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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING (DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MANUFACTURING)
EMM5616 Industrial safety, health and environment
Case study proposal
Dr. Lecturer: Ir. Hj. Mohd Rasid Osman By: Alireza Rezanoori Hamid Reza soltani Amin Pouriran Amir Sefidgaran GS25338 GS26516 GS26201 GS26378
Mohd Manfaluti Bin Ahmad
Introduction................................................................................................................3 1.1Company background........................................................................................3 1.2 Spinning process...............................................................................................3 1.3statement of the problem..................................................................................6 1.3.1 Justification of the problem.........................................................................7 1.4 Objectives.........................................................................................................7 Literature Review.......................................................................................................8 Machinery................................................................................................................8 Noise exposure........................................................................................................8 Exposure to cotton and other organic dusts (Occupational asthma).....................10 Fire........................................................................................................................10 Methodology.............................................................................................................10 3.1 Machinery........................................................................................................11 3.2 Noise exposure................................................................................................11 3.3 Exposure to cotton and other organic dusts....................................................12 3.4 Fire..................................................................................................................12 References...............................................................................................................13
Mashad Nakh Co. is one of Iran’s leading spinners, specializing in the fields of open-end and ring. In the open-end field which was established in 1990, owner has combined technologies from RIETER of Switzerland and SCHLAFHORST of Germany with our own ingenuity to achieve high quality yarns, ranging from 1 Ne. up to 30 Ne. with variety of cotton, viscose, acrylic, and polyester and their blends.  Yarn Count (Ne): No of 840 yards yarn weighing in One pound The ring spinning plant started production in 2003.The mill is capable of spinning ring yarn both in short and long staple fiber ranging from 36-80 Nm in short, and 12-40 Nm in long staple spinning. Having invested in the most updated technology from Rieter and Zinser of Germany, Mashad Nakh is able to offer a variety of products to the market among which 40Nm 100% Dralon acrylic suitable for the production of Channel, 64Nm dyed acrylic with lycra for the making of socks, and dyed acrylic roving in all ranges for the production of fancy yarns are reputable in the market. 
Figure 1: plant lay out 
The cotton is then passed through machines that clean it. remove all impurities. a process safety engineer. Safe Operating Committees at the divisional level entrench commitment to these values throughout the hierarchy of Mashad Nakh. Next it is carded. safety and environment (HSE) committee has been in place since 1990. health and environment would have to come from the very top of the company. Since 1990. formerly done by hand. a safety supervisor and a safety technician. These five people are exclusively employed to improve Mashad Nakh’s safety and report to the health. 1. as the OSHA assessment suggested that a commitment to safety. and reduce every lump into a fine downy mass. machines that begin to draw the cotton out into a thread. First the iron bands and the wrappings are removed that the bales may be broken into pieces. and if of fine quality and intended for the finest goods. headed by a safety unit manager and staffed with a senior safety engineer. The cotton arrives at these mills in the bale. Reza Badamchi. is now accomplished by long rows of complicated and expensive machines in the spinning mill. it is also combed. and twisting the thread to give it strength. This committee has been headed by the company president. It is then ready for the spinning machines where the final twisting of the yarn takes place. safety and environment manager. drawing them into a smooth. Mashad Nakh has won awards by the National Forum for Environment and Health. This process. uniform thread. There is also a section dedicated to the safety of the manufacturing site. tangled fibers. after which any desired mixing of qualities or varieties is performed. . In an up-to-date plant human hands scarcely touch the cotton from the time it enters the bale breaker until it comes out from the spinning machines a finished yarn. A corporate health. Then the cotton is loosened pretty thoroughly.2 Spinning process The process of spinning is essentially nothing more than taking the loose.The commitment to health and safety is an explicit part of the core values stated in Mashad Nakh’s corporate responsibility report. From the carding and combing machines the cotton passes into drawing frames.
Ring System  .Rotor System  Figure 3.Figure 2.
Carding 3. Draw Frames . Combing Preparatory 4. Combing 5. Spinning process  The important process stages involved in spinning a cotton yarn are 1. Blow Room 2.Figure 4.
Trash particles will be removed from the raw cotton to much of extent. Auto Winding Blow Room process involves in-taking of raw cotton and opening and cleaning it. Speed Frames 7.6. . Ring Spinning 8. Figure 20 Carding process involves again opening and cleaning of the cotton coming out from Blow Room and carding machine will convert the cotton into a continuous sliver form.
Figure Comber Preparatory processes involves doubling and drafting of multiple card slivers and converting them into a lap form. This lap will be fed to the next process called Comber. .
Figure  Comber process involves removal of short fibres and neps from the comber lap. In this process cotton fibres are more parallelized and oriented. Figure  Draw Frame process involves doubling and drafting of multiple comber slivers into a single sliver. In comber process. short fibres and neps are removed and finally multiple slivers coming out from each machine head are doubled and drafted to a single sliver called comber sliver. multiple comber laps are processed together. .
Figure  In Speed Frame process. the draw frame sliver is drafted into a thin material called Rove and a minor amount of twist is imparted to it to withstand loads in further process. Here the Rove material is again drafted to a very thin strand and considerable twist is imparted to it to get the final yarn. . Figure  Ring Frame is the process where the actual yarn formation takes place.
In this conversion process. faults in the yarn will be cleared with the help of electronic yarn clearers. Here the sliver.Figure  Auto Winding is the process wherein the single small yarn package formed at Ring Frame stage is converted into a big package called cone. Figure  Rotor Frame (OE Spinning) is the process where the actual yarn formation takes place. is fed to rotor groove and considerable twist is imparted to it to get the final yarn. . which drafted for two times. single yarn packages from Ring Frame are taken and continuously unwound and wound on a package called cone and during this winding process.
largely unrecognized or ignored. they also introduced new potential hazards.3statement of the problem As machines became larger. work stress. they infused the workplace with potential health hazards.Figure  1. The reasons for the concern include the high frequency of accidents and workers’ compensation claims. as workers moved from the country to cities. the large number of lost work days and the severity of the accidents. The main reasons for problems that stated include: • • • • Machinery Noise exposure Exposure to cotton and other organic dusts Fire because the fiber are inflammable . Perhaps the greatest effect of the Industrial Revolution was on community life. And as workers had to cope with mechanization and the demand for increasing productivity. As materials and processes became more complex. speedier and more complicated. except that the changes are more rapid While the industry has been active in hazard reduction and safety education. spinning machines safety remains a major concern. exerted an increasing influence on their well-being. These effects are being seen today as the textile and other industries move to developing countries and regions. where they had to contend with all of the ills of urbanization.
lung cancer. the proper maintenance of the machinery and how to correctly use the machinery. As part of this obligation suppliers are required to provide adequate information in respect of any dangers associated with the machinery. leg. asthma and related diseases. absenteeism. In the long run. exposure to noise is often ignored by spinning units because its effects are not immediately visible and there is an absence of pain. annoyance.Machinery: The cotton spinning industry. anxiety. Occupational safety and health legislation requires (amongst other things) persons who supply machinery to. like other processing industries. so far as is practicable. from designers to the person finally disposing of the machinery. followed by ear. allergic. Hazard identification is the process of identifying situations or events that could give rise to the potential of injury or of harm to the health. has many hazards. lung. particularly those in developing countries. The fatal disease of byssinosis. Exposure to cotton dust and other particles leads to respiratory disorders among the textile workers. sneezing attacks. of a person. exposure to high noise levels has been known to damage the eardrum and cause hearing loss. Current occupational safety and health legislation places responsibilities to minimize hazards on everyone involved in the life cycle of the machinery. The workers engaged in the processing and spinning of cotton are exposed to significant amounts of cotton dust. reduction in efficiency. Exposure to cotton and other organic dusts: Cotton dust is defined as dust present in the air during the handling or processing of cotton that result in lung disease. arm/shoulder. foot/toes. Other problems like fatigue. or harm to the health of the person.including loss of hearing. changes in pulse rate and blood pressure as well as sleep disorders have also been noted on account of continuous exposure to noise. The most readily available source of information pertaining to the safe operation of machinery is contained within the operator‟s manual for the machine. Hazard in relation to a person. High levels of noise have been observed in most of the units engaged in the cotton spinning industry. commonly known as ‘brown . eye. Though it causes serious health effects. at work and in traffic. If the noise level gets high enough it can cause problems . ensure that persons properly using the machinery are not exposed to hazards. means anything with the potential to cause injury. trunk and head injuries. Information from workers’ compensation claims indicates that the number of injuries is highest for the hand/fingers. They are also exposed to particles of pesticides and soil. back/spine. Noise exposure: Occupational noise exposure is the most significant health hazard present in the modern industrial workplace. Noise is generally defined as unwanted or undesired sound we are all expose to noise every day at home.
4 Objectives The main objective for our case study is to study about the hazards issues for machinery. In a study of cotton-mill workers in China. 1. dusts and general fire precautions that occur in textile industry especially at the spinning process.lung’. noise exposure. and an increased incidence of respiratory symptoms. Direct costs are easier to determine and much less expensive than indirect costs. therefore.1 Justification of the problem Total economic costs for spinning machines injuries and health disorders include direct costs (medical and other compensation) and indirect costs (time lost from work. Literature Review . coughing. downtime.3. ten weeks and one year after starting work. The present study of the same cohort of workers was undertaken with the following major goals: • to perform a follow-up for a longer period. Fire: Fire is a serious hazard in spinning company because fiber is inflammable. Textile companies are interested to reduce these costs. The symptoms of this disease include tightening of the chest.5 Results of the two studies are compared below. loss of productivity and many other loss factors). FEV1) and airway responsiveness before starting work and ten weeks and one year later. the workers were examined for atopy. spirometry (forced expiratory volume in one second. the findings from a large follow-up study of cotton workers in China over a 15-year period were reported. The major findings were increased airway responsiveness. 1. particularly among persons with atopy. higher insurance costs for workers’ compensation. loss in earning power. all of the spinning company should have special instrument to protect their company. After the termination of the initial study. and • to compare the remaining workers and those who had stopped working in the mill. wheezing and shortness of breath. is caused among people working in the textile industry on account of excessive exposure to cotton dust. Other objective is to find out some solution for those major problems.
some of these injuries or events cause amputation or death.Machinery Many international safety and health regulations affecting cotton spinning are derived from US legislation administered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). They fall into three principal categories: ✔ Hazards related to the machinery itself. cutting. ➢ Being struck by parts of the machine during failure or break-up of the machine. column or fixed machine. such as stability (could it roll or fall over) or its proximity to another structure. . electric shock. ✔ Hazards related to the location of the machine. and tearing (or stretching) or a combination of two or more of these. ➢ Being caught between a machine and material being used in the machine to manufacture a product. ill health form the release of hazardous substances or from lack of oxygen and broken bones from falls (slippery or wet surfaces) are also relatively common. which promulgates pesticides regulations. ✔ Hazards related systems of work associated with the machine. shearing. ➢ Being caught between a machine or machine part and a fixed structure such as a wall. ➢ Coming into contact or entanglement with material being used in the machine to manufacture a product. hearing loss. The common situations which result in injury to persons are: ➢ Coming into contact or entanglement with a machine. The movements of parts of machines consist basically if rotating. Hazard Categories There are many hazards associated with machinery. puncturing. However. such as shearing and abrasion and release of hazardous substances. Common Injuries and Related Situations The common injuries associated with machines are crushing. such as manual handling injuries caused when putting material into the machine. abrasion (or burns). This could include a person being drawn into a machine or being drawn into a position where they might sustain further injury. Of course. sliding or reciprocating motion or a combination of these motions.
the International Safety Equipment Association (ISEA) and the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) recently combined to express a commitment to safe work.. cards. specifying machinery design features that contribute to safety.g. and developing a rigorous machinery safety culture / program with your staff.g. This can be a voluntary program like the “Quest for the Best in Health and Safety” developed by the American Textile Manufacturers Institute. ➢ Being struck as a result of a release of potential energy. particularly with reference to hot surfaces and moving equipment. There are three important facets of machinery safety: Making appropriate use of machinery monitoring instrumentation. When a safety and health management system is used. In the U. looms. the American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE). When evaluating an operation for safety.  Many of the more modern textile yarn manufacturing mills find it useful to have some type of occupational safety and health management system in place to control the workplace hazards that workers may encounter. [1-8] . Prevention and control of these impacts include the implementation of general protection measures (e. the focus on the safety and health of employees in the workplace is a growing priority for individuals and organization. Around the world. a key area to address is the mechanical equipment within the plant. That concentration. or one that is mandated by regulations such as the US State of California Occupational Injury and Illness Prevention Program (Title 8.S. protects a company’s most valuable assets: the employees who knowledgeably keep a plant’s products and services moving forward. it should be flexible and adaptable enough to allow the mill to tailor it to its own needs. California Code of Regulations. machine guarding and lock-outtag-out systems and procedures). first and foremost. for instance. Section 3203). and stenters) may expose workers to physical impacts. Safety is a necessity for any textile plant. as described in the General EHS Guidelines. Activities related to the maintenance operations of industry specific equipment (e.➢ Being struck by material ejected from the machine. spinning machinery. which they say must be prominent in a congressional jobs bill now under consideration.
At 140 decibels or more acute pain is experienced. When most people use the term decibel or discuss noise levels in decibels they are referring to decibels as related to the “A-weighted” scale or. Some common noise values are as follows: Ordinary conversation – 60 dBA Heavy traffic – 80 dBA Cocktail Party – 90 dBA Moving subway train – 100 dBA Riveting gun – 130 dBA Hard rock band – 100 to 138 dBA Jet plane heard at close range – 150 dBA Any noise rating above 80 dBA produces physiological effects and any long term exposures at much or above 90 or 100 decibels will cause permanent damage to a person’s hearing. The decibel is a number which relates sound intensity or sound pressure.Noise exposure Noise Pollution has been recognized as a major threat to human well being.  The A-weighted scale parallels the sensitivity of the human ear and uses the lowest audible sound that the human ear can detect as the reference point for determining the decibel level of a noise. Much discussion and legislation has evolved in an attempt to recognize and combat the problem of noise pollution. In combating the problem of noise pollution it is necessary to use a means of measuring noise levels and a system of classification. of sufficient intensity. An increase of 10 dBA is a doubling of loudness with respect to the human ear. The reference intensities used above represent the threshold of audibility where sound is just loud enough to be heard. . dBA. It has been recognized that noise. can damage hearing and be classified as a hazard.
 . Two basic types of instruments are available to monitor noise levels: Sound Level Meters and Noise Dosemeters. They do not average noise levels to provide the eight-hour TWA on which OSHA bases its exposure levels. Instruments used for monitoring employee exposures must be carefully checked or calibrated to ensure that measurements are accurate. a vast store of knowledge has been accumulated till date about its nature. Sound Level Meters: are direct reading instruments that provide a "snap shot" measurement of noise levels at a particular time. and impulsive noise within an 80 dB to 130 dB range and must be taken during a typical work situation. A cross sectional study involving 112 workers exposed to different levels of occupational noise has been conducted. The noise spectrum has been evaluated with the help of 1/3 octave filter set. intermitted. After the initial noise monitoring. The exposure measurement must include all continuous. Equivalent sound pressure level Leq has given in various sections of a plant with the help of a digital sound level meter. etiology and time course. The resulting injury of occupational hearing loss is also a well recognized and global problem. Occupational Noise exposure has been linked with a range of negative health effects by various researchers. or an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA).The hearing conservation program requires employers to monitor noise exposure levels in a manner that will accurately identify employees who are exposed to noise levels at or above 85 decibels (dB) averaged over 8 working hours. There is still ignorance. Noise Dosemeters: measure employee's TWA exposure. To protect workers from hearing damage due to noise exposure and other related health effects. amongst majority of people working in industries in developing and third world countries including India about ill effects of exposure to high values of noise. they are physically worn by employees for an entire work shift in order to record exposure levels. OSHA requires that additional monitoring be performed whenever there is a change in the production process that may increase noise exposure.
although is less than 90 dB (A).e. combing etc. which can be a major reason for causing occupational hearing loss. Octave band analysis of the noise shows the presence of high sound level in 4. as workers exposed to comparatively less noise level report better satisfaction (iv) 70% of the workers reported that high noise level causes speech interference (v) 42% workers report the noise to be annoying. The results of the interview questionnaire which included a number of parameters reveal the following.Mean hearing levels (dB) at different frequencies.  shows the comparison of the mean hearing threshold levels (dB) of control subjects with carpet mill and cotton textile factory workers.000 Hz frequency range. but is quite higher than limits used for assessment of noise for community response.Meliksah ERTEM et al. Loom Shed. blow room. Figure 4. and TFO Area is more than the acceptable limit of 90 dBA for 8 h exposure stipulated by OSHA. The study thus demonstrates the . The results of the study establish the fact that noise level in certain sections of the plants i. 4000 Hz notch was plotted in carpet mill and cotton textile workers audiograms in the figure 1. Spinning. Ring Frame. The noise level in other sections like carding.. (i) only 29% workers are aware about the effects of noise on health (ii) 28% workers are using ear protectors (iii) the satisfaction with the working environment is related to noise level.
Baseline audiograms must be preceded by 14 hours without exposure to workplace noise. Baseline audiograms must be provided within 6 months of an employee's first exposure at or above an 8-hour TWA of 85 dBA. employees must be fitted with adequate hearing protectors. Audiometric Testing: Should the noise level monitoring determine that employees are being subjected to levels equaling or exceeding a TWA of 85 dBA. Employees must be notified within 21 days. training. It is important to test hearing on an annual basis to identify deterioration in hearing ability so that protective measures can be initiated before hearing loss progresses. Annual audiograms must be routinely compared to baseline audiograms to determine whether an employee has experienced any recordable hearing loss. The important elements of an audiometric testing program include baseline audiograms. This hearing loss is reffered to in the OSHA standard as a standard threshold shift (STS). and required to wear them. annual audiograms. Baseline Audiograms: The baseline audiogram is the reference audiogram against which future audiograms are compared. 3000. each employee exposed to noise at the 85 dBA TWA level or above shall have an annual examination. the next step is to establish an audiometric testing program for those exposed at no cost to the employee.presence of gross occupational noise exposure in both the plants and the author believes that occupational noise exposure and the related effects in India is a widespread problem. and 4000 Hz in either ear". shown how to use them. the employee may be retested within 30 days if the professional determines that their test results are questionable or . Annual audiogram must be conducted within 1 year of the baseline. Annual Audiograms: After a baseline audiogram has been taken. OSHA defines an STS as "a change in hearing threshold relative to the baseline audiogram of an average of 10 dB or more at 2000.  If a STS has occurred. and follow up procedures.
If subsequent audiometric tests show that the STS identified on a previous audiogram is not persistent. This may manifest as changes in respiratory function in terms of decrease after the work shift and a decrease in baseline. particularly among persons with atopy. After the termination of the initial study. The major findings were increased airway responsiveness. and an increased incidence of respiratory symptoms. spirometry (forced expiratory volume in one second.if they have an ear problem of a medical nature that is thought to be caused or aggravated by wearing hearing protectors. ten weeks and one year after starting work. The most typical of the symptoms is a sensation of chest tightness on the first day at work that becomes progressively worse over the years. In a study of cotton-mill workers in China. The present study of the same cohort of workers was undertaken with the following major goals: • To perform a follow-up for a longer period. If the suspected medical problem is not thought to be related to wearing hearing protection. While many cross-sectional studies have been done over the years. FEV1) and airway responsiveness before starting work and ten weeks and one year later.  Exposure to cotton and other organic dusts (Occupational asthma) Exposure to cotton dust in industrial environments causes an inflammation in the airways. the findings from a large follow-up study of cotton workers in China over a 15-year period were reported. Airway responsiveness and symptoms are also increased. there have been relatively few longitudinal studies in which the development of disease has been followed in a group of individuals. employees whose exposure to noise is less than a TWA of 90 dBA may discontinue wearing hearing protectors. [13. the workers were examined for atopy. employees must be informed that they should see a physician. 14] . • To compare the remaining workers and those who had stopped working in the mill.
A mild water washing of cotton by batch kier washing systems and continuous batt systems reduces the residual level of endotoxin in both lint and airborne dust to levels below those associated with the acute reduction in pulmonary function as measured by the 1-second forced expiratory volume.e. The dust. [17. which varies in composition and biological activity. 18] Fire An overview of an explosion that occurred in a textile industry. soil and microbiological material (i. since cellulose is an inert dust that does not cause respiratory disease.2 mg/m3 respirable cotton dust as measured by the vertical elutriator as the limit for occupational exposure to cotton dust in textile yarn manufacturing. medical surveillance and PPE can. due to the deflagration of a particular nylon fibre called flock. The explosion occurred in a plant that produced a characteristic kind of flocked thread . byssinosis.. bacteria and fungi).5 to 1. for the most part. an airborne particulate released into the atmosphere as cotton is handled or processed. which is mainly cellulose. It usually takes 15 to 20 years of exposure to higher levels of dust (above 0. The cotton fibre itself. complex mixture of botanical trash. the methods and the results of the inquiry are reported. is a heterogeneous.8) along with work practices. is not the cause. in a small number of textile workers. The aetiological agent and pathogenesis of byssinosis are not known.0 mg/m3) for workers to become reactors. Appropriate engineering controls in cotton textile processing areas (see figure 89.Inhalation of the dust generated where cotton fibre is converted into yarn and fabric has been shown to cause an occupational lung disease. OSHA and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) standards set 0. eliminate the byssinosis. Cotton plant trash associated with the fibre and the endotoxin from gram-negative bacteria on the fibre and plant trash are thought to be the cause or to contain the causative agent. The evidence.
 Diff. (100 C) water absorbs heat from the heating source without any change on its temp. and 540 calorie when changed to steam. • At this temp. The explosion took place inside a dryer and propagated to the connected suction plant.which is entirely made of a synthetic material. Water boils and starts to vaporize. • When water is subjected to heat . The approach is proposed to use blends of wool with high performance fibres (PAramid) in order to investigate eventual synergistic effect. temp starts to increase until reaching 100 degree C . • Water is used to extinguish class A fires. • Water is used in automatic sprinkler systems. Kinds of Fire Extinguishing Agents • Water • Foam • Dry Chemical • Dry Powder • Carbon Dioxide • Halons (Halon Alternatives) • Wet Dry Chemical 1. • Water is used on oil tank fires: cooling .Water: • Latent Heat Of Vaporization: • Quantity of heat required to transfer one gram of substances from the liquid state to the vapor state. • One gram of water can absorb 85 calorie when boiling.  The aim is to use natural fibres as much as possible in order to provide flame retardant properties in textile materials in order to reduce the hazards of fire during the manufacturing process and final product. and fighting the fire with foam. .
The foam generator Figure  Dry Chemicals . The proportioner (inductor) 4. The foam concentrate 3. The fire water supply 2.Figure  2.Foam: • All foam systems consist of the same basic components. 1.
• Monex (Potassium Bicarbonate + Urea).C. • Smothering effect & Cooling Effect.E. • Tertiary Eutectic Chloride (T. Dry Powders • To be used for extinguishing class D fire (metals).) • (Barium Chloride + Potassium Chloride + Sodium Chloride).5 times) • When discharged – expands 450 times (volume) – temp. Figure  . 80 degree below zero.• Sodium Bicarbonate • Potassium Bicarbonate • Ammonium Phosphate + Ammonium Sulphate. • Heavier than air (1. Carbon Dioxide • Pressurized at 750 psi. • Ventilate the area after using Carbon Dioxide. • Tricalcium Phosphate + Sodium Chloride for extinguishing Magnisium fires. • Boron Trioxide.
Figure  Methodology Checklist of hazards in textiles Mechanical hazards YES NO Is work equipment and machinery regularly checked to ensure that it works properly and that the guards and other protective measures are in good condition and operating correctly? Are there machines with unprotected or unguarded moving parts? Are the emergency stops on the work equipment and machinery accessible and working? .
even when the noise level is high? Are workers carrying out tasks that expose them to vibration . those classified as toxic. for example. mutagenic. irritant.5-1 metre away? Are there noise sources which are not dampened. or their whole body? Does the employer purchase the lowest-noise machines available? Does the employer purchase the lowest-vibration machinery available? Chemical hazards Do workers use hazardous chemicals. corrosive. harmful. sensitising. enclosed effectively or placed in a separate room? Is there a lack of noise screens between sources of noise and work areas? Are there workers who do not use ear-protectors.Are there machines where an unprotected or unintentional start-up is possible? Noise and vibration Are there workers exposed to noise which is so loud that they have to shout to communicate with a person standing 0.either of their hands and arms. or toxic to reproduction? . carcinogenic.
such as local exhaust ventilation? Are there workers who do not use personal protective equipment. face shields or respirators. for example wool. goggles.Do workers use hazardous chemicals if material safety data sheets are not supplied? Do workers work with hazardous chemicals even if a set of safety instructions for use has not been drawn up? Can hazardous chemicals be substituted for ones less hazardous? Are new workers told of the risks from the dangerous substances in the workplace? Are workers aware of the dangers posed by the chemicals they are using? Do employees work with carcinogenic or mutagenic substances? Are workers exposed to organic dusts. even if this is required? Are there workers using hazardous chemicals who have not been trained in . such as gloves. cotton or yarns? Are there workstations without appropriate collective preventive equipment.
Fire hazards Are fire precautions in place. such as sometimes found in paints. increased storage temperatures or excessive quantities of products? Are there any fire/high temperature/electrostatic field sources in explosive areas? Manual handling of loads and prevention of musculoskeletal disorders . flammable liquids or gases are stored? Are there any areas with a risk of explosion as a result of contamination by stored flammable substances. for example. and accessible? Do workers use oxidising. for example. rooms in which paints or solvents. operational. or flammable materials. air and gases such as hydrogen or methane. electrostatic charges or high temperature? Do explosive mixtures arise in work processes. open fire. electrical equipment. for example. air and vapour of benzene or acetone? Are there any areas where there is a risk of explosion. adhesives and solvents? Are oxidising or flammable substances or preparations stored in unventilated rooms? Are there any sources of ignition.
for example. and cannot dictate their pace of work? Do workers stand or walk for a long period of time? Does considerable force need to be used to push or pull equipment such as trolleys? Is the floor uneven. above shoulder-height or below knee-height? Are heavy objects or loads lifted manually.Are loads lifted in awkward working positions. boxes containing reels of yam. for example. far from the body. sloping. rollers or rolls of cloth? Are trolleys or other equipment for moving loads kept in good condition? Do workers have to carry out repetitive tasks. or in other ways likely to make the movement of goods more difficult? Are there areas where the pushing or pulling of loads has to be carried out in cramped conditions? Do people work in uncomfortable or awkward postures and positions? Do workers have to make repetitive movements? Psychosocial and other issues .
lack of ability to concentrate. mechanical. irritability. the cause of many of the accidents. and depression that may indicate an issue with work-related stress? Are employees working under the threat of physical violence? 3. 2. in particular to avoid attempting repairs while the machinery is in motion. Sources of energy (electrical. All hazardous energy sources are turned off while working on equipment personnel. hydraulic. pneumatic. 5. The facility was used to identify energy sources. was ensured by necessary equipment and trained .1 Machinery To reduce machinery risks. 4. inertial and so on) were controlled before any repair or maintenance work is attempted (By maintenance group).Are there high levels of absenteeism and staff turnover that may suggest that work-related stress is present in the workplace? Is it often necessary for employees to work overtime? Are workers showing abnormal behaviour such as drug and alcohol abuse. 3. An inspection was performed on a regular basis to ensure that all lockout/tag-out procedures are being followed and correctly applied. the following actions were done by company: 1. Operators were trained.
are only partially enclosed. however. Spacing of machinery: Minimum spacing standards were observed. automatically collecting waste from under machinery such as fly and motes from carding). Safety sensor was doors.2 Noise exposure To reduce noise. 9. The machine lay. Waste handling system is used by company (The central vacuum system is used for cleaning of machinery.6. The risk of accidents is increased if insufficient space is allowed between the machines. Waste disposal box for discontinuous suction of waste from the licker-in  10. 7. button was used around 11. Figure 5. Power transmission devices and most other pinch points were typically guarded. 8. company does the following action: . installed on 3. Emergency the machine. harnesses and other parts that must be frequently accessed by spinner.
. If necessary. Medical examinations were conducted by the employers for the workers annually (A hearing conservation program with periodic audiograms was used). 6. workers were provided with masks. 3. If significant occupational health problems are observed. certain parts of machines were replaced. All employees exposed to noise at a TWA of 85 dBA or greater shall participate in a hearing conservation training program. the following actions were done by company: 1) There has been proper ventilation at the place of work. Engineering Controls: Are defined as. 2. 5. 7. Administrative Controls: Workers were rotated within jobs so that they are not faced with continuous noise exposure for a long period of time (Diagnosis is duty of company’s doctor). in a small number of textile workers. Recordkeeping: An accurate record is maintained of all employee exposure measurements. Examples: installing noise-absorbing acoustical foam or baffles to capture and deaden reverberating noise. byssinosis.3 Exposure to cotton and other organic dusts Inhalation of the dust generated where cotton fiber is converted into yarn and fabric has been shown to cause an occupational lung disease. Machinery was well maintained in order to reduce the level of noise.1. "Methods of controlling employee exposures by modifying the source or reducing the quantity of contaminants released into the workroom environment" is used in company. workers were provided with ear muffs. 3. appropriate measures were taken by the management. 2) In order to reduce the exposure to dust. In case the noise level could not be controlled. The workers were trained in the proper use of such protective equipment and supervised to verify that they are using it (by OSHA officer). 4. ear plugs and ear canal so that exposure to noise can be reduced. Training: Employees training is very important. To reduce dust risks.
4) Proper reduce exposure dust the to provided there with is heavy safety of dusts. appropriate measures should be taken by the management. workers control equipment maintained workers’ cotton dust. Figure 6  3. to was set up and 5) Medical examinations should be conducted by the employers for the workers from time to time.3) In units where exposure to a lot were gloves. especially in cotton spinning mills.4 Fire Fire is a serious hazard. automatically collecting waste from under machinery. 6) Dust extraction system for a carding machines and other machine in spinning process 7) The central vacuum system was used for cleaning of machinery. If significant occupational health problems are observed. .
. 2) Fire-alarm systems are used by company. Figure  3) Fire extinguishers and hoses are used by company.1) The mill structure and layout was conformed to local regulations governing unobstructed gangways and exits.
police and emergency medical services. 6) No repairs involving the use of flame cutting or flame-burning equipment is carried on during working hours.Figure  4) Emergency lights. conducted if possible in concert with local fire. 8) Fire drills. which encourages the spread of fire. 7) Training of all staff in procedures in case of fire was done. . 9) The rectangular duct was prepared for installation of spark detectors. is done weekly. 5) Cleanliness and good housekeeping will prevent accumulations of dust and fluff. were practiced at appropriate intervals.
1991. 1994. A R. DC: OSHA. Glindmeyer. RN Jones.chem. V and PE Enterline. 1933. and EN Schachter. Glindmeyer. 2. JJ Lefante. 207.ifc. Federal Register 50. 1985. HW. 6.2010) 9. 4. DC: US Public Health Service. Cotton dust and smoking effects on lung function in cotton textile workers. cupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). 1984.References 1. RN Jones. RH. http://www. and JC Goddard.Kinsler. http://www. GJ. 29 CFR 1910. Sanders. 1973. Fundamentals of Acoustics. Health of Workers in Textile Plants.org/ifcext/sustainability. Am Rev Respir Dis 144:675–683. L. JJ Lefante. Bulletin No.E. LR Maunder. Washington. Henderson. An unusual mortality experience in cotton textile workers. Exposure-related declines in the lung function of cotton textile workers.info/Articles/2010/03/Safety-Three-Ways-to-Improve- Machinery-Safety/(16th of August.1043. and H Weill. Frey. J Occup Med 15: 717–719. Final Rule for Occupational Exposure to Cotton Dust. A B. HW. J V. 7. Coppens. HMA Kader. RJ Rando. 5. Cotton dust and across-shift change in FEV1 Am J Respir Crit Care Med 149:584–590. RJ Rando. Britten.nsf/Content/EHSGuidelines(20th of August. and H Weill. pp377 . Washington. 1985). Beck. 3. 5112051179 (13 Dec. JJ Bloomfield. Am J Epidemiol 119:33–43.2010) 8.
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