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**Module 3c: Flow in Pipes
**

Hazen-Williams Equation

• Based on experimental work • Used to calculated velocity in a pipe based on the relative roughness and slope of the energy line

V = kCR 0.63 S 0.54

Robert Pitt University of Alabama And Shirley Clark Penn State - Harrisburg

Where V = velocity C = factor for relative roughness R = hydraulic radius S = slope of the energy line (head loss divided by pipe length) k = “conversion” factor for unit system k = 0.849 for units of m/sec k = 1.318 for units of ft/sec

**Hazen-Williams Equation
**

Type of Pipe Pipes extremely straight and smooth Pipes very smooth Smooth wood, smooth masonry New riveted steel, vitrified clay Old cast iron, ordinary brick Old riveted steel Old iron in bad condition C 140 130 120 110 100 95 60 – 80

**Hazen-Williams Equation
**

Pipe Material New cast iron 5-year old cast iron 20-year old cast iron Average concrete New welded steel Asbestos cement Plastic C 130 120 100 130 120 140 150

In: Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. and George Tchobanoglous. Wastewater Engineering: Collection and Pumping of Wastewater. McGraw-Hill, Inc. 1981. Table 2-2.

In: Warren Viessman, Jr. and Mark Hammer. Water Supply and Pollution Control, Sixth Edition. Addison-Wesley. 1998. Table 6-1.

1

McGraw-Hill. – Not used to describe any area that is open to the atmosphere since friction contact with the atmosphere is negligible. Water Supply and Sewerage.Hazen-Williams Equation Description of Pipe Cast iron New 5 years old 10 years old 20 years old 30 years old Concrete Cement lined Welded steel Riveted steel Plastic Asbestos Cement Value of C 130 130 120 110 90 – 100 75 – 90 120 140 As for cast iron 5 years older As for cast iron 10 years older 150 140 Channel Characteristics: Hydraulic Radius and Wetted Perimeter • Wetted Perimeter – surface of pipe or channel where fluid is touching (accounts for areas where friction effects are occurring). the hydraulic radius is: A = area = πD2/4 P = circumference = πD R = A/P = (πD2/4)/(πD) = D/4 By Continuity: Where R= D 4 Q = VA 2 . For circular pipes flowing full. Channel Characteristics: Hydraulic Radius and Wetted Perimeter • Hydraulic Radius. the Hazen-Williams formula can be restated: For a circular pipe flowing full: A R= P A = cross-sectional area of flow P = wetted perimeter • Hydraulic radius will have units of length. Sixth Edition. 1991. R: Hazen-Williams Equation • For circular pipes flowing full. In: Terence McGhee.

54 (0.432CD 2.272 gal / day 646.54 Where Q = flow (MGD) D = diameter (ft) Where Q = 0.035 D 2 ⎜ ⎟ CS 0.035 ⎞ Q = ⎜ 0.318 ACR 0.432CD 2.646 MGD / cfs π ⎛D⎞ D 2C ⎜ ⎟ 4 ⎝4⎠ 0.Hazen-Williams Equation • For circular pipes flowing full.63S 0.54 V [ ft / sec] A[ ft 2 ] = 1.54 [units of ft 3 /sec and ft] 0.318 1 ft 3 / sec(7.48 gal / ft 3) = 7.63 ⎟CD 2.48 gal / sec 7.63 Hazen-Williams Equation • Substituting into Hazen-Williams: Hazen-Williams Equation • For SI units.63 S 0.54 Q = flow (m3/sec) D = pipe diameter (m) 3 . the Hazen-Williams formula can be restated: Conversion Factor: Hazen-Williams Equation • Substituting into Hazen-Williams: V [ ft / sec] = 1.432CD 2.63 S 0.63 S 0.63 S 0.48 gal / sec(60 sec/ min ) = 448 gal / min 448 gal / min(60 min/ hr )(24hr / day ) = 646.54 ⎝ 4 ⎠ Q = 0.63 S 0.646 million gal/day Conversion Factor = 0.63 S 0.54 Q[ ft 3 / sec] = 1. the Hazen-Williams equation for pipes flowing full: Q = 0.63 S 0.54 ⎝4⎠ ⎛ 1.54 [units of ft /sec] 3 Q = 0.279CD 2.318CR 0.272 gal / day ≅ 0.278CD 2.646 MGD / cfs) Q = 0.54 ⎛D⎞ Q = 1.63S 0.

Jr.278CD 2.54 ⎛ ⎞ (0.63 S 0.54 Q = 0.54 • By definition: S= hf L Q ⎛ ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ L ⎝ 0.25 m3/sec C = 130 Hazen-Williams Equation • Using the Hazen-Williams equation for flow: • Hazen-Williams Equation Solving for hf: ⎛h Q =⎜ f 0.25m3 / sec) h f = (1000m)⎜ ⎜ 0.278(130)(0.54 • Substituting: Q ⎛ ⎞ h f = L⎜ 2.85 4 .63 ⎟ ⎝ 0. Assume that the Hazen-Williams coefficient for the pipe equals 130. Hammer. Given: L = 1000 m D = 0.25 m3/sec.63 ⎠ 1 / 0.5m) 2.278CD 2..Hazen-Williams Equation From: Water Supply and Pollution Control.63 ⎜ L ⎝ hf ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0. Example: • Determine the head loss in a 1000-m pipeline with a diameter of 500 mm that is discharging 0. Addison Wesley.63 ⎜ f ⎜ L ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.278CD ⎠ Substituting : 1 / 0. 1998.63 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ h f = 2.278CD 2. Sixth Edition. Warren Viessman.54 ⎛h Q = 0. and Mark J.5 m Q = 0.278CD 2.94m 1.

Hazen-Williams Equation Example: • A 14-inch diameter schedule 80 pipe has an inside diameter of 12.849)(120)(0.0125 ―――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――― Hazen-Williams Equation Refer to Moody Diagram 5 .63 S 0.54 V = (0.63 S 0.5 m in a length of 200 m? Use Hazen-Williams equation to calculate velocity. R.079375m 4 4 • Substituting into the Hazen-William equation: – For SI units.32m / sec ―――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――― • Calculate a Reynolds number based on this velocity: Re = 2. • • Hazen-Williams Equation Assume that the pipe is cast-iron ⇒ C = 120 Calculate the slope of the energy gradient: S= 3.5m L 200m S = 0.54 V = 2.5 inches (317. for pipe flowing full: D 0.079375m)0.0175)0.3x105 = VD Reading from the Moody diagram (since this is based on a previous problem.000012): f = 0.32m / sec(0. ε/d has already been calculated and is 0. What is the friction factor f if the pipe is flowing full and the allowable head loss is 3.3175m R= = = 0.849 V = (0.3175m) 1.63 (0.54 • Calculate the hydraulic radius. k = 0.003 x10− 6 m 2 / sec ν Re = 7.849)CR 0.5 mm).0175 = hf V = kCR 0.

Assume C = 120.5 inches (317. find flow from nomogram: ⎛ C ⎞ Q C = Q100 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 100 ⎠ Hazen-Williams Equation • Calculate slope of energy line. ― ― ― ― ― ― ― X 6 .5 m in a length of 200 m? Use Hazen-William equation to calculate velocity.0175 ft / ft ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1000 ft ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ S = 17. find S100 from the nomogram: ⎛ 100 ⎞ SC = S100 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ C ⎠ Given flow and slope. find D100 from the nomogram: ⎛ 100 ⎞ DC = D100 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ C ⎠ 0.85 • • Given diameter and slope.0175 ― ― ― ― From the nomogram.5 ft / 1000 ft ― ― ― ― ― To use the nomogram.5 m L = 200 m 1. need slope as feet/1000 feet.0 ft/sec (0. S= ― ― ― ― ― ― ― ― ― H L 3.38 Hazen-Williams Equation Example (using the nomogram and the conversions): • A schedule 80 pipe has an inside diameter of 12.3048 m/ft) V = 1.5 mm).5 inches HL = 3.5m = 200m L S = 0.83 m/sec X • ⎛ 1000 ft ⎞ S = 0. What is the velocity if the pipe is flowing full and the allowable head loss is 3. V = 6. • Given: D = 12.Hazen-Williams Equation To correct for C factors not equal to 100 when using the HazenWilliams nomogram: • Given flow and diameter.

63 1 / 0. k = 0.54 • • V = kCR 0.63 ⎟ ⎝ 0.849 – For a pipe flowing full: R= D 0.46m = 4 4 R = 0.85 ⎛ V ⎞ S =⎜ 0.0 m/sec and a length of 30 m.0015(30 m) = 0.54 1m / sec ⎛ ⎞ S =⎜ 0.045 m 7 . • Using Hazen-Williams equation: V = kCR 0. 83 m / sec) ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 100 ⎠ V120 = 2 .54 S 0.115 ⎠ S = 0.115m Hazen-Williams Equation • By definition: Slope of energy line = Head Loss/Length of Pipe Or Head Loss = hL = (Slope)(Pipe Length) Let C = 130 (concrete pipe ⇒ use average of 120 – 140) Solve Hazen-Williams for Slope: Hazen-Williams Equation • Substituting: ⎛ V ⎞ S =⎜ 0.63 ⎟ ⎝ kCR ⎠ Head Loss = Slope(Pipe Length) HL = 0.63 S 0.Hazen-Williams Equation • Modifying based on flow conversion (divide both sides by area) and substituting: ⎛ C ⎞ Q C = Q100 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 100 ⎠ Q V = A Q ⎛ C ⎞ V100 ⎛ C ⎞ VC = C = Q100 ⎜ ⎟= ⎜ ⎟ A A ⎝ 100 ⎠ ⎝ 100 ⎠ ⎛ C ⎞ VC = V100 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 100 ⎠ ⎛ 120 ⎞ VC = (1 .0015 1.2 m / sec Hazen-Williams Equation Example: • Determine the head loss in a 46-cm concrete pipe with an average velocity of 1.54 = V kCR 0.849 *130 * 0.54 • Since in SI units.63 ⎟ ⎝ kCR ⎠ 1 / 0.63 S 0.

646MGD ⎠ Q = 0. From earlier.004. in diameter having a slope of 0.646 MGD Hazen-Williams Equation • Modify Hazen-Williams: ⎛ 1 ft 3 / sec ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ Q = 0.432CD 2. From earlier.54 • • The flow will be given in MGD.63 S 0.279CD2.54 • for flow in ft3/sec Substituting: ⎛ 24in ⎞ Q = 0.63 (0.27cfs 2.54 The flow will be given in MGD.63 S 0. in diameter having a slope of 0. • Assume: 5-year old cast iron ⇒ C = 120 • Using Hazen-Williams: Q = 0.004)0.63S0.Hazen-Williams Equation Example: • Find the discharge from a full-flowing cast iron pipe 24 in.54 ⎜ ⎟ MGD ⎝ 0. but it is needed in ft3/sec. • Assume: 5-year old cast iron ⇒ C = 120 • Using Hazen-Williams: Q = 0.004.432(120)⎜ ⎜ 12in / ft ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Q = 16.646 MGD • • Hazen-Williams Equation Example: • Find the discharge from a full-flowing cast iron pipe 24 in. conversion factor for MGD to cfs is: 1 ft3/sec = 0.54 8 . conversion factor for MGD to cfs is: 1 ft3/sec = 0.279CD 2.63S0. but it is needed in ft3/sec.279CD2.

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