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World Literature

Jannaricah Ababan, Benedict O. Balubar, Lewis John D. Basi, Kaile Niña Marielle F.
Briones, Deysimara C. Canave, Jessa Danica E. Delos Reyes, Patrick F. Famini,
Gemmarie M. Gapayao, Michelle P. Masibag, Emerson A. Timbal, and Noli S.
Valenzuela

BT-NFT 4C

THE ILIAD
An Analyses of the Hero’s Cycle
Status Quo:
The Greeks and the Trojans are in a decade-long war between each other.
Achilles, son of King Peleus and the sea nymph Thetis, despite having been called to
aid in the war, refuses to take part in the battle when Agamemnon disgraced him by
taking his prize of honor away from him, the maiden Briseis. Withdrawn in his tent on
the shores of Troy, Achilles sits idly by, while his men are battling with the Trojan army.

Call to Adventure:
Dante realizes himself as erratic from the path of leading a good Christian life.
His unrighteous ways which cause his sins, strayed him from the path of life he is
supposed to play with Beatrice, similar to the parables of the Bible. Through his journey,
the aim becomes apparent—to teach an ethical lesson concerning the error of sin.
“Midway along the journey of our life / I woke to find myself in a dark wood, / for I had
wandered off from the straight path . . . I had become so sleepy at the moment / when I
first strayed, leaving the path of truth” (Canto I, 1-3 and 11-12).
These words replicate a journey, and at this time in his life, Dante has not been living a
decent life per Christian belief that also reflects universal experience. The call to
adventure is to recall his decisions in life.

Assistance:
Thetis, although worried for his son’s seek of vengeance and his fate, did not
hold Achilles back. She aids her son by not letting Achilles go unarmed for battle and
brought him arms made by the god Hephaestus himself, the divine armorer of the gods.

Departure:
Achilles left his tent and went to where the Greeks are gathered along with the
chieftains, including Odysseus. He felt shame towards them and told them of his own
folly. He asks for their company and prepare once for battle as Achilles is now ready to
lead them as before.

Trials:
Dante’s journey through 9 circles of hell is to sympathetically experience the
torments of sinners trapped on their eternal punishments and it challenges his faith on
himself rescuing Beatrice and that avoid being one of those prisoners doomed on each
circles.
Limbo - Dante who sympathizes with the doubters, experiences a physical blast of wind
as he falls unconscious, showing him the error of this type of thinking. His senses are
knocked out of him, suggesting the nature of sin, which corrupts humans who seek only
pleasure of the senses, which is a direct affront to God’s teachings.
Lust - The physical portrayal of the punishment in accordance with the sin suggests the
torment that serves as a warning to Dante so that his transformation becomes more
apparent.
Gluttony - Dante also begins to realize the justice of God’s punishment when Virgil
explains, “The closer a thing comes to its perfection, / the more keen will be its pleasure
or pain” (Canto VI, 107-108)
And so other circles, Greed, Anger, Heresy, Violence, Fraud and Treachery.
There was also a part where the suicides are shown as a punishment which Dante
pitied for their suffering.

Approach:
As Achilles finally fought his way to the gates of Troy, he met Hector there,
standing immovable before the wall. Both are aware of their own fate to die, they fought
each other with all their might. Finally, with Achilles familiar with the armor worn by
Hector as it was the armor taken from Patroclus’ body, Achilles saw an opening and
aimed his spear near Hector’s throat and drove the spearpoint in. And with that, Hector
fell.

Crisis:
Hector’s last words were to give his body back to his father and his mother but
Achilles denied Hector of his prayer. With his anger towards the death of Patroclus,
Achilles stripped the armor out of Hector’s body and he pierced the feet of the dead
man and fastened them with thongs to the back of his chariot, letting the head of Hector
trail behind. Achilles rode round and round the walls of Troy and dragged all that was
left of the once glorious Hector.

Treasure:
Achilles satisfied his vengeance, kept the corpse of Hector in their encampment.
Achilles also took the glory of winning the battle with Hector and the pride that comes
with for his countrymen.

Result:
Although some were displeased by Achilles’ abuse of the dead, King Priam was
still sent to go without fear to Achilles to redeem his son’s body. As he was told that as
violent as Achilles was, he was not really evil, but one who would treat properly to
suppliant. Priam bravely went to the Greek camp to meet with Achilles. Even though he
was in the presence of the one who slayed and maltreated his son, Priam clasped
Achilles’ hand and kissed it. And as he did so, Achilles felt awe and grief stirred to his
heart as he listened to the man. And at last, Achilles let Priam take his son’s body and
also promised that he will keep Greeks from battle tolet them mourn of Hector’s death
and held his funeral.

Return:
Since The Iliad ends with Hector’s funeral, Achilles’s return was when he went
back to his old self of being a fierce and great warrior and a hero with marvel. In the
events leading to the fall of Troy, they’ve gone into battle again wherein eventually
Achilles drove the Trojans before him up to the walls of Troy and fought his last battle in
a glorious combat with Memnon. When he himself was in the Scaean gates, there, Paris
shot an arrow that struck his heel and caused his fate to die.

New Life& Resolution:


After his death, Achilles’ immortalized himself with what he earned through his
achievements in the war. The glory that he left with his people and his marvel traits that
inspired his men to fought bravely in the war.

Status Quo:
Although not mentioned in the text itself, the fall of Troy eventually happened.
And the Greeks continued to seek glory in war.