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Edralin Marcos
(Biography and Politics)

Report in History

Jefferson Reyes
Sarah Joy Villacrusis
BSA 1-30D
Chronology of Reports
I. Biography:
Ferdinand Edralin Marcos, the most infamous Philippine president and one of the few prime ministers of
the Philippines, was born on September 11, 1917, in Sarrat, Ilocos Norte. His parents, Don Mariano Marcos and Doña Josefa
Edralin were both teachers. As a resulted of this, Marcos transferred from school to school for his primary education during
1923 - 1929. In 1929, Marcos entered the University of the Philippines High School were he obtained his law degree with
honours in 1933. Marcos continued his education at the University of the Philippines in 1933. His father was also a politician
and was an assemblyman and a representative of Ilocos Norte. However, in 1935, Don Mariano Marcos was defeated by his
political enemy, Julio Nalundasan in the local elections. Julio Nalundasan was shot dead shortly after being declared the
winner. Ferdinand Marcos, along with his father and two uncles, was arrested and charged with the murder of Julio
Nalundasan in 1938.

In April 1939, Marcos received Bachelors of Laws and studied for the bar examinations while in prison. He
posted bail in August the same year to attend the bar exams. In September 1939, Macros, his father and two uncles stood trial
before Laoag Provincial Court of First Instance. In November 1939, Ferdinand Marcos was summoned by the university dean
on suspicion of cheating in the bar exams. Marcos managed to justify his extremely high marks but was not allowed to take
oath as his own trial was still pending. Some months later Marcos was found guilty by the Laoag Provincial Court and
sentenced to imprisonment.

Marcos appealed to the Supreme Court and defended himself. The Supreme Court under Justice Jose P.
Laurel granted Marcos acquittal after finding the prosecution's case contradictory. In effect, Marcos has won his first case
before he had even started to practice law. The Philippine Free Press called him lawyer of the year in the November 12, 1940
issue. Marcos became a trial lawyer in Manila. During World War II, he served in the Philippine armed forces. He was
captured by the Japanese but managed to survive and escape the Death March from Bataan to Central Luzon and then joined
the guerrilla units in Luzon. However, American archive documents show Marcos had very little or no participation in the
anti-Japanese guerrilla units.

III. Political Careers:

In 1946, Marcos returned to Manila to resume law practice and served as technical assistant to President
Roxas 1946 - 1947. He campaigned for a seat in Congress under the Liberal Party and in 1949, at the age of 32 he became the
youngest member of the House of Representatives. Marcos was re-elected as congressman of Ilocos Norte in 1953 and again
in 1957. He married Imelda Romualdez on May 1, 1954, in Trinidad, Benguet after a courtship of only eleven days. The
principal sponsor was President Magsaysay and the reception was held on Malacañan Palace grounds.

During his second term in Congress, Marcos served as acting temporary president of the Liberal Party and
ran for a seat in the Senate during his third term. In 1959, he was elected a senator and served as Senate president 1963 -
1965. In 1961, Marcos gave way to Diosdado Macapagal as Liberal Party presidential candidate on the agreement that
Macapagal would support Marcos as presidential candidate in the 1965 presidential elections. Marcos served as Macapagal's
campaign manager.

In 1954, he met Imelda Romualdez in the Congress cafeteria. Despite the simplicity of her appearance—
she was in casual houseclothes and slippers—she impressed him. He knew at that moment he would have to be his wife.

In April 1964, Marcos was sworn into the Nacionalista by Jose P. Laurel Jr. after President Macapagal
refused to honour their agreement and decided to run for re-election. In November 1964, he won the Nacionalista Party
nominations for candidate in the presidential elections. The campaigns for the presidential elections of 1965 were very
expensive and vicious. Both Marcos and Macapagal spent about P32 million each. However, Marcos defeated Macapgal by
just under 674,000 votes (both candidates had over three million votes each).
It was on December 30, 1965, that Marcos took up the leadership of a nation in crisis. Self-reliance and
hard work to uplift the economic and social condition of all the people, nationalism at home and greater independence in
foreign policy became the goals of Marcos’ life.

IV. Presidency(First Term):

His first term was innovative and inspirational. He invigorated both populace and bureaucracy. Marcos
embarked on a huge infrastructure program, unifying the scattered islands through a network of roads, bridges, rails and
ports, committing all the available resources to development. He carefully steered the Republic’s diplomacy during a period
of transition in international relations, which saw the confrontation of the Cold War give way to peaceful negotiations. He
was host to the Vietnam allies at the Manila Summit of 1966, and embarked on intense personal diplomacy throughout the
ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations).

V. New Society(First Term):

Imelda began restoring Intramuros as a tourist attraction, and started filling in waterfront on Manila Bay on
which to build a sprawling Cultural Center. This was followed by a film center where she could stage film festivals, Miss
Universe contests and professional boxing matches between such reigning champions as Joe Frazier and Mohammed Ali. She
sponsored tree planting and beautification and cleanliness drives at Luneta Park and around historic cemeteries.

VI. World War II:

To the surprise of many, soon after becoming president, Marcos wanted the Philippines to become involved in the Vietnam
War. He asked Congress to approve sending a combat engineer unit to South Vietnam. When the previous Philippine
president, Macapagal, suggested in 1964-1965 to send troops it had been Marcos who had led the opposition against this plan
on both legal and moral grounds. Despite opposition against the new plan, the Marcos government gained Congressional
approval and Philippine troops were send from the middle of 1966 as the Philippines Civic Action Group (PHILCAG).
PHILCAG reached a strength of some 1,600 troops in 1968 and between 1966 and 1970 over 10,000 Filipino soldiers served
in South Vietnam, mainly being involved in civilian infrastructure projects.

VII. Presidency(Second Term):

Marcos’ four years of presidency earned him a record that surpassed that of any of the five presidents
before him. In 1969, he was returned to a second term—the first Filipino President to be so re-elected—and with the highest
majority ever recorded in Philippine electoral history.

The national problems, however, were much graver than could be solved in any single term of office.
Combining into an explosive force were poverty, social inequity and rural stagnation, the burden of centuries coupled with
rising expectations, a bounding birthrate and mass-education. Marcos was trapped between the entrenched oligarchy, which
controlled the Congress and the firebrands from the Manila student movement in the peasant regions of Luzon.

As a result of this, Marcos sent out the Army to face the resurgence of armed Communist activity and the
emergence of Maoist urban guerrillas. In August 1971, the write of habeas corpus was suspended.

This worked in the short term, but as soon as it was lifted, radical agitation started again. By the middle of
1972, nearly the entire media turned dead set against the Administration and government was beginning to be slowed down
by the intense rivalry between the political parties.

VIII. Martial Law:

The economic effects of this paralysis of government were made worse by great floods which in the Luzon plain ruined much
of agriculture, infrastructure and industry. The people wallowed deeper in cynicism and despair. In Manila, crime,
pornography and violence drove citizens from the streets. Invoking the last constitutional defense of the state, President
Ferdinand E. Marcos declared martial law on September 21, 1972.
The economic effects of this paralysis of government were made worse by great floods which in the Luzon
plain ruined much of agriculture, infrastructure and industry. The people wallowed deeper in cynicism and despair. In
Manila, crime, pornography and violence drove citizens from the streets. Invoking the last constitutional defense of the state,
President Ferdinand E. Marcos declared martial law on September 21, 1972.

Marcos held the Constitution Convention in 1971. The 1935 Constitution denied him a third term in office. Many of the
delegates in the convention were bribed into changing this to allow Marcos more terms. The bribery scandal was exposed and
this particular part of the constitution was not amended. On September 21, 1972, Marcos signed Proclamation No.
1081 placing the entire nation under martial law. Thousands of people including communists and activists were arrested and
imprisoned without due process. The 1935 Constitution was suspended and replaced in 1973. The 1973 Constitution granted
the president a term of six years in office with no limit number of terms. The president was also mandated to continue in
office under a period martial law. A semi-parliamentary form of government was established under the new constitution.

A decree is a rule of law issued by a head of state (such as the president of a republic), according to certain procedures
(usually established in a constitution). It has the force of law. The particular term used for this concept may vary from
country to country—the executive orders made by the President of the United States, for example, are decrees (although a
decree is not exactly an order). In non-legal English usage, however, the term refers to any authoritarian decision and, in this
sense, it is often derogatory.

IX. New Society(Second Term):

Land Reforms:
PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. 2 September 26, 1972


WHEREAS, there is pressing need to accelerate the Agrarian Reform Program of the Government for the
early attainment of the objectives set forth in Republic Act No. 3844, as amended;

WHEREAS, among such objectives is to achieve dignified existence for the small farmers free from the
pernicious institutional restraints and practices which have not only retarded the agricultural development of the country but
have also produced widespread discontent and unrest among our farmers, one of the causes of the existing national
emergency; and

WHEREAS, it is believed that the lasting objectives of land reform may be sooner realized if the whole
country is declared a land reform area;

PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. 27 October 21, 1972


The tenant farmer, whether in land classified as landed estate or not, shall be deemed owner of a portion
constituting a family-size farm of five (5) hectares if not irrigated and three (3) hectares if irrigated;

In all cases, the landowner may retain an area of not more than seven (7) hectares if such landowner is
cultivating such area or will now cultivate it;

For the purpose of determining the cost of the land to be transferred to the tenant-farmer pursuant to this
Decree, the value of the land shall be equivalent to two and one-half (2 1/2) times the average harvest of three normal crop
years immediately preceding the promulgation of this Decree;

The total cost of the land, including interest at the rate of six (6) per centum per annum, shall be paid by the
tenant in fifteen (15) years of fifteen (15) equal annual amortizations;
Education Reform:
PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. 6-A September 29, 1972



Other Reforms:
*3-R(Writing, Reading, Arithmetic), Back to the basic Program
*Bilingual Policy- English: English, Math and Science Subjects only
Filipino: Other Subjects like Filipino and MAKABAYAN
*NCEE(National College Entrance Examination)- High School graduate cannot pursue an Higher
Education or colleges unless they passed the National
College Entrance Examination
*YCAP(Youth Civic Action Program)- It is require to children and students render manual labor, like
cleaning their
School premises, town, streets and plazas and to raise chickens and
vegetables to contribute to the country’s
economic development
*Vocational Education- prepares trainees for jobs that are based on manual or practical activities,
traditionally non- academic, and totally related to a specific
trade, occupation, or vocation. It is sometimes referred to as technical education as
the trainee directly develops expertise in a particular group of techniques
or technology.

Labor Reforms:
PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. 99 January 15, 1973


Sixty pesos a month for house helpers in Manila, Quezon City, Pasay City and Caloocan City, and the
municipalities of Makati, San Juan, Mandaluyong, Muntinlupa, Navotas, Malabon, Parañaque, Las Piñas, Pasig and
Marikina, in the Province of Rizal.

Forty five pesos a month for house helpers in the other chartered cities and first class municipalities.

Thirty pesos a month for house helpers in other municipalities.

PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. 143 March 3, 1973



Weekly Rest Day. Every employer shall give his employees a rest period of not less than twenty-four consecutive hours for
each period of seven days. The employer shall determine and schedule the weekly rest day of his employees, subject to
collective bargaining agreement and to such rules and regulations as the Secretary of Labor may prescribe; Provided,
however, That the preference of an employee as to his weekly rest day shall be respected by the employer if the same is based
on religious grounds.

PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. 148 March 13, 1973


Minimum Employable Age. No child below 14 years of age shall be employed by any employer, except
where the child works directly under the sole responsibility of his parent or guardian, involving activities which are not
hazardous in nature and which do not in any way interfere with his schooling."

*Presidential Decree 189- Creating the Department of Tourism. To boost the tourist industry, the president
a unique Balikbayan Program. Under this, program, Filipino in foreign countries
who come visit the country are given reduced plane tickets by the Philippine Airlines,
lower rates in Manila’s Hotels, and other privileges.

PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. 3 September 26, 1972



WHEREAS, the rehabilitation and reconstruction of damaged infrastructure facilities due to the recent
calamities is a primordial duty of the Government, to bring about normality in the economic and social activities of the

WHEREAS, in addition to rehabilitation and reconstruction, development efforts must be carried on with
even greater effect, to avoid economic stagnation;

WHEREAS, the implementation of the rehabilitation and reconstruction and the undertaking of other
development projects would require the availment of financial assistance preferred by international lending institutions and
other governments;

Economic Reforms:
*Increase collections of Taxes
*More Foreign Loans
*Vast spending on infrastructure
*Annual GNP growth of 7%
==> GNP- the total value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a particular
year, plus income earned by its citizens (including income of those
located abroad), minus income of non-residents located in that country. Basically, GNP
measures the value of goods and services that the country's citizens produced
regardless of their location. GNP is one measure of the economic condition of a country, under
the assumption that a higher GNP leads to a higher quality of living, all other things
being equal.

Masagana 99:
Masagana 99 Launched in 1973, the movement aspires to have the farmers increase their production to 99
sacks of 4.4 tons of unmilled rice (palay) per hectare. It sets its sights on self- sufficiency in food, using modern methods of
irrigation, infrastructure buildup, and input increases.

Masagana Program Movement designed to accelerate production of yellow hybrid corn; uses similar
methods employed under Masagana 99.

Liberal credit and extension work was the “secret” of Masagana 99

*Educated agricultural technicians
Provided farmers with full credit support
*After 3 years, the Philippines experienced its highest
productivity increase in rice production (1976-1985)
*Masagana 99 uplifted the lives of the farmers
Mobilized government resources to help the farmers in
rural areas (helicopters, etc..)

Specialty Hospitals – Philippine Heart Center, Lung
Center, Kidney Institute, Philippine Children Hospital
*Power Plants – geothermal plants, hydroelectric plants
Geothermal Energy:
*Benguet, Mt. Province
*Makban, Laguna
*Tiwi, Albay
*An International Airport
*Housing Projects
*Restorations – Intramuros, Luneta Park, etc…
*Philippine International Convention Center
*Makiling Center for the Arts (National Arts Center)
*Malacañang ti Amianan (Laoag)
*Nayong Pilipino
*Museum for Native Art (Tacloban)
*Palace In the Sky (Tagaytay)
*BLISS(Bagong Lipunan of Sites and Services)
*Pag-IBIG(Pagtutulungan sa kinabukasan- Ikaw Bangko
Industriya Gobyerno)
*Government Buildings
BLISS(Bagong Lipunan of Sites and Services)
Pag-IBIG(Pagtutulungan sa kinabukasan- Ikaw Bangko
Industriya Gobyerno)

San Juanico Bridge (Samar and Leyte)
Manila North Diversion Road(North Luzon Expressway)
*Roads and Highways:
Marcos Highway (Baguio)
Geothermal Energy
*Benguet, Mt. Province
*Makban, Laguna
*Tiwi, Albay

X. Fourth Republic:
 Proclamation No. 2045
*The Armed Forces of the Philippines shall continue to prevent suppress lawless crimes,
insurrection, rebellion, or subversion of the country
*The suspension of Writ of Habeas Corpus shall continue in the two autonomous regions of Mindanao
*The President shall retained strong powers to make laws and to arrest

XI. People Power Revolution:

Death of Benigno Simeon Aquino Jr.:

Aquino was assassinated on August 21, 1983 when he was shot in the head after returning to the country. At the time,
bodyguards were assigned to him by the Marcos government. A subsequent investigation produced controversy but produced
no definitive results. After the Marcos government was overthrown, another investigation found sixteen defendants guilty.
They were all sentenced to life in prison. Over the years, some were released, and the last one was let out in March 2009.
Another man on the plane, Rolando Galman, was shot dead on-board shortly after Aquino was killed. The Marcos
government claimed Galman was the triggerman in Aquino's assassination, but evidence suggests this was not the case.

Snap Election(February 7, 1986):

Presidential and Vice-Presidential snap elections were held on February 7, 1986 in the Philippines.
President Ferdinand E. Marcos and former Foreign Affairs Minister and Senate President Arturo Tolentino were proclaimed
winners by the Batasang Pambansa as well as the official election canvasser, the Commission on Elections (COMELEC) thus
granting President Marcos another six-year term as President of the Philippines. The electoral exercise was marred by
alleged fraud from both sides of the political fence as well as violence. Marcos and Tolentino won by over a million votes
according to the COMELEC. The opposition headed by Sen. Benigno Aquino, Jr.'s widow Corazon C. Aquino and former
senator Salvador Laurel refused to accept the allegedly fraudulent result. Due to the reports of fraud, theCatholic Bishops
Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) issued a statement condemning the elections, the United States Senate passed a
resolution stating the same. This chain of events eventually led to the resignation of Marcos' Defence Minister Juan Ponce
Enrile and military vice-chiefFidel Ramos, who then decided to seclude themselves in the military and police headquarters at
Camp Aguinaldo and Camp Crame respectively, leading to the People Power Revolution which precipitated Marcos's
departure from the country into exile in Hawaii. On March 24, 1986, the Regular Batasang Pambansa made a people's
resolution signed by 150 lawmakers which nullified the election returns that proclaimed that Marcos and Tolentino as the
winners. Instead, it mandated that Aquino and Laurel were the real winners of the snap elections.


On February 15, Marcos was proclaimed by COMELEC and Batasang Pambansa as the winner amidst the
controversy. All 50 opposition members of the Parliament walked out in protest. The Filipino people refused to accept the
results, however, asserting that Aquino was the real victor. Both "winners" took their oath of office in two different places,
with Aquino gaining greater mass support. Aquino also called for coordinated strikes and mass boycott of the media and
businesses owned by Marcos's cronies. As a result, the crony banks, corporations, and media were hit hard, and their shares
in the stock market plummeted to record levels.

People Power Revolution(February 22-25, 1986):

Appalled by the bold and apparent election irregularities, the Reform the Armed Forces Movement set into
motion a coup attempt against Marcos. The initial plan was for a team to assault Malacañang Palace and arrest Ferdinand
Marcos. Other military units will be taking over key strategic facilities, such as the airport, military bases, TV and radio
stations, the GHQAFP in Camp Aguinaldo, and major highway junctions to restrict counteroffensive by Marcos-loyal troops.
Lt.Col Gregorio Honasan was to lead the team that was going to assault Malacañang Palace.
However, after Marcos learned about the plot, he ordered their leaders' arrest, and presented to the
international and local press some of the captured plotters, Maj. Saulito Aromin and Maj. Edgardo Doromal.
Threatened with their impending imprisonment, Enrile and his fellow coup plotters decided to ask for help from then AFP
Vice Chief of Staff Lt. Gen Fidel Ramos, who was also the chief of the Philippine Constabulary (now the Philippine National
Police). Ramos agreed to resign from his position and support the plotters. Enrile also contacted the highly influential
Cardinal Archbishop of Manila Jaime Sin for his support.
At about 6:30pm, February 22, Enrile and Ramos held a press conference at Camp Aguinaldo, where they
announced that they had resigned from their positions in Marcos's cabinet and were withdrawing support from his
government. Marcos himself later conducted his own news conference calling on Enrile and Ramos to surrender, urging them
to "stop this stupidity."

On the 25th both Aquino and Marcos hold separate inaugurations. The Marcos inauguration is a pathetic
affair, attended by family members and a few paid guests. Behind the scenes Marcos is maneuvering to save face, placing
phone calls to influential Filipinos and begging to be allowed to stay on as an "Honorary President," or at least to remain in
the Philippines as a private citizen. He must be astonished to see his power, which seemed so absolute only a few weeks ago,
evaporate so quickly and completely.
At about nine o'clock that night, Marcos and his family sneak out the back door of Malacañang Palace and
take a boat across the Pasig River where helicopters are waiting. At Clark Air base they board a U.S. Air Force plane headed
for Guam. Marcos, who ruled for twenty years as one of the world's most powerful dictators, is now just a sick old man
fleeing his country like a frightened dog.
When Marcos' departure is announced jubilant Filipinos celebrate in the streets and flood into Malacañang
Palace. There is some fighting and retribution against citizens and troops who had been loyal to Marcos, but it is minimal.
After violent revolutions there are always scores to settle, grudges to satisfy, revenge to extract, and the cycle of violence
continues. But because the Filipino people created major political change largely without violence, national reconciliation
was that much easier.

Significance of People Power Revolution:

*Courage and sacrifices

*Ousted dictatorship and restored Democracy
*Giving an inspiration throughout the world
*Miracle of God in answering their prayers

==Important Dates==
The Demise of the Third Republic
December 30, 1965: Ferdinand Marcos is elected president for the first time. He maintains popularity during his first term
with a spending program on public works, which includes building roads, bridges, health centres, schools and beautification

December 30, 1969: Ferdinand Marcos is re-elected for a second term. Later into his term, his popularity begins to decline.
Criticism begins to grow from the dishonesty of his 1969 campaign and his lack of response concerning the issue of bribery
and corruption within the government, human rights violations, high student tuition fees, militarisation, abuses of the
military, the presence of the US military bases and the subservience of the Marcos administration to US interests and
policies. Poverty and violence increase as the population grows faster than the economy. The Communist Party of the
Philippines (CPP) take advantage of the growing discontent with the Marcos administration to increase number and strength.
The CPP also forms the New People's Army (NPA), a communist guerrilla army. Fighting erupts in Muslim Mindanao with
the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF). Labour strikes and student protests follow.

January 1970: The most violent student protest takes place as thousands of students try to storm the gates of Malacañan
Palace (Battle of Mendiola).

June 1, 1971: The 1971 Constitutional Convention is held to review and rewrite the 1935 Constitution with Carlos Garcia
elected as president.

June 14, 1971: Carlos Garcia dies from a heart attack. Diosdado Macapagal replaces Garcia as president of the Constitutional
Convention. The convention is tarnished by a number of scandals. The 1935 Constitution stated that the president may not
serve more than eight consecutive years in office. Some delegates are bribed into voting against this in the new constitution,
meaning Marcos could continue in power after his second term ended. Delegate Eduardo Quintero was harassed by the
government for exposing the bribery attempt.

August 21, 1971: A Liberal Party rally being held at the Plaza Miranda is bombed. Marcos blames the communists.

Martial Law Period

September 21, 1972: Marcos issues Proclamation No. 1081 which places the entire country under martial law.
September 23, 1972: Marcos addresses to the nation concerning the need for martial law. He imposes curfew, bans public
assemblies, outlaws protest movements and takes control of the media. Senator Ninoy Aquino of the Liberal Party had
become increasingly popular with the people, and an increasing political threat to Marcos. He is amongst the first of the
30,000 people to be arrested which also includes political opposition, journalists, critics, activists, communists and other such
forces that contribute to deterioration of the law to be detained under martial law. While the 1935 Constitution stated the
president may not serve more than eight consecutive years in office, it was not very specific about how long martial law
should last, leaving it to the president's own judgement.

January 17, 1973: Marcos brings in a new constitution, which replaces Congress with a National Assembly (the semi-
parliament, Batasang Pambansa), and extends the presidential term from four years to six with no limit on the number of
terms. With pay rises and selective promotions, Marcos uses the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) under General
Fabian Ver, his means of maintaining power. With his wife, family and friends, he establishes monopolies in the agricultural,
construction, manufacturing and financial sectors (this would eventually lead to the extraction of billions from the Philippine
economy). Political parties are suspended. The only time political parties are permitted to resurface was for elections for
either the National Assembly or elections held for local offices (such as mayor and governor offices).

Throughout the second term: To encourage economic growth, Marcos implements a number of economic programs.
Farmers are given technical and financial aid and other incentives. By 1976, the Philippines is self-sufficient in rise and
begins exporting. To attract foreign capital, investors are offered incentives, such as tax exemption and bringing out profits in
foreign currencies. The number of tourists increases from 200,000 per year to 1,000,000 in 1980. The economic growth rate
averages 6% - 7% during 1970 - 1980 compared with 5% in the previous decade. The GNP of the Philippines increases from
P55 billion in 1972 to P193 billion in 1980. However, the economic boom is largely debt driven with the Philippines
becoming increasingly dependent upon loans from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank with heavy
borrowing from other banks and organisations. Debt rises from US$2.3 billion in 1970 to US$24.4 billion in 1983.
Corruption within the government remains high and an estimated 10% of the GNP is being pocketed.

January 17, 1981: Marcos issues Proclamation No. 2045, lifting martial law. However, all the orders and decrees issued
under martial law are still in effect. Martial law is lifted to show Filipinos and the world that the situation in the Philippines is
back to normal and to show the 1973 Constitution and the government are working smoothly. However, Marcos maintains
his vast powers and authoritarian rule. Communist guerrillas also contribute to the lifting of martial law by a campaign of
bomb attacks in Metro Manila in an attempt to end martial law.

The Fourth Republic

June 16, 1981: In the first election since martial law, Marcos is declared the winner with 88% of the vote. Very few actually
vote in the election.

June 30, 1981: Marcos takes his oath of office for a six-year term. He announces the establishment of a New Republic of the

August 21, 1983: Ninoy Aquino arrives at Manila International Airport after returning from the US. As he prepares to
descend the steps from the plane to ground level, he is shot in the back of the head by the military escort. The business
community loses confidence by the assassination and capital begins to leave the country at about US$12 million a day.

December 3, 1985: Ninoy Aquino's widow, Corzaon Aquino, declares her candidacy for president while Salvado Laurel is to
run for vice-president. The Aquino and Laurel families are fierce rivals in Philippine politics, but through the efforts of
Cardinal Sin, they work together to in an attempt to defeat Marcos. Cory Aquino lacks political experience as she was only a
simple housewife before her husband's assassination. Salvador Laurel, an accomplished politician, leads the United National
Democratic Organisation, a coalition of opposition groups in the National Assembly.

February 7, 1986: The snap elections are held. The election is officially organised and conducted by the government's
Commission on Elections (COMELEC). The National Movement for Free Elections (NAMFREL) is an organisation of
300,000 volunteers determined to protect the electoral process from fraud and abuse. NAMFREL has close connections to the
Roman Catholic Church and most of the volunteer work is done at local parishes by priests and nuns. The campaign is a
travesty of vote buying, violence and intimidation. In many electoral districts 10% - 40% of the voters names are struck from
the registration lists. In the count, COMELEC reports Marcos in the lead, while NAMFREL reports an Aquino-Laurel

February 15, 1986: Marcos refers to the National Assembly, which he controls, for a decision on the election result. The
National Assembly declares Marcos the winner.
The EDSA Revolution
February 16, 1986: Cory Aquino and almost a million of her supporters attend a rally in Rizal Park, Manila. She calls for a
national campaign of civil disobedience and a general strike to commence February 25 in protest. Marcos intends to bring
back martial law and he makes plans for the arrest of Aquino and 10,000 of her followers in an attempt to deal with her
campaign of disobedience and general strikes. Marcos issues warnings against the strike movement, which he threatens to
crush using his vast powers. Marcos makes plans to send out some of his most loyal soldiers in civilian clothing. They would
pretend to be Aquino supporters and would go onto the streets of Metro Manila spreading terror and violence. Marcos could
then use this to justify imposing martial law again, and have Aquino and her supporters arrested.

February 22, 1986: A group of young officers in the military begin making their own plans to overthrow President Marcos.
The officers involved want reform within the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP). Their previous pleas for reform had
been ignored by Marcos and General Ver. Secretary of Defence Enrile and vice-chief of staff, Lieutenant General Ramos
sympathise with the officers that want reform. However, Marcos finds out about the coup attempt by the military rebels.
Those who escape being arrested make their way to the Ministry of Defence at Camp Aguinaldo. Directly across from Camp
Aguinaldo is Camp Crame. In between there is the Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA), which is the main means of
access to both camps. EDSA is one of the main and most important highways for traffic flow in Metro Manila. Enrile and
Ramos appeal to the military to join them in the revolt against Marcos. They have only a few hundred soldiers to defend
them. At 7pm, they hold a press conference calling for Marcos to resign. At 11pm, Agapito Aquino, Ninoy's brother, asks
people to defend the rebels through the church-operated station, Radio Veritas. A few hours later Cardinal Sin repeats
Agapito's call for support. Throughout the night, somewhere in the region of a million people come out to defend the military
rebels. The EDSA Revolution or People Power Revolution begins.

February 23, 1986: EDSA and access to the military camps is now completely jammed. A column of tanks roll down EDSA
to remove the rebels. However, the tanks stop when they reach the crowds of people who stand their ground. The soldiers do
not expect this kind of resistance, and are not prepared to kill many unarmed civilians in order to reach the military rebels.
Radio Veritas is the only station broadcasting news of the revolt. At 6pm, the station's transmitters are blown up. At 11:45pm,
Radio Bandido broadcasts news of the revolt.

February 24, 1986: At 6am, a formation of helicopter gun ships approach Camp Crame. The crowds below can do nothing
to stop an airborne attack. After several minutes of hovering, the gun ships land at Camp Crame and the crews join the revolt.
At 9am, the government's main broadcasting complex in Quezon City is taken over by rebels. The air force refuses orders
from General Ver to bomb Camp Crame. At 11am, a single helicopter approaches the presidential residence and fires six
rockets at Malacañan Palace. The naval base at Cavite reports to the rebels that warships were on station at the mouth of the
Pasig River and are standing by for orders to shell Malacañan Palace. The US ambassador in the Philippines personally
forwards a message from the US to Marcos that if he does not step down, civil war will be the outcome. Later, Marcos
receives a message from President Reagan that he, his family and close associates would be welcome to live in the US.

February 25, 1986: Most of the military have deserted Marcos in support of Aquino. At 10:30pm, Aquino and Laurel are
sworn in as president and vice-president respectively, in a suburban Manila nightclub, Club Filipino, by Associate Justice
Teehankee. President Aquino immediately restores the basic civil liberties of free speech, freedom of assembly and a free
press. President Aquino issues Proclamation No. 3, the adoption of a temporary constitution and a transitional government.
This is known as the Freedom Constitution. Only two hours after Aquino has been sworn in as president, Marcos also tries to
take office in a separate ceremony in Malacañan Palace. Only the Soviet Union ambassador attends. The broadcast of the
ceremony is cut off just after it begins. Angry crowds gather outside Malacañan Palace in the afternoon. Marcos telephones
Enrile to ask for American protection while leaving Malacañan Palace. At 9:05pm, American helicopters evacuate Marcos
and 120 others to Clark Air Base.

February 27, 1986: Although Marcos wants to recoup at Laoag, his political base in Northern Luzon, he and his party leave
at dawn for Guam and then Hawaii at the insistence of President Aquino. Marcos has left the Philippines in a bankrupt state
with a debt of about US$28 billion.