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**Module 3c: Flow in Pipes
**

Hazen-Williams Equation

• Based on experimental work • Used to calculated velocity in a pipe based on the relative roughness and slope of the energy line

V = kCR 0.63 S 0.54

Robert Pitt University of Alabama And Shirley Clark Penn State - Harrisburg

Where V = velocity C = factor for relative roughness R = hydraulic radius S = slope of the energy line (head loss divided by pipe length) k = “conversion” factor for unit system k = 0.849 for units of m/sec k = 1.318 for units of ft/sec

**Hazen-Williams Equation
**

Type of Pipe Pipes extremely straight and smooth Pipes very smooth Smooth wood, smooth masonry New riveted steel, vitrified clay Old cast iron, ordinary brick Old riveted steel Old iron in bad condition C 140 130 120 110 100 95 60 – 80

**Hazen-Williams Equation
**

Pipe Material New cast iron 5-year old cast iron 20-year old cast iron Average concrete New welded steel Asbestos cement Plastic C 130 120 100 130 120 140 150

In: Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. and George Tchobanoglous. Wastewater Engineering: Collection and Pumping of Wastewater. McGraw-Hill, Inc. 1981. Table 2-2.

In: Warren Viessman, Jr. and Mark Hammer. Water Supply and Pollution Control, Sixth Edition. Addison-Wesley. 1998. Table 6-1.

1

McGraw-Hill. For circular pipes flowing full. – Not used to describe any area that is open to the atmosphere since friction contact with the atmosphere is negligible. Sixth Edition. Channel Characteristics: Hydraulic Radius and Wetted Perimeter • Hydraulic Radius. the hydraulic radius is: A = area = πD2/4 P = circumference = πD R = A/P = (πD2/4)/(πD) = D/4 By Continuity: Where R= D 4 Q = VA 2 . R: Hazen-Williams Equation • For circular pipes flowing full. In: Terence McGhee. the Hazen-Williams formula can be restated: For a circular pipe flowing full: A R= P A = cross-sectional area of flow P = wetted perimeter • Hydraulic radius will have units of length. 1991. Water Supply and Sewerage.Hazen-Williams Equation Description of Pipe Cast iron New 5 years old 10 years old 20 years old 30 years old Concrete Cement lined Welded steel Riveted steel Plastic Asbestos Cement Value of C 130 130 120 110 90 – 100 75 – 90 120 140 As for cast iron 5 years older As for cast iron 10 years older 150 140 Channel Characteristics: Hydraulic Radius and Wetted Perimeter • Wetted Perimeter – surface of pipe or channel where fluid is touching (accounts for areas where friction effects are occurring).

63 S 0.278CD 2.48 gal / sec 7. the Hazen-Williams equation for pipes flowing full: Q = 0.035 D 2 ⎜ ⎟ CS 0.54 [units of ft 3 /sec and ft] 0. the Hazen-Williams formula can be restated: Conversion Factor: Hazen-Williams Equation • Substituting into Hazen-Williams: V [ ft / sec] = 1.646 MGD / cfs π ⎛D⎞ D 2C ⎜ ⎟ 4 ⎝4⎠ 0.Hazen-Williams Equation • For circular pipes flowing full.318 ACR 0.54 V [ ft / sec] A[ ft 2 ] = 1.63 S 0.272 gal / day ≅ 0.432CD 2.646 MGD / cfs) Q = 0.279CD 2.646 million gal/day Conversion Factor = 0.63 S 0.432CD 2.63S 0.48 gal / ft 3) = 7.63 S 0.54 Q = flow (m3/sec) D = pipe diameter (m) 3 .318 1 ft 3 / sec(7.63 Hazen-Williams Equation • Substituting into Hazen-Williams: Hazen-Williams Equation • For SI units.63S 0.318CR 0.54 ⎛D⎞ Q = 1.54 Where Q = flow (MGD) D = diameter (ft) Where Q = 0.035 ⎞ Q = ⎜ 0.54 (0.272 gal / day 646.63 S 0.63 S 0.54 ⎝ 4 ⎠ Q = 0.63 S 0.54 [units of ft /sec] 3 Q = 0.54 Q[ ft 3 / sec] = 1.63 ⎟CD 2.54 ⎝4⎠ ⎛ 1.48 gal / sec(60 sec/ min ) = 448 gal / min 448 gal / min(60 min/ hr )(24hr / day ) = 646.432CD 2.

5 m Q = 0. Given: L = 1000 m D = 0. Hammer.94m 1. Assume that the Hazen-Williams coefficient for the pipe equals 130.54 • By definition: S= hf L Q ⎛ ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ L ⎝ 0.25 m3/sec.278CD 2.278(130)(0. 1998.54 ⎛ ⎞ (0.54 Q = 0. Jr. Example: • Determine the head loss in a 1000-m pipeline with a diameter of 500 mm that is discharging 0. Sixth Edition.278CD 2.278CD 2.54 ⎛h Q = 0.63 ⎜ L ⎝ hf ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.25 m3/sec C = 130 Hazen-Williams Equation • Using the Hazen-Williams equation for flow: • Hazen-Williams Equation Solving for hf: ⎛h Q =⎜ f 0. Addison Wesley.54 • Substituting: Q ⎛ ⎞ h f = L⎜ 2.278CD ⎠ Substituting : 1 / 0.63 ⎟ ⎝ 0..63 S 0.278CD 2. Warren Viessman. and Mark J.25m3 / sec) h f = (1000m)⎜ ⎜ 0.5m) 2.63 ⎜ f ⎜ L ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.63 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ h f = 2.63 ⎠ 1 / 0.Hazen-Williams Equation From: Water Supply and Pollution Control.85 4 .

for pipe flowing full: D 0.3175m) 1.54 V = 2.849)CR 0.63 S 0. k = 0.849 V = (0. What is the friction factor f if the pipe is flowing full and the allowable head loss is 3.3175m R= = = 0. R.5 mm).32m / sec ―――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――― • Calculate a Reynolds number based on this velocity: Re = 2.63 S 0.000012): f = 0.63 (0. • • Hazen-Williams Equation Assume that the pipe is cast-iron ⇒ C = 120 Calculate the slope of the energy gradient: S= 3.079375m 4 4 • Substituting into the Hazen-William equation: – For SI units.3x105 = VD Reading from the Moody diagram (since this is based on a previous problem.0175)0.54 V = (0.079375m)0.Hazen-Williams Equation Example: • A 14-inch diameter schedule 80 pipe has an inside diameter of 12.003 x10− 6 m 2 / sec ν Re = 7.5m L 200m S = 0.5 m in a length of 200 m? Use Hazen-Williams equation to calculate velocity.54 • Calculate the hydraulic radius.0125 ―――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――― Hazen-Williams Equation Refer to Moody Diagram 5 .0175 = hf V = kCR 0. ε/d has already been calculated and is 0.5 inches (317.32m / sec(0.849)(120)(0.

5 ft / 1000 ft ― ― ― ― ― To use the nomogram.83 m/sec X • ⎛ 1000 ft ⎞ S = 0. • Given: D = 12.85 • • Given diameter and slope.5 mm).38 Hazen-Williams Equation Example (using the nomogram and the conversions): • A schedule 80 pipe has an inside diameter of 12.5 m in a length of 200 m? Use Hazen-William equation to calculate velocity.0 ft/sec (0.3048 m/ft) V = 1.0175 ― ― ― ― From the nomogram. need slope as feet/1000 feet. find flow from nomogram: ⎛ C ⎞ Q C = Q100 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 100 ⎠ Hazen-Williams Equation • Calculate slope of energy line.5 inches HL = 3. ― ― ― ― ― ― ― X 6 .5 m L = 200 m 1.Hazen-Williams Equation To correct for C factors not equal to 100 when using the HazenWilliams nomogram: • Given flow and diameter.5 inches (317. Assume C = 120. find S100 from the nomogram: ⎛ 100 ⎞ SC = S100 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ C ⎠ Given flow and slope. What is the velocity if the pipe is flowing full and the allowable head loss is 3.0175 ft / ft ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1000 ft ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ S = 17. V = 6. S= ― ― ― ― ― ― ― ― ― H L 3. find D100 from the nomogram: ⎛ 100 ⎞ DC = D100 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ C ⎠ 0.5m = 200m L S = 0.

46m = 4 4 R = 0.54 = V kCR 0.115 ⎠ S = 0.849 *130 * 0.63 ⎟ ⎝ 0. • Using Hazen-Williams equation: V = kCR 0.63 S 0.0 m/sec and a length of 30 m.54 S 0.045 m 7 .85 ⎛ V ⎞ S =⎜ 0.2 m / sec Hazen-Williams Equation Example: • Determine the head loss in a 46-cm concrete pipe with an average velocity of 1.54 • • V = kCR 0.63 ⎟ ⎝ kCR ⎠ Head Loss = Slope(Pipe Length) HL = 0.Hazen-Williams Equation • Modifying based on flow conversion (divide both sides by area) and substituting: ⎛ C ⎞ Q C = Q100 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 100 ⎠ Q V = A Q ⎛ C ⎞ V100 ⎛ C ⎞ VC = C = Q100 ⎜ ⎟= ⎜ ⎟ A A ⎝ 100 ⎠ ⎝ 100 ⎠ ⎛ C ⎞ VC = V100 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 100 ⎠ ⎛ 120 ⎞ VC = (1 . 83 m / sec) ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 100 ⎠ V120 = 2 .849 – For a pipe flowing full: R= D 0.63 S 0.0015(30 m) = 0. k = 0.63 1 / 0.63 ⎟ ⎝ kCR ⎠ 1 / 0.0015 1.54 1m / sec ⎛ ⎞ S =⎜ 0.54 • Since in SI units.115m Hazen-Williams Equation • By definition: Slope of energy line = Head Loss/Length of Pipe Or Head Loss = hL = (Slope)(Pipe Length) Let C = 130 (concrete pipe ⇒ use average of 120 – 140) Solve Hazen-Williams for Slope: Hazen-Williams Equation • Substituting: ⎛ V ⎞ S =⎜ 0.

279CD2.63 (0.279CD 2. • Assume: 5-year old cast iron ⇒ C = 120 • Using Hazen-Williams: Q = 0.54 8 .63S0.54 ⎜ ⎟ MGD ⎝ 0.Hazen-Williams Equation Example: • Find the discharge from a full-flowing cast iron pipe 24 in. conversion factor for MGD to cfs is: 1 ft3/sec = 0.646 MGD Hazen-Williams Equation • Modify Hazen-Williams: ⎛ 1 ft 3 / sec ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ Q = 0.004)0. but it is needed in ft3/sec.646MGD ⎠ Q = 0.004.63S0.54 • • The flow will be given in MGD. • Assume: 5-year old cast iron ⇒ C = 120 • Using Hazen-Williams: Q = 0. but it is needed in ft3/sec.432CD 2. From earlier.54 • for flow in ft3/sec Substituting: ⎛ 24in ⎞ Q = 0. conversion factor for MGD to cfs is: 1 ft3/sec = 0. in diameter having a slope of 0. From earlier.004.279CD2.646 MGD • • Hazen-Williams Equation Example: • Find the discharge from a full-flowing cast iron pipe 24 in.54 The flow will be given in MGD.27cfs 2.63 S 0. in diameter having a slope of 0.63 S 0.432(120)⎜ ⎜ 12in / ft ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Q = 16.

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