: PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. Parañaque. 143 March 3. San Juan.prepares trainees for jobs that are based on manual or practical activities. Navotas. Mandaluyong. WHETHER FOR PROFIT OR NOT.English: English.It is require to children and students render manual labor. however. Las Piñas. Reading. 1973 . in the Province of Rizal. and totally related to a specific trade. Pasig and Marikina. It is sometimes referred to as technical education as the trainee directly develops expertise in a particular group of techniques or technology.High School graduate cannot pursue an Higher Education or colleges unless they passed the National College Entrance Examination *YCAP(Youth Civic Action Program). The employer shall determine and schedule the weekly rest day of his employees. Quezon City. Thirty pesos a month for house helpers in other municipalities. or vocation. Malabon. occupation. 1973 PRESCRIBING A WEEKLY REST PERIOD FOR WORKING IN ANY UNDERTAKING OR ENTERPRISE. AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES Weekly Rest Day. Muntinlupa. PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. 1973 PROVIDING FOR MINIMUM COMPENSATION FOR HOUSEHOLD HELPERS Sixty pesos a month for house helpers in Manila. Provided. PROVIDING FOR THE MECHANICS OF IMPLEMENTATION AND FINANCING THEREOF. That the preference of an employee as to his weekly rest day shall be respected by the employer if the same is based on religious grounds. Back to the basic Program *Bilingual Policy. subject to collective bargaining agreement and to such rules and regulations as the Secretary of Labor may prescribe. Forty five pesos a month for house helpers in the other chartered cities and first class municipalities. streets and plazas and to raise chickens and vegetables to contribute to the country’s economic development *Vocational Education. 1972 AUTHORIZING THE UNDERTAKING OF EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS. and the municipalities of Makati. Arithmetic). 99 January 15. Labor Reforms: PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. 6-A September 29. like cleaning their School premises. Math and Science Subjects only Filipino: Other Subjects like Filipino and MAKABAYAN *NCEE(National College Entrance Examination). town. Pasay City and Caloocan City.

to avoid economic stagnation. Economic Reforms: *Increase collections of Taxes *More Foreign Loans *OFW *Vast spending on infrastructure *Annual GNP growth of 7% ==> GNP. to bring about normality in the economic and social activities of the people. WHEREAS. except where the child works directly under the sole responsibility of his parent or guardian. GNP is one measure of the economic condition of a country. the rehabilitation and reconstruction of damaged infrastructure facilities due to the recent calamities is a primordial duty of the Government. Liberal credit and extension work was the “secret” of Masagana 99 *Educated agricultural technicians . all other things being equal. the president Balikbayan Program.AMENDING FURTHER CERTAIN SECTIONS OF REPUBLIC ACT NUMBERED SIX HUNDRED SEVENTYNINE.sufficiency in food.the total value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a particular year. It sets its sights on self. 3 September 26. PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. Under this. Manila’s Hotels. Minimum Employable Age. No child below 14 years of age shall be employed by any employer. COMMONLY KNOWN AS THE WOMAN AND CHILD LABOR LAW. under the assumption that a higher GNP leads to a higher quality of living. GNP measures the value of goods and services that the country's citizens produced regardless of their location. infrastructure buildup. SYNCHRONIZING THE SAME WITH PREVIOUS PUBLIC WORKS APPROPRIATIONS WHEREAS. in addition to rehabilitation and reconstruction. program.4 tons of unmilled rice (palay) per hectare. uses similar methods employed under Masagana 99. Filipino in foreign countries the country are given reduced plane tickets by the Philippine Airlines. plus income earned by its citizens (including income of those located abroad). and other privileges. Masagana 99: Masagana 99 Launched in 1973. 1972 APPROPRIATING FUNDS FOR PUBLIC WORKS INVOLVING REHABILITATION AND CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT.Creating the Department of Tourism. To boost the tourist industry. the movement aspires to have the farmers increase their production to 99 sacks of 4. the implementation of the rehabilitation and reconstruction and the undertaking of other development projects would require the availment of financial assistance preferred by international lending institutions and other governments. using modern methods of irrigation. Masagana Program Movement designed to accelerate production of yellow hybrid corn. AS AMENDED. and input increases. WHEREAS. development efforts must be carried on with even greater effect. involving activities which are not hazardous in nature and which do not in any way interfere with his schooling. Basically." Tourism: a unique who come visit lower rates in *Presidential Decree 189. minus income of non-residents located in that country.

insurrection. etc.. Albay *An International Airport *Housing Projects *Restorations – Intramuros.Provided farmers with full credit support *After 3 years. Laguna *Tiwi. the Philippines experienced its highest productivity increase in rice production (1976-1985) *Masagana 99 uplifted the lives of the farmers Mobilized government resources to help the farmers in rural areas (helicopters. Province *Makban. Albay X. Mt.) Infrastructures: *Hospitals Specialty Hospitals – Philippine Heart Center.Ikaw Bangko Industriya Gobyerno) *Government Buildings BLISS(Bagong Lipunan of Sites and Services) Pag-IBIG(Pagtutulungan sa kinabukasan. Fourth Republic:  Proclamation No. Kidney Institute. etc… *Philippine International Convention Center *Makiling Center for the Arts (National Arts Center) *Malacañang ti Amianan (Laoag) *Nayong Pilipino *Museum for Native Art (Tacloban) *Palace In the Sky (Tagaytay) *BLISS(Bagong Lipunan of Sites and Services) *Pag-IBIG(Pagtutulungan sa kinabukasan. 2045 *The Armed Forces of the Philippines shall continue to prevent suppress lawless crimes. hydroelectric plants Geothermal Energy: *Benguet. Luneta Park. People Power Revolution: Death of Benigno Simeon Aquino Jr. or subversion of the country *The suspension of Writ of Habeas Corpus shall continue in the two autonomous regions of Mindanao *The President shall retained strong powers to make laws and to arrest opponents XI. rebellion. Lung Center.Ikaw Bangko Industriya Gobyerno) *Bridges: San Juanico Bridge (Samar and Leyte) *Toll-Ways: Manila North Diversion Road(North Luzon Expressway) *Roads and Highways: Marcos Highway (Baguio) Geothermal Energy *Benguet. Mt. Laguna *Tiwi.: . Philippine Children Hospital *Schools *Power Plants – geothermal plants. Province *Makban.

People Power Revolution(February 22-25. Edgardo Doromal. such as the airport. The Marcos inauguration is a pathetic affair. where they announced that they had resigned from their positions in Marcos's cabinet and were withdrawing support from his government. The Marcos government claimed Galman was the triggerman in Aquino's assassination. however. military bases. placing phone calls to influential Filipinos and begging to be allowed to stay on as an "Honorary President." On the 25th both Aquino and Marcos hold separate inaugurations. He must be astonished to see his power.'s widow Corazon C. Gen Fidel Ramos. Due to the reports of fraud. urging them to "stop this stupidity. Air Force plane headed . President Ferdinand E. the crony banks.S. Both "winners" took their oath of office in two different places. which seemed so absolute only a few weeks ago. 1986): Appalled by the bold and apparent election irregularities. This chain of events eventually led to the resignation of Marcos' Defence Minister Juan Ponce Enrile and military vice-chiefFidel Ramos. the GHQAFP in Camp Aguinaldo. who then decided to seclude themselves in the military and police headquarters at Camp Aguinaldo and Camp Crame respectively. Enrile and his fellow coup plotters decided to ask for help from then AFP Vice Chief of Staff Lt. Marcos himself later conducted his own news conference calling on Enrile and Ramos to surrender. and the last one was let out in March 2009. evaporate so quickly and completely. Instead. Rolando Galman.Aquino was assassinated on August 21. However. Maj. The electoral exercise was marred by alleged fraud from both sides of the political fence as well as violence. Benigno Aquino. 1986): Presidential and Vice-Presidential snap elections were held on February 7. he ordered their leaders' arrest. Other military units will be taking over key strategic facilities. The opposition headed by Sen. and media were hit hard. theCatholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) issued a statement condemning the elections. The initial plan was for a team to assault Malacañang Palace and arrest Ferdinand Marcos. A subsequent investigation produced controversy but produced no definitive results. Lt. and their shares in the stock market plummeted to record levels. and major highway junctions to restrict counteroffensive by Marcos-loyal troops. 1986 in the Philippines. the Reform the Armed Forces Movement set into motion a coup attempt against Marcos. Jr. attended by family members and a few paid guests. some were released. Behind the scenes Marcos is maneuvering to save face. As a result. Aquino and former senator Salvador Laurel refused to accept the allegedly fraudulent result. At about 6:30pm. February 22. At Clark Air base they board a U. was shot dead on-board shortly after Aquino was killed. COMELEC Walk-Out: On February 15. 1986.Col Gregorio Honasan was to lead the team that was going to assault Malacañang Palace. the United States Senate passed a resolution stating the same. with Aquino gaining greater mass support. Marcos and former Foreign Affairs Minister and Senate President Arturo Tolentino were proclaimed winners by the Batasang Pambansa as well as the official election canvasser. Over the years. After the Marcos government was overthrown. The Filipino people refused to accept the results. Enrile and Ramos held a press conference at Camp Aguinaldo. All 50 opposition members of the Parliament walked out in protest. corporations. Snap Election(February 7. Marcos and his family sneak out the back door of Malacañang Palace and take a boat across the Pasig River where helicopters are waiting." or at least to remain in the Philippines as a private citizen. On March 24. it mandated that Aquino and Laurel were the real winners of the snap elections. 1983 when he was shot in the head after returning to the country. bodyguards were assigned to him by the Marcos government. leading to the People Power Revolution which precipitated Marcos's departure from the country into exile in Hawaii. Enrile also contacted the highly influential Cardinal Archbishop of Manila Jaime Sin for his support. Another man on the plane. Saulito Aromin and Maj. TV and radio stations. the Regular Batasang Pambansa made a people's resolution signed by 150 lawmakers which nullified the election returns that proclaimed that Marcos and Tolentino as the winners. asserting that Aquino was the real victor. Marcos was proclaimed by COMELEC and Batasang Pambansa as the winner amidst the controversy. another investigation found sixteen defendants guilty. and presented to the international and local press some of the captured plotters. the Commission on Elections (COMELEC) thus granting President Marcos another six-year term as President of the Philippines. They were all sentenced to life in prison. At about nine o'clock that night. but evidence suggests this was not the case. Aquino also called for coordinated strikes and mass boycott of the media and businesses owned by Marcos's cronies. Marcos and Tolentino won by over a million votes according to the COMELEC. after Marcos learned about the plot. At the time. Ramos agreed to resign from his position and support the plotters. who was also the chief of the Philippine Constabulary (now the Philippine National Police). Threatened with their impending imprisonment.

bridges. 1081 which places the entire country under martial law. Diosdado Macapagal replaces Garcia as president of the Constitutional Convention. meaning Marcos could continue in power after his second term ended. 1971: A Liberal Party rally being held at the Plaza Miranda is bombed. Fighting erupts in Muslim Mindanao with the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF). The CPP also forms the New People's Army (NPA). . Marcos blames the communists. who ruled for twenty years as one of the world's most powerful dictators. But because the Filipino people created major political change largely without violence. 1965: Ferdinand Marcos is elected president for the first time. There is some fighting and retribution against citizens and troops who had been loyal to Marcos. 1972: Marcos issues Proclamation No. Criticism begins to grow from the dishonesty of his 1969 campaign and his lack of response concerning the issue of bribery and corruption within the government. national reconciliation was that much easier. his popularity begins to decline. After violent revolutions there are always scores to settle. Later into his term. grudges to satisfy. Significance of People Power Revolution: *Courage and sacrifices *Ousted dictatorship and restored Democracy *Giving an inspiration throughout the world *Miracle of God in answering their prayers ==Important Dates== The Demise of the Third Republic December 30. and the cycle of violence continues. The convention is tarnished by a number of scandals. Poverty and violence increase as the population grows faster than the economy. Some delegates are bribed into voting against this in the new constitution. June 14. The 1935 Constitution stated that the president may not serve more than eight consecutive years in office. August 21. the presence of the US military bases and the subservience of the Marcos administration to US interests and policies. is now just a sick old man fleeing his country like a frightened dog. 1971: Carlos Garcia dies from a heart attack. When Marcos' departure is announced jubilant Filipinos celebrate in the streets and flood into Malacañang Palace. January 1970: The most violent student protest takes place as thousands of students try to storm the gates of Malacañan Palace (Battle of Mendiola). abuses of the military. which includes building roads. The Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) take advantage of the growing discontent with the Marcos administration to increase number and strength. He maintains popularity during his first term with a spending program on public works.for Guam. revenge to extract. 1969: Ferdinand Marcos is re-elected for a second term. June 1. Marcos. health centres. high student tuition fees. Martial Law Period September 21. human rights violations. a communist guerrilla army. militarisation. 1971: The 1971 Constitutional Convention is held to review and rewrite the 1935 Constitution with Carlos Garcia elected as president. December 30. Labour strikes and student protests follow. Delegate Eduardo Quintero was harassed by the government for exposing the bribery attempt. but it is minimal. schools and beautification projects.

Salvador Laurel. The economic growth rate averages 6% . it was not very specific about how long martial law should last.7% during 1970 . which he controls.3 billion in 1970 to US$24. for a decision on the election result. he is shot in the back of the head by the military escort. COMELEC reports Marcos in the lead. January 17. 1972: Marcos addresses to the nation concerning the need for martial law. February 15. The GNP of the Philippines increases from P55 billion in 1972 to P193 billion in 1980. December 3. activists. 1986: Marcos refers to the National Assembly. The number of tourists increases from 200. Marcos implements a number of economic programs. January 17. June 30. 1985: Ninoy Aquino's widow. The Aquino and Laurel families are fierce rivals in Philippine politics. Political parties are suspended. journalists. Corzaon Aquino. By 1976. manufacturing and financial sectors (this would eventually lead to the extraction of billions from the Philippine economy). With pay rises and selective promotions. Marcos maintains his vast powers and authoritarian rule. Marcos uses the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) under General Fabian Ver. February 7. As he prepares to descend the steps from the plane to ground level. Debt rises from US$2. 1981: In the first election since martial law. they work together to in an attempt to defeat Marcos. construction. The election is officially organised and conducted by the government's Commission on Elections (COMELEC).000 in 1980. He announces the establishment of a New Republic of the Philippines. critics. While the 1935 Constitution stated the president may not serve more than eight consecutive years in office. The National Movement for Free Elections (NAMFREL) is an organisation of 300. 1981: Marcos issues Proclamation No. declares her candidacy for president while Salvado Laurel is to run for vice-president. 2045. which replaces Congress with a National Assembly (the semiparliament. violence and intimidation. Communist guerrillas also contribute to the lifting of martial law by a campaign of bomb attacks in Metro Manila in an attempt to end martial law. The Fourth Republic June 16. . He is amongst the first of the 30. However. In the count. Martial law is lifted to show Filipinos and the world that the situation in the Philippines is back to normal and to show the 1973 Constitution and the government are working smoothly. Batasang Pambansa). lifting martial law.4 billion in 1983. To attract foreign capital. The business community loses confidence by the assassination and capital begins to leave the country at about US$12 million a day. NAMFREL has close connections to the Roman Catholic Church and most of the volunteer work is done at local parishes by priests and nuns.000. The National Assembly declares Marcos the winner. the economic boom is largely debt driven with the Philippines becoming increasingly dependent upon loans from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank with heavy borrowing from other banks and organisations.000 people to be arrested which also includes political opposition. The only time political parties are permitted to resurface was for elections for either the National Assembly or elections held for local offices (such as mayor and governor offices). such as tax exemption and bringing out profits in foreign currencies. Corruption within the government remains high and an estimated 10% of the GNP is being pocketed. leaving it to the president's own judgement. and an increasing political threat to Marcos. communists and other such forces that contribute to deterioration of the law to be detained under martial law. investors are offered incentives.40% of the voters names are struck from the registration lists. bans public assemblies. while NAMFREL reports an Aquino-Laurel majority. He imposes curfew. he establishes monopolies in the agricultural. However. the Philippines is self-sufficient in rise and begins exporting. With his wife. outlaws protest movements and takes control of the media. 1983: Ninoy Aquino arrives at Manila International Airport after returning from the US. an accomplished politician.1980 compared with 5% in the previous decade. Very few actually vote in the election. August 21. Throughout the second term: To encourage economic growth. Cory Aquino lacks political experience as she was only a simple housewife before her husband's assassination. all the orders and decrees issued under martial law are still in effect.000 per year to 1. In many electoral districts 10% . 1986: The snap elections are held. 1973: Marcos brings in a new constitution. The campaign is a travesty of vote buying. Senator Ninoy Aquino of the Liberal Party had become increasingly popular with the people. a coalition of opposition groups in the National Assembly. However. Marcos is declared the winner with 88% of the vote. Farmers are given technical and financial aid and other incentives. 1981: Marcos takes his oath of office for a six-year term. but through the efforts of Cardinal Sin.September 23. leads the United National Democratic Organisation. his means of maintaining power. family and friends.000 volunteers determined to protect the electoral process from fraud and abuse. and extends the presidential term from four years to six with no limit on the number of terms.

1986: Although Marcos wants to recoup at Laoag. the government's main broadcasting complex in Quezon City is taken over by rebels. freedom of assembly and a free press. Marcos could then use this to justify imposing martial law again. However. which is the main means of access to both camps. Marcos also tries to take office in a separate ceremony in Malacañan Palace. 1986: At 6am. February 24. the adoption of a temporary constitution and a transitional government. civil war will be the outcome. Marcos has left the Philippines in a bankrupt state with a debt of about US$28 billion. The crowds below can do nothing to stop an airborne attack. his family and close associates would be welcome to live in the US. Marcos receives a message from President Reagan that he. . At 9:05pm. At 11pm. a formation of helicopter gun ships approach Camp Crame. February 25. American helicopters evacuate Marcos and 120 others to Clark Air Base. EDSA is one of the main and most important highways for traffic flow in Metro Manila. 1986: Most of the military have deserted Marcos in support of Aquino. he and his party leave at dawn for Guam and then Hawaii at the insistence of President Aquino. Directly across from Camp Aguinaldo is Camp Crame. Only the Soviet Union ambassador attends. Marcos makes plans to send out some of his most loyal soldiers in civilian clothing. and have Aquino and her supporters arrested. Throughout the night. Enrile and Ramos appeal to the military to join them in the revolt against Marcos. Lieutenant General Ramos sympathise with the officers that want reform. the station's transmitters are blown up. Radio Bandido broadcasts news of the revolt. At 9am. At 10:30pm. Those who escape being arrested make their way to the Ministry of Defence at Camp Aguinaldo. The EDSA Revolution or People Power Revolution begins. February 27. the gun ships land at Camp Crame and the crews join the revolt. 1986: EDSA and access to the military camps is now completely jammed. Marcos finds out about the coup attempt by the military rebels. At 6pm. At 11:45pm. which he threatens to crush using his vast powers. somewhere in the region of a million people come out to defend the military rebels. At 7pm. his political base in Northern Luzon. 1986: A group of young officers in the military begin making their own plans to overthrow President Marcos. Radio Veritas. by Associate Justice Teehankee. Their previous pleas for reform had been ignored by Marcos and General Ver. At 11am. a single helicopter approaches the presidential residence and fires six rockets at Malacañan Palace. 1986: Cory Aquino and almost a million of her supporters attend a rally in Rizal Park. 3. asks people to defend the rebels through the church-operated station. Manila. the tanks stop when they reach the crowds of people who stand their ground. A column of tanks roll down EDSA to remove the rebels. Agapito Aquino. The broadcast of the ceremony is cut off just after it begins. The US ambassador in the Philippines personally forwards a message from the US to Marcos that if he does not step down. Secretary of Defence Enrile and vice-chief of staff.000 of her followers in an attempt to deal with her campaign of disobedience and general strikes. Marcos issues warnings against the strike movement. Only two hours after Aquino has been sworn in as president. they hold a press conference calling for Marcos to resign. February 22. The soldiers do not expect this kind of resistance. This is known as the Freedom Constitution. A few hours later Cardinal Sin repeats Agapito's call for support. Aquino and Laurel are sworn in as president and vice-president respectively. Club Filipino. Ninoy's brother. They have only a few hundred soldiers to defend them. They would pretend to be Aquino supporters and would go onto the streets of Metro Manila spreading terror and violence. President Aquino immediately restores the basic civil liberties of free speech. President Aquino issues Proclamation No. Marcos intends to bring back martial law and he makes plans for the arrest of Aquino and 10. However. Marcos telephones Enrile to ask for American protection while leaving Malacañan Palace. in a suburban Manila nightclub. and are not prepared to kill many unarmed civilians in order to reach the military rebels. The officers involved want reform within the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP). She calls for a national campaign of civil disobedience and a general strike to commence February 25 in protest. The naval base at Cavite reports to the rebels that warships were on station at the mouth of the Pasig River and are standing by for orders to shell Malacañan Palace. Angry crowds gather outside Malacañan Palace in the afternoon. After several minutes of hovering. Later.The EDSA Revolution February 16. February 23. Radio Veritas is the only station broadcasting news of the revolt. In between there is the Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA). The air force refuses orders from General Ver to bomb Camp Crame.