Design of Foundation - Bill Boards

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Design of Foundation - Bill Boards

© All Rights Reserved

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EXAMPLE 10 - SIGN STRUCTURE FOUNDATION DESIGN

GENERAL INFORMATION

Example Statement: Example 10 demonstrates a design procedure for a drilled shaft foundation for a

cantilever sign structure. The cantilever supports a sign panel attached to the horizontal support. The

example is only for the design of the shaft foundation. It does not discuss cover design of the members

and attachment.

The design follows the LRFD Specifications for Structural Supports for Highway Signs, Luminaires, and

Traffic Signals, First Edition 2015, with 2017 updates (AASHTO LTS), with references to AASHTO LRFD

Bridge Design Specifications, 7th Edition, with 2016 Interims (AASHTO). Example 10 was designed with

a geotechnical investigation performed on the soil. If one does not have geotechnical data, it is CDOT's

preference to use the Brom's method in Section 13 of the AASHTO LTS to determine shaft embedment.

MATERIAL PROPERTIES

Concrete: CDOT Concrete Class BZ

Concrete Compressive Strength f'c = 4 ksi

Concrete Unit Weight γc = 150 pcf

Grade 60 Reinforcing Steel fy = 60 ksi

Steel Density γsteel = 490 pcf

Aluminum Density γaluminum = 175 pcf

Pole Length Lpole = 22.00 ft.

Pole Base Diameter (outside diameter, o.d.) øpole-B = 15.50 in.

Pole Top Diameter (o.d.) øpole-T = 12.50 in.

Pole Wall Thickness tpole = 0.1875 in.

Depth to Arm Darm = 1.50 ft.

Arm Length Larm = 16.00 ft.

Arm Base Diameter (o.d.) øarm-B = 10.00 in.

Arm End Diameter (o.d.) øarm-E = 6.25 in.

Arm Wall Thickness tarm = 0.1875 in.

Shaft Depth Dshaft =13.00 ft.

Shaft Diameter øshaft = 36 in.

Number of Sign Panels 1

EXAMPLE 10 - SIGN STRUCTURE FOUNDATION DESIGN 2

Larm = 16 ft

øpole-T = 12.5 in

esp = 11 ft

Panel

Lsp = 8 ft

øarm-B = 10 in

Y

øpole-B = 15.5 in X

Z

Existing Ground

Dshaft = 13 ft

øshaft = 36 in

Length Height esp Area

Sign Panel 1 8.00 ft. 6.00 ft. 11.00 ft. 48.00 ft.2

1. LOAD CALCULATION

Use the load combinations and factors from AASHTO LTS T3.4-1 for all loads acting on the sign

structure. Determine the loads at the top of the shaft foundation:

(Other loads not listed here may be applicable for different design cases.)

DC - dead load of structural components and nonstructural attachments

LL - live load is considered for designing members for walkways and service platforms

ICE - ice and wind on ice do not practically control and have been removed from the specifications

W - wind load is based on the pressure of the wind acting horizontally on all components

EXAMPLE 10 - SIGN STRUCTURE FOUNDATION DESIGN 3

*Weight is based on the typical weight of steel and aluminum

Arm Weight DC2 = 0.25 kip

Sign Weight DC3 = 0.15 kip *Assumed 7/32" Sign Thickness

Misc. Weight (Anchors and Sign Support) DC4 = 0.08 kip *Assumed to be 50% of Sign Weight

Is LL applicable? no

Is ICE applicable? no

Basic Wind Speed V = 120.00 mph BDM 32.3.1.3

Height and Exposure Factor for Signs and Arm Kz = 0.90 AASHTO LTS Eq. 3.8.4-1

Height and Exposure Factor for Pole Kz = 0.86 AASHTO LTS Eq. 3.8.4-1

Directionality Factor Kd = 0.85 AASHTO LTS 3.8.5

Gust Effect Factor G= 1.14 AASHTO LTS 3.8.6

Velocity Conversion Factor - Ext Event Cv-Ext = 0.80 AASHTO LTS 3.8.7

Cv V d = Cv V øpole-avg = 112.00

Velocity Conversion Factor Cv = 1.00 AASHTO LTS 3.8.7

Cv V d = Cv V øpole-avg = 140.00

Drag Coefficient for Members Cd-members = 0.45 AASHTO LTS 3.8.7

Drag Coefficient for Sign Panels Cd-sp = 1.19 *rounded up AASHTO LTS 3.8.7

Wind Pressure on Members

ܲ௭ ൌ ͲǤͲͲʹͷܭ௭ ܭௗ ܸܩଶ ܥௗ = 14.50 psf AASHTO LTS Eq. 3.8.1-1

Wind Pressure on Sign Panels

ܲ௭ ൌ ͲǤͲͲʹͷܭ௭ ܭௗ ܸܩଶ ܥௗ = 38.35 psf AASHTO LTS Eq. 3.8.1-1

2

Pole Surface Area (along x axis) A1x = 25.67 ft.

Pole Surface Area (along z axis) A1z = 25.67 ft.2

Arm Surface Area (along x axis) A2x = 10.83 ft.2

Sign Panels Surface Area (along x axis) A3x = 48.00 ft.2

Wind Load (x-direction) ܹ ൌ ȭܲ כ ܣ௭ = W x = 0.37 kip = A1z * Pz-members

Wind Load on Signs (z-direction) W z-sign = 1.84 kip = A3x * Pz-sign panels

Wind Load on Arm (z-direction) W z-arm = 0.16 kip = A2x * Pz-members

Wind Load on Pole (z-direction) W z-pole = 0.37 kip = A1x * Pz-members

EXAMPLE 10 - SIGN STRUCTURE FOUNDATION DESIGN 4

Moments taken about the centerline of the shaft

Moment at

Load Moment

Moment the Top of

Load Description Direction Load (kip) Direction

Arm (ft.) the Caisson

(x,y,z) (x,y,z)

(kip-ft.)

DC1 Pole Weight Y 0.61 0.00 Z 0.00

DC2 Arm Weight Y 0.25 4.31 Z 1.10

DC3 Sign Weight Y 0.15 11.00 Z 1.68

DC4 Misc. Weight Y 0.08 11.00 Z 0.84

LL Live Load Y 0.00 0.00 Z 0.00

W x-pole Wind on Pole X 0.37 6.73 Z 2.51

Wind on Signs

W z-sign/arm Z 2.00 20.50 X 40.95

& Arm

W z-sign Wind on Signs Z 1.84 11.00 Y 20.25

W z-arm Wind on Arm Z 0.16 4.31 Y 0.68

W z-pole Wind on Pole Z 0.37 11.00 X 4.09

Strength I 1.25 1.60 - Gravity

Extreme Ia 1.10 - 1.00 Wind max

Extreme Ib 0.90 - 1.00 Wind min

Service I 1.00 - 1.00 Translation

Moments taken about the centerline of the shaft

ܷ ൌ ߛ ܥܦ ߛ ܮܮ ߛௐ ܹ

Load Axial Moment about Moment about Moment about Shear in the Shear in the

Combination (kip) x-axis (kip-ft.) y-axis* (kip-ft.) z-axis (kip-ft.) x-axis (kip) z-axis (kip)

Strength I 1.37 - - 4.53 - -

Extreme Ia 1.20 45.05 20.92 6.49 0.37 2.37

Extreme Ib 0.98 45.05 20.92 5.77 0.37 2.37

Service I 1.09 45.05 20.92 6.13 0.37 2.37

*My to be used for torsion calculation

EXAMPLE 10 - SIGN STRUCTURE FOUNDATION DESIGN 5

2. SHAFT CAPACITY

Run static L-PILE analysis with parameters from geotechnical report and calculated factored loads.

L-PILE INPUT

Soil Properties

*From Geotechnical Report

Bottom of Boring Elevation Elboring bot = 5270.00

Top of Shaft Elevation Elcaisson top = 5297.50

Bottom of Shaft Elevation Elcaisson bot = 5284.50

Friction

Top of Unit Weight Cohesion

Soil Type Angle Ɛ50 k (pci)

Soil Elev. (pcf) (psf)

(degrees)

5297.00 Stiff Clay w/o free water using k 120.00 0.00 2000.00 0.006 500.00

5290.00 Stiff Clay w/o free water using k 130.00 0.00 2500.00 0.005 1000.00

Length of Section Dshaft = 13.00 ft.

Length of Section in Bedrock Drock = 5.50 ft.

Section Diameter øshaft = 36 in.

Longitudinal Rebar Size # 8

Longitudinal Rebar Count 13

Concrete Cover to Inside Edge of Stirrup Bar 3.625 in. BDM 5.4.3

Stirrup Size # 5

Stirrup Spacing 12 in.

INPUT LOADS

L-Pile models in only one plane, therefore:

Shear in the X Direction is paired with Moment in the Z Direction

Shear in the Z Direction is paired with Moment in the X Direction

Pile-Head Loading Moment

Load Case Shear (lb) Axial (lb)

Condition (lb-in)

1 1 0 54,347 1,367

2 1 372 77,892 1,203

3 1 2,370 540,557 1,203

4 1 372 69,196 984

5 1 2,370 540,557 984

6 1 372 73,544 1,093

7 1 2,370 540,557 1,093

EXAMPLE 10 - SIGN STRUCTURE FOUNDATION DESIGN 6

L-PILE OUTPUT

*Agg size assumed to be 0.75"

Reinforcement 13 #8

Clear Distance Between Bars 5.64 in.

Spacing Check for Min Spacing >

Min Clear Allowed, Max(1.5db, 1.5*Agg Size, 1.5") = 1.50 in. AASHTO 5.10.3.1.1

Min Clear Allowed, Max(5*Agg Size, 5") = 5.00 in. AASHTO 5.13.4.5.2

2

Area of Steel 10.27 in.

Percentage of Steel 1.01%

>

0.80% AASHTO 5.13.4.5.2

Maximum Shear Force 7,261 lbs

Maximum Bending Moment 567,170 lb-in

Axial Thrust at Max Moment Case 1,203 lbs

Depth (ft.)

The maximum deflection, at the

top of the caisson is 0.0043",

which is considered zero;

therefore, the shaft is deemed

stable for the length used per the

Engineer's judgment.

EXAMPLE 10 - SIGN STRUCTURE FOUNDATION DESIGN 7

Depth (ft.)

The maximum factored moment

is less than the maximum

resistance moment. The shaft is

considered stable per the

reinforcement and size.

EXAMPLE 10 - SIGN STRUCTURE FOUNDATION DESIGN 8

Depth (ft.)

EXAMPLE 10 - SIGN STRUCTURE FOUNDATION DESIGN 9

AXIAL RESISTANCE

Unit Side Resistance qs = 1.00 ksf Geotechnical Report

End Bearing Factor ɸqp = 0.40 Geotechnical Report

Side Resistance Factor ɸqs = 0.45 Geotechnical Report

2

Shaft End Bearing Area ������ � ��� � /4 = Ashaft = 7.07 ft.

Shaft Perimeter ������ � ��� = Pshaft = 9.42 ft.

Depth in Bedrock Drock = 5.50 ft.

End Bearing Resistance ɸqpqpAshaft = ɸqpRp = 50.89 kip AASHTO Eq. 10.8.3.5-2

Side Shear Resistance ɸqsqsPshaftDrock = ɸqsRs = 23.33 kip AASHTO Eq. 10.8.3.5-3

Ultimate Shaft Resistance �� � ��� � ��� �� � ��� �� 74.22 kip AASHTO Eq. 10.8.3.5-1

<

74.22 kip

OK!

BENDING RESISTANCE

L-Pile provides Nominal Moment Resistance for each axial value.

The maximum factored applied moment from each L-Pile case with varying axial is compared to the

nominal moment resistance provided by L-Pile.

��� � �� � ��������

ɸ= 0.75 AASHTO 5.5.4.2

Load Case Axial (lb) Resistance, ɸ Resistance, Moment, Mapplied Check

Mn (kip-in.) Mu (kip-in.) (kip-in.)

5 984 8,472.87 0.75 6,354.65 540.56 OK!

7 1,093 8,474.12 0.75 6,355.59 540.56 OK!

3 1,203 8,475.37 0.75 6,356.53 540.56 OK!

1 1,367 8,477.25 0.75 6,357.94 54.35 OK!

EXAMPLE 10 - SIGN STRUCTURE FOUNDATION DESIGN 10

*The side shear resistance of soil for torsion is not considered in this example.

Shear Force Vu = 7.26 kip

Torsion My = Tu 20.92 k-ft.

Flexure Mu = 45.05 k-ft.

Tension Nu = 15.15 kip

Phi for Shear and Torsion ɸ = 0.90 AASHTO 5.5.4.2

Side Cover clr = 3.00 in.

Stirrup Bar Diameter dstirrup = 0.63 in.

Area of Flexural Reinforcement Af = 5.14 in.2 Half of the reinforcement in shaft

Dia of Circle Passing Through Long. Reinf Dr = 27.75 in.3

Area of Concrete Perimeter Acp = 1,018 in. 2

Compressive Stress at Centroid of Section fpc = 0.00 ksi

���� ���

��� � 0.125λ ��� 1�

�� 0.125λ ���

Torsional Cracking Moment Tcr = 2,290.22 k-in. AASHTO Eq.5.8.2.1-4

0.25φTcr = 515.30 k-in.

> AASHTO Eq. 5.8.2.1-3

Tu = 251.08 k-in.

Torsional effects can be neglected

��

�� ��

Effective Shear Depth dv = max of

0.� � ��

0.�2 � �

Mn / Asfy = 27.50 in. Maximum

0.9*ds = 24.15 in.

0.72*h = 25.92 in.

dv = 27.50 in.

��

Shear Stress �� � = vu = 0.0081 ksi AASHTO Eq. 5.8.2.9-1

��� ��

EXAMPLE 10 - SIGN STRUCTURE FOUNDATION DESIGN 11

Transverse Reinforcement

Transverse Reinforcement is required where: Vu > 0.5φVc AASHTO Eq. 5.8.2.4-1

Vu = 7.26 kip

<

0.5φVc = 115.15 kip

Transverse reinforcement not necessary

�� �

Minimum Transverse Reinforcement Av, min ≥ 0.0316λ ��� AASHTO Eq. 5.8.2.5-1

��

Av, min ≥ 0.46 in.2

<

Av, prov'd = 0.62 in.2

OK!

vu = 0.008 ksi

<

0.125f'c = 0.500 ksi

If vu < 0.125f'c, then: ���� � 0.��� � ��.0 AASHTO Eq. 5.8.2.7-1

If vu ≥ 0.125f'c, then: ���� � 0.��� � 1�.0 AASHTO Eq. 5.8.2.7-2

>

sv, prov'd = 12.00 in.2

OK!

ɸVn = 891.01 kip

>

Vu = 7.26 kip

OK!

��

� 0.��� � ��

��

�� �

�� ��

EXAMPLE 10 - SIGN STRUCTURE FOUNDATION DESIGN 12

For sections containing at least the minimum amount of transverse reinforcement specified in Art.

5.8.2.5, the value of β may be determined by the following equation:

4.8

��

� � ����� AASHTO Eq. 5.8.3.4.2-1

β= 4.09

θ= 29.81 AASHTO Eq. 5.8.3.4.2-3

Vc = 255.88 kip

>

Vu = 7.26 kip

OK!

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