You are on page 1of 2

Quality Assurance – continuous improvement Stakeholder influence high at start, low at finish Reporting:

PERT Network Diagram,

Quality Audit – Structured review Kaizen Risk, Cost of changes low at start, high at finish
T = O+4(ML)+P/6 Pert Chart
SD= P-O/6
Cause/Effect – Ishikawa (Fishbone diagram) Risk ID:
Expenditures Table
3pt= O+ML+P/3 Flow chart – step by step TQM: Doc review Histograms
Variance = (P-O)squared/6 Histogram – bar chart Brainstorming Expert opinions S-Curves
Normal Distribution Parato Chart – prioritized, ranked, 80/20 Delphi technique – iterative, anonymous survey Reporting Schedule
Do Root cause ID Network Diagrams – detailed sequence
1 Sigma = 68.26% Run Chart – shows history, time, trend
Check Interviewing (AON, AOA)
2 Sigma = 95.46% Mean = avg of Scatter Diagram – shows pattern Risk Response:
all data points Control Chart JIT (min invent)
Act SWOT Bar Charts (Gantt chart) – status
3 Sigma = 99.73% - Avoid Milestone chart – start/end dates
6 Sigma = 99.99% Taguchi method – used to compute loss Checklists - Transfer
Float=Slack=Free Float Scales: (Ordinal, Cardinal-linear, non linear) Assumption Analysis - Mitigate
Diagramming Techniques + Exploit Leadership
Total float Urgency Assessment (High prob, High Impact) Style:
Fast tracking - +risk JIT - inventory = 0 + Share
Hammock = summary Directing
SD measures population to determine the mean + Enhance
Decision Tree Heuristic – rule of thumb -+ Active Facilitating
CPM Quality Control – compare to specs Coaching
Residual – remain after risk response planning
Forward pass: gives project duration Attribute sampling vs. Variable sampling Secondary – new risk created from risk response Supportive
EF = ES + duration Prevention vs. Inspection Watch list Autocratic
Backward pass: gives float critical path Statistical Sampling – part of population tested Triggers Consultative
LS = LF – duration Workaround Consensus
Float = LS – ES or LF - EF
EAC Schedule Compression
1) Where the assumptions in original plan are wrong Rolling Wave
AOA-Arrows = activities
EAC = AC+ETC Fast Track (activities in parallel) +risk
AON- Nodes = dependencies
2) Where current state is anomalous to the norm Crashing (add resources) +cost
Uses only FS and may use dummy
EAC = AC+BAC-EV Re-estimating
to show relationship
3) Where estimates are typical of what has been seen Resource leveling (max out existing resources)
Schedule Development
EAC = AC + BAC-EV = BAC Critical Chain (add buffers) Eli Goldratt
Leads – head start
CPI CPI What if, Monte Carlo (multi-project simulation) id risk
Lags - wait
Arrows = dependencies Planned Value = budgeted cost of Work Scheduled PV = BCWS Power:
Nodes = activities Earned Value = budgeted cost of work Planned EV = BCWP C = n(n-1) Formal (legitimate)
Most used for sequencing Actual Cost = Actual cost of work performed AC = ACWP Reward
2 Coercive (fear, penalty)
Uses dependencies: FS (most Earned Value EV= BAC x %Complete
common), FF, SS, SF Cost Variance CV= EV-AC - = over budget, + = under budget, >0 = good Information
EMV = Probability x Impact Schedule Variance SV= EV-PV - = behind schedule, + = over schedule >0 = good Expert
NPV = PV (income) – PV(costs) Cost Performance Index CPI= EV/AC BAC/EAC >1 = good < = cost overrun Referent
Benefit = income Schedule Performance Index SPI= EV/PV 1- on schedule >1= ahead of schedule
Cost cost Estimate At Completion EAC=AC/ % complete 80/20 rule
Dependency Estimate To Complete ETC= EAC -AC 50/50
Mandatory Variance At Completion VAC= BAC -EAC 0/100
Discretionary Budget At Completion (BAC) = original project budget Rule of 7
Project Selection Models Direct & Communication Model:
Manage Quality Message: sent received
BCR – Ratio of greater than 1 indicates that benefits outweigh costs (the higher the Project Control
better) Execution encoded decoded
IRR – (the bigger the better) Non-verbal 55% Blockers:
Roles Feedback
ROI – Shows % return made on investment Noise
Project Manager Active listening
PV and Net PV – Time value of money (the bigger the better) Distance
Project Coordinator Para lingual 37% Improper coding
Project Expeditor Email 7%
Matrix Integrated Hostility
Stakeholder Formal, Informal
Change Language
Functional Weak Balanced Strong Projectized Sponsor Control Written, Verbal
Time Culture
PMO PM spend 90%
Functional Mgr PM Skills
PM Authority Senior Mgr Effective Communications (90%)
Hierarchy = clear authority Triple
Cost Constraint Scope Influencing the Organization
Leadership (vision, strategy)
Project Lifecycle Motivation (energize people to perform
Conflict Resolution:
Develop Impleme Problem Solving, (Win/Win) Negotiating conflict management (reach agreement)
Concept Close Confronting/collaborating Problem Solving (analyze, decision making
ment ntation
Compromise, (lose/lose) Techniques for PM
Stuckenbruck (7 project characteristics) Scope Planning Withdrawal/Avoid, (postpone) Observation ( MBWA)
Deming (plan-do-check-act) WBS Smooth/Accommodating (agree) Project Performance appraisals (360 degree feedback)
Maslow (hierarchy) Decomposition Forcing/competing, (do it my Conflict management
McGregor (X supervised, Y self managed) way) Issues log, (track, review)
Work Package
Hertzberg (Hygiene factors, motivation) Effective Meetings
WBS Dictionary
Contingency Theory – Fred Fiedler’s individual leadership Use War Room (collocate)
Scope Baseline Constrained Optimization
Expectancy Theory (effort leads to success, reward)
Achievement Theory (achievement, power, affiliation)
Mathematic approach: Project scope = the work to deliver on the requirements
Doctrine of Waiver
-Linear Programming Product scope = features and function of the product
-Integer Programming RBS – hierarchical resources by category and type
Procurement: Damages (Punitive,
-Dynamic Programming Cost estimating:
FPI - Fixed Price Incentive (lump sum ) + risk on S Compensator)
-Multi-object programming Analogous Estimating (Top down estimating) quick/dirty
FFP – Firm Fixed price Warranties
Parametric Estimating (statistical relationship, history)
CCPC - Cost + % of Cost ( + risk on B) Delays
Benefit Measure Methods Bottom-up (Work packages, scheduled activities rolled up)
CPFF – Cost + Fixed Fee Breach
Comparative approach: Variable vs. Fixed
CPIF – Cost + Incentive Fee Force Majeure
-Murder board Direct vs. Indirect
T&M - Time & Materials “Delegation of
-Peer review Working Capital
-Scoring models Reserve Analysis (Contingency Reserve – buffer)
-Economic models Vendor Bid Analysis
Negotiation Process “fait accompli” - fact
-Benefits compared to cost Reserve Analysis
Protocol Probing  Scratch Closure Agreement
Order of Magnitude (when little data to analyze) -50 +100
Terms and conditions Professional Responsibility: (Conceptual, Preliminary, Definitive, Control)
Privity HR Planning: Ensure integrity and professionalism
Weighting Single source Hierarchical - Org Chart, OBS, RBS Do the right thing, don’t take shortcuts
Screening Sole source Matrix - RAM (RACI) Always follow the laws, and company policies, stick to moral principles. Open and honest, RESPECT others.
Valid Contract = offer/acceptance Text - Position description Share, mentor, teach, publish, disseminate methodology , personally progress Education of PM, Lead.