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1 INTRODUCTION Steel is a suitable construction material for a wide range of structures because of its favorable mechanical properties and high speed fabrication1. Corrosion may lead to damage of unprotected steel exposed in different environmental conditions. Corrosion is an electrochemical reaction process which leads to continuous loss of metal or metal alloys2. Energy is needed to extract metals from their mineral state to the pure state. The same amount of energy is emitted during the formation of its chemical compounds or in other words during the process of corrosion. Corrosion returns the metal to its combined state in chemical compounds that are similar or even identical to the minerals from which the metals were extracted .Thus corrosion has been called extractive metallurgy in reverse. 1.2 MECHANISM OF CORROSION Corrosion reactions are electrochemical in nature. Surface of iron goes into solution as ferrous ions at anodic sites3. Iron atoms undergoes oxidation to ions they release electron whose negative charge will quickly buildup in the metal and prevent anodic reaction, or corrosion4. Corrosion returns the metal to its combined state in chemical compounds that are similar or even identical to the minerals from which the metals were extracted. Thus corrosion has been called extractive metallurgy in reverse 5,6. The dissolution will only continue if the electrons released can pass to a site on the metal surface where a cathodic reaction is possible. At a cathodic site the electrons react with some reducible component of the electrolyte and are themselves removed from the metal. The rates of the anodic and cathodic reactions must be equivalent according to Faraday’s Laws, being determined by the total flow of electrons from anodes to cathodes which is called the “corrosion current”, ICorr. Since the corrosion current must also flow through the electrolyte by ionic conduction the conductivity of the electrolyte will influence the way in which corrosion cells operate.


Corrosion Mechanism
The corroding part of metal is described as a “mixed electrode” since simultaneous anodic and cathodic reactions are proceeding on its surface. The mixed electrode is a complete electrochemical cell on metal surface. Since transfer of electrons involves transfer of charge and is termed as current, the potential/driving force which makes the reaction happen is given an electrical term of Electrochemical Potential. 1.3 CORROSION CHEMISTRY6-8 The most common and important electrochemical reactions in the corrosion of iron are Thus Fe → Fe 2+ + 2e2 H+ → H2 + 2eAnodic reaction (corrosion) (1) Cathodic reactions (simplified) (2)

H2O + ½ O2 + 2e- → 2 OH‾ (3)

Reaction 2 is most common in acids and in the pH range 6.5 – 8.5 the most important reaction is oxygen reduction 3. In this latter case corrosion is usually accompanied by the formation of solid corrosion debris from the reaction between the anodic and cathodic products. Fe 2+ + 2 OH‾ → Fe(OH)2 , iron (II) hydroxide Pure iron (II) hydroxide is white but the material initially produced by corrosion is normally a greenish color due to partial oxidation in air. 2 Fe(OH)2 + H2O + ½ O2 → 2 Fe(OH)3 , Hydrated iron (III) oxide Further hydration and oxidation reactions can occur and the reddish rust that eventually forms is a complex mixture whose exact constitution will depend on other trace elements which are present. Because the rust is precipitated as a result of secondary reactions it is porous and absorbent and tends to act as a sort of harmful poultice which encourages further corrosion. 4 Fe(OH)2(s) + O2(g) → 2 Fe2O3 •H2O(s) + 2 H2O (Rust) 1.4 TYPES OF CORROSION Corrosion is classified under two categories. 1. Uniform Corrosion 2. Localized Corrosion 1.4.1 UNIFORM CORROSION Uniform or general corrosion, is a corrosion process without appreciable localized attack. It the most common form of corrosion and may appear initially as a single penetration but with thorough examination of the cross section it becomes apparent that the base metal has uniformly thinned. Corrosion is uniform if the time average of the corrosion current through a unit area of any macroscopic dimension is independent of the position on the surface.


will corrode preferentially when in contact with steel. aluminum and zinc are more active than steel and in the presence of a chloridecontaining electrolyte. occurs when two electrochemically dissimilar metals are metallically connected and exposed to a corrosive environment. One metal needs to be significantly better at giving up electrons than the other. Application of the five basic facts needs greater thought and insight.2 LOCALISED CORROSION The consequences of localized corrosion can be a great deal. The galvanic corrosion mechanism can be used beneficially. more severe than uniform corrosion generally because the failure occurs without warning and after a surprisingly short period of use or exposure. and this sacrificial action provides long-term protection for the steel substrate. On the galvanic scale. • An additional path for ion and electron movement is necessary.1. The less noble metal(anode) suffers accelerated attack and the less noble metal (cathode) is cathodically protected by the galvanic current. A thin coating of zinc on steel will corrode preferentially. bimetallic corrosion. Three special features of this mechanism need to operate for corrosion to occur: • • The metals need to be in contact electrically. It is widely employed as the Primary protection system for steel. Galvanic Corrosion9 Galvanic corrosion. The tendency of a metal to corrode in a galvanic cell is determined by its position in the galvanic series.4. 1. 4 .

Welding. Various grades of stainless steel are susceptible to pitting corrosion when exposed to saline environments. Areas on a surface where the electrolyte contains an appreciable quantity of the metal’s ions will be cathodic compared to locations where the metal ion concentration is lower (metal ion cell). fasteners. improper heat treating. or in narrow zones immediately adjacent to. threaded joints.2. Areas on a surface in contact with an electrolyte having a high oxygen concentration generally will be cathodic relative to those areas where less oxygen is present (oxygen cell). lap joints. the grain boundaries of an alloy. characterized by the fact that the depth of penetration is much greater than the diameter of the area affected10. Pitting corrosion is a randomly occurring. couplings. yet its mechanism is not completely understood. spot welds. Concentration-cell corrosion occurs because of differences in the environment surrounding the metal. This form of corrosion is sometimes referred to as “crevice corrosion. Normal mechanical construction can create crevices at sharp corners. most problems encountered in service involve austenitic stainless steels (such as 304 and 316) and the 2000 and 7000 series aluminum alloys. flanged fittings.” “gasket corrosion. Intergranular corrosion Intergranular corrosion isa localized condition that occurs at. or overheating 5 . Concentration-cell corrosion. stress relief annealing. highly localized form of attack on a metal surface.” and “deposit corrosion” because it commonly occurs in localized areas where small volumes of stagnant solution exist. Pitting is one of the most destructive forms of corrosion. 3. 4. Steel and galvanized steel pipes and storage tanks are susceptible to pitting corrosion and tuberculation by many potable waters. Pitting corrosion. At least five types of concentration cells exist. and tube sheet supports. the most common are the “oxygen” and “metal ion” cells. Although a number of alloy systems are susceptible to intergranular corrosion.

Dealloying Dealloying is a corrosion process in which one element is preferentially removed from an alloy. and the preferential removal of iron from gray-cast iron (graphitic corrosion). and porous. 5. Examples of well-known material/environment pairs are: INTERGRANULAR TRANSGRANULAR 6. Erosion corrosion. This occurs without appreciable change in the size or shape of the component. The two most important examples of dealloying are the preferential removal of zinc from copper zinc alloys (dezincification). This typically occurs in a 6 . it can happen ‘unexpectedly’ and rapidly after a period of satisfactory service leading to catastrophic failure of structures or leaks in pipe work. brittle. Because. compositional in homogeneities that make a material susceptible to intergranular corrosion. Graphitic corrosion sometimes occurs on underground cast iron water mains and leads to splitting of the pipe when the water pressure is suddenly service generally establish the microscopic. Erosion corrosion refers to the repetitive formation (a corrosion process) and destruction (a mechanical process) of the metal's protective surface film. but the affected area becomes weak. 7. This is specific to a metal material paired with a specific environment. Stress corrosion cracking SCC (environmentally induced delayed failure) describes the phenomenon that can occur when many alloys are subjected to static. surface tensile stresses and are exposed to certain corrosive environments.

By retarding either the anodic or cathodic reactions the rate of corrosion can be reduced. The coating may consist of: • Another metal. Stainless steel is protected by an invisibly thin. stainless steel. 1. The action of protective coatings is often more complex than simply providing a barrier between metal and environment. plastics.g. Paints may contain a corrosion inhibitor or zinc coating on iron or steel confers cathodic protection. in which ordinary steel is alloyed with chromium and nickel.g. The 7 . zinc or tin coatings on steel. This can be achieved in several ways: 1. Erosion may be impinging (in the case of a pipe ell) or sliding (pipe wall) when it occurs. aluminum oxide on “anodised” aluminum. high velocity.5 CORROSING PREVENTION11-12 In practical terms it is not usually possible to eliminate completely all corrosion damage to metals used for the construction.1 Conditioning the Metal This can be sub-divided into two main groups: (a) Coating the metal In order to interpose a corrosion resistant coating between metal and environment. oils and greases. e. enamel.moving liquid.5 one of the components required for corrosion would be absent.5. 1. e. • A protective coating derived from the metal itself. paints.2 Conditioning the Corrosive Environment (a) Removal of Oxygen By the removal of oxygen from water systems in the pH range 6. naturally formed film of chromium sesquioxide Cr2O3. Cavitation is a special form of erosion corrosion.5.g. (b) Alloying the metal To produce a more corrosion resistant alloy. • Organic coatings. such as resins. An example is the erosion corrosion of copper water tubes in a hot.5-8. e. soft water environment.

(b) Corrosion Inhibitors A corrosion inhibitor is a chemical additive. Anodic inhibitors – as the name implies an anodic inhibitor interferes with the inhibitors.removal of oxygen could be achieved by the use of strong reducing agents e. This is often achieved by precipitating an insoluble species onto the cathodic sites. 2. 4. This observation is generally referred to a ‘synergism’ and demonstrates the synergistic action which exists between zinc and chromate ions. which. ferricyanide and silicates. when added to a corrosive aqueous environment. carboxyl (-COOH). nitrite. Cathodic inhibitors– Additives that suppress cathodic reactions called cathodic inhibitors. They function by reducing the available area for the cathodic reaction. Cathodic inhibitors are classed as safe because they do not cause localized corrosion. reduces the rate of metal wastage. Examples of anodic inhibitors include orthophosphate. Mixed inhibitors – Because of the danger of pitting when using anodic inhibitors alone. (c) Electrochemical Control/Cathodic Protection Since corrosion is an electrochemical process its progress may be studied by measuring the changes which occur in metal potential with time or with applied electrical currents. The resultant film of chemisorbed inhibitor is then responsible for protection either by physically blocking the surface from the corrosion environment or by retarding the electrochemical processes. sulphite. 3. Zinc ions are used as cathodic inhibitors because of the precipitation of Zn(OH)2 at cathodic sites as a consequence of the localized high pH. Adsorption type corrosion inhibitors – Many organic inhibitors work by an adsorption mechanism.g. and phosphonate (-PO3H2) although other functional groups or atoms can form co-ordinate bonds with metal surfaces. 8 . It can function in one of the following ways: 1. The main functional groups capable of forming chemisorbed bonds with metal surfaces are amino (-NH2). it became common practice to incorporate a cathodic inhibitor into formulated performance was obtained by a combination of inhibitors than from the sum of the individual performances.

In the discussion that follows it is assumed that the metal to be protected is carbon steel. which lists the potentials only of pure metals in equilibrium with standard solutions of their ions. Similar protection is obtained when steel is coated with a layer of zinc. by the supply of negative charged electrons. such as sea water. Cathodic protection can be achieved in two ways: • Use of galvanic (sacrificial) anodes • Use of “impressed” current. The metals commonly used. The Galvanic Series should not be confused with the Electrochemical Series. causes a positive current to flow in the electrolyte. to a value at which the corroding (anodic) reactions are stifled and only cathodic reactions can take place. The cathodic protection of reinforcing carbon steel in reinforced concrete structures can be applied in a similar manner. as sacrificial anodes are aluminum. which is the most common material used in construction. Galvanic effects may be predicted by means of a study of the Galvanic Series which is a list of metals and alloys placed in order of their potentials in the corrosive environment. Thus. Even at scratches or cut edges where some bare metal is exposed the zinc is able to pass protective current through the thin layer of surface moisture. where the current is a result of the potential difference between the two metals. The difference in natural potentials between the anode and the steel. as indicated by their relative positions in the galvanic series. Galvanic anode systems employ reactive metals as auxiliary anodes that are directly electrically connected to the steel to be protected. or it may be an impressed current anode. These metals are alloyed to improve the long-term performance and dissolution characteristics.The principle of cathodic protection is in connecting an external anode to the metal to be protected and the passing of an electrical dc current so that all areas of the metal surface become cathodic and therefore do not corrode. The external anode may be a galvanic anode. the whole surface of the steel becomes more negatively charged and becomes the cathode. zinc and magnesium. 9 . from the anode to the steel. where the current is impressed from an external dc power source. In electro-chemical terms. the electrical potential between the metal and the electrolyte solution with which it is in contact is made more negative.

6 CORROSION RESISTANT ORGANIC COATING13-14 Organic coatings prevent corrosion by one or more of the three following mechanisms: a) Barrier effect: creating a barrier to the transport and thereby preventing access of corrosive electrolyte.. zinc rich coatings and. b) Cathodic effect: cathodic prevention of the metal by utilizing the galvanic potential difference between the metal and the coating material. 10 . offshore structures and reinforced concrete structures. e. The connections are similar for the application of cathodic protection to metallic storage tanks. ions and oxygen to the metal surface. Impressed –Current System 1.Impressed-current systems employ inert (zero or low dissolution) anodes and use an external source of dc power (rectified ac) to impress a current from an external anode onto the cathode surface.g. jetties.

(ii) Total pigment part – It consists of inhibitive pigment (primer only). solvents. color pigments.7 EPOXY RESINS15-18 The term “epoxy resin” describes a broad class of thermosetting polymers in which the primary cross linking occurs through the reaction of an epoxide group. epoxide. The reactive species is the epoxide ring. inert/reinforcing pigments.c) Inhibitor effect: slow release of inhibitors or passivating species from coating onto the metal surface. also referred to as the epoxy. glycidyl. secondary resin(additional binder in order to achieve specific properties). The resulting products are diglycidyl ethers of bisphenol A (DGEBA or Bis A epoxies). (i) Total vehicle part – It consists of primary resin (binder). or oxirane group. Complete coating generally consists of two parts. Coatings are made up of single coat or multi-coats. 1. plasticizers or modifier. Each coat has several components combined into the complete and finished products. which generally defined as the. 11 . The most commonly used epoxy resins are reaction products of phenol(Bisphenol A) condensed with Epichlorohydrin. 1) Primer – the base upon which the rest of the coating system is applied 2) Intermediate coat 3) Top coat.

Bisphenol A—This is the most commonly used resin for epoxy coatings. good compatibility with different types of epoxy resins.8 PHENALKAMINE AS HARDNER19-20 Phenalkamines synthesized from cashew nutshell cure. good flexibility.Basic chemical structure of epoxy group and most commonly used resins are discussed below. Additionally they have outstanding curing properties at low temperatures. thus providing outstanding service under severe conditions. The great diversity of these curing agents makes them suitable for almost all epoxy applications.e. The results obtained with phenalkamine resins demonstrate good properties like low temperature cure (as low as 35”F). used as binder for marine coatings. liquid (CNSL) combine the with properties of the aliphatic amines (rapid good chemical resistance) properties that are characteristic of polyamides (low toxicity. sea water immersion. The role of epoxy coatings is to protect against corrosion each part of ships. 12 . industrial maintenance and civil engineering applications. which are continuously exposed to severe conditions i. Epoxy resins.e. representing perhaps the best combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. good flexibility. good adhesion to poorly prepared surfaces and a wide range of other interesting characteristics deriving from their structure. A wide range of properties can be achieved by blending different molecular weight products in varying proportions. Because of these characteristics.. non critical mixing ratios. have become increasingly important. backbone chain lengths). excellent water resistance. good chemical resistance). It is available in a range of molecular weights (i. splashes of sea water 1. phenalkamines are being widely used in marine.

The aminic side is responsible for the high cross linking density and whenever the molecular weight is not too high. zinc phosphate is the most important. The action mechanism of zinc phosphate is the 13 . and can make these resins water resistant. mainly as to the pigmentation and to the chemical structure and the barrier properties of the binders. inhibiting the access of corrosive environmental agents to the metal surface. These curing agents can have a low viscosity (for low VOC purposes). inhibiting corrosive reactions by sharing an anticorrosive pigment in the passivation of the metal. particularly in those where non-toxic basic pigments show limited stability. the phenolic OH group makes phenalkamines very active even at low temperatures. The coatings protect the metal both by forming a barrier as well as electrochemically.9 ZINC PHOSPHATE AS ANTICORROSIVE PIGMENT21-26 Organic coatings can protect metal substrates from corrosion via the electrochemical mechanism. The best known and most frequently applied non-toxic anticorrosive pigments are phosphate pigments.Phenalkamines contain aliphatic polyaminic substituent’s attached to the aromatic ring. The aromatic backbone is responsible for the high chemical resistance that can be seen in these compounds: the side chain is very hydrophobic. Now these two mechanisms do not act separately. zinc phosphate can be used in many binders. Which of these will prevail depends on the chemical composition of the coating. forming stable and strongly adhesive layers on the substrate. which can be identified in the resulting cured resins. Their unique structure can explain the fact that they have an unusual combination of desirable properties. Of the phosphate pigments. Ferrites and ion-exchange pigments are of less importance. Other properties have allowed us to obtain light color (6-8 Gardner). or via the barrier mechanism. combined with a low viscosity and high chemical activity. 56100 x weight of epoxy resin EEW x Amine value Weight of polyamide = 1 gram equivalent of epoxy = 1 active hydrogen equivalent of phenalkamine 1. Because of its low solubility and reactivity.

hydroxyoxides (_-FeOOH. Reaction with tertiary amines results from the unshared electron pair on the nitrogen. the resin may be said to homopolymerize. although these pigments have not yet been investigated so extensively as zinc phosphate. 14 .5–8 the solubility of zinc phosphate is extremely weak. closely adhering to the substrate. Primary and secondary amines proceed as addition reactions where one nitrogen-hydrogen group reacts with one epoxy group. zinc polyphosphate and calcium phosphate.phosphatisation of the iron surface and the formation of compounds with carboxyl and hydroxyl groups of the binder agent. In a medium with pH 6. 1. such as aluminum triphosphate. calcium zinc phosphate. The passive layer formed in the presence of zinc phosphate consists of oxides (_-Fe2O3). Since there are no secondary hydroxyl groups generated. The result is a polarization of the cathodic regions due to the formation of limited solubility basic salts. which react with the products of corrosion resulting in a layer closely adhering to the metallic substrate. The mechanism of other phosphate pigments. secondary and tertiary amines are illustrated in figure below. The solubility of zinc phosphate is too low to produce a passive layer. is interpreted similarly as that of zinc phosphate. _FeOOH) and iron phosphate.10 CURING MECHANISM27 The reaction mechanisms of epoxy resin with primary.

Literature Survey 2. The entire work is divided into in four parts 1.OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH To study the effect of zinc phosphate anticorrosive pigment at various concentrations treated with epoxy resin & phenalkamine as a hardener and evaluated for the corrosion protection properties. Preparation of coating 15 .

Testing and discussion 4.1 EXPERIMENTAL WORK The experimental work was divided into two parts. Epoxy – Zinc phosphate primers. II. 2.3. Suggestion for plant 2. I.2 RAW MATERIALS 16 . Testing’s and analysis. Processing of coating .

white synthetic pigment which can be used in almost all paint media. Zinc Phosphate A non. eq/kg d) Epoxy Equivalent e) Viscosity at 250C f) Softening Point.2-5.33 . 0C 2. India and had the following characteristics: a) Appearance b) Color. Phenalkamine Phenalkamine hardener . 2 1. which was verified.The following were the raw materials used for the experimental work along with their respective physical and chemical data. Ltd. The mechanism of the protective action of zinc phosphate is it appears to polarize both the anodic and the cathodic corrosion reactions. MPa. eq/kg 15 max 20000-30000 290-325 5. 1.GS b) Viscosity at 250C. LAPOX P-3. b) Pigment density. ATUL INDUSTRIES.basic.90-2. g/100g. India and had the following characteristics: a) Color.s c) Amine Value. was obtained from M/s. K-541. Fine white powder was obtained from Asian Paints Pvt.22 450-525 169-190 65-75 3. GS c) Epoxy Value. Mumbai a) Oil absorption value.8 Clear pale yellow solid flakes Max. g/cc 17 21 3. Epoxy resin Epoxy resin. mg KOH/g d) Amine Value. was obtained from M/s. as given below. ATUL INDUSTRIES.

33 99% min. Ltd.D. Ltd.7 for rutile and 2. Mumbai a) Purity b) Oil absorption value. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) A widely used. Mumbai a) Purity b) Oil absorption value. 99% min. This effect may be due to the reduced water permeability or some more complex phenomenon.3 EXPERIMENTAL PLAN 18 . greater refractive index (2. the former being more compact and thus having a higher specific gravity. c) Pigment density. General chemicals Organic solvents such as n-butanol. g/cc 6. rutile and anatase.2 2. It is often used in protective paints when high durability is required and has beneficial effect on corrosion resistance when incorporated in primers and in finishing coats. non – toxic. Two crystallographic forms exist. Fine white powder was obtained from Asian Paints Pvt . 25 4. g/cc 5. xylene. g/100g. c) Pigment density.5 for anatase) and enhanced stability and durability. Fine white powder was obtained from Asian Paints Pvt . g/100g. etc were obtained from S. 21 3. Fine Chemicals. stable synthetic pigment used for both protective and decorative paints. Talc A naturally occurring hydrated magnesium silicate mineral.4.

The pigments such as Zinc phosphate.V.9 +0.025*η)* OA/100 WV = weight of Vehicle N.V + 0.In practice a mill base formulation for high-speed dispersion technique using Guggenheim’s empirical method29 WV WP = (0. titanium 19 . = Non Volatile Content of Binder WP = weight of pigment OA = oil absorption value Epoxy resin (DGEBA) was dissolved in n-butanol and xylene solvent mixture prepared by adding both in 1:1 volumetric ratio.69* N.

26 16.36 5 30% 56. emery papers and subsequently cleaned with solvents and dried. if required.8 20.15 15.25 1. Dry film thickness was measured and found to be 90±10 µm.5 10.76 41.73 5 50% 43. After mill base is dispersed remaining amount of resin and solvent are added. 11. to control the viscosity for the ease of processing. Some amount of solvent mixture was also added during dispersion.0 5 60% 39. India) for 25-30 minutes or till uniform dispersion was obtained.35 13.01 33.ZINC PHOSPHATE resin primer Curing Agent Phenalkamine Ingredients (gm) Xylene Epoxy resin Tio2 Talc Zinc phosphate Soyalecithine 1:1 ButanolXylene mix.63 22. Required amount of the curing agent (i. It is dissolved in solvent mixture and then added to the Epoxy/pigments dispersed system.4 Formulation for preparation of EPOXY. calculated on the basis of epoxy functionality.5 PVC 8.9 38.63 14.97 21. The Mill Base calculations are done with the help of Guggenheim’s equation.dioxide (TiO2) and talc as extender was added into the blend as per recipes given in Table.26 2 8. 2.4 1.34 5 40% 51. Soya lecithin) was added to get uniform dispersion.52 2 30 30 35 40 20 . This mixture was then stirred vigorously by using high speed disperser (supplied by Tudor Machine. duly abraded with 100 No.e. on the basis of pigment volume concentration. phenalkamine).97 24.38 35. During the stirring some amount of dispersing agent (ie. The reaction mass was stirred again to ensure proper mixing of curing agent and then primers were applied by spray on 150x100x1 mm3 MS panels.

6. Two crossed scribes were made down to the metal surface for observing the protective action of the primers. emery papers and subsequently cleaned with solvents and dried. of which were scribed diagonally. The EPOXY-ZINC PHOSPHATE primer was applied over the specimens by spray and allowed to cure for 7 days. This was done only one side of the panel in order to allow the corrosion process takes place.) values were determined according to ASTM D-153 and ASTM D-281 respectively.2 SALT SPRAY TEST (ASTM B 117) The coated mild steel panels were tested for their corrosion resistance properties according to ASTM B-117 method. The panels were then duly abraded with 100 No.5 PREPARATION OF PANELS For preparing the painted panels. 2. mild steel specimens of size 150x100 mm with1-2mm thickness were cut to size from cold rolled/cold annealed mild steel sheets. Before subjecting them to various tests.1 CRITICAL PIGMENT VOLUME CONCENTRATION (CPVC) To find out the critical PVC of the pigments.5 + (Oil Absorption x Pigment Density) 2. their densities and oil absorptions (O. so the cut penetrated the entire thickness of the coating and reached the substrate. the panels were edge-sealed to an extent of 5-8 mm from the edges using an adhesive tape.A. 21 .2. The CPVC was found by CPVC = 93. According to the specifications. Coated panels were exposed to salt spray tests. consisted of combination of Zn and ZnO with various weight fractions.6 TESTING AND ANALYSIS 2. which will enable assessing the blister resistance of the coating film and its ability to adhere to the substrate under aggressive conditions.6.5 93.

5 cm wide semitransparent pressure-sensitive tape was placed over the grid. 2.3% (w/v) solution for 24 hrs. The more coated material removed by the tape. 3% (w/v) aq and hydrochloric acid.4 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE COATING 1.6H. all the coating systems under study were immersed in Sodium hydroxide . loss of adhesion. The softest to hardest is in the order of 2B .6.H . Pencil hardness test: ASTM D 3363 testing method was used to observe the hardness values of the primer films. Cuts were made on the coating in one steady motion with sufficient pressure on the cutting tool having a cutting edge angle between 15 and 30°. the tape was removed rapidly and the grid inspected according to the ASTM standards. staining.5H .4H . 22 . 2.HB .5% salt solution (NaCl) was atomized in a salt spray chamber at 35°C and the tested panels were placed at an angle of 45° in the chamber.3H . This test uses lead pencils with a broad range of hardness values.F . Tape Adhesion Test: Crosscut adhesion tape test (ASTM D3359) was used to assess the adhesion of coating films to metallic substrates. the poorer the adhesion of the coating to the substrate. The scratch resistance is equal to the hardness value of the pencil which makes a scratch and a gauge hardness value of the primer films is equal to the hardness value of the pencil which removes the film 2. The amount of coated area retained under the tape corresponds to the adhesion efficiency of the primer.6. After 30 s of application. The panels were exposed for 500 h continuous salt spray and inspected for corrosion on the scribed area according to ASTM D-1654 at an interval of 100 h along with the signs of blistering.B . After making two such cuts at 90° the grid area was brushed and a 2.3 CHEMICAL RESISTANCE TEST In order to evaluate the chemical resistance of the coating to such exposure.2H .

(15. 4. A steel punch with a hemispherical head having a diameter of 0. Hiding Power (IS: 101 – 1964) The wet opacity was found out according to. according to which to which the finish was checked with the help of Hegman gauge.9 mm) was released from height of 24 inch. The area covered was noted and the balance of the material was weighed with the brush. 5. 3. The gauge was viewed immediately to the paint surface was designated as the finish of the paint 6.3.625 in.1 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 23 . Impact Test: Impact test method (ASTM D 2794) for impact resistance has been found to be useful in predicting the performance of organic coatings for their ability to resist cracking caused by impacts. the paint consumed was known and hence the hiding power was calculated as area covered in inch2/gm of paint. From the difference between the two weights. The paint was taken on the 0 end of the Hegman gauge kept in horizontal position. The paint was weighed in a beaker along with the brush. Impact was carried out on the both sides of coated panels and analyzed accordance to the standard. They have been useful in evaluating the flexibility of coatings for their ability to resist cracking when elongated. It was then applied by brushing on the flat surface held in a vertical position in such a manner as to satisfactorily obliterate the contrast between the black and white square. It was then drawn with the help of the applicator along the grooves. Conical Mandrel Bending Test (ASTM D 522): After curing the coated panels are bent over a conical mandrel and the resistance to cracking of the coating is determined. Fineness of Grind The fineness of grind or the dispersion was found according to ASTM D 1210-05.

This can be because of increase in pigment loading hindrance for reaction of phenalkamine and epoxy resin increases. • All the formulated coatings has good hardness. • All the formulations has good flexibility this may be because of long chains of epoxy resin. 3. This can be because of bulkeyness of the groups attached with phenalkamine.2 SALT SPRAY TEST 24 .Coating System Flexibility Test Hardness Test Adhesion Test PVC Conical mandrel Impact resistance Scratch hardness (1200 gm) Passes Pencil Hardness Cross-hatch Test 30% Passes Passes 6H Passes 40% Passes Passes Passes 6H Passes 50% Passes Passes Passes 6H Passes 60% Passes Passes Passes 4H Passes • With 50% and 60% PVC formulation pot life is greator than other two.

The results are as shown in Table and the graphical presentation was also plotted .2.3. • At 30 % & 40 % PVC. • After 500 hrs 60% PVC batch got corrode maximum it might happened since it has maximum pigment loading which results in more porosity in the film. this may be because of increase in porosity in the film. In this 10 represented no corrosion and 0 represented failure of the coating.1 Corrosion rating The extent of corrosion was represented in an arbitrarily numerical scale from 0 to 10. after 200 hrs 50% and 60% PVC batch starts corroding at a faster rate. EP-Zinc phosphate primer shows better corrosion rating up to 500 h of salt spray exposure. Hrs 30 % 0 100 200 300 400 500 10 10 10 10 10 9 Coating System (PVC) 40% 10 10 10 10 9 8 50% 10 10 10 9 9 8 60% 10 10 10 9 8 7 25 .

M. In this scale 10 represented no blistering. Also. and 2 represented progressively larger size of blisters.for dense.for few. Upto 500 hrs no blisters are found on any panels so rating for all panels is 10. The results were plotted are as shown.for mild. 4.3 Blisters Rating: The extent of blisters size was represented in an arbitrarily numerical scale from 0 to 10. Hrs 30% Coating Formulation (PVC) 40% 50% 60% 26 . 3. MD-for mild dense and D. 8 represented smallest size of blisters and 6.3. In this 10 represented no corrosion and 0 represented more than 75% area corroded. blisters frequency was reported in four steps as F.4 Corrode Area Rating Formation of under film corrosion was also evaluated by careful stripping of coating and reported in an arbitrarily numerical scale from 0 to 10 accordance to the percent area corroded.

500 9 9 7 6 27 .

30 % PVC Batch 40 % PVC Batch 28 .

50 % PVC Batch 29 .

045 0.60% PVC Batch 3.4 HIDING POWER & FINESS OF GRINDING Coating system (PVC) 30% 40% 50% Hiding Power (in2 /gm) 0.048 0.3 CHEMICAL RESISTANCE Alkali Resistance(3 days) No blisters No blisters No Blisters Small Blisters Acid Resistance(24 hrs) No blisters No blisters Slight Blisters Slight Blisters Water Resistance No blisters No blisters No blisters No blisters Coating System(PVC) 30% 40% 50% 60% 3.054 Fineness of Grinding 5+ 5+ 5+ 30 .

) 24:00 24:00 24:00 24:00 31 .) 5:00 5:00 5.60% 0.5 DRYING TIME Coating system (PVC) 30% 40% 50% 60% Pot Life (Hrs:Min.10 5:30 Surface Dry (Hrs:Min.) 00:40 00:40 00:40 00:45 Touch Dry (Hrs:Min.059 5+ 3.) 3:00 3:00 3:10 3:00 Nail Dry (Hrs:Min.