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Atlas of

About the cover:

Front cover
Metatex1te m1gmatite developed from a foliated granodionte show1ng leucosome 1n
dilat1on structures. Laag Mountain area, Bntish Columb1a. Photograph by Paul McNeill.

Rear cover
D1atex1te m1gmat1te w1th schlieren, developed from a pelitic protolith. Quetico Subprov1nce. Ontano.

The Mineralogical Association of Canada gratefully acknowledges

the financial contribution of rhe following organizations:

Ca nadian Geological Foundation @

Natural Resources Canada
Atlas of
Edward W. Sawy er

The Canad ian Miner alogis t

Special Publica tion
Mln er a logi c.aJ
Ass o ciatio n o f Can a d a ritC·Cf itC
Association min~ralogique
du canada NRC Research Press
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ISBN 978-0-660- 19787-6

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N RC o. 46331

Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication

Sawyer, Edward W illiam, 1951-

Atlas of migm atites/ E.W. Sawyer

" RC Resea rch Press"

Issued by: Nationa l Research Cou nci l Ca nada
Co-published by Mineralogical Association of Ca nada
Includes bibliographical references
ISB 978-0-660-19787-6

l. M igmatite. 2. Migmatite - Pictorial works. 3. Pet rology.

I. ationa l Research Council Canada II. Mineralogical Association of Canad a
Ill. Tit le.

Q£475.M5S38 2008 552'.4 C2008-980022-2

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Editor: P.B. Cavers (University of Western Onta rio)

Editoria l Board: W.G.E. Caldwell, OC, FRSC (University of Western Ontario); M.E. Cannon,
FCAE, FRSC (University of Ca lga ry); K.G. Davey, OC, FRSC (York Universi ty); M.M.
Ferguson (University of Guelph); S. Gubins (Annual Reviews); B.K. Ha ll, FRSC (Dalhousie
Un iversity); W.H. Lewis (Washington University); A.W. May, OC (Memor ial University of
ewfound land); B.P. Dancik, Editor-in-Chief, RC Research Press (University of Alberta)

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Correct citation for this publication: Sawyer, E.W. 2008. Atlas of Migmatites.
The Canadian Minera logist, Special Publication 9. N RC Research Press, Ottawa, On tario, Ca nada. 371 p.
Also in this series
Encyclopedi a of Mineral Names
W H . Blackburn & W H . De nnen
Special Publication I ( 1997)

Glossary of Mineral Synonym s

J. de Foures tier
Special Publication 2 ( 1999)

Atlas of Micromorphology of Mineral Alteration and W eathering

J. Delvigne
Special Publication 3 ( 1998)

N ew Minerals 1995-1999 (2001)

J.A. Mandarino
Special Publication 4 (200 I)

The H ealth Effects of C hrysotile Asbestos: Contributio n of

Science to Risk-Managem ent Decisions
R.P. N o lan, A.M. Langer, M. Ross, F.J. Wick & R.F. Martin, eJ s.
Special Publication 5 (200 I)

Mineral Species Discovered in Canada and Species Named after Canadians

Las: l6 Ho rvath
Special Publication 6 (2003)

Mineral Species First D escribed from Greenland

O le V. Petersen and O le Johnsen
Special Publication 8 (2005)

Available from:
Mineralogical Association of Canada
490, rue de Ia Couronne
Q uebec, Q C G l K 9A9


Editor, T he Canadian Mineralogist

Robert E Martin
Table of Contents
Preamble .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... xiii

Preface ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... xiv

Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................................................................................... xv

Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

1. The scope of this atlas .................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2. General terminology and definitions needed for work on migmatites ........................................ 2

2.1 The heritage of migmatite terminology ........................................................................................................................................... 2
2.2 A definition of migmatite .......................................................................................................................................................................... 3
2.3 Descriptive terms and definitions for the principal parts of a migmatite .................................................................... 4
Terms specific to the neosome ...................................................................................................................................................... 5
Terms for the other parts of a migmatite ................................................................................................................................. 7

3. Migmatites: the processes and morphologies ............................................................................................................... 8

3.1 The first-order morphological division of migmatites .............................................................................................................. 8
3.2 Temperatures, degree of partial melting, and fraction of melt .......................................................................................... 9
3.3 The partial-melting process ...................................................................................................................................................................... 9
3.4 A special case: melting under lithostatic stress conditions (so-called “static melting’) .................................... 10
3.5 The general case: melting under differential stress (so-called “dynamic melting”) ........................................... 10
3.6 Definitions of metatexite and diatexite .......................................................................................................................................... 12
3.7 The second-order morphological divisions in migmatites ................................................................................................... 13
Morphologies characteristic of metatexite migmatites ................................................................................................. 14
Patch migmatites ........................................................................................................................................................... 14
Dilation-structured migmatites ............................................................................................................................ 15
Net-structured migmatites ..................................................................................................................................... 15
Stromatic or layer-structured migmatites ..................................................................................................... 16
Transposition and the morphology of metatexite migmatites .................................................................... 17
Morphologies characteristic of diatexite migmatites ...................................................................................................... 17
Schollen or raft-structured migmatites ........................................................................................................... 17
Schlieric migmatites .................................................................................................................................................... 18
Diatexite migmatites ................................................................................................................................................. 18
High strain and the morphology of diatexite migmatites ............................................................................... 19
3.8 Migmatite morphologies outside the metatexite–diatexite division ............................................................................ 19
Fold-structured migmatites .................................................................................................................................... 19
Vein-structured migmatites ................................................................................................................................... 20
3.9 Descriptive terms that should be abandoned ............................................................................................................................ 20
Bedded migmatites ..................................................................................................................................................... 20
Agmatite ............................................................................................................................................................................ 20
Ptygmatic migmatites ................................................................................................................................................ 20
Ophthalmite migmatites ......................................................................................................................................... 20

4. Metasomatism and migmatites ..................................................................................................................................................... 21

4.1 Influx of aqueous fluid into hot rocks causing partial melting ........................................................................................... 21
Large-scale influx of fluid ................................................................................................................................................................. 21
Small-scale influx of fluid ................................................................................................................................................................. 22
4.2 Metasomatism and changes in the fertility of rocks ............................................................................................................... 22
4.3 Morphology of migmatites affected by infiltration metasomatism ............................................................................... 23

5. Microstructures in migmatites ...................................................................................................................................................... 23

5.1 Mineral paragenesis ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 23
5.2 Quantitative analysis .................................................................................................................................................................................. 24
The grain-contact method ............................................................................................................................................................. 24
Crystal-size distributions ................................................................................................................................................................. 25
Studies of grain size, aspect ratio, and orientation ......................................................................................................... 25
5.3 Diagnostic microstructures in migmatites .................................................................................................................................... 26
Microstructures produced in partial-melting experiments .........................................................................................26
Microstructures in the residual rocks, and evidence for partial melting ............................................................ 27
Microstructures in the melt-rich parts of migmatites; evidence for crystallization of the melt .......... 28
Magmatic and submagmatic foliations ..................................................................................................................................... 29
Melt inclusions ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 29
Cordierite–, garnet–, and orthopyroxene–quartz intergrowth microstructures ...................................... 30
Symplectitic intergrowths of quartz and plagioclase with mica ............................................................................... 31
Composition and zoning of plagioclase ................................................................................................................................... 31
Biotite composition and microstructures .............................................................................................................................. 32
Contact between leucosome and melanosome in metatexite migmatites .................................................... 33
Microstructure of schlieren in diatexite migmatites ....................................................................................................... 33
Microstructure of biotite-rich selvedges in migmatites ................................................................................................ 33
6. Whole-rock geochemistry in migmatite studies .................................................................................................... 34
6.1 A possible sequence of processes and some relevant questions .................................................................................. 34
6.2 Reference-point compositions ............................................................................................................................................................ 36
Determining protolith compositions (the starting material) ..................................................................................... 37
Determining the “melt” composition ...................................................................................................................................... 37
Residual rocks ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 40
Mineral compositions ......................................................................................................................................................................... 41
6.3 Diagrammatic representation ............................................................................................................................................................... 42
Matched triplet sets of samples .................................................................................................................................................. 43
General sets of samples ................................................................................................................................................................... 43

7. Migmatite-like rocks ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 47

7.1 Rocks formed by subsolidus segregation ....................................................................................................................................... 48
7.2 Models for the process of subsolidus segregation ................................................................................................................... 48
7.3 P–T conditions at which subsolidus segregation occurs ....................................................................................................... 48
7.4 The relationship between subsolidus segregation and migmatites ............................................................................... 49
7.5 Small-scale features of subsolidus segregations ......................................................................................................................... 49
The constituent parts ........................................................................................................................................................................ 49
Mineralogy of subsolidus segregation ...................................................................................................................................... 50
Microstructure ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 50
7.6 Outcrop-scale morphology ................................................................................................................................................................... 50
Stromatic, or layered, subsolidus segregations .......................................................................................... 50
Dilatant structures ....................................................................................................................................................... 51
Fleck structures ............................................................................................................................................................. 51
7.7 Rocks formed in syntectonic plutons and plutonic complexes ........................................................................................ 51
Syntectonic injection of magma ................................................................................................................................................... 51
Syntectonic crystallization of felsic plutonic rocks ........................................................................................................... 52
7.8 Vein complexes ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 52
7.9 Rocks formed in syntectonic plutonic and vein complexes compared with migmatites ................................. 53
Similarities ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 53
Differences ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 53

8. Working with migmatites .................................................................................................................................................................... 53

8.1 First-level map units .................................................................................................................................................................................... 54
8.2 Second-level map units ............................................................................................................................................................................ 54
8.3 Other considerations for mapping migmatites ........................................................................................................................... 55
9. Appendices .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 56
9.1 Checklist of observations for each outcrop of migmatites ................................................................................................. 56
Observations on the neosome and paleosome ............................................................................................................... 56
Petrological observations in the study of migmatites ..................................................................................................... 57
Structural observations in the study of migmatites ......................................................................................................... 57
Way-up criteria in migmatites ....................................................................................................................................................... 57
Sampling of migmatites ...................................................................................................................................................................... 57
9.2 Glossary .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 58

10. References .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 62

The photographs ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 79

A. Some examples of migmatites ..................................................................................................................................................... 79

B. The parts of a migmatite ..................................................................................................................................................................... 83

Neosome and paleosome .................................................................................................................................................. 85
Neosome with leucosome and melanosome ........................................................................................................ 89
Neosome without distinct leucosome or melanosome ................................................................................. 99
Neosome in open-system migmatites ....................................................................................................................... 111
Variations within neosome .............................................................................................................................................. 120
From leucosome to leucocratic dikes in migmatites ....................................................................................... 128
Selvedges in migmatites ..................................................................................................................................................... 136

C. Metatexite and diatexite, the first-order division of migmatites ................................................... 142

Migmatites from the contact aureole of the Ballachulish Igneous Complex .................................... 144
Migmatites from the contact aureole of the Duluth Igneous Complex ............................................. 148
Upper amphibolite facies, regional migmatites from Saint-Malo, France .......................................... 150
Upper amphibolite facies, regional migmatites from the Opatica Subprovince, Quebec ....... 152
Granulite-facies, regional migmatites from the Ashuanipi Subprovince, Quebec ........................ 154

D. Second-order morphologies in migmatites ............................................................................................................... 156

The start of partial melting ............................................................................................................................................. 159
Metatexite migmatites with a patch structure .................................................................................................... 165
Metatexite migmatites with a nebulitic structure ............................................................................................. 169
Metatexite migmatites with leucosome in dilatant structures ................................................................... 171
Metatexite migmatites with a net structure .......................................................................................................... 181
Metatexite migmatites with a layered or stromatic structure associated with low strain ..... 190
Metatexite migmatites with layered or stromatic structure due to transposition ....................... 194
The transition from metatexite to diatexite migmatites .............................................................................. 201
Diatexite migmatites with schollen and with schlieren structures ......................................................... 207
Diatexite migmatites with schlieren structures .................................................................................................. 213
Diatexite migmatites ............................................................................................................................................................ 217
Diatexite migmatites at high strains .......................................................................................................................... 223
E. Other morphologies of migmatite ........................................................................................................................................ 225
Syn-anatectic folding: fold structures in migmatites ....................................................................................... 226
Migmatites with a vein structure ............................................................................................................................... 236

F. Microstructures characteristic of migmatites ......................................................................................................... 242

Results from quenched deformation-melting experiments: a starting point .................................. 246
Subsurface contact-aureoles: the Glenmore plug, Scotland ..................................................................... 250
Erupted, partially melted xenoliths: El Joyazo, Spain ....................................................................................... 252
Subsurface contact-aureoles: the Rum Igneous Complex, Scotland ................................................... 256
Shallow contact-aureoles: the Traigh Bhàn na Sgùrra sill on Mull, Scotland .................................... 258
Shallow- to medium-depth contact-aureoles: the Duluth Igneous Complex ................................. 262
Deeper contact-aureoles: the Ballachulish Igneous Complex, Scotland ............................................. 274
Regional migmatite terranes: the Ashuanipi Subprovince .......................................................................... 278
Regional migmatite terranes: the Opatica Subprovince ............................................................................... 282
Microstructures in residual rocks ............................................................................................................................. 284
Crystallization-induced microstructures in the melt-derived parts of migmatites:
leucosome and leucocratic veins ........................................................................................................................... 292
Crystallization-induced microstructures in the melt-rich parts of migmatites:
diatexite migmatites ...................................................................................................................................................... 305
Microstructures formed by flow in diatexite migmatites ............................................................................. 312
Inclusions of melt quenched to glass in minerals ............................................................................................... 316
Cordierite–, garnet–, and orthopyroxene–quartz intergrowth microstructures ....................... 320
Biotite–quartz and biotite–plagioclase symplectitic intergrowth microstructures ..................... 324
Biotite–sillimanite and biotite aggregates replacing garnet or cordierite .......................................... 328
Plagioclase .................................................................................................................................................................................. 329
Contact between the leucosome and melanosome in metatexite migmatites ............................ 330
Microstructure of schlieren in diatexite migmatites ........................................................................................ 343
Microstructure of biotite-rich selvedges in migmatites ................................................................................. 347

G. Migmatite-like rocks ................................................................................................................................................................................ 351

Layer-parallel or stromatic subsolidus segregations ........................................................................................ 352
Fleck segregations ................................................................................................................................................................ 354
Syntectonic plutons: rocks that resemble metatexite migmatites .......................................................... 356
Syntectonic plutons: rocks that resemble diatexite migmatites ............................................................... 362
Arrays of felsic veins that look like migmatites .................................................................................................... 366
Ada~ of MlgiTl.HHcs
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - xiii

Pre am ble

It is with pleasure that I mtroduce the latest addition to the anatectic reactions not only 1n amphibolite-facies rocks, but
list of Spec1al Publications produced by the M1neralog1cal also in the realm of the granul1te facies. He has exam1ned
Association of Canada. This Atlas of Migmatites contributes key occurrences of m1gmatites throughou t the world, and
d1rectly to the educational mandate of our Assoc1at1on. The presents here 1n a systematic way the results of his scru-
book deals w1th migmatites, a very widespread group of tiny on all scales. Thus, the reader IS shown photographs of
rocks, especially common in the Archean crust that makes key exposures of m1gmat1tes 1n the field and petrographic
up a major proportio n of our country. Everyone has learnt details in 273 photographs, each with a deta1led capt1on,
a b1t about m1gmat1tes, but by and large, the subject mat- supplied by the author m 68% of the cases, the rema1nder
ter "falls between the cracks" in our university curricula. being contributed by respected colleagues also active in the
Typ1cally, an upper-level undergraduate course in metamor- charactenzat1on of m1gmat1t1c assemblages. F1eld examples
phic petrology does set the stage for an understanding of are presented from 12 countries, with the author person-
anatect1c react1ons in terranes that have undergone meta- ally involved 1n field studies 1n s1x of those. In th1s atlas, the
morphism at conditions of upper amphibolite or granulite author emphasizes the latest contributions in the area of
faoes. Students 1n such a course do learn about the con- migmat1te-related research, e1ther 1n a reg1onal settmg or 1n
cept of anatex1s and dehydration-Induced melt 1ng, but a contact aureole.
really not much about the extraordinarily complex array
of products of such anatex1s, the 1mportance of fract1onal Society-run, not-for-pr ofit organizations like the
crystallization of the anatectic liquid, and the fate of assem- Mineralogical Assoc1ation of Canada find 1t very challenging
blages of residual m1nerals. Furthermore, contact-related to undertake such a publicat1on, ow1ng to the h1gh costs of
anatexis usually is not discussed. On the other hand, stu- product1on. In this 1nstance, the Assooat1on is most fortu-
dents in an upper-level course 1n igneous petrology do deal nate to have coproduced the volume w1th NRC Research
w1th products of partial melting in the crust, and can speak Press. On behalf of the MAC. I thank Suzanne Kettley, Mark
at length about the physical propert1es of a silicate magma Bo1leau, and D1ane Candler for the1r valuable 1nput and
and the results of its fractional crystallization. But they deal their key roles in creating this book. In addit1on, I acknowl-
w1th ready-made plutons. Such students do not develop a edge the Involvement of P1errette Tremblay, Dwector of
good understanding of the steps that precede the forma- Publications of the Association, in ensuring close com-
tion of a pluton, where small batches of leucosome coalesce mumcatlons w1th N RC Research Press throughou t the
and rise through a deforming mass of neosome and resister preparation of this book. A lso, P1errette applied for and
litholog1es. obta1ned funds from the Canad1an Geolog1cal Foundation
and Natural Resources Canada, part of which paid for the
As IS made clear below, Professor Sawyer has remed1ed pnnt1ng of a poster to publicize th1s book. I thank Vicki
the situat1on by writing the first authoritative treatise about Loschiavo, who entered the ed1torial corrections on the
the petrology of m1gmatites s1nce the work of Karl Richard master files of text and capt1ons as I progressed through
Mehnert ( 1913 1996), of Berlin, published 40 years ago. He the book. I am grateful to have had this opportun ity to
has abandoned the purely descript1ve approach of Mehnert help bnng th1s major contribut1on in the area of m1gmat1te
1n favor of an openly genet1c approach: a m1gmat1te 1s a research to fruition.
rock that is the product of partial melting. If melting can be
shown not to have taken place, the rock IS simply not a mlg- Robert F. Martin
matite. Furthermore, he has recogn1zed the importance of Editor, The Canadian Mineralogist
xiv - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -


The arnval of this Atlas of Migmatites IS very timely. It 1s the

Migmatites are some of the most confus1ng-look1ng, yet
first book devoted to m1gmatltes s1nce Mehnert's 1conic
aesthet1cally pleas1ng rocks. The most stnk1ng cons1st of
light-colored quartzofeldspath1c segregat1ons 1n a darker
1968 text. In the 1nterven1ng 40 years. dramatic strides have
been made in the understand1ng of these complex rocks.
host, w1th the light segregat1ons show1ng a d1verse and
often spectacular range of appearances, 1n some cases
Ed Sawyer is without quest1on the world's leading expert
in swirls, 1n some others cross-cutt1ng, and in yet others
on migmatit1c textures and structures. In th1s atlas, he
discrete, or diffuse, or folded, or conta1n1ng high-grade met-
provides a wide range of superb field and thin -section
amorphic minerals like garnet and pyroxene. Migmatites
photographs of migmatites from around the world, both
justify their age-old name; they are "mixed rocks."
his own and those of others, each carefully described and

Migmatites commonly look "squishy." This is no coincidence, interpreted. The photographic part of the atlas is preceded
by a substantial Introductory section in which he clarifies
for they are interpreted to be rocks frozen in the act of
the dizzying range of descnptive terms for migmatites, both
part1ally melting. A mixture of melt, disaggregated minerals,
and unmelted rock is mechanically highly heterogeneous. It new and old.
1S no wonder that m1gmat1tes show such a w1de range of
Although migmat1tes w1ll rema1n among the most complex
textures and structures. of rocks to understand, th1s atlas goes a long way to mak1ng

M1gmat1tes are of crucial 1mportance 1n understanding the them more understandable.

genes1s of the huge volumes of gramt1c magma that are
David R.M. Pattison
found 1n batholiths and that make up much of the continen-
Univers1ty of Calgary
tal crust. Migmatites are widely cons1dered to be examples
of assemblages where such magma was caught in the act
of being generated and escaping. M1gmatites thus furnish a
un1que perspective on a fundamental process 1n the evolu-
tion of the Earth.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - XV

Ackn owled geme nts

I would like to start by expresstng my gratttude to Mtke Negra), Oltvier Vanderhaeghe (Masstf Central), and Dtrk
Brown and Richard Whtte for thetr encouragement and van Reenen (Ltmpopo Belt). There has always been an
thetr reviews of the text. They pointed out my errors, easy exchange of t houghts and views wit hin the migmatite
omissions, and tracts of muddled wnting; the changes community, and next I would like to thank Marian Holness,
that they suggested have resulted tn a far better text. The Tracy Rushmer, Bernardo Cesare, Roger Powell, Alfons
rematntng faults are enttrely mine. Many people took the Berger, and Claudio Rosenberg for illumtnating some of
time to send me thetr photographs of migmatites for this the connections bet ween what one can see in migmatites
atlas. The choice of which ones to use was far from easy, and the various processes that have happened to them.
but each photograph, whether tncluded or not, has had an
influence. I thank everyone who sent me a photograph or In most endeavors, progress comes through sustained
electronic image for his/her contribution. and focused effort, together with some serendipit y, of
course. My work on migmatites, and ultimately this atlas,
My perceptton of m tgmatttes and what happened wtthtn have been no different and would not have been possi-
them has been influenced by seeing and dtscussing mtg- ble without conttnutty of fund ing. Therefore, I am grateful
matites with many col leagues from around the world. for the philosophy behind the discovery grant program of
To have seen such a wide range of mtgmatttes has been the Natural SCiences and Engineenng Research Council of
tnvaluable, and I am grateful for the hospitality and gener- Canada, which funds long-term, cunostty-driven research
osity of all t hose who have shown me their field areas. In programs.
particular, and more or less in chronologtcal order: Ned
Chown (Grenvtlle Front), Ron Vernon and Bill Collins Finally, I thank Pierrette Tremblay and Robert F. Marttn for
(Wuluma and Mount Hay), Dante! Lamothe and Alatn the tnvttation to write a book on migmat ttes and for thetr
Leclair (Ashuanipi Subprovince), Mark Severson and Steve encouragement throughout, and to Robert for all his hard
Hauck (aureole of the Duluth Igneous Complex), Mike work tn reading and editing.
Brown (Satnt-Malo), Gary Solar (Matne), Abdelali Moukhstl
(Eastmain area), Geoff Clarke and Richard White (Mount
Edward W . Sawyer
Stafford, Broken Hill and Wuluma), Fernando Bea (Pena
Universit e du Quebec aChicoutimi
Int ro du cti on

Th1rd. deformation dunng part1al melt1ng has a maJor effect
on the morpho logy of migmatites. Only rarely (e.g.. in some
contact aureoles) do migmatites form under condit1ons
TH E SCOPE O F T H IS ATLA S where t here is essentially no deformation. Generally. mig-
matites are deformed w h1le they cont ain melt . Deform at ion
Migmatites are spectacular. complex-looking rocks that
of heterogeneous rocks produces vanations 1n the differ-
can insp1re, fasc1nate. or confuse geolog1sts. All migma-
ent ial st ress from place to place, and this sets up pressure
tites v1ewed in an outcrop represent the sum of a senes
gradients that dnve the movement of matenal. T here are
of processes t hat acted 1n parallel. or sequentially. and the
likely to be vanations 1n viscos1ty or competence from rock
1nfluence of vanous local factors (see the photogr aphs in
to rock 1n the protolit h. but once partial melt ing of t he
section A) . In order to begin to understand the complexity
JUxtaposed rocks starts. much larger vanat1ons are cre -
and seem1ngly endless vanety in m1gmat it es, and to prov1de
ated. The part 1al melt has a viscos1ty that is much lower
the reader context for the subJect of this book, some of
than that of nonmelted rocks; t herefore, dunng defor-
the key factors and processes that make individual migma-
mation, the melt 1n the rock moves more rapidly down
tites the way they are should be outlined at the outset.
pressure gradients t han the solid fract1on. and collect s 1n low-
First. t here IS the pet rolog1cal process of par tial melt1ng. If pressure s1tes. D eformat1on thus creates petrolog1cal
the tempera ture becomes sufficiently high (above about diversit y. because t he melt is separated, or segregated.
650°C), rocks may beg1n to part1ally melt. Some rocks have from the solids. which enhances the mechan1cal ext remes
compos1t1ons that will produce more melt than others at 1n the m1gmat1te. Deformat1on becomes concentrated, or
a given temperature, a propert y of the rock called fertil- partitioned. int o the weakest places; these are located
It y. Thus. one can Immediately see that comple xity beg1ns where there 1s melt. Consequently. stra1n becomes more
at this stage. because some rocks 1n a sequence will make heterogeneous. and the m1gmatltes develop more and
more melt than others; some w ill not melt. The highest more complex and deforme d geometnes.
tempera ture atta1ned also has an effect. If the tempera ture
Finally. t he penod of time t hat a migmatite has had to form
only just surpasses the solidus. the m1gmat1te will conta1n
also exerts an 1nfluence. The heat1ng and cooling cycle
a few small patches of melt scattered about in t he most
in contact aureoles is rapid (days to tens of thousands
fertile rock. If the max1mum temperature was. say. another
of years). such that melt may quench to glass or crystal-
250° h1gher. then melting in the fertile layers might be per-
lize to granophyre, and pnmary microstructures, such
vasive, and well advanced 1n other less fertile rocks. Thus,
as the shapes of the pores that t he melt occupied. are
the two m1gmatites would look completely different. even
preserved because recrystallization did not reset micro-
if generat ed from exactly the same sequence of rocks.
structures. Strains are small. and deformation 1s restricted
Second. the nature of t he proto lith has an influence too. For to small cracks and shear zones, so that the 1n1t1al geomet-
example, the m1gmatite produced from a sequence of rocks ncal relat1ons 1n the m1gmatite are generally preserved. In
that contains a single t h1n fertile layer (say a pelite) enclosed contrast. t he slow heat1ng and cooling (millions to tens
in a t h1ck sequence of 1nfertile rocks (say quartzite) will look of m1llions of years) of reg1onal metamorphic terranes
completely different from one generated from a sequence mean that melts crystall1ze slowly. and subsequent recrys-
that conta1ns a thin quartzit e in a thick sequence of pelites. tallization extens1vely modifies , or even eliminates, the
Similarly. a m1gmatite generated from an 1sotrop1c rock pnmary microstructures. Moreover. large stra1ns can
(e.g.. a gran1te) wdl not look the same as one generated accumulate over long penods of t1me. so that the orig1nal
from a sequence of th1n ly bedded shales and sandstones. geomet ry of the m1gmat1te 1s extensively folded. boudinaged,
and transposed.
2 ----------------------------------

Th1s book conta1ns two parts. One IS a summary of the

advances 1n the understanding of m1gmat1tes and related
rocks, including partially melted xenoliths of crustal rocks,
that have been made s1nce Mehnert's ( 1968) influential GENERAL TERM INOLOGY AN D
book. The other consists of seven senes of photographs, D EFINITIONS N EED ED FOR
each with a substantial explanatory caption, that Illustrate WO RK ON MIGMATITES
the aspects of migmat1tes covered 1n the first part. The
two parts are complementary, and in the text, I refer to
the 1llustrat1ons throughout, but the two parts could also
2.1 The heritage of
be read separately, with the text part as a genenc discus- migmatite terminology
SIOn of migmatites, and the Illustrated part as a senes of The debate over what m1gmat1tes represent and the
deta1led Interpretations applied to 1ndividual migmat1tes. processes involved 1n the1r formation has been closely con-
nected with the prevailing v1ews of how high-grade reg1onal
Sect1on 2, on th1s page. beg1ns with the term1nology asso-
metamorphism occurs. and how gramtes and gran1tic
oated w1th m1gmat1tes; the various constituent parts of
magmas are formed. Hutton (1795) believed that partial
m1gmatltes are dealt with first, then the divers1ty 1n outcrop
melt1ng changed pelit1c sed1ments and crystalline sch1sts
appearance as a function of deformation, melt fract1on. and
1nto gne1sses. Lyell ( 1855) went a step further and consid-
parent rock-type are descnbed. The terms necessary for
ered that granites form where the part1al-meltmg process
the study and descript1on of m1gmat1tes are defined; text
was stronger and more complete. However, the present
1S shown in bold type to 1ntroduce a term where 1t is first
terminology d1d not start to develop until later. One of
defined, whereas text in italics is used to ind1cate a new the first terms specific to crustal melting is diatexis, intro-
definition. Next, the processes that control the morpholog-
duced by Gurich (1905) to describe cases where "partial"
ICal d1vers1ty of migmatites are considered. so as to denve
melting is complete, or where 1t has occurred throughout a
a class1ficat1on scheme that 1s useful as a mapp1ng tool, and
rock, to lead to the format1on of granite. Sederholm ( 1907)
as a means for understand1ng why migmat1tes have a par-
made the obv1ous comment that 1n most cases where a
ticular morphology. A two-t1ered scheme of class1ficat1on term is requwed to explain the process of mak1ng gran1te.
1s proposed. All parts of migmatites and types of m1gma-
fus1on was not complete; he Introduced the term ana-
t1tes ment1oned sect1on 2 are systematically Illustrated 1n
texis, meamng melting, or remelting. of rocks, to cover the
sect1ons B. C. D, and E. The weight g1ven to the Impor-
ent1re range from 1nc1p1ent to complete melt1ng.
tance of metasomat1sm and the 1ngress of H 0-nch flu1ds
1n the format1on of m1gmat1tes has changed considerably In the late mneteenth and early twent1eth centuries. map-
s1nce m1gmat1tes were first defined; current results and ping in the Precambrian sh1elds of Fennoscandia and North
th1nk1ng are summanzed 1n sect1on 4. The interpretation of Amenca revealed many places where metasedimentary
microstructures has always been central to metamorphic rocks appeared to pass 1nto gran1te. These transitional
petrology and to the study of m1gmat1tes 1n part1cular. In zones attracted a great deal of mterest. Not surprisingly,
recent years, the repertoire of microstructures that can be there appeared 1n the literature many opinions as to what
used to identify a specific process has grown cons1derably, processes were involved; each hypothesis reflected an Indi-
and 1ncludes some microstructures derived from exper- vidual's own field experience.
Iments as well as from natural rocks; both are discussed
1n sect1on 5 and shown 1n sect1on F. Because the acqu1s1- One school of thought. wh1ch saw Intrusions of gran1t1c
t1on of chem1cal compositions of whole rocks and m1nerals magma as the source of heat for the transformations.
1s now a rout1ne part of reg1onal mappmg. a bnef d1scus- developed from work done at the edges of granite plu-
s1on of what to sample, and the use of geochem1cal data tons by Barro1s (1884). Lacroix (1898, 1900). M1chei-Levy
1n 1dentify1ng the processes contribut1ng to m1gmat1tes. are (1893), Greenly (1903), and Sederholm (1907. 1923,
g1ven 1n sect1on 6; however, th1s a gu1de and should not be 1926). Sederholm (1907) described the manner 1n whiCh
regarded as an exhaust1ve survey of what can be done with an older, foliated gran1te underwent "refus1on" and was
compos1t1onal data on rocks and mmerals. Some rock types "reborn" into 1ntrus1ve masses by the 1njection of the Hango
that are not formed by part1al melt1ng can resemble m1gma- (Finland) gran1te, which 1mparted what he called a "new
t1tes; thus, 1n section 7, I d1scuss rocks that are commonly eruptiv1ty" to it. Because he believed that the rocks 1n the
m1staken for migmatites; examples of these are shown Hango area were produced by a comb1nation of processes
1n section G . Finally, sections 8 and 9 deal with the prob- and not s1mply by partial melt1ng. Sederholm ( 1907) intro-
lems of mapp1ng of m1gmat1tes; top1cs range from what to duced the term migmatite to describe them. He defined
show on maps to the tncky matter of the interpretation of m1gmat1te as "the m1xture of two genet1cally d1fferent con-
"generat1ons" of leucosome. stituents .. . one 1s intrus1ve relat1ve to the other ... To
Ad,,, of 1\.t.gmanrc,

th1s group belongs the gneiss1c granit1c rocks wh1ch show idea that bodies of granite form in situ. Debate then turned
'net structure' charactenst1c of 1nc1p1ent meltmg. frequently to whether or not granite has a magmatic ong1n, and
'blind-ending veins', breccia-like granites with innumera- among the nonmagmatic protagonists, to the "wet" versus
ble fragments of more-or-less completely d1ssolved older "dry" granitization d1spute. S1nce m1gmatites were com-
rocks, and finally some stnped gran1tes 1n wh1ch only the monly seen 1n the field 1n an Intermediate pos1tion between
still preserved parallel structure ind1cates a fa1nt remnant reg1onal metamorphic rocks and granite, op1nion as to thew
of the original properties of the rock." Sederholm ( 1907) origin also diverged. The legacy of that controversy was
called the m1gmat1te-forming process palingenesis. and the development of a nongenetlc descnpt1ve termmology
although 1t spec1fically 1ncluded part1al melt1ng and d1ssolu- for m1gmatites. first by Dietnch and Mehnert (1960), and
t 1on, he also regarded magma inJection and its assoCiated finally by Mehnert (1968).
ve1ned and brecCiated rocks as fundamental to the process.
The ve1ned rocks were later def1ned by Sederholm (1923) S1nce the publication of Mehnert's book 1n 1968. a very
as arterite , and the brecCiated rocks as agmatite. In large maJority of work done po1nts to the fundamental role
subsequent work, Sederholm ( 1926) placed more empha- of partial melting in the formation of migmat1tes. There are
sis on the roles of ass1milat1on and the act1ons of fluids, for few studies of subsolidus processes in m1gmat1tes, but they
wh1ch he Introduced the term ichor, 1n the formation of show that the leucocrat1c subsolidus segregat1ons present
m1gmat1tes. 1n the m1gmat1tes had formed prior to the onset of par-
tial melting (e.g.. Blom 1988). Other authors have shown
An alternative view of m1gmat1tes was developed by geol- that metasomatism 1s not a significant factor in the forma-
ogists work1ng 1n reg1onal metamorphic terranes. One of tion of m1gmat1tes. although the 1nflux of aqueous flu1ds
them, Holmquist ( 1916). found h1gh-grade gneisses that into rocks that are close to the1r solidus temperatures may
contain many small patches and ve1ns of granit1c material. As provoke partial melting and the format1on of m1gmat1tes
there were no gran1tes nearby, he Interpreted the patches (e.g.. Patt1son 1991, Harns et al. 2003, Johnson et al. 2003).
and ve1ns to be the collect1on s1tes for part1al melt exuded
from the m1ca-rich parts of the host gneiss. Holmquist Thus. the modern view of migmatites corresponds closely
gave these m1gmat1tes the name venite to emphas1ze to Holmquist's concept of ultrametamorph1sm, and to
their 1nternal ong1n (Holmqu1st 1916. 1920. 1921) and to Sederholm's concept of anatex1s, but IS far from the concept
distmgu1sh them from Sederholm's artentes. w1th thew of palingenes1s, or the vanous metasomatiC and subsoli-
veins of InJected material. The absence of nearby granites dus processes proposed dunng the granit1zation debate.
indicated to him that the heat source for the part1al melting In modern usage. m1gmat1te IS synonymous w1th anatex1te.
lay deeper 1n the Earth. like that 1nferred for reg1onal meta- Consequently, 1t IS now h1ghly debatable whether a general
morphism 1n general. Thus, Holmquist (1916) Introduced defin1t1on of m1gmat1te needs to be nongenet1c; 1n th1s book.
the term ultrametamorp hism 1n order to indicate the I use a genetic. partial-melting-based definition and descnp-
h1gher-than-normal degree of metamorphism requ1red for tlve term1nology for m1gmat1tes. Any defin1t1on of m1gmat1te
part1al melt1ng (i.e., anatexis). should certa1nly 1nclude reference to basic characteris-
tics 1n the field, the most important of wh1ch are that ( I)
The term metatexis was introduced later by Scheumann migmatites occur only in the h1gh-grade parts of reg1onal
( 1936) to mean the general process of partial melt1ng metamorphic terranes (upper amphibolite and granulite
1n the continental crust, and he Intended that it replace fac1es) and contact aureoles (pyroxene and san1din1te horn-
Sederholm's terms anatex1s and m1gmat1te. However, fels facies), and (2) because migmatites contain parts where
the ex1st1ng term "anatexis" was perfectly adequate, and melt1ng occurred, parts where melt was extracted. parts
both metatex1s and d1atex1s disappeared from use. leaving through wh1ch melt m1grated. parts where melt collected,
anatex1s to mean part1al melt1ng of the continental crust. and parts that d1d not melt at all. they are morphologically
complex rocks at almost every scale of observat1on. from
The dispute over the origin of gran1te (see the discuss1ons
the m1croscop1c to the macroscop1c.
by Read 1957) also Influenced thought on m1gmatites.
Bowen's ( 1928) demonstration that a gran1t1c magma IS
the product of the extreme fractional crystallization of 2.2 A definition of migmatite
basaltiC magma, and the subsequent find1ng that there IS
Mehnert (1968) defined a m1gmat1te as"... a megascop1cally
far more gran1te than could poss1bly be made by th1s
compos1te rock cons1sting of two or more petrographically
mechan1sm, st1mulated new 1nterest in part1al melting of the
different parts, one of which IS the country rock generally 1n
continental crust. However. the lack of a structural model
a more or less metamorph1c stage. the other 1s of pegma-
to expla1n how large volumes of gran1t1c magma move in
titiC, aplit1c, granitic or generally pluton1c appearance." For
the crust led to the so-called "space problem" and to the
4 -------------------------------

a nongenet1c defin1t1on, the use of the terms "pegmatitic", the terminology used to differentiate the old (nonpartially
"aplit1c", and "gran1t1c" was unfortunate, as the three carry melted) from the newly created (t.e .. part1ally melted) parts
unmistakable genetic implications. A second problem 1s in migmatites 1s discussed. and then the terms that are used
the 1mprecise refe rence to metamorphic grade. Ashworth to describe the features and variat1ons withtn these broad
( 1985) rectified both of these problems in his defin1t1on of d ivisions at a smaller scale are outlined. This level of ter-
migmatite as "a rock fo und in medium-grade to high-grade minology is, therefore. applicable to the fine-scale, detailed
metamorphic areas, that is pervasively inhomogeneous description of migmatites in a small outcrop (less than
on a macroscop1c scale , one part be1ng pale-coloured and several m ), or large hand-samples.

consistently of quartzofeldspath1c or feldspath1c compo-

Sition." Unfortunately, th1s nongenet1c definit1on does not
exclude Sederholm's agmatites, rocks that Brown (1973)
2.3 Descriptive terms and
had already argued are intrus1on brewas and not m1gma-
definitions for the principal
t1tes. There is further advantage to be ga1ned by exclud1ng parts of a migmatite
agmat1tes. The phrase "... two genetically different constitu- lmag1ne that one 1s able to compare a large outcrop
ents ..." 1n Sederholm's ( 1907) defin1t1on of m1gmatite becomes (say 400 m') of m1gmatite w1th the rocks that ex1sted 1n
Irrelevant 1f agmat1tes are excluded because for part1al the same outcrop before partial melt1ng occurred. Some
melt1ng (and 1ndeed subsolidus segregation and metasoma- rocks. because they have su1table bulk compositions, will
tism), the newly generated parts of a m1gmatlte ought to be have been affected by the part1al melt1ng. whereas oth-
petrogenetically related. Hence, the following revised definition ers, of unsuitable compositions. will not. Those rocks newly
is proposed. formed by part1al melting are called neosome, meaning
"new rock"; the term IS defined as follows.
Migmatite: a rock found tn med1um and high-grade
metamorphic areas that can be heterogeneous at the miCro- Neosome: the parts of a migmat1te newly formed by, or
scopic to macroscopic scale and that cons1sts of two. or more, reconstituted by, partial melting. The neosome may, or may not.
petrographically different parts. One of these parts must have have undergone segregation tn wh1ch the melt and solid frac-
formed by partial melting and contam rocks that are petro- tions are separated.
genetically related to each other (called the neosome) and
to the1r protolrth through partial melt1ng or segregauon of A general charactenst1c of neosome IS that 1t has a coarser
the melt from the solid fraction. The partially melted part gra1n-s1ze (e.g., F1gs. Bl B4) than the rest of the m1gma-
typ1cally contams pale-colored rocks that are quartzo- t1te. Furthermore. the structure (e.g.. foltat1on, folds.
feldspathic, or feldspathlc, in compos1t1on. and dark-colored layenng) and microstructure (shape. s1ze, and onentat1on
rocks that are ennched 1n ferromagneslan m1nerals. However. of gra1ns) that ex1sted pnor to part1al melt1ng are progres-
the partially melted part may simply have changed mmeralogy, sively degraded as the degree and extent of part1al melting
microstructure, and grain s1ze without developmg separate l1ght 1ncrease. and eventually replaced by a new microstructure
or dark parts. created by the neosome-form1ng processes. A neosome
displays a wide range of morphology; as the examples in
Note that the proportions are not spec1fied and that some, section B of th1s book show. the melt and sol1d fractions
but not necessarily all, of the light-colored parts have to be have segregated in some (F1gs. BS B14). but not 1n others
petrogenet1cally related to the other parts. There are four (F1gs. BI5-B25). The neosome 1n many m1gmat1tes 1s 1n Situ
bas1c parts to a m1gmat1te, although not all may be found 1n (e.g.. the spat1ally focused neosome described by Wh1te et
any part1cular m1gmatite, especially 1f the outcrop exam1ned al. 2004). but 1n migmat1tes where the melt fract1on was
1s small (less than several m ); scale IS an 1mportant factor h1gh. the neosome may have moved. If the port1ons (e.g..
1n the study of m1gmat1tes. There are parts where part1al beds or compos1t1onal layers) of the rock from wh1ch the
meltmg has occurred, parts from wh1ch the melt fract1on neosome formed can be 1dent1fied 1n the pre-m1gmat1te
has been removed, parts where the melt fract1on has state. then these parts are called the protolith (Johannes
collected. accumulated. or been InJected. and of course. 1985), or the pa rent rock (Ashworth 1985). Th1s means.
there are parts that d1d not melt at all. Each of these parts of course, that the protolith cannot be present in a mlgma-
has 1ts own w1de range of morpholog1es (or structure). tite; it will have been converted to neosome.
m1neral assemblage, bulk compos1t1on. and microstructure
(also called texture) ; consequently, there 1s a term1nology to Naming of the non-neosome parts of a migmatite has been
define and describe each. In the next section. I deal with the confused by the Inconsistent use of terms, and by the use
definitions for the constituent parts of a migmat1te; these of inappropnate terms. Mehnert ( 1968) used the term
are illustrated in section B ofth1s book (F1gs. Bl B54). First. "paleosome," mean1ng "old rock" throughout the text of h1s
Ada .. of MlgmcHitC'
------- ------- ------- ------- ------- 5

book for the non-neosome part of a migmatite, but th1s the development of leucocratic and melanocrat1c rocks
usage is 1ncons1stent w1th the definition ("parent rock of a 1n a neosome IS nearly always the result of well -defined
migmatite") given 1n the append1x of h1s book. To Ashworth petrological processes (e.g.. part1al melt1ng, segregation of
(1985), such a defin1tlon means that paleosome cannot be the melt from the solid fraction, and fr act1onal crystallization)
present 1n a migmatite: 1t must all have been converted to that have combined to create migmatites. this nomencla-
neosome by defin1t1on. Some authors (e.g., johannes and ture has proven to be very useful and IS easily transferred
Gupta 1982) have used the term "mesosome" for the to a genet1c scheme. The onset of partial melting changes
non-neosome part of a migmatite, but that IS problemati- a one-phase (solid) protolith to a two-phase (melt + solid)
cal too, as the non-neosome part need not be mesocratic, neosome. The melt fraction has a lower VISCOSity and
and moreover, 1n many cases, the neosome has mesocratic density than the residual solid. and consequently, the two
parts. The root of the problem IS that there IS no clear parts of a neosome can become separated. or segregated.
opinion on which "o ld rock" IS the relevant one. If it IS the The part of a m1gmatite from which the melt fraction has
"old rock" of the pre-partial- melt1ng state. then paleosome been removed can be defined as follows.
refers to the litholog1es that will become neosome, but
this usage is redundant. as adequate terms, i.e .. protolith or Residuum : the part of the neosome that is predominantly
parent rock. already ex1st for that part. the sol1d fracuon left after partial meltmg and the extraction
of some, or all, of the melt fraction. Microstructures md1cotmg
The alternative. that "old rock" refers to that part of the partial meltmg may be present.
m1gmat1te not affected by part1al melt1ng and whiCh. there-
fore. contains only structures that pre-date the part1al Residuum is a general term; there is no particular refer-
melt1ng. IS far more useful. Hence, the follow1ng defin1t1on ence to rock color or to m1neral assemblage. For some bulk
1s proposed. compositions. the res1duum may be dom1nated by light-
colored m1nerals. such as feldspar or quartz; typically,
Paleosom e: the non-neosome part of a m1gmat1te that was because these m1nerals were so abundant 1n the protolith.
not affected by part1ol melting, and m wh1ch structures (such they dominate the residuum as excess phases with respect
as foliations, folds. layenng) older than the partial meltmg ore to the melt-producing reaction. However, part1al melt1ng of
preserved. The microstructure (s1ze. form, and onentatlon the common crustal rock-types typically generates residua
of grams) IS e1ther unchanged, or only slightly coarsened, 1n which ferromagnes1an minerals are maJor constituents.
compared to that m s1milor rocks JUSt outs1de the reg1on affected Consequently. res1dua are most commonly melanocrat1c.
by anatexiS. and these are g1ven the special term melanoso me.

Paleosome ex1sts because its compos1t1on was such that 1t Melanoso me: the darker-colored port of the neosome
did not partially melt and did not become neosome (Olsen m a m1gmat1te that 1s nch 1n dark mmerals such as b1ot1te,
1985); however, as some of the photographs 1n the atlas garnet. cord1ente. orthopyroxene. hornblende, clmopyroxene,
show, 1t 1s not always easy to decide what has melted and and even oliVine. The melanosome 1s the solid, res1duol fractiOn
what has not. Further subd1v1S10n of the paleosome may be (1.e.. residuum ) left after some. or all, of the melt fraction has
possible. and even useful. 1n mapp1ng some m1gmatites. If. in been extracted. Microstructures md1cotmg port1ol meltmg may
companng the pre- and post-partial-melt1ng states. certa1n be present.
litholog1es pers1st unchanged 1nto the h1ghest-grade parts
of the migmat1te. then these paleosome lithologies can be The complement to res1duum is, of course, derived from
called resisters (Read 1957) or r efractory. Layers of the anatectic melt. and th1s part of a neosome IS called the
calc-silicate. quartzite, and metamaf1c rocks are common leucosom e.
resister lithologies 1n migmatite terranes. The neosome
and paleosome parts of m1gmatites are shown specifi- Leucosom e: the l1ghter-colored port of the neosome m a
cally 1n Figs. Bl B4 of section B, but as the other figures 1n m1gmat1te. cons1stmg dommontly of feldspar and quartz. The
sect1on B show, there IS no "typiCal" or "class1c" mor- leucosome 1s that part of the m1gmot1te denved from segre-
phology to e1ther the neosome or the paleosome part of gated partial melt; 1t may cont01n microstructures that ind1cote
migmatites; their morphology is h1ghly varied. crystallization from a melt. or a magma Leucosome may not
necessarily hove the composition ofon anatectiC melt; fractional
crystallization and separation of the fractionated melt may
Terms specific to the neosome
hove occurred.
The nongenet1c terminology of Mehnert (1968) IS based
on changes in the relative proportions of light- to dark-col- The size. physical form. onentation. and grain s1ze are not
ored m1nerals that occur as a m1gmat1te forms. Because factors 1n determ1n1ng what IS res1duum. leucosome, or
6 --- -------- -------- ------ ------ -- - -

melanosome, and the photographs in sect1on B show some a cumulate composit ion denved from an in1t1al melt. The
of the range of d1versity present 1n m1gmatites. However, petrogenetic relat1onship between the leucosome and host
these parameters should all be recorded. as they may be 1s qu1te specific; the leucosome is denved from the ana-
important in fully descnb1ng all the types of leucosome and tectic melt with respect to which the melanosome is the
of melanosome (or res1dua) 1n a migmat1te. and could be res1duum. However. if some loss of melt has occurred, an
of s1gn1ficance 1n determ1n1ng exactly how each rock 1n a excess of res1duum relative to leucosome can be expected.
migmatite formed.
An in-source leucosome IS derived from melt that has
The sol1d, res1dual fract1on of a neosome can, 1n most moved and, therefore, may be d1scordant and have sharp
orcumstances , be regarded as being in place (i.e., tn s1tu), borders w1th 1ts host (e.g., Fig. B27); many occurrences,
but the melt phase is potentially mob1le, a fact recogn1zed however, are stromatiC (i.e., layered; see below) , and have
1n the older literature by use of the term "mobilizate" for some d1ffuse and some sharp contacts. An 1n-source leu-
the melt-derived parts of a m1gmatite. Therefore, a set of cosome may have a composition corresponding to an
terms that convey how far the fract1on of anatectic melt has 1nitial anatectic melt, a cumulate or a fractionated anatectic
moved from where 1t formed to where 1t crystallized are melt. Because 1t IS denved from a melt that has moved, an
useful 1n mak1ng a more complete field-based description 1n-source leucosome 1s detached from its own residuum,
of the 1ndiv1dual products of melt1ng in a m1gmat1te. and but as 1t remains 1n 1ts source layer; 1t IS hosted by another.
for the subsequent understand1ng of the petrogenetiC rela- s1m1lar res1duum (melanosome) that was formed from
tionships between the melt products and the rocks around the same source layer. Thus, there IS a petrogenetic con-
them. The following terms are proposed and adopted nection between the leucosome and 1ts host (e.g., similar
throughout the book. Mg-number, mineral assemblage, or ISOtopic compos1t1ons).
but they are not exact complements. The res1dual host may,
In situ leucosome: the product of crystallization of on ana- for example, have formed from a slightly lower. or h1gher.
tectic melt, or port of on anatectic melt that has segregated degree of part1al melting, or may have expenenced a h1gher,
(rom 1ts res1duum, but has rem01ned at the Site where the or lower, degree of melt loss.
melt formed.
Leucocrat1c ve1ns or dikes typ1cally have sharp contacts.
In-source leucosome: the product of crystallization of on 1rrespect1ve of whether they are discordant or concordant
anatectic melt, or port of on anatectiC melt, that has m1grated to the structure 1n their host (e.g., Fig. B28). There IS no
away (rom the place where 1t formed, but IS still w1thm the dwect petrogenetiC relat1onsh1p between the leucocratic
confines of 1ts source foyer. vein or dike and 1ts host rock; the age of crystall1zat1on 1n
the former should be cons1stent with the metamorphic age
Leucocratic vein or dike: the product of crystallization 1n the latter. however. Leucocrat1c vems or dikes generally
of on anatectic melt, or port of on anatecuc melt, that has have compositions that ind1cate derivat1on from a fractionated
m1grated out of 1ts source foyer and has been tnjected mto
anatectiC melt, but some have compositions of 1nitial melts.
another rock, wh1ch maybe nearby, or farther away, but IS still and others, compositions of cumulates.
m the reg1on affected by the anatectic event.
Gran1te d1kes typically have sharp contacts w1th the1r host
Granite (or granodiorite , tonalite, etc.) dike or sill : and. because they were InJected 1nto cool hosts, may
the product of crystallization of a (efs1c melt that has m1grated have fine-grained border zones (chilled marg1ns). There is
out of 1ts source reg1on completely, and IS InJected mto host no petrogenetic relat1onsh1p between a gran1te dike and
rocks of lower metamorphic grade or mto nonmetomorphosed 1ts country rock. The dike may be a product of crustal ana-
rocks. texis, or 1t may be denved from the crystallization of a felsic.
1ntermed1ate. or even mafic magma. Gran1t1c dikes com-
Each of the four can be recogn1zed by a comb1nat1on of
monly have a compos1t1on consistent w1th crystallization
morpholog1cal and geochemical charactenst1cs, and by the
from a fract1onated melt.
petrogenetiC relationsh1p between the melt-denved part
and 1ts host. In s1tu leucosome 1s n contact w1th 1ts own Well-defined bands of leucosome are very common in
res1duum, wh1ch typ1cally forms a melanosome around migmat1tes, but as the photographs 1n the book show. a
it (see, for example, Figs. BS and Btl). Contacts between leucosome may also be poorly defined and may form some-
the leucosome and melanosome are generally diffuse on what nebulous patches. Furthermore. 1t 1s qu1te common
a m1llimeter to cent1meter scale. The composition of an m
for several different forms of leucosome to be present 1n
s1tu leucosome corresponds to an in1tial anatectic liqu1d or, the same outcrop of migmatlte (e.g.. Oliver and Barr 1997).
if some melt was lost after crystallization had started, to
Most outcrops are relatively small, and on these. 1t may not
Aria> of Migmatites
- -- -- - - - - - - - - - - -- -- - - - - - - - - - 7

be possible to trace leucocratic veins, or dikes, back to t heir Magma: a s11icate liquid that contains crystals, wh1ch might
source layers and to examine t heir relationship with 1n situ hove crystallized from the melt (llqwdus phases), be the
leucosome. However, the root zones of leucocratic veins solid products of the melting reaction (also called peritectic
and dikes can be fou nd in some larger outcrops (see Figs. products by some authors), or be minerals in excess.
B43-B48), and these show a characterist ic petrological
continuity from in situ leucosome t hrough in-source leuco- Terms for the other parts
some to the leucocratic dikes and, commonly, with a strong of a migmatite
structural cont rol (i.e., by shear zones or folds) on the ini-
In morphologically complex migmatites, t here are, inevitably,
tial locat ion of the dikes.
some part s that are neit her leucocratic nor melanocratic.
The best-known form that the residual part of a migmatite Mesosome has been used as a descriptive term for these,
can take is the melanosome that occurs along the margin but its usefulness in any genet ic sense is very limit ed . In part,
of 1n situ leucosome (e.g., Figs. BS-BI4) . Far less att ention t his is because of inconsistent usage in the past. For Henkes
has been paid to t he other, and far more common, mor- and Johannes ( 198 1), mesosome corresponded to the
phologies that the melanosome can adopt in migmatit es; it protolith, whereas for Ashworth (1985) , it was the
may occur as patches, as continuous layers, and in some paleosome. A far more serious problem is that mesocratic
cases, as irregularly shaped bodies (e.g., Kenah and Hollister rocks can occur in either the neosome or the paleosome;
1983, Sawyer 2001, Wh ite et al. 2004). Some residual hence, the petrogenetic significance of mesosome is
rocks formed in migmatites in granulit e-facies terranes inherently less precise than that attached to leucosome
are not particularly melanocratic, although they are very or melanosome, wh ich are, by definition, par ts of the
w1despread (e.g., Guernina and Sawyer 2003). neosome. For this reason, I suggest that mesosome should
not be used. Because mesocratic rocks can occur in the
The neosome in many migmatites has segregated into neosome or paleosome (or both), it is necessary to record
clearly defined leucosome and melanosome. However, if where the particular mesocratic rock is located in the
the melt and residual solid fractions do not separate, leuco- migmatite (e.g., in the paleosome, or in the neosome) .
some and melanosome do not form, or are far less evident.
For these nonsegregated examples, t he term "neosome", If the melt and solid fractions do not separate in a neosome.
used alone, suffices. Examples of a neosome that has not it will not develop leucosome and melanosome, and overall,
developed leucosome and melanosome parts through the neosome wil l be mesocrat ic. However, in such cases, a
segregat ion are shown in Figs. B15- B26. coarser grain-size and a more isotropic fabric will typically
have replaced the microstructure and fabric t hat pre-dated
The recogn ition of neosome and it s leucosome and anatexis, and w ill aid in ident ifying what is neosome.
melanosome part s is, generally, a simple matter in migma-
tites developed from mesocratic or melanocratic protoliths As more work is done on migmatites, it is becoming clear
(e.g., metagreywackes, metapelites, metadiorites, and meta- that some example of 1n situ and in-source leucosome and
mafic rocks). It may be a much more difficult matter if many leucocratic dikes, or veins, in migmatite terranes
the protolith is leucocratic (e.g., some granites, tonalites, are separated from their host rocks by a narrow rim that
trondhjemit es, and metapsammites); the dilution of the is compositionally, mineralogical ly, and microst ruct urally
mafic minerals by feldspar and quartz means that subse- different from the host (see Figs. B49-B54). These com-
quent changes in modal proportions produce only subtle positional rims are not the residuum left after extraction
changes in color, which may be difficult to detect in the of anatectic melt; therefore, the term used for them is
field. For such rocks, distinguishing the neosome from se lvedge. Field observations from many migmatite
the paleosome in the field may best be accomplished by terranes indicate that selvedges are most commonly devel-
using changes in microstructure, such as fabric or grain size, oped around leucocratic veins and dikes; the injected melt
rather than changes in mineral modes or color. Examples thus does not seem to have been in chemical equilibrium
of this approach will be found in the atlas (e.g., Figs. BIS wit h its host. Consequently, three main mechanisms have
and Bl6). been proposed for the formation of selvedges: (I) reaction
between the host rock and an aqueous nuid exsolved as
Two furthe r terms specific t o the neosome remain to the melt that produced the leucosome or leucocratic dike
be defi ned. crystallized, (2) reaction between minerals in the adjacent
wallrock and the injected anatectic melt, and (3) diffusional
Melt: a silicate liqwd without crystals. exchange of components between the anatect ic melt (or
the crystallized leucosome or leucocratic dike) and its host
in response to activity gradients.
8 ---------------------------------

Selvedges can be leucocrat1c, mesocrat1c, or melanocrat1c. shown in sect1on C of th1s book. In the lower-grade parts
However, a very common type cons1sts of a th1n (mm- of anatect1c terranes, paleosome IS dominant 1n the mig-
wlde) b1otite-nch (or hornblende-nch 1n metamafic rocks) matlte (i.e., the proport1on of neosome to paleosome 1s
melanocrat1c nm adjacent to leucocrat1c dikes and some low), and old, pre-partial-melt1ng structures such as bed-
cases of in-source leucosome; these are called m afic ding, compositional layering, foliat1on, and folds are widely
selvedges. Mafic selvedges are also common at the margin preserved 1n it. The neosome part 1s charactenzed by nar-
of granitic dikes and sills intruded into low-grade coun- row bodies of leucosome of various orientations, bordered
try rocks; mafic selvedges are. therefore. not found only by melanosome, with its residual mineralogy and bulk com-
1n m1gmat1tes. position. From a rheolog1cal aspect. the bulk behavior of
these m1gmatites d1ffers little from solid rocks that are not
partially molten, although the rocks are weaker.

3. Toward the h1gher-grade parts of anatect1c terranes, there 1s

a change 1n m1gmat1te morphology; neosome becomes the
dom1nant feature. It is s1gn1ficant that 1n many of these high-
er-grade m1gmat1tes. leucosome IS far more abundant than
res1dual matenal. The latter typ1cally occurs as schlieren of
The next step IS to introduce the terms that describe the mafic m1nerals 1n the leucosome, together w1th schollen or
overall appearance of a migmat1te at a scale larger than rafts of paleosome and melanosome. Overall, paleosome
a small outcrop. Mehnert ( 1968) introduced 13 morpho- 1s not abundant 1n h1gher-grade m1gmat1tes, and may even
logical terms (agmatitic. diktyon1t1c. schollen, stromatic, be absent. Charactenst1cally, pre-part1al-melt1ng structures
surre1tic. folded, ptygmatic, veined, ophthalmitic, stictolit hic, are absent (except where they are preserved as schollen
schlieren, nebulitic, and homophaneous) for th1s purpose. or rafts); they were destroyed during neosome forma-
His scheme was not explained 1n terms of petrological tion and replaced by syn-anatectic structures, typically a
processes, and so, overall, it has proved unsatisfactory for magmatiC or submagmatic-foliation, or a flow banding. In
three mam reasons. Fwst, this scheme does not prov1de a terms of rheology, the neosome 1n those m1gmatites was
way of understand1ng how one morphology of a migma- magma-like.
tite is related to another. Second, 1t does not prov1de any
The trans1t1on from one morphology to the other IS grad-
1ns1ght 1nto the petrolog1cal processes that contributed to
ual 1n some m1gmat1te terranes. The progress1ve change 1n
the format1on of m1gmat1tes. Consequently, the scheme has
the morphology from the lower-grade to the h1gher-grade
turned out to have little pract1cal use 1n making a map of a
parts of m1gmat1te terranes is systematically covered in sec-
migmatite terrane. Th1rd, the terms were designed to be
tion D of the book. However, the passage from one to
nongenet1c, but 1n pract1ce most of the morpholog1es are
the other is abrupt 1n many terranes, and commonly tec-
h1ghly ongin-specific, i.e., they occur exclus1vely as a result
tonic, as 1t coinodes w1th doma1ns of h1gh shear strain (e.g.,
of partial melt1ng.
Brown and Solar 1998a, Solar and Brown 2001). The abrupt
The overall morphology of migmatites will be considered nature of the many contacts suggests that some type
next, with the intention of determining wh1ch factors con- of threshold behav1or may be controlling the changeover.
trol their appearance at the scale of a large outcrop. Th1s Exactly the same change in the morphology of migmatites
approach leads to a much clearer p1cture of how differ- occurs between the outer and 1nner parts of contact aure-
ent morpholog1es of m1gmat1te form and are related to oles affected by part1al melt1ng (Flood and Vernon 1978,
one another, 1n addit1on to prov1ding a workable bas1s for Pattison and Harte 1988. Grant and Frost 1990, Hobson et
mapping migmatites. al. 1998, Barnes et al. 2002, Johnson et al. 2003) .

Th1s two-fold morpholog1cal diVISion of migmat1tes read-

3.1 The first.. order morphological ily falls 1nto the old scheme of metatex1s and diatexis.
division of migmatites The paleosome-dominated types were regarded as
having formed from low degrees of part1al melt1ng.
Field stud1es from a great many anatect1c terranes (Breaks and were called metatexites, whereas the neosome-
et al. 1978, Brown 1979, Jamieson 1984, Weber et al. 1985, dominated ones were Interpreted to be the result of nearly
Sawyer and Barnes 1988, W1ckham 1987a, Bea 1991, Obata
complete fus1on, and called diatexites (e.g., Mehnert 1968,
et al. 1994, Sawyer 1998, Oliver et al. 1999, Solar and Brown Brown 1973, Ashworth 1985). The reasons why only these
2001, Johnson et al. 2001a, White et al. 2005) reveal a similar
two basic types of m1gmatites (usefully called metatexite
change in migmat1te morphology with 1ncreas1ng metamor- and diatexite) form needs to be understood before the
phic grade. Examples from several m1gmat1te terranes are terms can be properly defined. To do th1s, 1t 1s necessary
Atla, of Mtgm<Httc'
- - - - - -- -- - - -- -- - - - - -- - - -- - - ----9

to examine the results from recent petrolog1cal stud1es of from the anatectiC melt, most commonly plagioclase. The
migmatites and from studies of the physical properties of proport1on of leucosome in metatexite migmatites is typi-
partially molten rock. cally less than 20 vol.% (Weber et al. 1985, Symmes and
Ferry 1995, Barbey et al. 1996, Kohn et al. 1997, Johnson

3.2 Temperature, degree of partial et al. 200 Ia, Solar and Brown 200 I. Guermna and Sawyer
2003) and may 1nd1cate that metatexite m1gmatltes
melting, and fraction of melt cont a1ned a lower fraction of melt than d1atexite migmatites.
Est1mates of the metamorphic temperature reached in Caution must be exerosed, as the leucosome commonly
d1atex1te m1gmat1tes (Brown 1979. 1995; Weber et al. does not have the composition of an 1nit1al anatectiC melt
1985; Perc1val 1991 ; Guern1na and Sawyer 2003; Sawyer (see below, sect1on 6.2). Outcrops of metatexite m1gmatite
1998; Solar and Brown 200 1; Obata et al. 1994; Ol1ver and with greater t han 20 vol.% leucosome have been described,
Barr 1997; Johnson and Brown 2004) are typically between and are attributed to veining by granitic melt (Pattison and
750 and 900°C. These temperatures are commonly a little Harte 1988, Symmes and Ferry 1995, Guern1na and Sawyer
h1gher than 1n nearby metatexites (Grant and Frost 1990; 2003) or to the early crystall1zat1on of feldspar 1n places
Obata et al. 1994, fig. II; Oliver et al. 1999, fig. I). In some where large volumes of melt have passed through the crust
terranes, however, there is no s1gn1ficant difference 1n the (Brown 2004).
metamorphic t emperatures recorded in metatexite and
A large discrepancy between the degree of part1al melt1ng
diatex1te migmat1tes. In some cases, the transition from
metatex1te to d1atex1te m1gmat1te may be due to the influx
(F) and the fract1on of melt (M,) ex1sts for some metatex-
lte and d1atex1te m1gmat1tes, where M. < F indicates a net
of hydrous flu1ds, wh1ch promoted more melt1ng, where the
loss of melt, and where M. > F 1nd1cates a net gain of melt.
d1atex1te migmat1tes subsequently formed (e.g., White et al.
Discrepancies indicate that melt was redistnbuted w ithin
2005) . The temperatures reached in diatexite m1gmat1tes
m1gmat1tes during anatex1s (Sawyer and Barnes 1988,
are clearly much lower than requ1red for complete fus1on
Barbey et al. 1990). Because the degree of part1al melt1ng
(e.g., 1150- 1250°C. V1elzeuf and Holloway 1988). At com-
1n d1atex1tes 1s typ1cally less than 60 vol.%, a redistribution
plete fus1on, the composition of the anatect1c melt must,
of melt 1s the most likely mechan1sm by which the diatex-
necessarily, be the same as that of 1ts protolith. The com-
ites that are close to I 00 vol.% melt, or mostly leucosome,
position of some diatexite migmatites does indeed co1ncide
may have formed (Weber et al. 1985; Sawyer 1996, 1998;
w1th that of the protolith, but th1s IS Invariably because the
Brown and Rushmer 1997).
anatectiC melt d1d not separate from 1ts res1duum (Sawyer
and Barnes 1988; Sawyer 1996, 1998; Milord et al. 2001;
Solar and Brown 200 I) , and not because of complete fusion. 3.3 The partial..melting process
Petrological and geochemical modeling indicates that dia- Where the input of heat has caused the temperature to rise
texlte m1gmat1tes can form w1th as little as 16% part1al sufficiently that melt1ng starts, small 1solated pockets and
melt1ng, but that more commonly, 30 60% part1al melt- tubes of melt fo rm at the JUnctions between the reactant
Ing occurred (Sawyer 1998, Milord et al. 2001, Johnson et phases (Mehnert et al. 1973). The addit ion of more heat
al. 2001b). S1milar studies on leucosome- melanosome pairs causes further melting, and where the tubes and pockets of
show that the degree of part1al melt1ng (F) 1n metatex1te melt have grown sufficiently to link and form an Int ercon-
m1gmatltes IS generally less than 20 30% (Sawyer 1987, nected network, the rock becomes permeable (Waff and
1991; Barbey et al. 1990, 1996). H1gher degrees of part1al Bulau 1979). Melt can then move out of (i.e., segregation of
melting (60-70%) found 1n certa1n layers in some meta- the melt can beg1n), int o or through, the solid framework.
texlte migmat1tes have been attributed to the local influx of This Important step was called the permeability thresh-
aqueous fluids, or to "wet" melt1ng (Weber et al. 1985). old by Maal0e ( 1982), and the liqu1d percolation threshold
(LPT) by Vigneresse et al. (1996). Less than 2 vol.% melt
Petrolog1cal (Brown 1979, Johnson et al. 2001b) and geo- is needed to ensure that suffioent gra1n-boundanes con-
chemical (Sawyer 1998, Milord et al. 200 I, Solar and Brown tain melt, so that fels1c systems become permeable (e.g.,
200 I) studies show that there is a considerable variation Deii'Angelo and Tullis 1988, Laporte et al. 1997, Lupulescu
1n the fraction of melt (M ) 1nferred to have been pres- and Watson 1999); Rosenberg and Handy (2005) sug-
ent within diatex1te m1gmat1tes. Some parts contained a gested that almost all of the gra1n boundaries w ill conta1n
h1gh fraction (up to 100 vol.%) of anatectic melt (or a melt melt where the fract1on of melt reaches 0.07. Fo r the seg-
denved from 1t by fract1onal crystallization), whereas other regation of melt to actually occur, there has to be both a
parts, typically those that are richer 1n res1dual m1nerals. driving force and a dilatant sit e (s1nk) in which the melt can
contamed very little melt (<5 vol.%); yet other parts of d1a- collect (Sawyer 1994).
tex1te m1gmat1tes are nch 1n the m1nerals that crystallized
10 -----------------------------

The greater v1scos1ty of fels1c melts means that grav1tat1onal

forces are far less effect1ve at dnv1ng large-scale segregation
3.5 The general case: melting
of melt in the continental crust (Wickham 1987b) than they
under differential stress
are m segregating basaltic melt from the mantle (McKenz1e (so .. called "dynamic melting")
1984) . Most part1al melting in the continental crust was Crustal rocks are an1sotrop1c; therefore, dunng tectonic
synchronous with tectonic deformation; therefore, seg- processes, they deform heterogeneously, and dilatant struc-
regation and migration of the melt fraction in migmatites tures form in the more competent layers. Furthermore,
were probably driven by differential stress (Mclellan local differences in differential stress create pressure gradi-
1988; Barbey et al. 1990; Brown 1994; Sawyer 1991, 1994; ents (Rob1n 1979). Once sufficient melt has been produced
Brown et al. 1995; Rutter 1997; Brown and Rushmer 1997; that permeability IS ach1eved 1n the matnx. any additional
Vanderhaeghe 1999; Marchildon and Brown 2001) . Part1al melt generated moves down the pressure grad1ents and
melt1ng under conditions of lithostatic stress 1n wh1ch grav1ty is collects in nearby low-pressure s1tes. Further deformation
the only dnv1ng force for melt segregation IS probably very produces more dilat1on and increases the pressure gradi-
rare m the continental crust. Nevertheless. it represents an ents, and together these dnve more movement of melt.
end-member case to be cons1dered first. Where the crust melts under d1fferent1al stress, the fraction
of melt at the s1te of melt1ng should not normally exceed
that required for permeab1lity to be ma1ntained, because
3.4 A special case: melting any excess would move away to nearby low-pressure sites
under lithostatic stress conditions (Sawyer 1994). In many reg1onally developed migmatite
(so .. called "static melting") terranes, the cont1nuous segregatiOn of melt from its resid -
At low melt fractions, near the onset o f part1al melting uum appears to be a relatively nondestructive process. For
and under conditions of purely lithostat1c stress. gravity example, some granulite-fac1es m1gmatites that now con-
1s 1nsuffic1ent to drive the v1scous gran1tic melt out of the sist largely of strongly melt-depleted rocks still contain
framework of solids 1n which it formed over the period of well-preserved sedimentary structures (Waters and
a typ1cal anatectiC event, say 30 40 My (e.g., Rubatto et Whales 1984, Guemna and Sawyer 2003) .
al. 200 I). Consequently, the anatect1c melt and res1dual
The movement of melt 1n m1gmat1tes can be d1v1ded
solids remam together, the neosome 1s 1sotrop1c and
1nto three stages (e.g., Petford 1995. fig. 5: Rutter 1997;
w1thout leucosome or melanosome. The distribution of
Vanderhaeghe 2001). F1rst. 1t may move a short d1stance,
neosome 1n the m1gmat1te depends on how much melt1ng
up to several tens of centimeters. by porous flow. The melt
occurred, and whether melt1ng occurred at spec1fic s1tes.
moves from where 1t formed on gra1n boundanes. through
or was pervasive. As more melting occurs. the fraction
an Interconnected network cons1st1ng of m1croscop1c,
of melt eventually becomes sufficiently large that the con-
melt-filled tubes located along gra1n edges and melt-filled
tacts between all the solid gra1ns disappear; th1s marks the
grain boundanes and 1nt o small-scale (mm to perhaps em)
onset of a magma-like (very weak) rheology. For a matnx
low-pressure s1tes nearby. These may be dilatant fo liation
1nitially consisting of uniform, ngid spheres, th1s occurs at
and bedding planes, shear bands, 1nterboudin partitions, or
about 26 vol.% melt (MacGregor and Wilson 1939, Arzi
ductile fractures. The porous flow stage moves melt away
1978). Under perfectly lithostatic conditions, little hap-
from its immed1ate po1nt of ong1n, and concentrates it in
pens as the volume of melt reaches and then exceeds th1s
various small-scale s1tes still with1n the confines of the origi-
value, wh1ch was referred to as the melt-escape threshold
nal source.
(MET) by Vigneresse et al. ( 1996) and the solid-to-liqu1d
trans1t1on (SLT) by Rosenberg and Handy (2005); the melt The second stage marks the onset of a reg1me of flow
and res1dual solids rema1n Interspersed. Holness ( 1999) 1n clearly defined channels. In the 1n1t1al phase of chan-
reported that m the absence of deviatonc stresses. the melt neled flow, the melt moves tens of cent1meters through
and solid fract1ons d1d not separate from each other 1n a mesoscop1c network of linked channels. Thus, the melt
the shallow contact-aureole of the Rum Igneous Complex, has moved farther away from 1ts po1nt of generat1on and
even though the melt fract1on locally reached 0.95. Typ1cally, has accumulated 1n larger (em ·m scale). more stable low-
a new, coarser, 1sotropic fabnc develops 1n the neosome pressure s1tes, but st1ll w1thin 1ts source. The s1tes 1n wh1ch
once the melt fraction crystallizes; m1gmat1tes that the melt accumulates are commonly dilatant foliat1on or
display these characteristics occur 1n some deeper contact- bedding planes and interboudin partitions. The channeled-
aureoles, but very rarely in regional metamorphic terranes flow network is made up of em-scale linked segment s
(see below, Figs. AI, Bl7, and B19). However, if gravity- consisting of various dilatant structures, the exact type
induced separation of dense minerals or convect1on could and orientation of wh1ch depend on local circumstances,
occur (a matter of some contention; see Scaillet et al. such as the distnbut1on of rock types and the style of
1998). then some separation and onentation of m1nerals
may occur.
Ad.t, of 1\.ttgmautc,

deformation. The melt rema1ns trapped 1n these dilatant form. Two 1mportant top1cs that are central to the for-
sites until 1t IS forced to move aga1n. Upon crystallization, mation of diatex1te m1gmatites need to be cons1dered
this part of the channel network w ill become an array of next: (I) the replacement of pre-anatectic structures 1n
1n-source leucosome. m1gmatites by syn-anatect1c flow-structures, and (2) the gen-
eration of large-doma1ns that contain h1gh fractions of melt
The last phase of the channeled-flow reg1me is called
in m1gmat1tes.
the t ransfer stage. It occurs once the melt t hat accumu-
lated in the second-stage mesoscopic network migrates Rosenberg and Handy (2005) have re-exammed data from
out of 1ts source ent1rely. The flow of melt IS through a deformation expenments conducted on part1ally melted
tert1ary network of a few commonly discordant, macro- crustal rocks. They found that the maJor (90%) decrease 1n
scopic channels (fractures, veins, or dikes) over distances of strength occurs where t he fraction of melt reaches about
tens to hundreds of meters. Th1s segment of the channeled- 0.07. Rosenberg and Handy called th1s drop 1n strength
flow reg1me produces leucocrat1c ve1ns or dikes, and 1f the the "melt connect1v1ty trans1t1on" (MCT) and suggested
transfer d1stances are sufficiently large, gran1t1c dikes. that 1t occurs at the po1nt at wh1ch wtually all of the grain
boundaries 1n the part1ally molten rock become melt-
Thus, many of the bodies of leucosome seen 1n migmat1tes
beanng. The deformation mechan1sms that operate at the
mark e1ther the channels through wh1ch melt flowed, or the
high stra1n-rates 1n experimental stud1es 1nclude 1nter- and
sites in which anatectic melt collected. Examples of flow-
intra-granular cracking, rigid rotation of grains, and sliding
path geometries are given by Brown et al. ( 1999), Sawyer
along pockets of melt (Rosenberg and Handy 2005). At the
(2000, 2001), Guern1na and Sawyer (2003), March1ldon
slower stra1n-rates of natural deformatiOn, other mecha-
and Brown (2003), and Brown (2004).
nisms, such as grain-boundary sliding accommodated by
Although some melt-filled sinks and channels may be long- diffus1on, intracrystalline plastic1ty, and the dissolution of
gram gra1n contacts 1nto the melt (e.g., H1rth and Kohlstedt
lived, others are trans1ent. S1mak1n and Talbot (2001a, b)
used a numencal model of an 1sotrop1c protolith to show 1995: Park and Means 1996, 1997; Rosenberg and Handy
that melt-rich "ve1ns" can grow or atrophy, depending upon 2000) may operate. Alt hough the flow rates ach1eved by
their onentation relat1ve to the max1mum and min1mum shear stresses at low fract1ons of melt (ca. 0.07) may be
pnnopal stresses. Sawyer (200 I) argued that melt channels lower than those attainable 1n a magma (suspens1on of
crystals in a melt), the macroscopic effect 1s, nevertheless,
would collapse and d1sappear 1f the supply of melt stopped
before crystallization began . S1milarly, the direction of melt similar. The pre-partial-melt1ng structures 1n the rock are
flow may change. Simak1n and Talbot (2001a, b) found progressively destroyed as a new flow-1nduced structure
that 1f a ve1n array IS reonented, or the onentat1on of the develops, w1th the result that the neosome created IS a dia-
stress field changes, the direct1on of melt flow may reverse: texlte m1gmatite. Sawyer ( 1996, 1998) has suggested that
change of melt-flow direct1on has also been demonstrated 1n some instances, a diatexite m1gmatite that resu lted from
from field studies (Sawyer et al. 1999). low degrees of partial melt1ng and conta1ned low fract1ons
of melt (M <0.2) may have formed 1n th1s way.
Rob1n ( 1979) cons1dered the m1grat1on of melt during layer-
parallel extension and found that low-pressure s1tes develop Stevenson ( 1989) developed a model for the m1grat1on
perpendicular to the extens1on dwect1on 1n the most of melt dunng layer-parallel compreSSIOn. In h1s model,
v1scous (1.e., competent) layer, wh1ch attracts melt from the decreases 1n pressure 1n the least competent layers (i.e.,
nearby less viscous layers. The most viscous layers are most t he layers conta1n1ng most melt) create a pressure gradi-
ent that brings more melt 1n from the surrounding, more
commonly paleosome, but if the res1duum develops to the
extent that 1t conta1ns a large modal proport1on of strong competent layers. Thus, a melt-nch layer grows by a s1mple
minerals, such as garnet or pyroxene, then the res1dual feedback-type mechan1sm. Stevenson's model IS partiCU-
layers (melanosome) could start to attract melt, rather than larly interest1ng because it IS a way of concentrat1ng melt
lose 1t. Th1s model has been applied to m1gmatites (Patt1son in vanous layers to achieve melt fract1ons well above the
liqu1d-percolat1on threshold (LPT) in the general case of
and Harte 1988, Brown et al. 1995) and relates princ1pally
to the segregation of melt into the space between baud- melt1ng under differential stress.
Ins 1n competent layers and the growth of some stromat1c
High fract1ons of melt may also be ach1eved 1n a m1gmat1te
1f melt IS produced at a rate greater than the rate at wh1ch
From the discussion above, 1t IS relatively easy to under- 1t m1grates away (Sawyer 1994). One mechanism for trig-
genng such rapid melting could be the influx of an aqueous
stand how metatexite migmat1tes form dunng melt1ng of
a heterogeneous continental crust under differential stress. flu1d (e.g., Wh1te et al. 2005). Whether the high fract1on
In contrast, 1t is not clear how d1atexite migmat1tes can of melt 1n a m1gmat1te undergoing synchronous melt1ng
and deformat1on arises from rapid melting, or from melt

m1grat1on as outlined by Stevenson ( 1989), the effects on above the solid-to-hqu1d trans1t1on and enables magma
the morphology of the m1gmatlte are essentially the same. flow to occur. Th1s external magma m1ght be denved from
Once melt has accumulated to the po1nt that suffic1ent deeper in the same source. or 1t m1ght be denved from
gra1n-to-gra1n contacts 1n the matnx have disappeared, the a completely different source-volume. (5) In an open sys-
partially molten rock becomes a suspens1on of crystals 1n a tem, by the add1tion of an aqueous fluid into rocks already
melt. i.e., a magma, which will then flow in response to the at a high temperature, which enables rapid fluid-present
shear stresses imposed on it by local or far-field tectonic part ial melting to occur, so that Fand M 1are locally increased
forces. Where magma flow occurs, the pre-partial-melting to above the solid-to-liquid trans1t1on. and magma flow can
structures in the matrix are destroyed and are replaced occur. In outcrop, the diatex1tes may look very similar, but
by magmat1c flow structures, thus forming a diatex1te mig- petrological (1ncluding microstructural) and geochemical
matlte. Many examples of diatexite m1gmatite, especially studies generally allow a spec1fic process to be determ1ned.
those that have bulk compos1t1ons 1nd1cating that they In the closed systems, M, corresponds to F determined
contained a h1gh. or very h1gh. fract1on of melt. formed 1n petrographically or geochem1cally from the rocks; these
th1s way (Sawyer 1998, Milord et al. 2001). Est1mat1ng the could be called primary diatexite migmatites.
fract1on of melt requ1red to change from a rock-dom1nated However, in the open systems, F determ1ned from the
to melt-dom1nated rheology has attracted a great deal of rocks 1n the m1gmat1tes would not correspond to M ; these
attent1on. Th1s transition has been termed the rheolog1cal could be called secondary diatexite migmatites.
critical-melt percentage (RCMP) by Arz1 (1978). the cnt1cal
melt fraction ( CM F) by van der Molen and Paterson ( 1979),
and the melt-extraction threshold (MET) by Vigneresse
3.6 Definitions of
et al. ( 1996) . Recently, Rosenberg and Handy (2005) have
metatexite and diatexite
called it the solid-to-liquid transition (SLT). but they and For the same protolith compos1t1on, metatexite migmatites
others (Takeda and O bata 2003) have suggested that this generally form at lower temperatures than diatexite mig-
rheolog1cal threshold 1s much less important than pre- matites; therefore, the passage from metatexite to diatexite
viously considered. Estimates place th1s threshold at melt could be v1ewed as one of 1ncreas1ng degree of partial melt-
fract1ons between 0.26 and 0.4. Ing w1th temperature, but th1s IS an 1ncomplete v1ew. F1eld,
petrolog1cal, and geochem1cal results from migmatites,
Studies of the microstructures 1n d1atex1te m1gmat1tes and the theoretical cons1derat1on of melt flow in partly
clearly 1ndicate that many flowed as suspens1ons of crystals molten rocks d1scussed above, suggest that movement of
1n a melt. and some acqu1red the1r microstructures 1n a sub- melt is also a s1gn1ficant mechan1sm 1n leading to elevated
magmatic state as the melt crystallized. Nevertheless, some fract1ons of melt 1n m1gmat1tes where melt1ng and tectonic
d1atex1te m1gmat1tes may have lost the1r pre-anatectiC struc- deformat1on were synchronous. The fract1on of melt (M.)
tures and developed flow fohat1on at far lower fractions of may be 1ncreased to I, or decreased to the liqu1d-percolat1on
melt (<0.2) through the other mechan1sms of deforma- threshold, by m1gration of the melt. even 1f the degree
tion outlined above. Thus. from the comb1nation of how a of partial melting (F) was relat1vely low, as Sederholm
high fract1on of melt was ach1eved and the poss1ble mecha- =
noted. Only in a closed system does M1 F. Therefore, the
nism of flow involved, there are five end-member ways of first-order morphological div1sion in migmatites is best con-
forming a diatexite migmatite. (I) In a closed system where sidered in terms of fraction of melt rather than the degree
F, and hence M,, are well below the sohd-to-hquid transi- of part1al melting. Th1s represents a change in empha-
tion, by gra1n-boundary sliding, melt-enhanced diffus1on SIS, from the degree of part1al melting to the fraction of
and d1ssolut1on processes, leading to bulk flow (1.e .. flow of melt present, and a d1vergence from the orig1nal reason
a solid conta1ning a small volume of melt). (2) In a closed that the terms "diatex1te" and "metatex1te" were Int ro-
system, by an increase in temperature (or possibly a drop duced. However, both terms are too well established and
1n pressure), so that F, and hence M , nse above the sohd- too useful to be d1scarded. Accordingly, the defin1t1ons of
to-hquld trans1tion, leading to the creat1on of a suspens1on diatex1te and metatex1te are changed slightly from those
of crystals 1n an anatectiC melt, and hence magma flow. (3) g1ven by Mehnert (1968). Brown (1973). and Ashworth
In a locally open system (the system could be closed on (1985), and go somewhat beyond the etymological roots
a terrane scale, however), by the movement of anatectiC of their anginal definit1on g1ven by Gunch (1905) and
melt w1thin the migmatite, so that M is locally increased Scheumann ( 1936).
above the solid-to-liquid trans1tion, and magma flow can
occur. (4) In an open system, by t he intrusion of an exter- Metate xite : a m1gmat1te that is heterogeneous at the
nal granitic magma into the migmatite, which augments the outcrop scale. and m wh1ch coherent pre-partial-melting
locally derived anatectic fract1on so that the net M1 rises structures ore w1dely preserved m the poleosome (where

8 URS ,----~------------.
Meta- Fig. I . Classification scheme for migmatites. (a) The
texite 1 ....
Diatexite fi rst-order division of migmatites into metatex itc and dia-
1 Transitional ............
NU P+---~~----~--~----~----~ tcxite migmatites is considered a funct ion of the fraction of
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 melt and the properties of the solid grains in the partial ly
Fraction of Melt melted rock. The passage from metatex ite to d iatcxite mig-
b Q)
patch !
0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 matite occurs abruptly at a fraction of melt eq ual to 0.26
nebulites if the solid crystals arc treated as un iform , rigid sphe res
0 _...,--···-~---····r·····-·····..······..········..···:··-··············-·······-·········
(URS model). However, for a model in which the solid
dUata1t I c/ ' d;ate,;te
particles arc nonun iform in size and shape ( UP model),
there is a tra nsition zone between mctatcx itc and diatcx-
2 ite migmatites that may extend from 0.16 to 0.6 in terms
-~ 1
~ net li ~i of fraction of melt. (b) The second-order morphologies of
2ro Q) I

0 !:<? metatcx ite and diatcx ite migmatites arc shown on a plotofsyn-

st<am~t;c I<!'
ro ~
a natcctic strain versus fraction of melt. The diaoram is
c>- shaded for the U RS model, but the vertical dash;d lines
(/) .t:.
0> indicate where the bounda ries arc for the transitional
f diatexite
... possible limit of ••
zone in a U P model. The terms shown, except diatexitc,
should be used as a prefix to either mctatexitc or diatcxite
as appropriate (e.g., patch mctatexitc migmatitc or schollc n
transitional zone
d iatcxitc migmatitc).

the microstructure appears unchanged) and. poss1bly 1n the suggested by Lejeune and R1chet (1995) and Renner et al.
melanosome (res1duum) part of the neosome. where the frac- (2000). extending tn terms of fractton of melt from about
tion of melt was low. The neosome part IS generally segregated 0.16 to approxtmately 0.6 between the metatexite and
tnto leucosome and melanosome. but neosome 1n wh1ch melt diatexite fields.
and res1duum d1d not segregate may also occur.

Diatex ite: o m1gmat1te tn wh1ch neosome IS dommant, and 3.7 The second.. order morphological
melt was pervas1vely d1stnbuted throughout. Pre-part1al· melttng divisions in migmatites
structures are absent from the neosome, and are commonly
In this section, I describe the morphologies of migmatites
replaced by syn-anatect1c-{Jow structures (e.g.. magmatic or
submagmat1c foliations. schl1eren). or by 1sotrop1c neosome. at scales 1nvolvtng 1nd1v1dual leucosome and melanosome
on the one hand. and the overall scale at whtch metatex-
The neosome IS vonable tn appearance. reflecttng a large range
ite and diatex1te morphologies are determ1ned on the
in the fraction of melt. and 1t can range from predommantly
other. All the morpholog1es d1scussed below are shown
/eucocrat1c to predommantly mesocratlc (e.g.. unsegregated
1n sect1on D of the book in the same order as here 1n
melt and res1duum) to predommantly melanocrat1c. Paleosome
occurs as rafts or schollen. but may be absent. the text. The morphology of a m1gmatite nght at the
onset of partial melting ts likely to be controlled by the
The t ransition from metatexite to diatextte ts abt·upt 1n physicochemical factors that determ1ne the exact place
some terranes and transttional in others. The first-order where the first melt and. therefore, tn s1tu neosome are
morphologtcal dtvtslon of mtgmat1tes tnto metatextte and formed. Thts early morphology is probably best conserved tn
diatex1te is represented on Fig. Io as a funct1on of the frac- envtronments where dtfferential stresses are least. e.g.. con-
tton of melt (abscissa) and the charactensttcs of the solid tact aureoles. However. dtfferential stresses act1ng as the 1n
part1cles (ordinate). The upper part of the diagram shows s1tu neosome grows wtll cause the melt fraction to mtgrate
the change from metatextte to d1atex1te at a fraction of to dilatant structures 1n the m1gmatite. Consequently.
melt of 0.26. based on the model that the solid particles further changes in the outcrop-scale morphology of mig-
in the rock undergotng partial melttng are un1form. ng1d matites are not solely due to the petrologtcal process of
spheres (URS) . In rocks. the crystals are uniform ne1ther in part1al melt ing; they resu lt fro m the tnterplay of two fac-
s1ze nor aspect ratio; a transttlon therefore exists between tors. (I) The proportion of melt 1n d1fferent parts of the
the loss of soltd solid contacts at the local scale and the m1gmat1te. Melt w1ll be redistributed 1n response to differ-
w1despread loss of solid- solid contacts 1n the bulk sam- ential stresses; thus. the amount of melt present may range
ple. Thus. the lower part of the d1agram IS for the general from zero to 100 vol.%. (2) The way the rocks respond
case tn wh1ch the rock undergotng parttal melting contatns to d1fferenttal stress while melt 1s present. The locatton of
a range of part1cle stzes and shapes. In such a nonun1form di latant sttes is controlled by the distribution of the compe-
parttcle model (NUP). there ts a trans1t1onal reg1on. as tent layers and by the way tn wh1ch stra1n occurred. Part of
14 ------------------------------

and the flow of matenal through. an orogen along discrete

th1s response will be 1nfluenced by the 1n1t1al. pre-anatectic
zones or channels located 1n the m1ddle and lower part of
distnbut1on of competent and Incompetent litholog1es, but
the crust. The m1gmatites from reg1ons where this type of
1t w1ll also be controlled by the structures that form dur-
crustal-scale channel flow has occurred are likely to have
Ing deformat1on and by the locus of melt collection. As the
strongly layered morpholog1es, but there may still be small
melt fract1on increases, stra1n is increas1ngly partitioned 1nto
domains where other morphologies can be recognized (see
the melt-bearing parts (Vigneresse and Tikoff 2000) of the
migmat1te. Consequently, the morphology of migma- below, Figs. A2. A3, 023. and 024) .
tites may be very heterogeneous: a migmatite v1ewed on a
1-m outcrop m1ght not be described in the same way when Morphologies characteristic of
seen on a I 0 OOO-m 2 outcrop. metatexite migmatites
Very low fract1ons of melt and low-stra1n condit1ons. near
F1gure I b shows how the second-order morpholog1es, the ongin 1n Fig. lb. corresponds to the onset of melt1ng:
wh1ch w1ll be described below, are related to the first-order m1gmatites that have lost melt could also be near the on-
metatex1te-diatex1te subdiv1s1on of m1gmat1te, and to each gin. Although the very low fract1on of melt precludes any
other by vanation 1n relat1ve syn-anatect1c "stra1n." Stra1n is eye-catch1ng morphologies from develop1ng (e.g., Figs.
not used 1n a quant1tat1ve manner: it IS s1mply used qualita- 01-04). the rocks formed at the onset of melt1ng are very
tively to differentiate relatively more deformed rocks from important. as they mark the lower-grade lim1t to areas of
less deformed rocks. migmatlte format1on. The field ev1dence for the onset of
partial melting IS commonly overlooked because the first
Most of the morpholog1cal divers1ty 1n metatex1te migma-
signs of partial melt1ng 1n outcrops are subtle. Reactant
tites denves from the anisotropy inherent in the paleosome
minerals become slightly rounded where melting has begun,
(and protolith), rather than the magnitude of the
and a sugary texture can develop 1n lithologies not too
syn-anatect ic strain or fraction of melt present. High strain
rich in mica. If the melting react1on produces a distinctive
generally results 1n simpler morpholog1es, because all parts
solid product, that m1neral m1ght be recogn1zable. The first
of the migmatites are strongly attenuated or transposed,
evidence of part1al melt1ng 1n some m1gmat1tes is the devel-
and paleosome, leucosome, and neosome tend to become
opment of fine-gra1ned. quartzofeldspath1c films. which
parallel, and the overall morphology IS stromatiC, or layered.
weather white. along some gra1n boundanes: the films
Thus, the cnteria that are wholly stra1n-related, such as
represent crystallized melt (Holness and Clemens 1999.
the lateral cont1nuity of leucosome, do not prov1de a good
Sawyer 1999, Holness and Watt 2002). A pmk colorat1on
bas1s on wh1ch to define metatex1te m1gmat1tes, or on
at the edge of muscovite gra1ns was found by Holness and
which to distingu1sh metatex1te from d1atex1te m1gmat1tes.
Watt (2002) to mark the onset of part1al melt1ng 1n pelit1c
In contrast, the morpholog1cal vanat1ons that occur w1th1n
rocks in a contact aureole 1n Scotland.
d1atex1te migmat1tes are almost wholly a funct1on of the
fract1on of melt present; more melt necessarily means less Patch migmatites are formed where slightly higher
paleosome and more neosome. The effect of syn-anatect1c fractions of melt have been generated, and melt1ng has
strain on the morphology of diatexite m1gmat1tes is subtle. occurred at d1screte s1tes. so that small, scattered patches
Because magmas are weak, flow structures and foliations of nonfoliated 1n situ neosome develop (Fig. I b). Examples
are 1n1tiated in them at comparatively low shear stresses: of patch metatexite migmatites can be seen in F1gs. 07- 0 I 0
h1gher shear strain simply results 1n better preferred onen- and also 1n F1gs. Bl. B2. BIS. and B30. Paleosome 1s domi-
tatlons for the enclaves and m1nerals (lldefonse et al. 1992, nant, and the patches of neosome are generally round
Arbaret et al. 1997). not 1n a s1gn1ficant change 1n the mor- or oval 1n shape. Such neosome was called "bhnd end-
phology. The second-order morpholog1cal terms should Ing" by Sederholm (1907) and "bhnd patches" by Platten
be used as a prefix to the first-order one. e.g.. stromat1c ( 1983). and IS charactenst1c of the 1nc1p1ent stages of partial
metatex1te m1gmat1te and schollen (see below) d1atex1te melt1ng 1n the1r hosts (Weber and Barbey 1986, Mclellan
m1gmat1te. 1988. Grant and Frost 1990. Hobson et al. 1998, Sawyer
1991. Timmermann et al. 2002, Slagstad et al. 2005).
F1gure lb 1nd1cates that most of the second-order mor-
Consequently, the first appearance of patchy neosome 1n
phologieS are charactenst1c of relat1vely low-"stra1n" rocks.
migmat1te terranes IS useful1n locat1ng the "melt-in" 1sograd
However. recent results from numerical models (e.g.,
for the lithology m wh1ch 1t occurs. However. it may be
Beaumont et al. 2004. ]am1eson et al. 2004) 1ndicate that
difficult to 1dentify the neosome if the paleosome IS a
many m1gmatite terranes exhumed from the deep parts
coarse-grained. nonfoliated, fels1c plutonic rock. Oriented,
of orogens are likely to have expenenced very high syn-
tabular bodies of neosome can arise if melting is confined to
anatectic stra1n. The weakening that crustal rocks undergo
thin layers. or to certain planes. At higher degrees of partial
as they part1ally melt results 1n the partit1on of stra1n 1nto,
Atht~ of Migm a cth.'~

melting, the neosome grows, or 1t becomes more plent1ful; Net. dilat1onal, and stromatic descnbe three metatex1te
lobed shapes can develop by coalescence. If coalescence migmat1te morpholog1es in which the distribution and form
results 1n the creat1on of large patches of neosome that of the neosome (the leucosome 1n part1cular) reflect differ-
have diffuse borders, then the term ne bulite can be used ent ways 1n wh1ch the an1sotropy due to the layenng 1n the
(see Figs. 011 and 012). protolith responded to strain dunng part1al melt1ng; some
examples are shown 1n F1g. 2. S1nce these morpholog1es
Typically. in patch m1gmatites, the melanocrat1c and
are defined w1th reference to thew pre-melting structures,
leucocratic parts are uniformly distributed throughout
they are divis1ons of metatexite m1gmatites. The order of
the neosome because the melt and res1duum have not
the three types along the "stra1n" ax1s of Fig. lb IS some-
separated; hence. overall the neosome IS commonly meso-
what arbitrary; all may form at low and 1ntermed1ate strains.
cratiC. However; vanat1ons result 1f the melt and residuum
However, at high stra1ns, the leucosome 1n dilat1onal and
do segregate. In one case, the leucosome may be sur-
net types tends to become parallel, 1n which case the term
rounded by a rim of melanosome, whereas in another case
"stromatiC" or "layered metatex1te m1gmatite" IS more
a leucocratiC nm. or moat, may surround a melanocrat1c
core, wh1ch 1s commonly a single crystal (Weber and Barbey
1986). Th1s latter type of patch neosome (e.g.. F1gs. B30, Di lation-structured migmatite s (surre1t1c struc-
D I 0) occurs in the granulite-facies parts of some migmatite ture of Mehnert 1968) are dist1nct1ve, as can be seen in
terranes (Waters and Whales 1984. StOwe and Powell 1989, F1gs. D 13 022. The leucosome 1s located in dilatant (1.e.,
Powell and Downes 1990, Sawyer et al. 1999, Waters 200 I, low-pressure) structural sites. such as the spaces between
White et al. 2004); mass-balance est1mates for these patches boudins. 1n pressure shadows. or 1n fractures (F1g. 2) 1n
show that many have lost a considerable volume of melt the more competent layers of the m1gmatite. Typically.
(M 1 < F). White et al. (2004) described patches of neosome the dilat1onal sites are comparat1vely short and restricted
that occur in metapelitic rocks from the upper-amphibolite- to part1cular layers and do not form an outcrop-scale net
facies to granulite-fac1es trans1t1on and that 1nvolve garnet structure. This morphology 1mplies the ex1stence of a
produced by an 1ncongruent melt1ng react1on involving the competency contrast between the vanous layers 1n the
breakdown of b1ot1te and sillimanite. The 1nability of garnet migmat1te wh1le layer-parallel extens1on occurred. Typ1cally,
to eas1ly form nucle1 1n these rocks has meant that the loca- t he competent layers are the less fertile (e.g.. greywacke
tion of the melt1ng react1on 1tself and of the other products 1n a pelite). or the resister l1tholog1es (e.g., calc-s11icates.
of react1on was determ1ned by the locus of nucleat1on of quartz1te. metamafic rocks. or pegmat1tes). but they could
t he garnet. Th1s s1tuat1on results 1n a m1gmat1te that con- also be newly formed res1dual layers nch 1n strong miner-
tains patches of m situ neosome cons1st1ng of a large garnet als, such as garnet or pyroxene. Dilat1onal structures may
porphyroblast surrounded by the other solid products of also form owing to strain incompatibilities across the folia-
react1on (e.g.. K-feldspar) and the melt. tion planes (Platt and V1ssers 1980), as 1n the m1gmat1tes
of southern Bntanny (Jones and Brown 1990, Brown and
Patch m1gmatltes are best preserved where syn-anatect1c
Dallmeyer 1996, Brown 2004) and northwestern Australia
strain IS low. Such environments 1nclude inc1p1ent melt1ng
(Oliver and Barr 1997). Other types of dilational s1tes can
where rocks are stronger, and layers are competent (e.g..
develop in, and around, the hinges of folds developed 1n
Slagstad et al. 2005). Hence, the patch m1gmat1tes extend
rocks with a strong planar an1sotropy (e.g., Coll1ns and
to greater stra1n than nebulltic m1gmat1tes on F1g. lb. The
Sawyer 1996).
ex1stence of even a small differential stress deforms patch
m1gmat1tes into h1gh-aspect-rat1o shapes (Timmermann et Net-structure d migmatites (diktyon1t1c structure
al. 2002), and dnves the segregation of melt. As the m s1tu of Mehnert 1968) are a very common type of metatex-
patches of neosome 1n the migmat1tes described by Wh1te lte m1gmatite, and Sederholm ( 1907) cons1dered the1r
et al. (2004) become larger and more abundant. d1fferen- development to be an 1nd1cator of part1al [Y)elt1ng; exam-
t 1al stresses cause the melt and solid fractions to separate ples are shown 1n Figs. 023 030. The essential feature of
as the melt moves into dilatant structures. Consequently, this morphology 1s that the leucosome occurs 1n two or
the morphology of the migmatites changes from patch more systematic sets. such that the1r intersection creates a
t o net-structured, or stromatiC. Thus, even low syn- net-like pattern outlining lozenge-shaped, or polygonal
unatectlc stra1n results 1n the loss ofsome. or most. of the melt blocks of darker rock. At the early stages of melt1ng. the leu-
fraction, and the m s1tu patches of neosome are dominated cosome IS narrow w1th a h1gh aspect-rat1o and IS bordered
by res1dual minerals. At higher syn-anatectic stra1n, patch by melanosome; the centers of the lozenges are paleosome.
m1gmatites no longer exist, and net, or stromatiC (also The net-like pattern is very commonly the result of one or
called layered) morpholog1es form 1nstead. more sets of extens1onal shear bands 1n which the leuco-
some IS located. It IS 1dent1fied by curvat ure of the foliat1on
from the host to, or some way into, the leucosome. The
16 ------------------------------

---- ---~; ' / ..........
Fig. 2. Schematic representation of some of the structural sites in which the leucosome in Jilational metatexite migmatites
ca n be expected to occur. Solid areas anJ lines represent leucosome, whereas the dasheJ black lines are the traces of bed-
Jing or foliation. (a) Leucosome in inrerboudin partitions that develop in the competent layers of migmatites; t hese layers
may be paleosome resisters, or even melano ome. Some boudins contain sma ller intern al boudins. (b) Leucosome located
in extensional shear bands; both synthetic and antithetic examples are shown. (c) Leucosome located in an asymmetri-
cal fol iation boudin. (d) Stromatic leucosome orienLed parallel to the principal plane of ani otropy, which may be either
bedding or foliation. (e) Leucosome located in a reverse shear, cutting the short limb of an asymmetrical fold. (f) Leucosome
associated with parallel folds; leucosome in the fold hinges is located in the space between dilated bedding planes; shorter
Jomain s of leucosome arc locateJ in cx tcn ional fractures developed on the outside of the foiJed competent layers
and are not ax ial-planar, but tend to be radially d ispo ed. Leucosome that is located parallel to a fold's axial plane occurs in
the less competent layers.

anatectiC melt thus seems to have m1grated a short dis- Oliver and Barr \997) . The rock 1n the lozenge between
tance by porous flow from the host 1nto the shear bands leucosome bands progressively becomes neosome, and is
as the bulk rock underwent layer-parallel extens1on (e.g.. generally composed of melanocrat1c residuum . However. 1f
Mclellan \988; Sawyer \991; Brown \994, 2004; Oliver melt is injected into these layers, then the lozenge may be
et a\. \999). Deformation experiments on part1ally mol- mesocratic in color. With increased fract1on of melt, net-
ten analogue materials confirm th1s (Rosenberg and Handy structured migmat1tes pass, v1a a transitional stage, into raft
2000); the onset of partial melting causes deformation to or schollen diatex1te m1gmatites (F1g. \b).
become concentrated 1nto shear bands, and the melt then
Stromat ic or laye r-st ructured migmatites have
m1grates to the shear bands. M1grat1on of melt 1nto shear
numerous thm and laterally persistent bands of leucosome
bands, or expuls1on from them. depends on whether the
that are oriented parallel to the major plane of an1sotropy
shear band 1s shortemng or lengthening (Mancktelow
1n the paleosome. Examples are shown 1n Figs. 031-040. A
2002). A set of leucosome bands commonly IS onented
s1ngle layer IS called a stroma (plural stromata). The planar
parallel to the compos1t1onal layering or foliat1on. The
anisotropy IS, typ1cally, the compos1t1onal layenng (bed-
onentat1on of all sets of leucosome bands, fohat1ons, and
ding or 1gneous layenng), or a foliat1on. Generally, a band of
shear zones together w1th the1r direct1ons of movement,
leucosome has melanosome on both s1des; 1n some cases.
should be recorded 1n the field so as to determine the local
however, the melanosome 1S only on one s1de. and 1n yet
k1nematics of the syn-anatect1c deformation.
others. there is no melanosome.
W1th further partial melting, the paleosome is changed to
Because of the large number of leucosome domains and
a gneiss 1n which folia of res1dual m1nerals alternate with
the regularity of the1r spaong, stromatic migmatites have
quartzofeldspathic layers, and the leucosome bands no
attracted a lot of attent1on. M1chei-Levy ( 1893) suggested
longer have obvious melanosome around them (e.g..

that they are the result of repeated InJections of magma w1th1n crustal-scale shear zones (includ1ng zones of channel
between the layers, or foliation planes: hence, he Intro- flow in the continental crust) typ1cally have a pronounced
duced the term Itt par lit to describe this morphology. The layered, or stromatiC, morphology due to transpos1t1on and
find1ng 1n certa1n layered m1gmatites that (I) seem1ngly progress1ve deformation, most ev1dent by abundant, paral-
layer-parallel bands of leucosome actually cross-cut the lel and laterally pers1stent bod1es of leucosome (F1gs. A2,
layenng locally, stepp1ng from one plane of an1sotropy to A3) . The layered structure may be so strong as to obscure
the next if traced out across large outcrops (e.g., Sawyer any previous morphology that the metatexite migmatite
et al. 1999), and (2) adJacent melanocratic bands do not may have had; 1n th1s case, the name "layered metatex1te
have appropnate res1dual compos1t1ons (Jung et al. 1999), m1gmat1te" should be suffioent. Although all pre-anatectic
support the melt-InJection ong1n. Many invest1gators have structures 1n these m1gmatites may have been destroyed
proposed an m s1tu origin; Holmqu1st (1916) and Brown (by transposition, for example), they should not be called
et al. (1995) have suggested that the segregations of melt diatex1te migmatites (unless a high fract1on of melt can
are denved from adJacent rocks. In contrast, Johannes be demonstrated to have ex1sted 1n them): they should
(1983o) and Johannes et al. (1995) have argued that the be v1ewed pnmanly as tecton1tes. However, leucosome
layered structure results from the part1al melt1ng of only generally is present, and more rarely neosome (i.e., leuco-
those layers w1th su1table bulk compos1t1ons (i.e., the fertile some + melanosome), which postdate the ma1n layered
layers): the separation of biotite 1nto narrow zones between structure, and these may have any of the morphologies typ-
the layers created the melanosome. Petrographic and geo- ical of the lower-stra1n part of Fig. Ib. Ev1dently, a layered
chemical studies have demonstrated that 1n some layered or stromat1c morphology m metatex1te m1gmat1tes can
m1gmat1tes, the melanocratic part is the residuum left after form in several d1fferent ways, and over a wide range of
the extract1on of a partial melt, which corresponds to conditions of syn-anatectic stra1n.
the composition of the adjacent leucosome (Sawyer 1991,
Oliver and Barr 1997), which supports an orig1n by m Situ Morphologies characteristic of
part1al melt1ng. The InJeCtion and m s1tu layered m1gmatites diatexite migmatites
can form in the same port1on of the fract1on of melt -
At low syn-melting stra1ns, a fract1on of melt above about
stra1n space (Fig. I b) as net and dilatant types.
0.26 eliminates the contiguous crystal-based framework,
and the whole m1gmat1te becomes nonfohated (i.e., isotropic)
Transposition and the morphology of and unsegregated neosome; for th1s stage, the term "nebu-
metatexite migmatites litiC diatexite migmat1te" should be used (F1g. lb). However,
Park ( 1983) considered that stram dunng part1al melt1ng under rare circumstances, nebuht1c migmatites may also
could generate a layered structure (see Figs. D35 040) form at much lower fractions of melt instead of a patch
in m1gmat1tes by transpos1t1on. T1mmermann et al. (2002) metatexite migmat1te. This will occur 1f the part1al melt1ng
and Slagstad et al. (2005) descnbed a m1gmat1te from the occurred, or spread, throughout the whole volume of the
Grenville Prov1nce 1n wh1ch stra1n part1t1on1ng resulted 1n protohth, rather than at a few d1screte s1tes. Pervas1ve melt-
the preservation of small, equant bodies of leucosome 1n a ing leads to the widespread development of neosome 1n
competent host, but transposed them to form layered (high which the residual and remaining solid minerals can undergo
aspect-ratio) leucosome in adJacent, less competent rocks. extensive recrystall1zat1on and gra1n growth because of the
The competent porphyroblasts of garnet w1th short (a few presence of melt along the grain boundanes.
m1ll1meters to centimeters 1n length), but elongate doma1ns
Nebulit1c migmat1tes are preserved only 1n places where the
of leucosome 1n the1r pressure shadows (e.g., Williams et al.
syn-anatectic stra1n was very low. A partially molten rock
1995, Brown et al. 1999) and hence grow1ng parallel to the
contain1ng a melt fract1on of more than 0.26 IS very weak,
foliation, prov1de another example.
and 1n general. differential stress creates shear stresses,
Some m1gmat1tes show a curvature of the structural and flow of the magma readily occurs. Consequently, the
fabncs (such as foliat1on or compos1t1onal layering) and low- nebulitic migmat1te develops a fol1at1on due to flow, and
aspect-ratio leucosome into a part that exhibits stromatic then another of the morphological terms shown on Fig. I b
leucosome and a more regular, and finer-scale compos1 - becomes appropriate.
t1onal banding than the adJacent nonlayered m1gmat1tes.
Schollen or raft-structured migmatites are charac-
The layered structure 1n these m1gmatites formed by the
terized by the raft-like form of the remnants of paleosome,
attenuation and transposition of ong1nally more equant-
resister litholog1es. or melanosome displayed 1n the
shaped accumulations of melt, or partially crystallized
neosome. Th1s type of migmatite is common at the tran-
1eucosome, in outcrop-scale syn-anatect1c shear zones. At
sition from metatexite to diatex1te migmatites (e.g., Solar
a much larger scale, metatex1te m1gmat1tes that develop
and Brown 2001), as well as 1n the lower-melt-fract1on
18 ------------------------------

part of diatex1te m1gmat1tes (Fig. Ib). Examples of schollen in the scattered schollen of paleosome. However, a folia-
diatex1te m1gmatites from the transition can be seen 1n tion defined by the onentat1on of platy or tabular m1nerals.
Figs. 041-046. The proport1on of paleosome, melano- most commonly plag1oclase and m1ca, acqu1red dunng now
some, and res1ster litholog1es IS h1ghest at the start of the 1n a magmatic or submagmat1c state, IS v1rtually ubiqu1tous
trans1t1on zone, where the lateral cont1nu1ty of these starts 1n the neosome. A now band1ng due to layers of different
to become disrupted. The layers and rafts (also called schol- mineralogy, grain size, or microstructure also may be pres-
len) of paleosome are large and have high aspect-ratios, ent. and schlieren may be present but are scarce. Oiatex1te
and some show rounding at the ends, but there is gener- migmatites are gradational from schollen and schlieric mig-
ally httle rotat1on of the rafts. Farther into the trans1t1on matites through an 1ncrease 1n melt fraction (or neosome:
zone, and toward the diatexite doma1n, there IS a progres- paleosome rat1o), and from nebulites through an increase
Sive decrease in the s1ze, aspect-rat1o, and number of rafts 1n syn-anatect1c strain (F1g. lb). wh1ch account for the1r
or schollen (F1gs. 047-052) . Typ1cally, the rafts are more char actenstiC now-Induced foliation and banding. As diatex-
rounded, rotated, and d1spersed 1n leucocrat1c neosome. lte m1gmat1tes tend to show subdued, or subtle. variat1ons
The leucocratiC portions generally have a now fohatlon 1n outcrop, the term "homogeneous diatex1te" has been
defined by the onentat1on of platy minerals, such as the applied to them (Mehnert 1968, Brown 1979, Solar and
feldspars and m1cas. T he m1gmat1tes called inhomogeneous Brown 2001). Unfortunately, 1t IS not always the same prop-
d1atex1tes (Mehnert 1968, Brown 1979), or heterogeneous erty that is be1ng described as homogeneous. For Mehnert,
d1atex1tes (Solar and Brown 2001), have schollen struc- homogeneous meant lack1ng a foliat1on, and he coined to
tures and are typical of the transit1on from metatex1te term "homophaneous" spec1fically for these diatexites.
Brown ( 1979) also used homogeneous in a structural sense,
to diatexite.
w hereas Solar and Brown (2001) used it in more of a mor-
Schl ieric m igmatites have well-developed flow-1nduced phological context to mean lacking schollen and schlieren.
structures indicated by trains of platy or elongate miner- O ther investigators have found significant petrological
als, most commonly biotite, but also s1lliman1te. plagioclase, diversity within, and among, d1atex1te m1gmatites in indi-
orthopyroxene, and amph1bole, that are called schlieren vidual anatectic terranes and have, accordingly, chosen to
(the s1ngular 1s sch/iere). The microstructure of schlieren subdiv1de d1atex1te migmatites on a petrolog1cal basis, e.g.,
is shown later, in section F, Figs. F97 FIOO. Rafts or schol- the melt-nch and res1dual diatex1tes of Sawyer ( 1998) and
len of paleosome, resister litholog1es. and melanosome may the leucocrat1c, mesocratic and melanocrat1c d1atex1te m1g-
be present. but they are far less abundant than 1n schollen mat1tes of Milord et al. (2001).
m1gmat1tes, as can be seen 1n Figs. 053 056. The passage
from schollen m1gmatite to schlienc m1gmat1te IS ach1eved Almost all d1atex1te migmatites. includ1ng the schollen and
by an 1ncrease 1n the melt fract1on, or neosome:paleosome schlienc vaneties, conta1n leucocrat1c patches and ve1ns.
cons1st1ng of quartz, K-feldspar. and plag1oclase that appear
rat10 (Fig. I b); stra1n has little effect.
to postdate the magmatiC foliation and now structures in
Small outcrops of schollen and schlienc migmatites tend to thew host. In all the cases where the compos1t1on of these
show a parallelism between success1ve bands of leucosome, veins and patches has been 1nvest1gated, the leucosome
schlieren, and raft-rich layers. However, larger outcrops represents a fractionated melt (also called residual melt) .
invanably show reg1ons where the foliation and composi- 01atexite m1gmatites contain sufficient melt that as they cool
tional banding or layering are truncated at a low angle by and crystall1ze under applied differential stress. the crystals
groups of s1milar-looking, although generally slightly more 1n them become aligned, g1v1ng the rock a foliat1on (see sec-
leucocratlc layers; Mehnert (1968) referred to these as tion 5.3) . A framework oftouch1ng crystals develops where
interpenetrating forms. These structures are ev1dence of crystallization reduces the fraction of melt below about 0.4.
syn-magmatic shear zones, or now discont1nu1t1es 1n the If deformat1on cont1nues. the framework then deforms het-
part1ally molten rock, and are probably due to the parti- erogeneously, and this creates dilatant structures to wh1ch
tioning of stra1n 1nto the zones w1th the highest fract1on of the evolved (fractionated) melt. located 1n the 1nterst1ces
melt. Folds may develop 1n these shear zones. 1n wh1ch case of the enclos1ng framework of crystals. m1grates; analo-
they typ1cally have a sheath-like geometry. gous structures are well known from crystallizing gran1tes
(e.g.. Cuney et al. 1990, Pons et al. 1995, John and Stunitz
Diatexite migmatites, 1n Fig. lb. occupy the h1gh fraction- 1997). Geometncally, therefore, these masses of leucosome
of-melt part of the fraction of melt versus strain plot; thus, resemble those 1n metatexite m1gmatites and those shown
they are dominated by neosome (F1gs. 057 062), and rel- in Fig. 2. but they differ 1n morphology in that the melt -
ics of paleosome are rare, or absent. Pre-partial-melt1ng depleted halos around them are not generally melanocratic,
structures, such as foliation, folds, and bedding, occur only because they are dominated by feldspars.

High strain and the morphology of could Indicate that limbs are regions of net loss of melt, and
diatexite migmatites the h1nges. of net ga1n of melt, wh1ch IS confirmed by the
analogue expenments of Barraud et al. (2004).
H1gh shear stram tends to generate better alignments of
m1nerals, rafts (or schollen) of paleosome matenal and of Metatex1te m1gmat1tes 1n wh1ch bodies of leucosome are
the schlieren 1n d1atex1te m1gmat1tes. Deformation dunng oriented parallel to the axial planes of syn-anatect1c folds
crystallization can lead to the segregation of the residual appear to be very common (e.g., Edelman 1973, Hand and
melt and to transposition (e.g., Figs. 063 and 064); the Dwks 1992, Brown 1994, Vernon and Paterson 2001), but
resulting alignments commonly produce well-developed they are quite diverse 1n appearance. In the maJonty of the
parallel planes of fol1at1on or compos1t1onal band1ng. examples that have been described, the bod1es of leuco-
some are thin, have smooth marg1ns and h1gh aspect-rat1os.
3.8 Migmatite morphologies outside However, 1n some cases, the leucosome accumulation
IS thicker and more equant, with irregular outlines; these
the metatexite-diatexite division are typically also coarser gra1ned. Melanosome IS evident
Two of the migmat1te structures defined by Mehnert around the leucosome 1n some cases, but absent in oth-
(1968), vein and folded, are different from the other types ers. In some migmat1tes. the leucosome 1n the axial plane is
described so far because they occur 1n both metatexite and K-feldspar-nch compared to the leucosome elsewhere (e.g.,
d1atex1te m1gmat1tes. The pnnc1pal control on the morphol- jam1eson 1984). Such K-nch leucosome presumably was
ogy of fold structures 1n m1gmat1tes IS the mechan1sm by derived from anatect1c melts w1t h evolved compos1t1ons
which the folds formed, and this 1s linked to the fract1on of ow1ng to fractional crystallization. Why concentrations of
melt present, and to the form, or geometry, of the anisot- leucosome should be located in axial surfaces has long been
ropy present 1n t he migmatite. In metatexite migmat1tes, a controversial point amongst structural geologists work-
where paleosome dominates, folds might form by pro- Ing on migmatites; Brown and Rushmer (1997) and Vernon
cesses such as buckling, but 1n d1atex1te m1gmatites, where and Paterson (200 I) d1scussed th1s matter. Skelton ( 1996)
neosome dom1nates. the folds may form because of flow suggested that the flow of melt on the limbs of a fold 1s
nstabilit1es (i.e .. pass1ve flow folds). Ve1n m1gmat1tes. how- parallel to the layenng and not across 1t; thus, the melt
ever, are s1ngular; thew morphology IS not controlled by from both flanks necessanly accumulates at the nearest
melt fract1on. but by the ability of the1r host to fracture, fold-h1nge, where layer-parallel flow IS no longer possible.
e1ther by brittle or by ductile fracture, and by the t iming Consequently, the melt e1ther accumulates in the hinge, or
of the vein1ng process relative to the rest of the anatectic else must escape across the layering, that IS, 1n a direction
h1story. necessarily subparallel to the axial plane of the fold. Where
exam1ned closely 1n the field, many bod1es of leucosome
Fold-structured migmatites, which develop at low
descnbed as ax1al planar are, 1n fact, not so; they are on-
fract1ons of melt, 1n the early stages of anatex1s, generally
ented so as to cross both fold limbs.
have morpholog1es that are controlled by the relat1ve differ-
ence in competency between the layers in the paleosome. Some Investigators (e.g., Edelman 1949, Kranck 1953,
In relatively Incompetent rocks, the folds in the paleosome Wynne-Edwards 1963, Mclellan 1984) have noted that
are s1milar types, but if there are more competent lay- where the fract1on of melt reaches and exceeds the melt-
ers, buckle (parallel) folds may develop (see Figs. EI-E8) . escape threshold (0.26 0.4), there is a progression from
Dunng folding, some of the melt 1n a migmat1te m1grates planar, cylindncal folds to noncylindrical, nonplanar dis-
nto dilatant sites that develop as the folds grow, result- harmonic and convoluted types of folds, with decollement
ng 1n leucosome 1n the fold h1nges and parallel to and surfaces between some layers. However, h1nge directions
between the folded layering, 1n ax1al planar shears, or 1n commonly rema1n systematiC, and subparallel to the flow
shears developed on the fold limbs. If competent layers are lineation; sheath-fold geometries commonly develop.
present, then the melt will also occupy the array of rad1al
fractures that may develop around the fold h1nges 1n these It is important that a study of the microstructures be made
layers (Coll1ns and Sawyer 1996). At th1s stage, then, the to determ1ne whether the folding occurred when the rocks
control on the d1stnbut1on of leucosome IS s1m1lar to the contained a h1gh fract1on of melt, or whether 1t occurred
dilatant metatex1te m1gmat1tes discussed above. Several later, at lower fract1ons of melt when the rocks were crys-
1nvest1gators (e.g., Allibone and Norns 1992, Coll1ns and tallizing, or whether folding occurred ent1rely 1n the solid
Sawyer 1996) have noted that there IS generally more leu- state, after all the melt had crystallized. The latter, of course,
cosome in the fold hinges than on the fold limbs; this find1ng are folded migmatites and not fold -structured migmat1tes.
20 -----------------------------

Ve in-structured migmatites (Figs. E9 E14) conta1n of stromatic metatex1te migmat1tes descnbed by johannes
one or more generations of d1scordant. leucocratic ve1ns and Gupta (1982). johannes (1983a). and johannes et
(of gran1tic, granodiont1c, or tonalit1c compos1t1on), wh1ch al. (1995).
are typ1cally supenmposed on an earlier metatexite or dia-
In contrast. some of the layers have a very high propor-
texlte m1gmatite morphology. All of the sets of ve1ns, or
tion of leucosome, which suggests that melt was added. i.e..
only one of t hem, may be deformed, but commonly the
open-system behavior, unless perhaps the bulk composi-
youngest set consist s of undeformed planar fracture-fill1ngs
tion was optimal for a very high fraction of melt to form.
that postdate the peak of anatexis and the peak production
For these examples with a h1gh fraction of melt. the bed or
of a melt fraction 1n thew host. lnterest1ng microstructural
layer may have acted as a dilatant s1nk 1nto which melt from
relationships have been reported from ve1n migmatites.
the outs1de has moved. At a sufficiently high fract1on of
Some ve1ns contain trains of mafic m1nerals onented
melt. magmat1c flow can occur in the layer 1f 1t is deformed
parallel to thew walls, whereas others have hehc1t1cally pre-
(e.g., Sawyer 1996). At Mount Stafford, 1n Australia, shear
served structures from the1r wallrocks. Collect1vely, these
stresses were low and ne1ther flow nor segregation of the
microstructures may indicate inJeCtion mto part1ally molten
melt from the solid fract1on occurred (Greenfield et al.
wallrocks and eros1on of the ve1n walls as the melt flowed
1996, White et al. 2003); consequently. the neosome has
1n the ve1n (Brown 1994, Sawyer et al. 1999, Solar and
an 1sotrop1c appearance (e.g., F1g. B17).
Brown 200 I). W1de borders w1th res1dual compositions
are rarely developed around d1scordant leucocrat1c ve1ns. The term "bedded m1gmat1te" is 1nappropnate, as it does
On the other hand, narrow mafic selvedges at the edges of not refer to any process act1ve during the format1on of
the veins are very common features, and these may have these migmatites. Furthermore, structures such as bedding
formed as a result of a react ion between the wall rocks and or compositional layering that are older than the partial
the injected melt. or with an aqueous flu1d derived from melting are still preserved in a coherent fashion; therefore,
the melt. The lack of a mass balance between the volume these are, necessarily, metatexite migmatites. Consequently.
of melt in the vein and the volume of matenal 1n the adJa- the term "bedded migmat1te" ought to be abandoned.
cent mafic selvedge (or residual border) IS ev1dence that
the melt was not denved from 1ts immediate host. but was Agmatite was defined by Sederholm (1923) as a rock
InJected. It is important to determ1ne that the melt 1n the w1th "fragments of older rock cemented by gran1te", and
ve1ns belongs to the same anatectiC event as the m1gma- was regarded by h1m to be a type of m1gmatlte. However,
t1tes; 1f the ve1ns belong to a younger event. then the term rocks match1ng th1s descnpt1on can be found around Igne-
"vein-structured m1gmat1te" does not apply; 1t 1S a ve1ned ous 1ntrus1ve bodies 1n low-grade or unmetamorphosed
migmat1te. country-rocks. Brown ( 1973) argued that agmatites are
not m1gmat1tes. and should be called 1ntrus1on brecc1as.
Consequently, the term "agmat1te" ought to be abandoned.
3.9 D escriptive terms that
should be abandoned Ptygmatic migmatites. The format1on of ptygmat1c
folds reflects a particular combination of ve1n and host-rock
Be dde d migmatite was used by Greenfield et al. (1996)
properties and strain conditions that are not specific to
and White et al. (2003) to describe migmatites 1n wh1ch
migmat1tes. Moreover, it is common that not all the bands
the neosome, and the leucosome 1n particular, are con-
of leucosome in a particular outcrop d1splay ptygmat1c fold-
fined to certa1n layers of a part1cular bulk compos1t1on,
Ing. Therefore, the term "ptygmat1c" should be reserved
generally metapelite; examples are shown 1n Figs. AI, Bl7,
to describe the style of folding displayed by some bands of
and Bl8. The examples descnbed 1n the literature d1splay
leucosome. and not used to descnbe the overall morphol-
a considerable range in proport1ons and morphology of
ogy of a m1gmatite.
the neosome, and espeoally the leucosome. Some exam-
ples 1n wh1ch the proport1on of neosome 1s relat1vely small Ophthalmite mig m at it es, as defined by Mehnert
have leucosome matenal located 1n dllatant structures (1968). are charactenzed by the presence of augen. or
(e.g., between boud1ns) or onented parallel to the layenng lent1cular aggregates of newly formed m1nerals. Many of
and foliat1on, and assoc1ated w1th prom1nent melanosome. the augen would now be called porphyroclasts. and the
However, 1n others the layer has been ent1rely converted lenticular aggregates v1ewed as d1srupted. coarse-gra1ned
to neosome in which the melt and the res1duum, typ1cally. quartzofeldspathic layers. In addition, the rocks typically
have not segregated. Nevertheless, for both of these, an have a strong planar fabric and, 1n some cases, oblique
1n Situ, closed-system origin for the neosome is plausible subsidiary foliat1ons. which, taken together, are geometri-
in which melting occurred in only those layers that were cally equ1valent to ·c planes. ·s·planes, and shear bands,
fertile; these are, therefore, exactly analogous to the origin
Ada.., of ~11gma t 1tc..,
----~------------------------ 21

respectively. Thus. the structure of ophthalmite migmatites metasomatism is now cons1dered to be an 1mportant, ub1q-
closely resembles that found 1n many coarsely crystalline u1tous, or necessary process 1n crustal anatex1s, although
rocks deformed to h1gh stra1ns under h1gh. but subsolidus. there are other v1ews (e.g.. L1tvonovsky and Podladch1kov
temperatures and that have subsequently undergone some 1993). Nevertheless, there are some m1gmat1tes where
recrystall1zat10n. Therefore, the ophthalm1te struct ure com- 1nfiltrat1on metasomat1sm has played a sign1ficant role, and
monly reflects post-anatectic, not syn-anatectic, processes. these fall into two broad groups: (I) the ingress of aqueous
Consequently, ophthalm1tes are not migmatites, although fluid into hot rocks and (2) metasomatism prior to anatexis
their protolith may have been a m1gmat1te. and they are that changed (improved) rock fertility.
better called augen gneisses or blastomylon1tes.

4.1 Influx of aqueous fluid into

hot rocks causing partial melting
4. Large .. scale influx of fluid
METASOMATISM AND MIGMATITES The extensive development of migmatites with a high pro-
portion of leucosome denved from leucocrat1c tonalit1c,
In the first half of the twentieth century. three lines of rea- trondhjem1t1c, granod1ontlc or granitic protoliths IS com-
soning contributed to the 1dea that flu1ds are fundamental mon 1n many Archean and Proterozoic sh1eld areas. These
to the generat1on of granites and migmat1tes. First. the m1gmat1tes are problematical. The absence of muscovite
op1n1on of Bowen (1915, 1928) that gran1t1c magma could and the small amount of b1otite or hornblende (or both)
only be formed at the final stages of the fractional crystal- in these rocks preclude the generation of a large fraction
lization of a basaltiC magma influenced many geologists to by dehydration melting. Consider the hornblende-free
believe that the gran1t1c rocks found abundantly in shield m1gmatites first; five modal percent biotite y1elds about
areas may not be magmatic. Second, observations from 8 vol.% granit1c melt. Furthermore, the general absence
many terranes appeared to show gradat1onal contacts of cordiente, garnet and orthopyroxene from these m1g-
between metamorphic rocks and gran1tes, and were Inter- mat1tes also precludes volatile-phase-absent Incongruent
preted as indicating an m s1tu. nonmagmatic transformation. melt1ng of b1ot1te. Consequently, the high fract1on of melt
The v1ew that granites were formed by an 1n Situ transfor- 1n these migmat1tes is generally attributed to an influx of
mation was strengthened by the find1ng of fragments and H 20 close to, or just above, the solidus temperature, which
screens of metasedimentary rocks in gran1tes that still enabled H 20-saturated (congruent) melt1ng of quartz +
retained the onentat1on of the rocks outside the granite sodic plag1oclase + K-feldspar to occur (e.g., Kenah and
(Misch 1949, P1tcher 1952). Third, whole-rock geochemi- Hollister 1983, Mclellan 1988, Nedelec et al. 1993, Sawyer
cal data appeared to show a systematic 1ncrease of gran1t1c 1998). Many of the m1gmat1tes denved from fels1c, plutomc
components w1th 1ncreas1ng depth (Lapadu-Hargues 1945) protoliths conta1n hornblende 1n the melanosome; th1s
and the existence of compos1t1onal fronts 1n the meta- could be a product of melt1ng reactions 1nvolv1ng the break-
morphic rocks and migmatites around gran1tes; this was down of biot1te. Recent expenmental studies (Gard1en et
1nterpreted as evidence of the movement of granite-making al. 2000) indicate that the formation of product (res1dual)
matenal (and of gran1t1zation) in the crust. One school (e.g., hornblende from the breakdown of biotite requ1res the
Pernn and Roubault 1937, 1939) argued that the move- addit1on of H,O, and hence volatile-phase-present melt-
ment of matenal occurred by diffus1on 1n the solid (dry) ing. In some cases, the abundance of the large-1on lithophile
state, whereas the other (e.g., Sederholm 1926, Backlund elements (LILE) IS greater than can be attributed to the
946, M1sch 1949) argued that aqueous flu1ds moved the protolith, such that they may have been Introduced with
matenal. More recently, Korzhinsk1 ( 1971) called these two the flu1d, generating potass1um-rich m1gmat ites from rather
alternatives diffusio n m etasomatism and infiltratio n potass1um-poor protoliths.
met asomatism, respectively.
The source of the flu1d. or how it enters the rock, IS not
Subsequent systematiC study of the whole-rock compo- understood, but the protoliths of most of these m1gmatite
Sitions of metasedimentary rocks rang1ng from low grade terranes were calc-alkaline rocks formed 1n pluton1c arcs
to h1gh grade (e.g., Shaw 1954, 1956: Haack et al. 1984: (although the anatexiS may have occurred many m1ll1ons of
Sawyer 1986) has shown that crustal metamorphism years later: e.g., Slagstad et al. 2005). and both the associ-
IS close to be1ng ISOchemical, except for the loss of H 10 ated subducted material and the underly1ng metasomatized
and C02. Consequently, neither diffusion nor infiltration mantle wedge are possible sources for the flu1d and the
22 -------------------------------

LILE. A s1milar process seems to occur presently in act1ve One common scenano IS the Intrusion of anatectic magma
island arcs: H 10 entenng the base of the arc fluxes par- 1nto the parts of a m1gmatite terrane where metamorph1c
tial melt1ng of hot. mantle-denved mafic rocks there, and temperatures were above the soltdus, yet Insufficient for
generates the more fels1c magmas found at h1gher lev- stgntficant dehydratton melttng of b1ot1te to have occurred
els (e.g., Hansen et al. 2002). Part1al melt1ng fluxed by the in the muscovite-free rocks. Aqueous fluids (and heat)
large-scale influx of H20 into hot rocks has been suggested re leased by the crystalltzatton of the tntrustve body tnfil-
for the generat1on of upper-amphiboltte-faCtes migmat1tes trates into the hot country-rocks and enables H20-present
(Yardley and Barber 1991, Johnson et al. 2001b, White et al. melting to occur, generattng what Finger and Clemens
2005) and for lower-granulite-faCies metatex1te and diatex- (1995) have called secondary m igmatites.
lte m1gmat1tes (Otamendi and Pat1f\o Douce 200 I) derived
Several investigators (e.g.. Symmes and Ferry 1995, Harris
from pelttes and aluminous metagreywackes, respect1vely.
et al. 2003, Johnson et al. 2003) have shown that fluids
The aqueous flu1ds that fluxed melttng were probably
generated by dehydratton reacttons in the outer part the
released by prograde metamorphic dehydrat1on-type reac-
contact aureoles have m1grated 1nward. up the tempera-
tions occurnng 1n adJacent rocks, wh1ch. because of the1r
ture grad1ent. and enabled H 0-present melt1ng to occur
bulk compos1t1ons. had slightly h1gher soltdus temperatures
close to the intrustve body: H 0-absent parttal melt1ng
(Fornelli et al. 2002, Wh1te et al. 2005) .
occurs still closer to the 1ntrus1ve contact. In some tnstances,
Castro (2004) has proposed that K-nch granodiontic mag- the flu1ds have transported trace elements, such as B. Ba,
mas are generated from older tonalit1c cont1nental crust and Li, which serve to reduce the temperatures required
where H 20-nch intermediate (e.g., andes1tic, ferrodiont1c or for part1al melttng to start (e.g.. Wh1te et al. 2003). The
monzodioritic) magma generated from the hybndized parts breakdown of tourmal1ne dunng upper-amphibolite-facies
of a mantle wedge, suitably modified by flu1ds released anatexis may also lead to a boron-rich melt and a boron-
from subduct1on zones, are inJected into the lower crust. depleted, restdual crust (Kawakami 200 I, Kawakami and
The H, 0 liberated from the crystallization of the Interme- Ikeda 2003).
diate magma comes into contact with the adjacent hot. dry
Instead of, or tn addttton to, local-scale flutd tnfiltratton,
tonaltte and promotes flu1d-present part1al melt1ng. The
Butck et al. (2004) suggested that more extens1ve parttal
result1ng anatectic melts are ennched 1n K and Rb (and
melttng may occur at relat1vely low temperatures 1n contact
possibly the other LILE) transported from the Intermediate
aureoles tf the flu1d from the low-grade protolith rematns
magmas 1n the hydrous fluid. The CaO content of the ana-
tn the system once part1al melt1ng starts (i.e., the system is
tectic melt IS increased to levels typ1cal of granod1orite by
closed to loss of volatiles). Th1s scenano IS plausible dunng
the dissolution of m1crogranular enclaves cons1sting of the
raptd heattng 1n the innermost parts of h1gh-temperature
Intermediate magma. Therefore, these m1gmat1tes show
contact-aureoles and, tn effect. renders the protolith more
not only the usual paleosome neosome relationships. but
ferttle than 1f heat1ng had been slower and if the flutd had
also ev1dence of the interaction between anatectic melt
had suffiCient t1me to mtgrate away. Buttner et al. (2005)
and the intermediate magma, such as mtllimeter- to cen-
proposed that a stmdar process may have occurred 1n
timeter-scale lobate interface structures and m1crogranular
regionally metamorphosed rocks 1n Argent1na. There, fluids
enclaves, and of the synchronous intrust on of dikes of 1nter-
generated by prograde dehydration-type reactions tn the
med1ate composition tnto the protoltth.
greenschtst and amphiboltte faCies rematned tn the rocks
and fluxed htgher degrees of parttal melttng in granultte-
SmaU.. scale influx of fluid faCtes rocks.
Results from studtes on a hand-sample scale, us1ng many
different techn1ques 1ncluding neosome protolith mass
balance (Olsen 1982. 1984. 1985: Olsen and Grant 1991: 4.2 Metasomatism and changes
Patt1son 1991), whole-rock composttions (Weber and in the fertility of rocks
Barbey 1986), flu1d tnclustons (Olsen 1987. Whttney and If the bulk compos1t1on. and hence the fertility, n parts of
lrvtng 1994), reactton progress (Symmes and Ferry 1995). a metamorphtc terrane are changed as a result of Infiltra-
and constderation of melttng react1ons (Johnson et al. tion metasomatism that occurred before anatexis, then the
200 Ib), have establtshed that some m1gmat1tes formed d1stribut1on of anatectiC m1gmatites will reflect th1s. Sawyer
when a local tnflux of H 20 enabled already hot rocks to ( 1991) noted that the first stgn of anatexts and m1gmatites
partially melt. The whole-rock and mass-balance methods in mafic protoliths was tn strongly foliated metamafic rocks,
commonly show that the fluid also introduced K. Rb, and and not in the masstve equtvalents. The foliated metamafic
other elements tnto the rocks.
Ada-. nf ~i•gmatttc!<.

rocks represented an earlier, pre- to syn-partial-melting

shear zone that had been hydrated by a flUid that tntro-
duced H 0, K 0, Rb, Ba, and Cs. Thus, the shear-zone
rocks were made more ferttle than the adJacent masstve MICROSTRUCTURES IN MIGMAT IT ES
metamafic untts. and so melted first.
In recent years, there has been a constderable advance tn
understanding how mtcrostructures form in solid and par-
4.3 Morphology of tially molten rocks. In thts sectton, I identify some of the
migmatites affected by key mtcrostructures and quantttattve analyttcal techntques
infiltration metasomatism that may be used to tdentify the processes that have con-
tnbuted to the formation of mtgmatttes. Most of the
Where the tnflux of flutd has caused partial melttng, the
mtcrostructures discussed tndtcate the former presence of
resulttng mtgmatttes could have any of the morpholo-
melt, and hence constttute petrographtc cntena for dtsttn-
gtes characteristic of metatexite and dtatextte migmatites.
gutshtng migmatites from the migmattte-like rocks formed
However, there are two additional factors to consider,
by subsolidus segregatton or other processes (see section
which could affect the appearance of the migmatites that
8) . Photomicrographs that tllustrate the mtcrostructures
form in outcrop. (I) Melttng occurred where the aqueous
dtscussed here are shown tn sectton F of the book, and are
fluid was present. and hence the overall morphology of the
arranged m the same order.
migmattte should m~rror the path taken by the tnfiltrated
fluid. In many cases. the fluid tnfiltration was along folia- In order to fully understand the mtcrostructures. the mtn-
tton planes or lithologtcal layenng, and thts ts reflected by eral parageneses have to be tdentified, and the sequence
the stromattc (layered) or bedding-confined morphologtes of overprinting parageneses must be determtned. Once
of the resulting migmatites. However, net geometries can thts has been accomplished, the petrogenests may be tnter-
also be generated (e.g.. Pattison 1991) tf flutd tngress was preted by reference to quantttattve petrogenetic gnds. In
through a network of fractures (Ftgs. B31, B32). Dilatancy recent years. the tnstght that can be gatned from mtneral
pumptng tn shear zones (Barr 1985. johnson et al. 2001b) parageneses has been greatly tncreased through equt-
can move aqueous flutds tnto hot rocks, and the geometry libnum thermodynamtc modeling of the spectfic bulk
of the resulttng anatecttc leucosome should be related to compostttons of the samples betng tnvestigated. Thts has
the pattern of dilatant structures that formed, and hence to become possible because Internally consistent thermo-
shear-zone kmemattcs; thus the morphology of the migma- dynamic datasets are now reasonably comprehenstve
tite could be qutte vaned. (2) The degree of parttal melting (e.g., Holland and Powell 1998), and models for the acttv-
ts a function of how much flutd was avatlable tn a gtven vol- tty composttton relattonshtps for the minerals of 1nterest
ume of rock. Furthermore, permeability may differ from 1n anatexts have been improved (e.g.. Holland and Powell
layer to layer. Thus, on a local scale, there can be greater 2001, NCKASH; Wh1te et al. 200 1, NCK FMASH; Tinkham
variatton tn the degree of partial melting from place to et al. 2001, MnNCKFMASH). In addit1on. software such as
place, and correspondtngly in migmatite morphology, than Thermocalc (Powell and Holland 1988, Holland and Powell
is generally the case for dehydratton melttng. The layers 1998) enables equilibrium phase-diagrams for the spe-
that generated much melt could become enttrely neosome. etflc composition of the bulk rock, or equilibnum domatn,
whereas adjacent layers may not have melted at all, etther of tnterest to be constructed as a so-called pseudosect1on
because of refractory bulk composttions, or because they or as a chemical potent1al diagram. Thts book does not con-
were impermeable. tam any general phase-d1agrams for part1al melt1ng for th1s

5.1 Mineral paragenesis

The approach 1s the same as that used by metamorphtc
petrolog1sts 1n general. All mtnerals are 1dent1fied. and
the way in whtch they are spatially related IS documented
(i.e., whether m1nerals only occur as tnclusions 1n others,
whether grains are corroded or not, whether all m1nerals
are tn mutual contact somewhere in the rock, etc.) . This
tnformation is gathered systematically across the migmatite
terrane to det erm1ne the sequence of mtneral parageneses.
24 -----------------------------

Generally, th1s informat1on is arranged 1n order of 1ncreas- The development of a thermodynamiC model for Silicate
1ng metamorph1c grade, together w1th 1nformat1on on melts (Holland and Powell 200 I, Wh1te et al. 200 I) has
the bulk-rock compositions in wh1ch they occur. Then, a made 1t poss1ble to calculate petrogenetiC grids and pseudo-
petrogenetiC grid or an appropnate pseudosect1on is used sections for 1nd1v1dual rocks 1n the reg1on of P T-X space
to identify a sequence of metamorphic react1ons that where part1al melting occurs, and to adjust thew bulk com -
may account for the mineral parageneses found, and the positions for the loss of some, or of all, of the granitic melt
measured modal abundances of the minerals. (White and Powell 2002). This powerful new approach is
being applied to part1al melting: the consequences of melt
In most cases, the greatest d1versity of m1neral parageneses extraction on mineral assemblages, m1neral modes, and
and microstructures 1S to be found in the res1dual rocks and mineral compositions 1n pelit1c. sem1pelitic, and psammitK
paleosome. Res1ster lithologies are commonly competent, rocks may now be invest1gated 1n a quantitative manner.
and along with stra1n shadows, should not be 1gnored: they Recent examples of th1s apphcat1on are g1ven by White
may conta1n m1nerals and microstructures that could reveal and Powell (2002). Wh1te et al. (2003 2005), Johnson et al.
the earlier part of the P-T-t h1story destroyed 1n rocks (2003), and Johnson and Brown (2004).
where stra1n was h1gher. Some recent examples of the use
of m1neral parageneses and microstructures to reconstruct
the sequence of melting react1ons are prov1ded by Hartel
5.2 Quantitative analysis
and Pattison (1996), Ra1th and Harley (1998), Greenfield All methods of quant1tat1ve analys1s have the potential
et al. ( 1996), Fitzsimons ( 1996), Cesare (2000), White et problem that the microstructure preserved 1n the rock
al. (2003) , and Johnson et al. (2003) . These 1nvest1gators might not be that wh1ch developed when anatectiC melt
show that the careful examination of the microstructural was present. The possibility that the microstructure has
or textural relationships among minerals in migmatites been partially, or wholly, modified subsequently must be
rema1ns an extremely important part 1n understanding carefully evaluated. Deformation tends to reduce the grain
their development. size and to produce changes 1n gra1n shape and grain ori-
entation. Recrystallization tends to increase grain size, to
In the past. the conditions of part1al melt1ng were e1ther eliminate the small grains, and to produce more equant
calculated us1ng suitable geothermometers and geobarom- gra1ns (1.e., to reduce the total area of gra1n boundanes).
eters. or est1mated from a petrogenetic gnd (e.g.. Grant In addition. retrograde metamorph1sm may Introduce new
1985. Vielzeuf and Holloway 1988, Grant and Frost 1990, m1nerals. Fortunately, the gra1n-scale petrographic features
Spear et al. 1999). As more stud1es of partial melting have result1ng from deformat1on. recovery, and recrystallization
been done, the range of bulk compos1t1ons and react1ons are well documented (N1colas and Po1ner 1976, Wh1te
1nvest1gated has expanded and now 1ncludes metapelites 1977, Vernon 1981 ), and are easily 1dentified 1n th1n sect1on,
(Vielzeuf and Holloway 1988, le Breton and Thompson so that later microstructural modificat1on can be recog-
1988, Pat1no Douce and Johnston 1991, Carnngton and nized in most cases. The papers by Berger and Kalt ( 1999)
Watt 1995, Patlfio Douce and Hams 1998. P1ckenng and and Berger and Roselle (200 I) offer introductions to this
Johnston 1998, Koester et al. 2002, Sp1cer et al. 2004), theme, as well as to quantitative analytical methods.
metagreywackes (Conrad et al. 1988: Vielzeuf and Mantel
1994: Gardien et al. 1995, 2000: Pat1no Douce and Beard
The grain,contact method
1995, 1996: Stevens et al. 1997: Mantel and V1elzeuf 1997:
Castro et al. 1999: Nair and Chacko 2002: Grant 2004). This method IS based on the assumption that rocks that
amph1bolites (Rushmer 1991: Rapp and Watson 1995: Wolf crystallized from a melt under cond1tions of hydrostatic
and Wyllie 1991, 1994: Spnnger and Seck 1997: Skjerhe and stress should develop a random spatial d1stnbut1on of the
constituent mineral spec1es. Rocks that crystallized 1n the
Pat1no Douce 2002: Selbekk and Skjerlie 2002). tonalite
(Rutter and Wyllie 1988: Skjerhe and Johnston 1992, 1996: solid state. or from now1ng magma. or rocks subsequently
Smgh and Johannes 1996a, b: Pat1no Douce 2005). trond- deformed penetrat1vely. all have mineral d1stnbut1ons that
hJemite (Johnston and Wyll1e 1988), gran1te (Holtz and depart from randomness. Contacts between like m1nerals
Johannes 1991, Castro et al. 2000, l1tv1novsky et al. 2000, can be e1ther more (aggregate distnbut1on) or less (dis-

Acosta-V1gil et al. 2006), and fels1c to Intermediate volca- persed distribution) common than 1n the random case.
nic rocks (Conrad et al. 1988). The cond1t1ons of melting The gra1n-contact method, descnbed by Ashworth (1976).
1n migmatites are now commonly deduced by d1rect com- Mclellan (1983), and Ashworth and Mclellan (1985),
parison with the experimental results done on similar bulk involves determ1n1ng the frequency of contacts between
the various mineral species in a rock, and then conduct-
ing a statistical test on 1ts randomness. Symmes and Ferry
(1995) applied the techn1que to doma1ns of leucosome 1n
At!." nf M 1gma t1tes
----------- ----------- --------- 25

Fig. 3. Change in the gra in size of metamorphic miner-

a Quartz als versus grade Juring 3.5 kbar regional metamorphi m in
the Quctico Subprovince, Canada; (a) quartz and (b) pla-
gioclase. There is a ystcmatic increase in the grai n size
E from the greenschi t facies to the sta rt of melting in the
upper amphibolite facies. The grain size in the mctatcx-
N ite migmatites increases at about the amc rate as in rocks
c below the "melt-in" i ograd. A very marked increase in the
(3 0. 1 grain izc of both quartz and plagioclase coincides with the
appearance of diatcx itc migmatite and affects both the
residual rocks in mctatcxite migmatites and the diatcx-
ite migmatites. However, it does not affect the paleo omc
and resister lithologies (triangles), which did not melt, and
0.01 which occur as schollcn in the diatcxitc migmatitc. The
0 5 10 increase in grain size for these rocks follows the same sub-
Metamorphic Grade (distance in km)
solidus, grain-growth trend as that defined by the unmcltcd
greenschist- and amphibolite-facies rocks. Data a rc pro-
b P lag ioclas e vided for metagrcywackc (plagioclase + biotite + quartz
psammitcs) and mctapclitic rock . Symbols, circles and
~quarcs: open, rocks from the greensch ist and a mphibolite
facies; half-filled, residual part of mctatexite migmatites;
E filled, diatexite migmatites. Triangles, unmelted, massive
Q) EtfiD 0
psammitic, palcosomc lit hologies forming schollen in the
(j) diatcxitc migmatites.
-~ 0.1 0 -
(3 I:ID 0 8:J

0 5 10
Metamorphic Grade (distance in km)

the aureole of the Onawa Pluton 1n Maine. They found that crystal-s1ze distributions 111 the Bayerische Wald migmatites.
leucosome from the sillimanite zone had dispersed distri- Euhedral cord1ente from diatexite migmatites exhib1ts a lin-
butlons but that leucosome from the 1nnermost zone had ear crystal-s1ze distribution cons1stent with crystallization
random distributions. The former were Interpreted as of 111 a melt. In contrast. samples of leucosome show more
subsolidus ong1n, and the latter, as of anatect1c ong1n. complex patterns. The K-feldspar from quartz K-feld-
spar leucosome has a concave-upward pattern, indicating
Crystal~size distributions an overproduction of large gra1ns, wh1ch could be due to
The study of crystal-s1ze distnbut1ons (CSD) has the poten- the latent heat of crystallization. or to homogeneous nucle-
tial to reveal 1nformat1on about the crystallization h1story ation. Plagioclase crystals from nearby areas of leucosome
(nucleat1on and gra1n growth) of rock-form1ng miner- have linear crystal-size distributions, but with a defic1ency
als. The technique is most commonly used to investigate of small grains, attributed to heterogeneous nucleation or
rap1dly cooled volcan1c rocks, where subsolidus modi- gra1n coarsening. Berger and Roselle (200 I) illustrated the
fications to the gra1n s1ze and shape are believed to be potent1al range of problems that can be addressed 111 stud -
m1n1mal; the result1ng s1ze-dlstribut1on patterns thus largely Ies of crystal-s1ze d1stribut1on applied to m1gmat1tes. and
reflect cryst allizatiOn from the magma. In slowly cooled 1dent1fied some of the problems 111 apply1ng the techn1que
rocks (e.g., plutons and metamorphic terranes). processes to these rocks.
such as surface-energy-driven and stra1n-energy-driven
gra1n-boundary migration tend to produce rather umform Studies of grain size, aspect ratio,
gra1n-s1zes, and the crystal -s1ze d1stnbution is peaked. More and orientation
complex histones of Simultaneous coarsening, nucleation, Most quantitative stud1es (e.g., Ashworth 1976, Johannes
and growth lead to a reduction 1n the number of small and Gupta 1982, Mclellan 1983) have shown that grain
grains and an increase 111 the number of larger grains (e.g.. s1ze increases more abruptly after melting begins (see Fig. 3);
Higgins 1998). Berger and Roselle (2001) found a vanety of th1s IS attributed to the fact that the melt phase w1ll a1d
26 ------------------------------

diffus1on. and hence Ostwald npemng. Furthermore. Microstructures produced in

a systematically smaller gra1n-s1ze from leucosome to partial.. melting experiments
melanosome to paleosome IS typ1cal, although grain s1ze AnatectiC melt first forms a th1n film along grain boundar-
in each generally 1ncreases w1th metamorphic grade. Ies and edges, and small triangular and tetrahedral, cuspate
However, reg1ons where melt has been extracted can pockets at the corners among the reactant minerals (e.g.,
show a decrease in grain s1ze (Dougan 1983). Berger and Mehnert et al. 1973). The reactant m1nerals become pro-
Kalt ( 1999) found that differences between the extent of gressively more corroded, or embayed, as the fraction of
latt1ce-preferred orientation and shape-preferred orien- melt increases, and commonly form small, rounded inclu-
tation of b1ot1te, cord1erite, and plagioclase are related to sions in the melt (e.g., Busch et al. 1974, Holyoke and
whether the rocks were melt-nch (leucosome), or melt- Rushmer 2002, Acosta-Vigil et al. 2006) . The products from
poor (melanosome and paleosome), and whether they the 1ncongruent melt1ng of ferromagnes1an minerals, e.g.,
have expenenced melt segregation, and hence either sub- orthopyroxene from the breakdown of biotite, can occur
magmatiC or solid-state deformation. as needles 1n the melt close to the reactant m1neral. The
melt tends to form pools 1n many expenments: jurew1cz
M1lord and Sawyer (2003) compared residual gra1ns of
and Watson (1984) showed that pools of melt form during
b1ot1te 1n schlieren w1th those 1n the host diatex1te and
part1al melt1ng and that the pools have triangular, cuspate
anatectiC granite. They found that nakes of biOtite In the
margins w1th concave edges because the reactant miner-
schlieren are generally larger, have greater aspect-rat1os.
als adjacent to the pool of melt become rounded as they
show a marked absence of the small grains. are better
dissolve 1nto the melt phase. In contrast. when a pool
onented, and d1splay a slightly narrower range of composi-
of melt crystallizes, the shape of 1ts marg1n changes: 1t
tions, with marginally higher Mg number and Ti0 2 contents, becomes more rectangular, or blocky, in outline because
than biotite from the host. They attributed these features
the crystals grow into the pool of melt and have crystal
to recrystallization of the biotite after 1t had been concen- faces (Jurewicz and Watson 1985, Wolf and Wyllie 1991).
trated 1nto the schlieren. In some cases, these crystals grew ent1rely from the melt,
and 1n others they are s1mply overgrowths on former reac-
5.3 Diagnostic microstructures tant phases (Acosta-Vigil et al. 2006). A common feature of
the quenched part1al-melting expenments IS that the crys-
in migmatites tals that grew 1n the melt have crystal faces agamst the glass
Because m1gmatites conta1n parts where melt1ng occurred, (e.g.. Gard1en et al. 1995). However. the aocular hab1ts and
parts from wh1ch melt was removed, parts through wh1ch skeletal morphology of some crystals may be due to the
melt has passed, parts where melt has collected, and rap1d rate of cooling imposed on the expenment.
1ndeed parts that did not melt. the type of microstructures
(and also m1neral assemblage and bulk compos1t1on) pre- Virtually all deformation-melting expenments were per-
served in each may be qu1te d1fferent. The melanosome formed at confin1ng pressure and stra1n-rate condit1ons
should be dom1nated by microstructures 1nvolv1ng miner- such that intergranular and intragranular fractures and
als that were present at the t1me of melt1ng, e1ther those shear zones developed and accommodated most of the
in excess or the solid products of Incongruent melt1ng deformation. In these expenments, much of the melt that
react1ons. In contrast, the leucosome, and other melt-nch was generated IS located 1n shear zones and fractures that
m1gmatites (e.g., diatexites), are dom1nated by m1nerals develop in the sample (e.g., Rushmer 1995, Rutter and
and microstructures that result from the crystallization of Neumann 1995, Holyoke and Rushmer 2002). Such con-
the anatect1c melt or magma. The microstructure of the ditions may not be applicable to anatex1s deep 1n the
paleosome should refiect h1gh-temperature solid-state continental crust. although they may apply to part1al melt-
metamorph1sm. The presence of glass is generally consid- Ing in some shallow contact-aureoles.
ered suffic1ent ev1dence for the former presence of a melt.
In summary, the follow1ng key microstructures develop as
or melts, 1n a rock. The problem in slowly cooled m1g-
part1al melt forms in experiments: (I) convex, tnangular or
mat1tes IS that the melt would normally have crystallized,
tetrahedral, cuspate patches of melt develop at the corners
and not quenched to glass. Fortunately. there are micro-
where the grains of the assemblage of reactant mmer-
structural cntena that can be used to 1nfer the former
als touch, (2) narrow, cusp-shaped films of melt penetrate
presence of melt; in some cases, 1t IS possible to determ1ne
along the gra1n boundanes 1nto the host away from pockets
whether the microstructures formed during melt1ng, or
or pools of melt, (3) reactant m1nerals have corroded and
later, as the melt fraction crystallized. The microstructures
em bayed shapes. (4) pools or pockets of melt in the matrix
produced in quenched melting experiments (e.g., section F
have a rounded, cuspate outline, (5) the solid products of
1n the book, Figs. FI- F4) serve as a good start1ng po1nt for
reaction (also called pentect1c) have crystal faces where
an interpretation of the microstructures 1n m1gmat1tes. and
they grew 1nto melt. and ( 6) if cracks or shears form in the
will be outlined first.
:\tl;>- of :1,1ogmatlte'
----------------- -------------- 27

part1ally molten material, then they are occup1ed by melt. xenoliths (see Figs. F7 Fl 0) are like those produced 1n
The follow1ng key microstructures form dunng the crystal- many part1al-melt1ng experiments. As an example, Fig. FlO
lizatiOn of the melt: (I) the m1nerals that crystallize from shows corroded gra1ns of b1otite 1n wh1ch euhedral sp1nel
the melt tend to be euhedral, (2) the m1neral products of (a react1on product) IS located in the embayments and is
the part1al-melt1ng react1on (1.e., the pentect1c phases) that separated from the reactant b1otite by a film of brown glass
grew part1ally. or wholly, 1n the melt commonly develop (Grapes 1986, Cesare 2000).
faces, (3) the pools or patches of melt have a blocky out-
line, (4) an overgrowth develops on the reactant minerals, Platten (1982) found very fine-grained granophyre
and (5) an alignment of tabular or pnsmat1c crystals 1s 1n partially melted quartz1te from a shallow (0.5 kbar)
developed 1n the places where now of the melt occurred. contact-aureole. The granophyre forms small cuspate
patches between rounded reactant phases. and some
Microstructures in the residual rocks, and patches conta1n corroded quartz and feldspar. Thus, the
evidence for partial melting microstructures in slightly deeper aureoles (Holness and
Watt 2002, Holness and Isherwood 2003), and 1n some
Generally, the melt fraction that forms 1n a migmat 1te 1S
xenoliths (Bouloton and Gasquet 1995), where cooling
segregated into s1tes that become patches of leucosome.
was a little slower, are also s1milar to those found 1n melt-
However, some melt (a few percent) remams 1n the resid-
ing expenments, except that the melt has crystallized to
uum, where 1t occup1es grain corners, or forms films along
granophyre (see Figs. Fll and F12). Cracks that were filled
gra1n faces. Moreover, the residual parts of migmat1tes con-
with melt are a common feature 1n the part1ally melted
tain the ev1dence with wh1ch to 1dentify the melt-produong
rocks from shallow contact-aureoles (e.g., Figs. Fl3 Fl5),
react1ons and to deduce the conditions of metamorphism;
and commonly develop 1n relict K-feldspar and quartz that
thus, they are the best place to start a study of migmat1tes.
were adjacent to grains of reactant muscovite.
There 1s a progressive change 1n the microstructure of m1g-
Ne1ther glass nor granophyre occurs 1n deeper and more
mat1tes from very shallow contact-metamorphism through
slowly cooled contact aureoles. Part1ally melted rocks
deeper contact-aureoles to reg1onal metamorph1c ter-
1n the contact aureole of the Duluth Igneous Complex
ranes that renects the systemat1c increase in the durat1on
formed at a pressure between 1.5 and 2 kbar, and con-
of the part1al-melt1ng event, and a decrease 1n the cooling
tain a w1de range of microstructures (e.g., Figs. Fl7 F28).
rate. Fast cooling near the surface results 1n supercooling
Granophyre occurs 1n some ver y quartz-rich rocks of the
of the melt and a quench to glass, but as the degree of
Biwabik Formation (e.g., Fig. F21 ), but not in the metapelitic
undercooling decreases with depth, there is a change from
rocks. Metapeht1c rocks from the aureole contain small
fine-gra1ned to coarse-gra1ned granophyre 1n progressively
(0.1 20 mm), Isolated, ell1pso1dal leucocrat1c patches of
deeper contact-aureoles to coarse-gra1ned, polycrystalline
neosome (e.g., Figs. F17 F20) in add1t1on to small veinlike
aggregates 1n the migmatites formed 1n regional metamor-
accumulations of leucosome (<5 mm w1de). The leucocratic
phic terranes.
patches have a cuspate outline because the adjacent matnx
The microstructures found in rap1dly cooled part1al melts quartz, feldspar, and b1ot1te gra1ns are corroded. Moreover,
formed in subsurface contact-metamorphism (e.g., Knopf the patches comprise a few large anhedral gra1ns of quartz
1938, Wyllie 1961, Frankel 1950, Kaczor et al. 1988, Knesel and alkali feldspar or plag1oclase, wh1ch conta1n rounded
and Dav1dson 1999, Holness et al. 2005) are essent1ally inclus1ons of quartz, b1ot1te. and plag1oclase and tiny euhe-
1dent1ca. to those found 1n quenched part1al-melt1ng expen- dral 1nclus1ons of plag1oclase, cordierite. and orthopyroxene.
ments (see Figs. F5 and F6) . Planar and cuspate, 1ntragranular The m1crostructure suggests that the patches of neosome
f ms of glass, more extens1ve patches of glass, and even were sites where b10t1te melted Incongruently; then,
ve1ns of glass are commonly reported . Typ1cally, vanet1es of during slow cooling, the melt crystal lized to g1ve small
glass of several different colors and compos1t1ons are found prismatiC crystals f1rst, and then, as the temperature neared
with1n ind1v1dual samples. The glass conta1ns corroded the sol1dus. coarse-gra1ned quartz and feldspar (Sawyer
rel1cs of reactant quartz and feldspar (e.g., F1g. F5), together 2001). Sim1lar microstructures are found 1n the metapelitic
w1th newly grown prismatic tridym1te. 13-quartz, orthopy- rocks of the 3 kbar aureole around the Ballachulish Igneous
roxene (e.g., Fig. F6), cord1ente. and magnet1te. Glass also Complex (Pattison and Harte 1988. Harte et al. 1991),
IS found in some pelit1c and fels1c plutonic rocks that were and 1n the aureole of the Onawa pluton (Marchildon and
partially melted at mid-crust depths (5 7 kbar), but then Brown 200 I, 2002). Thus, the charactenst1c shape of the
brought rap1dly to the surface as xenoliths 1n erupting lavas pools of melt (F1g. F29), and the corroded form of the
(Le Ma1tre 1974, Bacon 1992, Cesare et al. 1997, Cesare reactant minerals (Fig. F30), still rema1n in many deeper
and Ma1nen 1999). Some of the microstructures 1n these contact-aureoles, but the former melt 1s now represented
by early-crystallized euhedral grams set 1n coarse-gra1ned
28 ------------------------------

quartz, plagtoclase, and K-feldspar that crystallized later. 1996, Sawyer 2001). Key mtcrostructures are (I) small
Unfortunately, the mtcrostructural evtdence for the for- strings of connected gra1ns of quartz, plagioclase, and 1n
mer presence of melt ts easily overlooked tf the amount some cases, K-feldspar, along the gratn boundaries of larger
of melt present was small, or where the protoltth ts a quartz- gratns in the matrix (t.e., the "stnng of beads" miCrostruc-
ite. Holness and Clemens (1999) were able to establish ture descnbed by Holness and Clemens 1999), (2) the
that small amounts of melt existed tn the Appin quartz- presence of monomtneralic films of these minerals on the
ite up to 500 m from the Ballachulish Igneous Complex by matrix grains, and (3) small, cuspate gratns of these miner-
using several microstructures (see Figs. F31 and F32), such als between large grains in the matrix (e.g., Fig. F32) .
as (I) feldspar grains with cuspate extensions along quartz
Figures F39 F46 show examples of the more typical
quartz contacts, (2) narrow tratns of feldspar blebs along
microstructure found tn many restdual rocks. Most have
quartz-quartz contacts, and (3) fine-gratned quartz. albtte,
undergone a constderable degree of recrystallization that
and K-feldspar along the gratn boundanes.
has greatly modified the ong1nal stze and shape of the
The general belief (e.g., Hibbard 1987, Ashworth 1985) gra1ns. Thus, the ev1dence for the former presence of melt,
that the combtned effects of deformation, recrystallization such as cuspate-shaped pore space that was filled with melt
(gratn growth), and retrograde metamorphtsm would have (pools of melt), ts largely erased.
elimtnated the mtcrostructures generated dunng parttal
melting tn slowly cooled, regtonal metamorphtc terranes ts Microstructures in the melt,rich parts of
provtng to be incorrect. For example, microstructures (Figs. migmatites; evidence for crystallization of
F33-F36) that resemble those produced 1n parttal-melttng the melt
experiments have survived tn melt-depleted rocks in the The melt-rich parts of mtgmatites are the most likely to
Ashuanipi Subprovince, a regional granulite-facies (6 kbar, contain microstructural evtdence for the crystallization of
875°C) terrane in northern Quebec (Sawyer 1999, 200 I: the anatectic melt; Figs. F47 F58 show typical examples
Guernina and Sawyer 2003). Metagreywacke rocks there from the leucosome domains, and Figs. F59 F65 illustrate
contain small domains (0.5 mm across) tn which large trreg- the microstructures from dtatextte migmatttes. Plagtoclase
ularly shaped grains of K-feldspar (mostly), quartz. and and K-feldspar are the most volum1nous products of crys-
plagioclase have cuspate extenstons that penetrate along tallization of felstc anatectiC melts. and tn most cases,
the gratn boundaries between the adJacent smaller. equant plagioclase starts to crystallize before quartz and K-feldspar.
gratns tn the matnx. These large tnterstit1al crystals conta1n Consequently, most mtcrostructures used for the identifi-
small, rounded, or em bayed tnclus1ons of quartz, plagtoclase, cation of crystallized melts 1n m1gmat1tes tnvolve etther the
and btot1te, tn addition to large gra1ns of orthopyroxene. feldspars, or the shape of crystals.
whtch have crystal faces (Ftgs. F33, F34). These domatns
are tnterpreted to be s1tes where btotite, plag1oclase, and Platten ( 1983) studied part1ally melted semi pelitic schists
quartz reacted to produce orthopyroxene and melt; thus. close to the Barnamuc tntrustve complex in Scotland. He
some of the mtcrostructure that formed at the peak meta- noted two features that are essentially tgneous in cross-
morphtc temperature is actually preserved in these rocks. cutting pink leucosome: (I) the plagioclase and K-feldspar
Most (>80%) of the melt produced drained away. leaving have crystal faces where tn contact with interstitial quartz,
a small amount (<3 vol.%) that became the coarse-grained and (2) small gratns of quartz. plagioclase, biotite, and
K-feldspar, quartz, and plagioclase. cordiente located tn patches of granophyre, and in the
coarse-gratned parts of the leucosome, are commonly
Kenah and Hollister ( 1983) showed stmtlar microstruc- euhedral. These featu res 1ndtcate that the leucosome crys-
tures preserved around small, remnant pockets of melt tallized from an anatecttc melt. or from a magma (see F1gs.
left after most of the melt that was generated had been F47 and F48). Stmtlar criteria for tdent1fy1ng mtnerals that
expelled from partially melted Terttary plutonic rocks crystalltzed from a melt were proposed by Cuney and
tn Bnt1sh Columbia. Very s1milar microstructures (F1gs. Barbey ( 1982) and later by Pattison and Harte ( 1988) and
F37, F38) have also been reported tn mtgmat1tes devel- Vernon and Collins (1988).
oped from pluton1c protoliths 1n Archean (Sawyer 2001),
Mesoproterozoic (Ttmmermann et al. 2002, Slagstad et Some patches of leucosome, many of the narrow vetns
al. 2005), and Phanerozotc (Brown 2002) regtonal anate- of leucosome, and doma1ns the diatexite migmatites tn
ctic terranes. In some cases, the former presence of melt the contact aureole around the Duluth Igneous Complex
can still be inferred from the distribution of small gra1ns consist of large (I 2 mm), anhedral grains of unstrained
of quartz, plagioclase, or K-feldspar in the matrix of larger quartz, plagioclase, and K-feldspar that contain inclusions of
residual grains, even after some later re-equilibratton of the much smaller euhedral plagtoclase. cordiente, and orthopy-
gra1n boundaries has occurred (e.g., Hartel and Pattison roxene cryst als (see Figs. F23 F27) . Moreover, as shown
Atl." of Mtgmarue'
----------------- --------------29

1n Figs. F28 and F52. the pnsmatic 1nclus1ons are com- of 1nterst1t1al quartz that represent the places where the
monly strongly aligned (Sawyer 200 I). Together, these last melt crystall1zed. There are three reg1mes, based on
microstructures 1ndicate that the small pnsmatic grams fract1on of melt present. that are of interest; the magmatic
crystallized 1n. or from. a melt. and were aligned by now (M > 0.45), the submagmat1c (0 < M < 0.45), and the
of that magma (melt + entra1ned crystals). before the melt =
subsolidus (M, 0): the submagmat1c reg1me has been sub-
finally crystallized. divided still further (Vigneresse et al. 1996, Rosenberg 200 I).

The microstructures in leucosome and the melt-rich mig- In the magmat1c state, platy or tabular m1nerals are suffi-
matites from reg1onal metamorphic terranes are different Ciently widely spaced to rotate passively as the magma 1s
from those 1n contact aureoles. The gram s1ze IS consider- deformed and to become aligned; local1nteract1on between
ably larger and more un1form, and far fewer of the minerals rotat1ng crystals can occur, but 1s not s1gn1ficant (Paterson
have crystal faces. N evertheless, the presence of euhe- et al. 1989). There are microstructural cnteria w1th wh1ch
dral crystals of feldspar 1n leucosome (Figs. F56, F57) and to 1dent1fy magmatiC foliations: the m1nerals that crystall1zed
1n diatexite m1gmatites (Figs. F59, F64) that have crystal from , or were in the magma, must have a preferred onen-
faces against later-crystallizing minerals, such as quartz or tation, and the quartz crystals and domains in the matnx
K-feldspar. IS the most widely used microstructure for infer- around them should be equant, and there should be no
nng the former presence of a melt, or of magma, 1n reg1onal Intracrystalline deformatiOn or recrystallization (e.g., undu-
m1gmat1tes. Euhedral, or 1dioblast1c, unzoned ferromagne- lose extinction, deformation bands, polygonal subgrams,
Sian mmerals that have few 1nclus1ons have also been used kinks, bent cleavage-planes, or ev1dence of gra1n-boundary
to 1nfer crystallization in the presence of a melt (StOwe m1grat1on. such as lobate boundanes) in e1ther the foliation-
and Powell 1989, Florence et al. 1995, Braun et al. 1996, defining minerals, or in the 1nterst1t1al quartz. Examples of
Barbey et al. 1999, Berger and Kalt 1999, Sawyer et al. 1999, the microstructure developed during the flow of magma in
Alcock and Muller 2000, Berger and Roselle 2001, Johnson diatex1te migmatites are shown in Figs. F66- F69.
et al. 2001a). However, other cntena are needed to deter-
mine whether the m1neral is the product of an mcongruent As the fraction of melt decreases, 1nteract1ons between
melt1ng react1on (1.e., a peritectiC phase) and developed rotat1ng crystals becomes progressively more common,
crystal faces because it grew 1n a melt, or whether the min- and th1s forms clusters of 1mbncated or "tiled" gra1ns
eral crystallized from the melt (i.e., l1qu1dus phase). The (Blumenfeld and Bouchez 1988; lldefonse et al. 1992, 1997;
presence of euhedral accessory phases, such as zircon, in Arbaret et al. 1996, 1997) and the submagmat1c regime
leucosome and diatexites also has been used as evidence begins. A framework of crystals develops, and once formed,
for crystallization from a melt (e.g., Barbey et al. 1995). the framework may become deformed (Bouchez et al.
1992). A submagmatic foliation is one 1n wh1ch a framework
A zonal d1stnbut1on of m1nerals w1th1n a leucosome that IS of aligned crystals formed and may have become deformed
s1m1lar to that expected from 1n s1tu fract1onal crystallization before the interstitial magma crystallized. Hence, the micro-
of felsiC melt has also been used to 1nfer crystallization from structural critena for ldent1fy1ng a submagmat1c foliat1on
a melt or magma (Sawyer 1987, Kohn et al. 1997). In par- are the presence of Intracrystalline deformation-Induced
ticular, Kohn et al. ( 1997) noted that myrmekite occurs only features in the foliation-defining and framework-forming
at the edges of the leucosome they studied, and muscov1te, m1nerals, but not in the interstitial domains of quartz, which
only 1n the center: they interpreted th1s as the progress1ve rema1n equant 1n shape.
1nward crystallization of a melt 1n wh1ch the last volume of
melt 1n the center finally became sufficiently hydrous to Intracrystalline deformat1on in both the foliation-
crystallize muscovite. definmg m1nerals and the quartz domams, wh1ch may have
become elongate, 1nd1cates deformat1on in the solid state.
Magmatic and submagmatic foliations Deformation 1n the solid state is generally characterized
by a decrease in grain s1ze, and at high stra1ns, by the
Platy or tabular crystals suspended 1n a magma become
development of mylon1te. Unfortunately, microstructures
aligned dunng now of the magma, and form a foliat1on. It
formed 1n either the magmat1c or submagmat1c states are
•s 1mportant to 1dent1fy such magmatiC foliations 1n mlgma-
eas1ly destroyed 1f deformation cont1nues 1nto the subsoli-
'tes. espec1ally 1n the field. but the problem 1s to d1st1ngu1sh
dus reg1me.
them from tecton1c foliations formed 1n the solid state.
Critena for 1dent1fying magmatiC foliations have been
developed (Blumenfeld and Bouchez 1988, Paterson et
Melt inclusions
al. 1989, Arbaret et al. 1996). In essence, these methods Melt can be trapped as inclusions in the minerals that grew
compare the degree of intracrystalline deformation in the 1n, or crystallized from, a melt: examples are shown 1n Figs.
foliat1on -def1n1ng m1nerals w1th that 1n the large doma1ns F70 F73. Therefore, t he 1dent1ficat1on of melt 1nclus1ons
30 ------------------------------

1n m1nerals 1n the neosome IS clear ev1dence for the pres- (5) The bulk composition of the neosome IS commonly the
ence of melt. Rap1d cooling, as occurs 1n rap1dly exhumed, same as the host. a result suggesting m s1tu format1on of
partially melted crustal xenoliths (Cesare et al. 2003), will the neosome 1n a closed system (e.g., Braun et al. 1996),
quench melt inclusions to glass. Melt 1nclus1ons that have which 1s the reason 1t IS not truly leucocrat1c. However, 1n
quenched to glass may conta1n structures due to shnnkage, some cases the neosome has an excess of ferromagnes1an
wh1ch resemble bubbles (Lowenstern 1995). Glass Inclu- components that IS readily expla1ned by the loss of some,
Sions are 1mportant, as they may enable the composition or virtually all, of the melt (Fitzs1mons 1996, Sawyer et al.
of natural anatectic melt s to be determ1ned. However, with 1999, Waters 2001, Wh1te et al. 2004): such neosome is
slower cooling, the melt crystallizes, and the former melt melanocrat1c. (6) The ferromagnes1an poikiloblasts or
1nclus1ons may be m1staken for solid m1neral 1nclus1ons and porphyroblasts are 1ntergrown with blebs, patches (see
be overlooked. The homogemzat1on temperature at wh1ch F1gs. F74 and F75), and lamellae of quartz (e.g., Waters
the crystals 1n former melt 1nclusions d1sappear 1nto a s1ngle 2001, Wh1te et al. 2004) and, more rarely, with feldspar
phase (i.e., melt) has been used to infer the temperatures (Barbey et al. 1999) also. In rare cases, the poikiloblasts
at wh1ch the magmas were trapped as 1nclus1ons 1n their have a dist1nct core that conta1ns sillimanite Inclusions, but
hosts. Most notably, th1s approach has been applied to the no quartz blebs. Vernon and Collins ( 1988) Interpreted
study of volcanic and shallow pluton1c rocks. such s1lliman1te-beanng cores to be pre-neosome rel-
ics. Powell and Downes (1990) and Wh1te et al. (2004), 1n
contrast. suggested that the cores too could have grown
Cordierite-, garnet-, and orthopyroxene-
dunng the melt1ng reaction. (7) In many cases, the leuco-
quartz intergrowth microstructures
cratic part of the neosome 1s zoned. The ferromagnes1an
The 1ntergrowth in large poikiloblasts of garnet and, to a
core 1s surrounded by an inner leucocrat1c annulus rich 1n
lesser extent. of cordierite and orthopyroxene, w1th quartz
K-feldspar, which IS interpreted to be the solid product of
and surrounded by feldspar, is a very common microstruc-
the incongruent melt1ng react1on. The outer zone consists
ture 1n neosome (Powell and Downes 1990: Tracy and
of quartz, K-feldspar, and quartz: 1t IS Interpreted to have
Rob1nson 1983: Brown 1983: Waters and Whales 1984:
been derived from the anatect1c melt. (8) Generally, the
Waters 1988, 2001: Barbey et al. 1990: Braun et al. 1996:
quartz 1n the po1kiloblasts connects to a th1n mantle (called
Fitzs1mons et al. 1996: Sawyer et al. 1999: Oliver et al.
a moat by some authors) of quartz that surrounds the
1999: Alcock and Muller 2000: Wh1te et al. 2004). Field
po1kiloblasts and separates it from feldspar 1n the neosome
observations (see examples 1n F1gs. B20 B25) indicate
(see F1gs. F76 and F77) .
that th1s microstructure (F1gs. F74 F77) does not occur in
the neosome developed from H 0-saturated melt1ng, or Models proposed for the format1on of these Intergrowths
muscov1te-breakdown reactions (Tracy and Rob1nson are based on k1net1cs. pnnopally the difficulty of nucleat-
1983), but that 1t IS charactenst1c of the biot1te-dehydra- ing and grow1ng the solid assemblage produced, or on
t1on-melt1ng reactions that occur 1n the h1gher-grade parts the slow diffus1on of Si and AI 1n melts. StUwe and Powell
of m1gmatite terranes. The deta1ls of this microstructure (1989), Powell and Downes (1990) , and Wh1te et al. (2004)
are remarkably similar for all reported occurrences. (I) The regarded the locat1on of the neosome as controlled by the
doma1ns of neosome have a rather d1ffuse margin w1thout location of the nuclei of ferromagnesian m1neral produced
a melanosome. (2) The neosome tends to be leucocrat1c (garnet 1n thew examples) , wh1ch expla1ns the lack of a nm
rather than mesocratic 1n appearance, probably because the of melanosome. Barbey et al. ( 1999) proposed that the dis-
melanocrat1c minerals are concentrated into po1kiloblasts, solution of b1ot1te 1nto the melt to make cordierite resulted
and do not 1nclude b10t1te. (3) Domains of neosome have a 1n a local deficit 1n AI, wh1ch was compensated for by the
patch, or more commonly a net-like morphology composed 1ncongruent d1ssolution 1nto the melt of nearby feldspar,
of Irregularly shaped (Tracy and Robinson 1983. Wh1te et the resu 1t1ng quartz be1ng 1ntergrown w1th the cordiente.
al. 2004), or planar and regularly spaced segments (Braun Waters (200 I) suggested that the microstructures result
et al. 1996). (4) Host and neosome have d1fferent m1neral from the k1net1c control 1mposed by S1 and Ai, the most
parageneses: hosts contain plag1oclase. b10t1te. and quartz, slowly d1ffus1ng spec1es: the growth of garnet results 1n a
with or w·thout sillimanite, whereas the neosome conta1ns local excess of S1 at 1ts edge and 1n the incorporation of
plag1oclase, K-feldspar, quartz and one or more of cord1er- quartz. Brown (2004) suggested that local s1tes of lower
1te, garnet or orthopyroxene, and ilmen1te or magnet1te. stress may control the 1n1tial nucleation of the product
B1ot1te IS generally absent. but 1t may occur as a replace- m1nerals and the accumulation of melt that 1s produced.
ment of garnet. cord1erite, or orthopyroxene. The absence Importantly, all the models and petrolog1cal observat1ons
of b1ot1te in the neosome suggests an Incongruent b10t1te- mdicate that th1s type of microstructure can be used to
dehydrat1on-melting reaction 1n wh1ch cordiente, garnet. infer b1ot1te dehydration melt1ng.
and orthopyroxene are the solid products of reaction.
Atlas of Migmatites

Hornblende dehydration melting in mafic protoliths may replaces small amounts of garnet, cord1erite, or orthopy-
produce neosome w1th similar types of microstructures: roxene. Because these are replacement microstructures,
dark cores consisting of pyroxene and garnet surrounded and as the product assemblage is essentially the same
by a leucocratic mantle, or moat, of plagioclase and quartz. as the reactant assemblage in some prograde biotite-
However, more work is required on migmatites derived dehydration reactions, many authors have interpreted
from mafic protolit hs. them as resulting from the reaction of anhydrous solid min-
erals with the remaining anatectic melt. Commonly cited
Symplectitic intergrowths of quartz and reactions are Grt ± Crd + Kfs + melt = Bt + PI + Qtz ± Sil
plagioclase with mica and Opx + melt = Bt + PI + Qtz. However, Waters (200 I)
On cooling, there is the potential that minerals in a mig- expressed a different opinion, and proposed that this par-
matlte will react with the remaining melt. There are two ticular microstructu re should be considered together with
types of react ion: (I) fina l melt reacting w ith the resid- other: less obvious microstructures (e.g., Fig. F82) in the
ual solid and (2) aqueous fluid reacting with residual rocks that involve biotite and sill iman1te (see examples in
solid. Both involve the formation of new hydrous miner- Buttner et al. 2005) . These cases suggest that a more com-
als. Reactions between the final increments of melt left in plex overall reaction occurred as the melt was crystalliz1ng
the rock and the residual solid necessarily occur at tem- in the rock, although the melt was not directly involved in
perat ures at or above the solidus, and so are of interest creating any particular microstructure.
here. One objective of this section is to identify the micro-
Many low-grade migmatites in which melting occurred
structures associated with this type of reaction. The flu id
through the breakdown of muscovite contain analogous
for solid - aqueous fluid reactions can be derived from the
late-stage microstructures in which K-feldspar is replaced
crystallization of the anatectic magma in which case the
by an intergrowth of skeletal muscovite and quartz, gen -
reactions are a near-solidus phenomenon. As an alterna-
erally associated with myrmekite (Ashworth 1972, Brown
tive, the fluid could come from an external source, and the
1979, Ashworth and Mclellan 1985, Weber et al. 1985).
process could take place at subsolidus temperatures, which
The symplectite-like microstructure is generally interpreted
could extend down through the amphibolite to the green-
to be the result of the slow d1ffusion of Si and AI, and hence
schist facies : these low-temperature reactions will not be
the AI:Si rat io of the reactant IS inherited by the products
cons1dered further.
and controls the nucleation of the product assemblage.
Thompson ( 1983) and Powell ( 1983) argued that the pres- Ashworth (1972) proposed a reaction between melt and
ervation of low-a(H 20) mineral assemblages in high-grade K-feldspar, such as Kfs + melt + Sil + PI = Ms + Qtz + PI"
rocks is due to the formation and subsequent escape of to account for the microstructures [the superscripts indi-
anatect1c melt. The removal of H20 with the melt lim1ts cate reactant () and product (2) plag1oclase, respectively].
the extent to which rehydrat1on react1ons can take place
Symplectite-like microstructures between the m1cas and
(Spear et al. 1999, Brown 2002) as the migmatite terrane
quartz seem to indicate the reaction of res1dual miner-
cools and the melt crystallizes. Although large volumes of
als with melt: the extent to which these microstructures
melt can be generated 1n anatectic terranes, not all that
have developed depends upon how much melt was pres-
melt is extracted from the source to make plutons at
ent. Therefore, mapping the d istribution of microstructures
h1gher levels in the crust: small amounts of melt remain 1n
produced at late stages of crystallization and those micro-
pockets and along the boundaries between the m1nerals in
structures formed under high-temperature subsolidus
the residual rocks (Guernina and Sawyer 2003), and a small
conditions may enable the loci of net loss of melt to be
amount of melt also remains in the leucosome (Cagg1anelli
distinguished from those where melt has accumulated (or
et al. 1991). Th1s minor amount of res1dual melt reacts with
was injected): the former should exh1bit a predominance
the residual minerals during the final stages of crystallization
of microstructures indicative of reaction between the
and produces new microstructures in both the residual and
res1dual melt and solid, whereas the latter should contain
melt-nch parts of the m1gmatite.
more extensive evidence of rehydration involving reac-
Although of minor abundance generally, the microstructures tion between the residual solids and an aqueous fluid (e.g.,
(F1gs. F45 F48) are a characteristic symplectite-like inter- Spear et al. 1999, Brown 2002, White et al. 2005).
growth of skeletal or th1nly bladed biotite with quartz or
plagioclase (Ashworth 1976, jones and Brown 1990, Brown Composition and zoning
and Raith 1996, Raith and Harley 1998, Kriegsman and of plagioclase
Hensen 1998, Sawyer 1999, Guernina and Sawyer 2003), Bowen ( 1913) showed that during the melting of plagio-
quartz and K-feldspar (Nyman et al. 1995), or alkali feld- clase, the albite component fractionates 1nto t he melt, and
spar and plagioclase (Waters 2001): the intergrowth locally the remaining plagioclase 1s more calcic. Consequently, the
32 ------------------------------

compos1t1on of plag1oclase was proposed as a test for the ev1dence of magmatiC growth. However. the presence of
ong1n of the leucosome 1n m1gmat1tes (e.g., Yardley 1978). oscillatory zon1ng. truncated growth-zon~ng, and complex
The leucosome generated by part1al melt1ng should have pla- 1nternal boxlike, skeletal, or honeycomb structures in pla-
gioclase more sodic than that 1n the assoc1ated melanosome gioclase IS regarded as evidence of d1sequdibnum during
and protolith. Some investigators found the plagioclase in growth (Wiebe 1968. Hibbard 1981), and as characteristic
the leucosome to be systematically more sodic than those of regimes where magma m1xing occurred. Plag1oclase crys-
in the melanosome (e.g., W eber et a\. \985. Weber and tals containing disequilibrium structures are wel l known
Barbey \986, Alcock and Muller 2000) . More commonly, from granites (e.g., Barbarin \990, Grogan and Reavy 2002).
the compositions of plagioclase 1n the leucosome and 1n the Petrographic studies of the Vanscan pera\um1nous anatectic
melanosome were found to be very s1mdar (e.g., Harme complexes in Spa1n have revealed the presence of plagio-
1962, Dougan 1979, Henkes and Johannes 1981. Gupta and clase crystals conta1n1ng d1sequ1hbnum microstructures in
Johannes 1982. Kenah and Hollister \983). even 1n leuco- some of the m1gmatite bodies 1n these complexes.
some where other cnteria po1nt to an anatectic ong1n. The Plag1oclase crystals w1th s1milar complex patterns of inter-
euhedral crystals of plag1oclase 1n d1atex1te migmatites that nal zoning are also found 1n leucosome from the m1gmat1tes
represent the accumulat1on of plag1oclase crystallized from of the Glen Elg reg1on of southeastern Austral1a (see Fig.
the "1nlt1al" anatectiC melt 1n the Ashuanip1 and Opatica F83) . Expenmental work by Castro (2001) has shown
subprov1nces of Quebec are more calc1c (around An, ) that complex patterns of 1nternal zon1ng can result from
than the euhedral crystals of plagioclase (around An,.) that the 1nteract1on of a mantle-denved mafic magma and a
occur in K-feldspar-nch diatexite m1gmatites that formed crust-denved fels1c magma. Thus. detailed study of the zon-
from evolved diatexite magmas. Similarly, large euhedral ing and internal morphology of plagioclase may be a very
crystals of plagioclase that are part of the framework (e.g., useful way of d1stingu1shing migmatites that are wholly
Figs. F59 F64) of early-crystallized minerals in diatexite crust al material from those with an admixed component of
migmatites (and in some examples of leucosome. e.g., Fig. mantle-derived magma (e.g., Miller and Wooden 1994).
F56) are more calcic than the interstitial plag1oclase that
crystallized later. Biotite composition and microstructures
Biotite-dehydration react1ons occur over a tempera-
Johannes (1978, 1980, 1983b) and Acosta-Vig1l eta\. (2006)
ture 1nterva\ that can exceed I 00°C because of vanous
have shown that the kinetiCS of d1ssolut1on of Intermediate
solid solut1ons 1n the b1otite (Monte\ and Vielzeuf 1997).
plag1oclase at the temperature (<800°C) at wh1ch gra-
Experimental stud1es show that bes1des the well-known
nitic melts start to form are very slow 1ndeed. This leads to
1ncrease 1n T10 1 (Robert 1976), Mg number and fluonne
metastable melting. and the plag1oclase 1n the leucosome
content also 1ncrease across the react1on 1nterval (Stevens
and 1n the melanosome need not have d1fferent compos1-
et a\. 1997: Pat1no Douce and Harns \998: Pat1no Douce
t1ons. Th1s effect may be 1mportant 1f melt separates rap1dly
and Beard \995, \996; Patliio Douce and Johnston 1991:
from 1ts res1duum. Thus, the composition of plag1oclase
Pickering and Johnston 1998) and extend the stability field
IS not now considered a reliable cntenon to evaluate the
of biotite to more than I 000°C. The AI content of bio-
origin of leucosome in migmatites. However. plagioclase
tite tends to decrease relat1ve to the starting composit1on
is st ill a crucial mineral in the interpretation of m1gmatites,
of the biotite 1n bulk compos1t1ons lacking an aluminosili-
but emphas1s now rests on its morphology, the micro-
cate mineral. and to 1ncrease 1n those where one is present.
structures of wh1ch it is a part, and on the nature of 1ts
Thus, there are several compos1t1onal trends 1n biotite that
compos1t1onal zoning.
can be used to determ1ne metamorphic condit1ons (e.g..

Plagioclase from most m1gmatites shows rather weak and Patino Douce eta\. 1994).
1rregular (nonconcentnc) compos1t1onal zoning: both nor-
On the bas1s of morpholog1cal and microstructural dif-
mal and reverse trends have been described. The strongest
ferences. several d1fferent populat1ons. or generat1ons, of
compos1t1ona\ zon1ng 1s generally found 1n plag1oclase from
b1ot1te have been 1dent1fied 1n many migmatites. In some
the melanocrat1c res1dual rocks, particularly 1f the protolith
cases. there is no compos1t1onal difference between the
was a mafic rock. The pattern of compos1t1onal zon1ng 1n
morpholog1cal types (e.g.. Solar and Brown 200 I) . However;
res1dual plag1oclase IS strongly dependent on whether other
in others. there are compos1t1onal differences that can be
Ca-bearing phases were present 1n the residuum, and
used to explore the metamorphic history of the m1gma-
the stage at which they grew (Skjerlie and Johnston \996,
tite. For example, in m1gmat1tes that underwent biotite
Patino Douce and Beard 1996) .
dehydration melting, the residual b1otite. with the highest
Mg number. T10 2, and F contents, commonly occurs as small,
Strongly developed concentric zon1ng that parallels the
rounded, reddish 1nclus1ons in other phases, whereas the
outline of a plag1oclase crystal IS generally cons1dered as
AtJ.l.., of Magmatltc'
----------- ----------- -------- 33

larger crystals of biotite 1n the matrix of these rocks have Fig. F88) can be used to 1nfer that all segments of a leu-
lower Ti0 2 contents and lower Mg numbers (e.g., Braun et cosome contained melt at the same time. Alteration of
al. 1996, Fitzsimons 1996, Barbey et al. 1990, Perc1val 1991), ferromagnesian minerals (e.g., cordiente in Fig. F88) 1n the
1nd1catlng that they formed, or re-equ1librated, at lower residuum close to the leucosome may 1ndicate that H, 0
temperatures. In contrast, the largest, bladed crystals of was exsolved from the melt as 1t crystallized.
b1ot1te 1n migmatites, where b1otite dehydrat1on melt1ng
was incipient, have the highest Mg number and are resid- Highly Irregular contacts are commonly preserved between
ual (Brown 1979, Milord et al. 2001), and the smaller grains, leucosome and melanosome components of m s1tu patches
w1th much lower Mg numbers (around 20) and TiO con- of neosome formed at the start of part1al melt1ng 1n reg1onal
tents, grew from the anatectic melt (Sawyer 1998, M1lord granulite-faCies metamafic (F1gs. F89 F92) and metapelitiC
et al. 200 I, Milord and Sawyer 2003) . Large po1kilitic crys- (F1gs. F93, F94) rocks. However, recrystallization in slowly
tals of biotite in leucosome from the lower-crust migmatites cooled rocks generally eliminates the evidence for for-
of southern Italy have the same morphology and Mg num- mer films of melt. Gra1n s1ze typ1cally mcreases through a
ber as b1otite in the melanosome, and were interpreted by melanosome toward 1ts contact w1th leucosome, but the
Fornelli et al. (2002) as residual. In contrast, small grams of concentration of stra1n (wh1ch reduces gra1n s1ze), or the
b1ot1te 1n the leucosome are less magnes1an and Interpreted abundance of sill1man1te (which 1nhib1ts grain growth) near
as possibly crystallized from the anatectic melt. Kenah and the interface, can result in a smaller gra1n-size and straighter
Hollister ( 1983) found that b1ot1te (and hornblende) from contacts (Figs. F95, F96).
leucosome have lower Mg numbers than those from adja-
cent melanosome, probably renect1ng a greater proport1on Microstructure of schlieren in
of magma-grown biot1te in the leucosome they exam1ned. diatexite migmatites
Schlieren are planar aggregates of platy, tabular, or acicu-
Contact between leucosome and lar m1nerals and are common 1n many d1atex1te migmatites.
melanosome in metatexite migmatites The presence or absence of schlieren 1s part of the nomen-
Observations made 1n the field on the nature of the contacts clature for nam1ng the subtypes of diatex1te m1gmat1te, but
between a leucosome and its melanosome are extremely very little IS known about their microstructure or how they
1mportant in determ1n1ng whether the leucosome IS m s1tu, developed. All the examples shown 1n th1s book (F1gs. F97-
1n source, or s1mply a leucocrat1c ve1n. Cnt1cal details are FIOO) are of the common biot1te schlieren, but schlieren
whether the contacts are sharp or diffuse, concordant or composed ma1nly of plag1oclase, hornblende, orthopyrox-
discordant, and whether there IS a nm of biot1te between ene or silliman1te also occur in m1gmat1tes. The crystals of
the two. In spite of the great s1gnificance attached to the biotite that comprise the schlieren (see Figs. F97 FI 00) are
contacts for the Interpretation of leucosome, very little has typ1cally strongly Imbricated, or tiled, in the same sense as
been reported on thew microstructure. the 1mbncat1on of the tabular m1nerals (1.e., feldspar) that
define the magmat1c foliat1on 1n the host diatex1te. Thus,
The contacts 1n part1ally melted quartz1tes from rap1dly schlieren were formed during the now of the d1atex1te.
quenched contact-aureoles show a petrological continu1ty Schlieren range in width from less than the length (<2 mm)
of either glass (Platten 1982) or granophyre (Fig. F84) from of a component crystal of b1ot1te (e.g., Figs. F97, F98). to
the leucosome 1nto the residuum. Th1n films of glass, or aggregates (>IS mm) tens of crystals wide (e.g.. F1g. FIOO,
granophyre, extend along the gra1n boundanes of the and examples 1n Milord and Sawyer 2003). In most cases,
quartz grains from the leucosome 1nto the res1duum for the crystals of b1ot1te 1n the schlieren are larger, have a
a distance of several gra1n-diameters (Fig. F84), which greater aspect-ratio and a stronger preferred onentation
supports an in s1tu interpretation for the leucosome. than biot1te 1n the host, a feature that Milord and Sawyer
The contacts between leucosome and melanosome in (2003) attnbuted to the ease of recrystallization 1n the
metapelit1c rocks from rap1dly cooled contact-aureoles essentially monom1neralic schl1eren. Many schlieren are s1g-
are more complex than 1n the essentially monom1neralic n1ficantly enriched 1n accessory m1nerals such as apat1te and
metaquartzites, but are also irregular at the scale of sev- zwcon, but where these minerals occur 1n the schlieren and
eral grain-diameters (Figs. F85 F87). The outline of the how they came to be concentrated there rema1n unknown.
large crystals 1n the m s1tu leucosome suggests that melt
d1d extend 1nto the res1duum along gra1n boundanes and Microstructure of biotite~ rich selvedges
that lobes of melt may have almost completely surrounded in migmatites
p1eces of the residuum (e.g., F1g. F85) . At a larger scale,
B1ot1te-rich selvedges that develop around leucocratic veins
cont1nuity of microstructure 1n the leucosome from a seg-
and gran1t1c dikes are another common feature 1n m1gma-
ment w1th one onentat1on to a segment w1th another (e.g.,
t1tes for whiCh the conditions and mechamsms of formation
34 -----------------------------

are poorly understood. Typically. they occur as narrow

(<5 mm) zones 1n the host rock that form at the contact
6.1 A possible sequence
with a leucocratic vein, or gran1tic dike. In most cases, bio- of processes and some
tite selvedges show a rap1d gradation 1n microstructure and relevant questions
m1neral proport1ons from the country rock: the proportion A migmatite represents the sum of many processes. How far
of quartz and plagioclase decreases, and there IS a con- each process has been able to progress and the sequence
comitant increase in the modal proportion and grain size of 1n which they occur are major factors in determining the
b1otite (Figs. FIOI-FI04) toward the contact. The 1ncrease characteristiCS of a part1cular migmat1te. The sequence of
in gra1n s1ze of biotite 1s probably facilitated by easier dif- processes that make m1gmatites and gran1tes 1n three dif-
fusion 1n the essent1ally monom1neralic selvedge. Generally, ferent scenanos of part1al meltmg IS shown on Fig. 4.
the crystals of biotite 1n the selvedge are onented parallel
to the contact w1th the ve1n or dike. However, the onenta- In the first (Fig. 4a), partial melt1ng occurs under the special
tlon of b1otite 1n many selvedges around leucocrat1c ve1ns condit1ons of lithostatic stress ("stat1c melting": see sec-
has been locally modified by the bulbous growth of crys- tion 3.4) only, and melt forms and later crystallizes without
tals of quartz and plag1oclase outward from the leucocrat1c segregation from 1ts complementary solid fract1on. In th1s
ve1n (e.g.. Fig. FI02). which may be interpreted as evidence scenano, anatexis occurs 1n a closed system, and the degree
for gra1n growth after the leucocratic vein has solid1fied. of part1al melting (F) 1s, therefore. equal to the fraction of
melt (M.) in the rock. These condit1ons are most likely to
occur 1n contact aureoles. If only a small amount of partial
melting (dashed line 1n F1g. 4a) occurs, either because the
6. protolith was not very fert1le, or the metamorphiC temper-
atures were not very high. then a patch migmatite is formed.
W H O LE-ROCK G EOCH EMISTRY However, 1f a larger degree of partial melt1ng occurs (black
IN MIGMATITE STU D IES line in Fig 4a), then a nebulit1c diatex1te m1gmatite forms:
since anatex1s takes place 1n a closed system. th1s 1s a
Most m1gmat1tes can be recognized simply by the1r dis- primary d1atex1te.
tinctive morphologies. These morpholog1es are. to some
degree. the result of deformation that occurred during In the general case of anatex1s 1n the crust (Fig. 4b), par-
anatex1s. However, the underlying processes that change a tial melt1ng occurs under condit1ons of d1fferent1al stress
protolith 1nto a m1gmat1te are petrological, not structural. ("dynamiC melt1ng") . Any melt fract1on generated 1n excess
Therefore, the bas1c requ1rement in understanding mig- of that requ1red to establish permeability (generally <5%)
matlte formation 1s the 1dent1fication of these petrologiCal in the melt1ng rock is segregated and collects elsewhere.
processes, and one way that this can be done is by exam- 1.e., the part1ally molten rock is dra1ned, and anatex1s 1s an
Ining whole-rock compositions. Th1s book IS not the place open-system process. at least on the scale of a hand sam-
for an exhaustive discussion of the geochemistry of migma- ple and an outcrop. Overall, the m1gmat1tes formed under
tites. Nevertheless, some cons1derat1on of how whole-rock these conditions develop by a four-step process. The first is
geochem1stry can be used to understand these processes the onset of part1al melt1ng. Once the part1ally melted rocks
1s useful. From a practical po1nt of v1ew. this summary become permeable. this step is followed by a second one,
also serves to outline which rocks should be sampled for the extraction of the excess melt and its accumulation else-
follow-up geochem1cal study wh1le mapp1ng m1gmat1tes. where. Th1s process generates two rock types. A res1dual
metatex1te migmat1te develops at the site of part1al melt1ng:
Whole-rock composition 1s commonly used to class1fy 1t conta1ns a low fract1on of melt. even 1f the total degree
rocks. and as a means of discnm1nating between the tec- of partial melting was substantial (typ1cally 30 60%), and
tonic sett1ngs 1n wh1ch rocks such as greywacke. basalt and has a melt-depleted bulk compos1t1on. A diatex1te magma
gran1te formed . Ne1ther use has much application to m1g- forms at the s1te where the segregated melt accumulates:
mat1tes. M1gmat1tes are class1fied by morphology. and they because the fract1on of melt there is h1gh (much greater
1nherit thew compos1t1onal traits from the1r protoliths. The than the degree of partial melt1ng) and IS not m situ, this
protoliths may have become m1gmat1tes 1n a completely can be called a secondary diatex1te magma. Four lines are
d1fferent tecton1c sett1ng to that 1n wh1ch they formed. shown 1n Fig. 4b connecting the residual metatex1te to the
Whole-rock geochemistry is used pnnc1pally to 1nvest1gate secondary d1atex1te m1gmatite: the first corresponds to
the processes that occurred during the formation of mig- loss of melt at the onset of permeability (lowest fraction
matites. to define the compositions of the protolith and the of melt), and the others show segregat1on after some accu-
various parts of the neosome, and to ident1fy the reg1ons of mulation of melt in the metatex1te. The thwd step affects
matenal loss or material gam. the diatexite magma dunng anatex1s and 1nvolves flow of
Atla~ of ~h g m atltc..,
----------- ----------- --------- 35

a Fraction of Melt c Fraction of Melt

l protolith 02 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

partial meltmg

en part1al melting
a> u
solidification ·x
a> f""d;;'r~r·~··.--".,..---:"-:---::---r;;;~;i~-~~;;;,~·;·;~i1
-ro i!!'.~~:!~~~~
i= c
b Fraction of Melt
magma flow and segregallon
residual solids melt fract1on
protolith 02 0.4 06 0.8 1.0

partial melting

fract1onal crystallisation
crystals/ 'melt
Ill ftl®it*dll l
<( a>
flow of magma and segregallon E
res1dual sohds - I

·- Cl
-t1l ·-c
en ~
:..= Cl)
ro t>
u ~

Fig. 4. Diagrams to illustrate the relationship between physical processes and the generation of migmatites (metatexitc
a nd diatex ite) and granite during a natexis in three different scena rios. (a) The special case of partial melting under condi -
tions of lithostatic stress (so-called "sratic melting"). These conditions arc most likely to occur in contact aureoles. (b) The
genera l case of partial melting under differential stress (so-ca lled "dyna mic melting"), which applies to regional a natexis in
orogenic settings, such as melt-depleted gra nulite terranes and their associated gra ni tes. (c) A hybrid scenario in which melt
acc umu lates in the source before the processes that sepa rate the melt from the solid fraction become active, i.e., a n atexis
begins under condit ions of hydrostatic stress, but ends in a differenti al stress regime. This scena rio b most likely to apply to
regional anatectic settings where la rge volumes of melt were able to form rapidly. Legend: pa le grey, mctatexite migmat itc;
dark grey, diatexite magma I diatexi tc migmatitc; coarse dotted pattern, diatex ite magma I migmatite with a very high frac-
t ion of melt fraction that may resemble granite in terms of composition and microstructure; grey, c ross hachured patte rn,
fractionated gra nitic magma that, generally, crystalli:es an igneous microstructure.

the diatex1te magma. Th1s generates a magmat1c foliat1on Figure 4c dep1cts a hybnd scenano 111 wh1ch the melt frac-
and creates schlieren as well as some separation of the tion IS able to accumulate at the s1te of part1al melting
melt from the solid. The final step occurs after anatex1s before the differential stress reg1me starts; th1s scenano
and IS dominated by fract1onal crystallizat1on of the second- IS equivalent to "stat1c melting" followed by "dynamic
ary diatex1te magma, wh1ch generates cumulate diatex1te melt1ng." Consequently, as the degree of part1al melt1ng
and melt-ennched diatex1te, each w1th 1ts own d1st1nct1ve progressively Increases, the anatectiC rocks pass through
composition and microstructure. Granitic magma is a prod- a metatexite migmatite stage before becom1ng a dlatex-
uct of these processes. Th1s scenano applies to reg1onal ite magma. The diatex1te magma 111 th1s case formed m
anatex1s 1n orogen1c settings, notably the generat1on of s1tu. 111 a closed system: therefore, 1t IS called a primary dia-
melt-depleted granulite terranes and the1r associated gran- texite magma. The fract1on of melt at wh1ch the d1atex1te
Ites, e .g., the Ashuan1pi Subprovince 1n Canada. magma IS formed depends on the mechanism by wh1ch
flow occurred. Assuming magmatic flow (i.e., a suspen-
sion of crystals 111 an anatect iC melt), then a melt fract 1on
36 ------------------------------

1n excess of 0.16 (NUP model) or 0.26 (URS model) 1s separation of suspended crystals? (2) Do the leucosome.
requ1red; the upper lim1t of the diatex1te field 1s the degree ve1ns. or d1atex1te m1gmat1tes that represent the bodies of
of part1al melting atta1nable 1n reg1onal metamorphism; former melt. or magma, that flowed in channels have com-
th1s is not normally more than 70%. Under certain circum- positions that are different compared to those of bodies of
stances, the diatexite field m1ght extend beyond the usual melt that rema1ned in Situ? (3) D1d the wallrock contami-
0.26 0.70 range in terms of fraction of melt. Other mecha- nate the magma dunng flow?
nisms of deformation that produce bulk flow (see section
The fourth step is crystallization, and it can, of course. begin
3.5) could generate diatexite migmatites at fractions of melt
at any time after partial melt1ng has started. Cooling may be
as low as 0.07; this potential extension of the d1atexite field
so rapid that separat1on of melt from its residuum before
1s labeled "deform mechan1sm" on Fig. 4c. In some circum-
complete crystall1zat1on may not be possible 1n some con-
stances, such as ultra-high-temperature metamorphism,
tact aureoles. Some pnncipal quest1ons are as follows.
or H,O-fluxed melting, the degree of part1al melt1ng may
(I) D1d fract1onal crystallization occur. 1n other words. does
approach I 00% and extend the d1atex1te field to h1gh frac-
the leucosome. or diatex1te. have the compos1t1on of an ana-
tions of melt. Flow of the diatex1te magma 1n response to
tectic melt? (2) Did the entra1ned res1duum separate before
shear stresses leads to the development of schlieren and
or dunng crystallization? (3) Where d1d the separat1on of
magmatiC foliations, as well as some separat1on of the melt
the entra1ned residuum take place? Finally. post-anatectic
from the material entra1ned 1n 1t, to form res1dual d1atexite
processes. such as retrograde metamorph1sm. rehydrat1on.
and melt-nch diatexite magma. The th1rd, and final step, 1s
and vein1ng can change the bulk compos1t1on of a migma-
fract1onal crystallization of the melt-nch d1atexite; th1s gen-
tite, or its parts. Therefore. 1t is 1mportant that any altered
erates a fractionated magma of granitiC composition that
samples be identified
commonly develops a granitic microstructure on crystalli-
zation and cumulate rocks. This third scenario is most likely The following sections pertain to two factors that seriously
to apply to regional anatectic settings where large volumes affect the way in which whole-rock compositions can be
of melt were able to form rap1dly. used to investigate m1gmatites. First. in order to interpret
the trends in whole-rock compos1t1on that arise from a
Some petrolog1cal quest1ons, but by no means all, relevant
petrogenetic process. some reference po1nts are essential;
to the processes that form migmatites are outlined next.
the most commonly used are the protolith and neosome
The first process is partial melt1ng of the protolith, and some
compositions (ideally both the melt and the res1duum, but
relevant questions are as follows. (I) What was the proto-
most commonly JUSt the melt). How well these parameters
lith compos1t1on? (2) Are the migmat1tes the result of an
can be constra1ned determ1nes what kmds of petrological
open system or of closed-system (commonly called rn s1tu)
questions can be addressed. and what types of quant1ta-
processes? (3) What 1s the compos1t1on of the neosome,
t1ve modeling can be applied. Secondly. it IS generally very
and of 1ts const1tuent parts? (4) Wh1ch react1on generated
difficult to find samples affected by JUSt one process. The
the melt, what was the degree of part1al melt1ng (F), and
investigation of any Individual process requ1res finding ways
how does it compare to the fraction of melt (M,) that the
to isolate its geochemical s1gnature from the rest. Typically.
migmatite contained, which may possibly be denved from
this entails selecting specific combinations or ratios of
an estimate of the fraction of leucosome 1n the outcrop?
The next process is porous flow of the melt out of the
source, i.e., melt segregat1on; here, the quest1ons may
1nclude the follow1ng. (I) D1d the melt segregate from
6.2 Reference..point compositions
the res1duum. and 1f so, what proport1on of the melt Morpholog1cal and compos1t1onal heterogeneity IS typ1cal of
remained 1n the res1duum? (2) How much res1duum was m1gmat1tes; hence. all 1ts parts should be sampled, and the
entra1ned 1n the melt? (3) How variable IS the compos1t1on spat1al and temporal relationships among samples should be
of the res1duum and what caused th1s vanation (d1fferent recorded. Compos1t1onal gradients are another common
protol1ths. different melt1ng react1ons. d1fferent F. differ- problem w1th migmat1tes. espec1ally 1n the rocks denved
ent degrees of segregat1on of the melt)? (4) Over what from melt-nch port1ons of m1gmatites and 1n the res1dual
distance was the porous flow act1ve. over centimeters or rocks. Care should be made to sample the full w1dth of
tens of centimeters? bod1es of leucosome and melanosome so as to 1nclude the
entire compositional gradient; th1s IS especially important if
The third step is transport and flow of the melt. or magma, detailed mass-balance calculations are contemplated. It is
in channels; questions relevant to th1s stage include the fol- common practice to separate the melanosome from t he
lowing. (I) Are there compositional vanations that can be leucosome for analysis. but 1t must not be forgotten that
attributed to processes occurnng dunng flow. such as the
At!"' o f hf&gmatl t<'
------------ ------ ------------ --- 37
Quartz Quartz

a b

• . -.• t• ..•
,. • •
..... .. .~ .' ·"'···(..) •• •
... :....... .••••••••
• :1. ,... ' ,..
• .. . , •
..,• •. i',·--
t • w
.. .
• • ••
"...• . . .·•·.. .
• '* • ......

-· ,

3a • 3b ~· 5

7" s·

Alkali Feldspar Plagioclase Albite Orthoclase

Fig. 5. Compositio n of l33 samples of leucosome from mctatexitc migma tites. (a) Quartz - alkali
feldspa r - plagio-
clase mcsonorm plot with fields after Srreckeiscn (1976). (b) Qua rtz- albite - orthoclase mcsonorm
plot. Symbols: dot ,
leucosomcs from metapclitic and metapsamm itic (plagioclase + biotite + quartz) protoliths; squares,
eight samples of leu -
cosome from a single outcrop, mctapclitic protolith; tri angles, leucosome from mctama fic protol iths.
The leucosome from
metapclitic and mctapsamm itic protoliths ranges in composition from syenogranite ro tonalite, although
most samples a rc
monzograni tic or granodioriti c in composition. In contrast, leucosome derived from mctamafic
rocks range in composi-
tion from monzodiori te to ton alite, but most arc ronalitic. The leucosome collected from a single
outcrop of metapelite
show essentially the same range of composition as the entire set of leucosome samples from mctapelitic
a nd metapsamm itic
protoliths. The variability in composition of the leucosome thus is not simply a function of the
bulk composition of the
prorolith ami the P- T conditions at which anate xis occurred; processes that occur during c rystallizatio
n of the melt also
may be imporra m.

such a methodology results In the loss of tnformatton on in a closed system. and where the segregatton dtstance was
the composttton and compostttonal gradients at. and close small, as in some contact aureoles. (2) Find, and sample,
to, the contact. Some problems speofic to protolith, melt, stmilar rocks tn an adJacent part of the terrane not affected
and residuum are dtscussed next. by parttal melting. The problem then becomes whtch rocks
to sample. Hydrous rocks progressively devolatilize dur-
D etermini ng protolith compositions tng prograde metamorphtsm, and could stmultaneously
(the starting material) lose some major and trace elements. Thus, sampling the
At the tnoptent stage of parttal melttng, the rock between htghest-grade nonmelted rocks could provtde a better
scattered patches of neosome tn a fertile layer could be approxtmat ton of the protoltth composttton tn a regional
constdered as betng very close to the protolith composttion. metamorphic terrane. Contact aureoles. and some reg1onal
It may also be posstble to trace a parttcular parttally melted metamorphic terranes 111 wh1ch low-grade country rocks
layer, or sequence of layers, laterally to lower metamorphic were rapidly heated and melted, may be an exception if
grades and to sample them JUSt below the "melt-tn" tsograd the nutds and any trace elements released by prograde
that marks the onset of parttal melting. devolat11izat1on rema1n 111 the rocks and were tncorporated
wholesale 1nto the m1gmatites. (3) The least satisfactory
Determtntng what the protoltth was ts a challenge tn the opt1on, best cons1dered as a last resort, IS to adopt a com-
htghest-grade parts of anatecttc terranes where virtually piled average composition (e.g., average upper continental
all the rocks are parttally melted and neosome abounds. crust) for the protohth; these averages 1nvanably 1nclude
It is an error to use the rematntng paleosome (nonmelted bot h ferttle and tnfertile rock types, and so preclude any
and typtcally mesocrattc) relics to represent the protolith mean1ngful mass-balance modeling.
composttton. These mesocrattc layers of paleosome are
preserved specifically because they have infertile bulk com- D ete rmining the "melt" composition
posttions. and so escaped parttal meltmg. There are three
Melt compos1t1on here refers to that generated at par-
potential opttons in obtaining an esttmate of the protolith
tial melt1ng. Because this melt composition serves as the
composttion. (I) Collect a very large bulk sample of the
start1ng point 111 1nterpret1ng leucosome and diatex1te
whole neosome; thts works well if the mtgmattte formed
petrogenes is, 1t IS in some cases called the "init ial" anatectic

38 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---

wh1ch the leuco-

"prim ary melt" is crystallization of the anatectic melt from
melt composition (note that the term
the mantle). The some was derived.
generally reserved for partial melts of
ctic leucosome.
most w1dely used method to 1dent1fy anate An est1mate of the maJor-element conte
nt of "1nitial" ana-
al" melts is to
or diatex1te m1gmatites, that may be "1n1ti tectic melts from more complex systems
can be obta1ned
of the cotec tics for haplogra- start1ng materials
compare its position to that from partial-melt1ng expenments that use
Ab An- Or plots. Typically. hth, and per-
nltiC melts on Ab Or- Qtz or with compos1t1ons s1mila r to the 1nfer red proto
s or weigh t-per-
CIPW norms are used, but mesonorm formed at P- T-a(H 20) condi t1ons close to those at which
e 1961, Brow n
cent plots also have been used (e.g., Wylli the natural melt1ng occurred. The expe nmen tally produ ced
nes 1986, Barbe y
1979, Johannes 1983b. Gupta and Johan melts show rathe r lim1ted vanat 1ons in T i0 1
, FeO. and
tad et al. 2005).
et al. 1990, Symmes and Ferry 1995. Slags MgO contents, but the vanat1on 1n CaO,
Na 20, and KL O
the cotect1c 1n
A composition that plots on. or close to. contents may be large and are related to
the proto lith com-
Or- Qtz H 0,
the systems Ab Or- Qtz H 0 or Ab An- position, press ure, and temp eratu re of partia l melt1ng, and
0) at wh1ch the natu-
corresponding to the P- T a(H 2 whet her melt1ng occurred with, or witho
ut. an H L 0 fluid
w1th the samp le be1ng an onents, par-
ral melts formed, IS consistent present. The ability to meas ure volati le comp
"initial" anatectic melt. expe rimen tal glasse s is another
ticularly Na 20, correctly in
ate of the comp os1t1on
was haplogra- factor that seriously affects any est1m
Th1s approach is satisfactory 1f the melt Notw 1thsta nd1n g the
a close d syste m of smaller s1ze of initial anatectic melts (Grant 2004).
nltic and crystallized 1n g the1r comp osi-
do not sat1sf y these con- possible analyt1cal prob lems in determin1n
than the sample. For rocks that comp os1t1 on of
n Or plots should be tions, I present in Fig. 6 a compilation of the
ditions, the Ab - Or- Qtz and Ab-A part1al-me lt1ng
chang e the meltglasses (i.e., quenched melts) obta1ned from
used w1th caut1on. Addit1onal components ucted on a vane ty of start1 ng composi-
the cotec experiments cond
tic lines
composition, and hence the pos1t1on of in to expe nmen ts w1tho ut H 20
ermo re, tions. Figures 6a e perta
a posi-
(e.g., Mann1ng and P1chavant 1983). Furth melti ng" expe nmen ts), and
sarily exclude a added (so-called "dehydration
tion far from the cotectic does not neces nmen ts carrie d out with
xite migmat1tes F1gs. 6( and 6g pertain to expe
magmatic ong1n for leucosome (or diate e, although not
it proba bly exclu des an "1n1t1al" H 20 added to the expenmental charg
for that matter). although resulting melt (so-
iona l crys talliz ation ,necessarily w1th enough to saturate the
melt compos1t1on. During fract of leucosome or
sepa rated from t he called "H,O -fluxe d" melt1ng). Samples
the phases that have crystallized are nal field as appro-
" melt. Samples d1atex1te plott1ng 1n the same compositio
remaining "frac tiona ted" or "evo lved compositions of
-form ed pnate experimental glasses may represent
that represent accumulations of the early
plagioclase apex, "1nit1al" melt.
for example. plagioclase, plot nearer to the
and Barbey 1982,
or to the plagioclase quartz jo1n (Cuney Once potential samples of "in1t1al" anate
ctiC melt have
the samp les of "frac tiona ted" melt ents should be
Sawyer 1987), whereas been identified, their trace -element cont
1n th1s exam ple, towa rd the s of contam-
plot 1n the oppos1te dwect1on. investigated for confirmat ion. The poss1b1lit1e
JOin, or the ortho clase crystallization
quartz apex, the quartz- orthoclase ination with the res1duum and of fract1onal
ns of K-feld spar
apex. Leucosome that conta1ns accumulatio should be invest1gated. Fract1onal crystall1zat1
on results 1n
z crysta ls also are possi ble. Furth ermo re, con- of the trace elem ents com-
or quart
s, an enrichment 1n the cu mulate
the 1n1t1al anate ct1c melt by res1d ual phase accum ulated m1nerals,
tamination of patible with the early-crystallized and
and plag1 oclase for these part1 cular plots. of the trace
notably quar tz
The and an enrichment in the fractionated melts
that plot away from a cotec t1c. Thus, the sig-
can result 1n samples elements Incompatible w1th these m1nerals.
1ns of leuco some are show n that it shoul d lie
compos1t1ons of some doma nature of a "1n1t1al" melt compos1t1on IS
feldsp ar plagio clase and field
1n Fig. 5, on quartz - alkali between the cumulate field and the fract1
onated melt
osition of the
Ab-Q tz-O r mesonorm plots. The comp on bivanant plots of an 1ncom pat1b le cons tituent versus a
some denv ed from meta pelitic and metap samm1tic pro- s Na 0 or Rb versus Sr), or
leuco compat1ble one (e.g.. K 0 versu 2
exten ds from gran1 te to tonal ite. and from tonalite diagra ms (e.g .. Sawy er 1987) .
toliths on rare-earth element (REE)
te for leuco some deriv ed from metama- and the othe r REEs
to monz odion
is where Eu 1s the compatible element
ver. the comp ositio n of a leuco some al posit ion arises
fic protoliths. Howe are Incompatible (see F1g. 7). Th1s centr
bulk comp ositio n of the proto lit h tal to the
not related simply to the because the "1nitial" anatectic melt is
p aren
melti ng occu rred. A range More
or the P- T conditions at which crystal-nch cumulate and to the fractionate
d melt.
found w 1th1n sin -
of leucosome compositions IS commonly Importantly, the comp os1t1ons of the cumu late and fraction-
es 1n F1gs. Sa and Sb
gle outcrops; for example, the squar ated melt show the same relationship to
the "1n1t1al" melt
sent leuco some comp ositio ns from a s1ngle outcr op melt forme d as an equ11ibnum
repre 1rrespect1ve of whether the
deriv ed from a metap elit1c proto lith. They equil ibnum melt, or
of migmatite melt. a trace-element-undersatura ted
from gran1 te to tonal ite. Th1s w1de vanation um melt1 ng produ ces
show a range a disequilibrium melt. If disequilibn
of leuco some IS attrib uted to fract1 onal
1n the compos1t1on
Aria' of Mtgmatltc'
------- ------- ------- ----------39

Quartz Quartz
a Pelite Greywacke

\ ..: :~ :,.\
• o.. .
,.~~~ ·.. o•

Albite Orthoclase Albite Orthoclase

Quartz Quartz
c Felsic rocks d Mafic rocks
Dehydration melting Dehydration melting



Albite Orthoclase Albite Orthoclase

Fig. 6. Composition of glass (quenched partial mel ts) obtained from partial-meltin g experiments shown as a function
of composition of starting material (protolith) and the type of melting. (a) Part ial melting of pelitic protolit hs with -
out H ,O added (i.e., dehydration melting). ote the wide range of compositions. (b) Partial melting of greywacke
(psam~itic) protoliths without H ,O added; note the tight cluster of compositions corresponding to monzogran-
ite. (c) Pa rtial mel ting of felsic pr~tolith s (granite, tonalite, etc. ) withou t added H ,O; the composit ional range is
similar to greywackes. (d) Partial melting of mafic protoliths without H ,O added; ;,,ost compositions of glass fall
on the qua rtz-albite join, but some a re granodioritic. (e) Glass compositions for H ,O-added partial-mel ting exper-
iments of pelitic, greywackc, felsic, and mafic protolit hs, shown on a quartz- albite- orthoclase plot. (j) All the
glass compositions from a to d shown on a quartz - alkali feldspar - plagioclase mesonorm plot, shown with the
fie lds from Streckeiscn (1976). The glass compositions range from syenogranite to tonalite, but most arc monzo-
granite. (g) Glass compositions for H ,O-added (i.e., H ,O-fluxed) partial-melting experim en ts on pelitic, greywacke,
felsic, and mafic protoliths, shown o~ a quartz - alkaii feldspar - plagioclase mesonorm plot, along with the fields
of St reckeisen ( 1976). The glass compositions range from syenogranite to tonalite, but most lie in the granodior-
ite field. Legend: squares, P < 3.5 kbar; circles, P 4- 10 kbar; diamonds, P 10- 16 kbar; triangles, P > 20 kbar; filled
symbols, T < 925°C; open symbols, T > 925°C. Data sources: metapelites (Vielzeuf and Holloway 1988, Lc Breton
a nd Thompson 1988, Patino Douce and Joh nston 1991, Pati no Douce and Harris 1998, Pickering and Johnston
1998, Koester et a!. 2002); mctagreywackcs (Conrad et a!. I 988; Viclzeuf and Monte! 1994; Gardien et a!. 1995,
2000; Patino Douce and Beard 1995, 1996; Stevens eta!. l 997; Monte! and Viel:euf l 997; Cast ro et al. 1999; Grant
2004); felsic rocks (Castro eta!. 2000; Conrad eta!. I 988; Johnston and Wyllie 1988; Litvinovsky eta!. 2000; Rutter
and Wyll ie 1988; Skjerlie and Joh nston 1992, 1996; Singh and Johan nes 1996a, b); mafic rocks (Rushmer 1991;
Rapp and Watson 1995; Wolf and Wyllie 1991 , 1994; Springer and Seck 1997; Skjerlie and Patino Douce 2002;
Selbekk a nd Skjerlie 2002).
40 --------------------------------

All rock types
All rock types f

Alkali Feldspar Plagioclase
Albite Orthoclase

All rock types
g H,O-added melting


Fig. 6

Alkali Feldspar Plagioclase

have different compos1t1ons because the composit1on of

an "1nit1al" melt with very low concentrations of Incompat-
the source has changed, and the temperature of partial
ible elements, then fractional crystallization of that melt will
melt1ng has 1ncreased. AnatectiC melts of diverse compo-
yield a cumulate with still lower levels.
sit ions start to appear as soon as part1al melting beg1ns in
If no "mitial" anatectic melts can be identified from the other rocks or layers of different bulk composition. Thus, it
m1gmat1te samples collected, then a glass compos1t1on IS not a s1mple task to determ1ne the composition of the
from an appropriate expenmental study [same or Simi- "1nitial'' anatectic melt from which a part1cular batch of leu-
lar starting composit1on and P T o(H 0) cond1t1ons as cosome, or diatexite m1gmatite. was denved.
the m1gmat1tes] could be used as a reference-po1nt com -
position. However, us1ng the compos1t1ons of glasses from Residual rocks
partial-melt1ng expenments has the disadvantage that Rocks that conta1n the res1duum left after part1al melt1ng
trace-element contents have generally not been reported can occur in many forms 1n m1gmatites and 1n assoCiated
for them, although recent advances in analyt1cal techn1ques autochthonous gran1tes (see. for example, Bar.bey 1991).
w1ll enable the trace-element contents of experimental In the lowest-grade parts of migmat1te terra-~es. the resid-
glasses to be determined rout1nely. ual rocks are commonly, but not exclus1vely. found 1n the
melanocratic zones around bod1es of leucosome. Care
A unique composit1on of "1n1t1al" anatectic melt may only
should be taken to distinguish melanosome (i.e., melt-
exist at the very start of anatexis, when the first rock par-
depleted residuum) from mafic selvedges formed by reac-
tially melts, or if the proto lith was homogeneous. Success1ve
tion between a leucosome, or ve1n, and its wallrocks. The
Increments of anatectiC melt derived from a s1ngle source
Atla> of M 1gmat1tc;
- - - - - - -- - -- - - - - - 41

1000 1000
Pelitic protolith Pelitic and semi-pelitic protol iths
~ 100 2
-oc ·.:::
c 100
0 0
r. r.
0 0
<ll <ll
a. a.
E E 10
ro ro
(/) (/)

a b
La Ce Nd SmEu Tb Yb Lu La Ce Nd SmEu Tb Yb Lu
10 100

·.::: 2
c '0 10
0 c
r. 0
0 0
<ll <ll
a. 0.1 a.
ro ro
c Mafic protolith d
0.01 0.1
La Ce Nd SmEu Tb Yb Lu La Ce Nd SmEu Tb Yb Lu

Fig. 7. Chondrite-no rmalized ra re-ea rth eleme nt (REE) pa tterns fo r le ucosome in fou r migma titc te rra nes. (a ) U ppe r-
am phibolite -facies a natexis, T 700-800°C, P 3-4 kba r. (b) G ranulite -facies a n atex is, T 825-875°C, P 6-7 kba r. (c)
U ppe r-amphibolite- to lowe r-gra nulite-facies an atexis, T 800-850°C, P 8- 10 kbar. (d) G ranu lite-facies an atexis
T 825-875°C, P ca. 5 kba r. All the le ucosome samples a re from me tatexi te migmati tes. Al th o ugh they fo nned from
diffe re nt pro to liths tha t unde rwe nt a na texis at diffe re nt pressures a nd te mpera tu res, the overall REE c h aracter-
istics o f the le ucosome suites are very simila r. T he re a re three types o f REE pa tte rns wit hin the le ucosome d ata.
(1 ) Most samp les o f le ucosome have a REE pattern with a strong, positive Eu anoma ly, bu t lowe r abu ndances o f the
total REE compa red to the other pa tterns. (2) A few samples of le ucosome have REE patterns with a negative Eu
a no ma ly, and in gen e ral, the high est abunda nces of t he REE. (3) A few samples of le ucosome (shown as bo ld lines)
h ave inte rmedia te- leve l REE a bund a nces and a smooth pa tte rn wi th o ut Eu a nom aly. The prese nce o f the t h ree types
of REE pa tterns within each of the leucosome suites is inte rpre ted as strong evid e nce t ha t fraction al crystallizatio n
played a majo r ro le in the evolutio n of th e a na tectic melt from which the le ucosome in a migma tite te rrane was
deri ved. The leucosome samples wit h a smooth pa tte rn are inte rpre ted to h ave crystallized from me lts that h ad com -
positio ns close to th at of the ini tial a na tectic melt; le ucosome samples with a positive Eu anomaly are inte rp reted to
he feldspa r accumula tion s de ri ved fro m prima ry me lts, a nd the le ucosome sa mp les with a n ega ti ve Eu a no maly a re
in te rpreted to have c rystallized from evolved a na tectic melts tha t had alread y cry ta llized substa ntial amo unts of feld -
spa r, p rincipally plagioclase.

latter are generally narrow and composed largely of biotite reveal a deficit of res1duum, i.e., a surplus of anatectiC melt
or hornblende. In h1gher-grade metatex1te migmatites, such (e.g., Obata et al. 1994).
as those found 1n melt-depleted, granul1te-faoes terranes
(Guern1na and Sawyer 2003), conspicuously melanocrat1c Mineral compositions
rocks are rare, but v1rtually all the rocks are melt-depleted,
Many of the processes of 1nterest 1n m1gmatites can be
and hence residual 1n bulk compos1t1on (Barbey and Cuney
modeled as the addition of one or more minerals to a
1982, Maccarrone et al. 1983, Caggianelli et al. 1991). In
particular start1ng composition, or thew subtract1on from
places where d1atex1te m1gmat1tes are abundant, res1dual
that start1ng compos1t1on. Therefore, the compos1t1ons of
rocks may be rare, and a deta1led geochem1cal study may
42 ------------------------------

m1nerals present 1n migmat1tes are a very useful add1t1on to abundance and m1neral compositions determ1ned with an
whole-rock geochemical diagrams because they may Indi- electron-microprobe analyzer. Trace elements that can
cate the vectors of compos1t1onal change associated w1th be used to represent the Fe Mg silicate m1nerals fract1on
the processes that occur in migmat1tes (e.g.. contamination include Sc and Co; Cr, N1, and V may be used where sulfide
of anatectic melt by residual biotite). W1th the 1ncreas1ng and Fe oxide minerals are absent. The b1ot1te component
availability of ion probe and laser-ablat1on techniques, con- of the residuum could, for example. be represented by Rb.
tents of major and trace elements are becoming routinely Residua rich in sillimanite, cordierite, or spinel could be rep-
available for the main minerals in migmatites. These data resented by Al 20 3• Similarly, CaO may be used for residua
may prove useful in identifying the provenance of residual rich in hornblende, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase; Sr may
minerals in leucosome and diatexite m1gmat1tes. as well also be used for 1nvestigat1ons of plagioclase-rich residua.
as 1n providing further constraints on models of petroge-
Many investigators have shown that a large part of the total
netic processes in migmatites, such as part1al melting, melt
budget of some trace elements, 1nclud1ng the REE, Y. Th,
extraction, and fract1onal crystallization.
U, Hf. Zr, Nb. and Ta, IS located 1n accessory m1nerals, and
the behav1or of these m1nerals dunng partial melt1ng largely
6.3 Diagrammatic representation controls the way trace elements are distributed between
the anatectic melt and the res1duum (Sawka 1988; Bea
Most geological processes yield suites of samples that
1991, 1996a. b; Bea et al. 1994; Watt and Harley 1993). In
define trends, or fields, on compos1t1onal d1agrams. because
some Circumstances, the accessory m1nerals dissolve com-
the process has advanced farther in some samples than in
pletely into the melt. resulting 1n a res1duum depleted in
others. To interpret such trends, the composition of the
the trace elements assoCiated with those particular acces-
st arting (i.e., pre-process) material, and either the end-
sory phases, but in others. the accessory minerals were
product composition, or the changes in mineral assemblage
either in excess, or did not dissolve (e.g.. not enough time),
and modal proportions that are involved in the process,
or could not dissolve (e.g.. armored by other phases) into
are required. Useful quantitat1ve modeling can only be
the melt, and an enrichment of the associated trace ele-
done w1th this information. Changes in composit1on are
ments in the res1duum results. However, recent results
best shown 1n diagrams that d1splay the greatest d1spersion
from ultra-h1gh-temperature (UHT) metamorphic terranes
of the product rock types about the start1ng compos1tion.
suggest that accessory phases may control less of the trace-
Bivariant d1agrams in which an element that characterizes
element budget in very-h1gh-temperature anatex1s. Hokada
one of the products of the process cons1dered (e.g .. resid-
and Harley (2004) and Cond1e et al. (2004) found that the
uum) 1s plotted against an element that charactenzes the
major phases 1n rocks formed at ultra-h1gh temperatures
other (e.g.. anatectic melt) are generally suffic1ent. Both the
can contain significant amounts of h1gh-field-strength ele-
maJor elements and trace elements should be treated.
ments, such as Zr and the REE, 1n sufficient amounts that
Res1dual rocks are most commonly ennched 1n Fe Mg the major phases. because of their h1gh modal abundance,
silicate minerals relative to the protolith, but they may also can control the budget for many of these trace elements in
be enriched in accessory minerals, plagioclase, K-feldspar, the whole rock.
and even quartz, depending on the particular composition
The bulk compositions of some protoliths result in residua
of the protolith. The Fe-Mg s1licate fraction is commonly
that are very rich 1n K-feldspar. or in quartz; K20 and Si02,
represented by the sum (FeOr + MgO + T10). where
respectively, may be an appropriate way to differentiate
FeO represents all the 1ron expressed as FeO, but 1n some
rocks denved from such res1dua from those derived from
Circumstances that cho1ce of components IS Inappropriate.
the melt fract1on.
If T10 1s pnncipally in m1nerals other than an Fe Mg sili-
cate (e.g.. rutile. rather than b1ot1te). it may be better to Anatectic melts generally range from gran1te to tonalite
cons1der 1t separately from (FeO + MgO). because mmer- trondhJemite in compos1tion (see Figs. 5 and 6). although
als that form very small gra1ns could be segregated w1th the potass1c anatect1c melts of syenogran1te compos1t1on
melt. much like inherited zircon, for example. The presence may form from protoliths such as plag1oclase-poor pehtes
of Fe ox1de and Fe sulfide m1nerals 1n the protolith means (Pickenng and Johnston 1998. Grant 2004). Generally, the
that some, and poss1bly most, of the Fe IS not 1n the silicate anatectiC melts are ennched 1n K20, Na,O, and S102 rela-
m1nerals. In that circumstance, MgO alone may be the best tive to their protoliths. The trace elements Cs, Ba. and Li
way of depicting the ferromagnes1an silicate fraction in the are partitioned int o the melt under most circumstances
residuum Alternatively. the whole-rock FeO content may of partial melting in the continental crust (Icenhower and
be corrected by subtracting the amount of Fe in the sul- London 1995. 1996). Hence, these major ox1des and t race
fide and Fe oxide minerals, using a combination of modal
_A_tl_"_''_'f_M~ig_rn_a'-"-"-'--------------------------------- 43

elements are commonly used to represent the anatectiC Matched samples collected from different parts of 1ndi-
melt, or melt-denved rocks. in b1vanant plots. v1dual bod1es of leucosome could be used to investigate
fract1onal cryst allization, or the unmixing of t he melt frac-
Plagioclase is generally one of the first minerals to start to
tion from the residuum. The problem can also be inverted
crystallize from melts of granitic compos1t1on, and 1n the
to 1nvest1gate the extent to which contam1nat1on by the
early part of the crystallization h1story, 1t may be the most
wallrocks has occurred dunng the formation of the leuco-
voluminous product. Thus, a plagioclase cumulate formed
some, for example, by the movement of melt through the
by fract1onal crystallization may be represented by Na ,0.
network of channels that dra1ned melt from 1ts source (see
CaO, or Sr. The rema1n1ng evolved melt is ennched 1n the
Fig. 4b, for example). Mult1-element vanat1on diagrams (the
components 1ncompat1ble w1th plag1oclase; the rocks crys-
so-called "spidergrams") in wh1ch the products are normal-
tallized from such a melt could be represented by Si0 • KzO.
2 ized to the starting composition are a good way of showing
Cs. Ba, L1, Pb, Sn, and even U. The crystalltzat1on of acces-
compos1t1onal vanations with1n matched sets of samples.
sory phases. e.g., z1rcon, monaz1te. xenot1me. and apat1te,
from anatectic melts common ly controls the high-field-
strength elements (H FSE) and REE contents of the rocks
General sets of samples
(e.g., leucosome and some diatex1te m1gmatites) denved In many migmatites, particularly if the proport1on of
from the anatectiC melt (Miller and M1ttlefehldt 1982, neosome 1s h1gh, or 1f the melt fract1on has moved long
Sawka 1988, Wark and Miller 1993. Bea et al. 1994) and (meter-scale) distances, it 1s 1mpossible to be certain that
should be Investigated. The papers by Bea (1991, 1996o, b) the leucosome sampled is genet1cally related to it s adjacent.
and Bea et al. ( 1994) are 1mportant resources for the trace- or even the nearest. melanosome; moreover, determ1n1ng
element contents of both accessory and maJOr phases, and what was the protolith may be Impossible, whtch precludes
are useful for those wishi ng to model partial-melt1ng and sampling it. Although these general sets of samples are not
crystallization processes. suited for studies of the kinds of problem outlined in the
prevtous sectton, they are. if a large numbe~ of samples are
Comb1nat1ons of elements may generally be found to collected, 1deal to examtne the complete range of petro-
produce a w ide d1spersion of the sample points in the logical processes that occur in making mtgmatites; recent
compos1t1onal space of peltt1c, greywacke. and mafic bulk examples of th1s approach were provided by Sawyer ( 1998,
compos1t1ons. However, 1n cases where the compos1t1on of 1999). Sawyer et al. (1999), Mtlord et al. 2001, Solar and
the protolith and the anatectic melt are s1m1lar (e.g., part1al Brown (200 I). Villaseca et al. (200 I). Fornelli et al. (2002).
melting of granite, arkoses, and some psammites), compo- and Guernina and Sawyer (2003).
Sitional changes can be very small and, consequently, are
very d1fficult to illustrate diagrammatically. Two types of diagram are parttcularly useful (Fig. 8). The
first. MgO or (FeO~ + MgO) versus Kp or Si0 • can be
used to examtne partial melttng and the unmixing of melt
Matched triplet sets of samples
from the restduum. The second, CaO or (CaO + Na 0)
Sample sets 1n wh1ch a part1cular protolith and the "1n1t1al"
versus K,O or StO,. ts useful where plagtoclase 1s a maJOr
anatectiC melt (leucosome) and residuum (melanosome)
residual phase; with it, one can investigate the processes
derived from it have been systematically sampled are few.
that occurred dunng the crystallization of the anatectiC
Because of the known relat1onsh1p among the samples,
melt. such as fractional crystallization 1n whtch an early-
these tnplet sets of samples offer unique opportuntt1es
crystalltzed mtneral. typtcally plagioclase, but 1n some cases
to study the details of the processes that occurred in mig-
K-feldspar, accumulates in one part of the system, and the
matites. They can be used for mass-balance techniques,
complementary fractionated melt crystallizes elsewhere.
such as the 1socon method of Grant (1986; but see also
Cumulate plagtoclase could be represented by CaO or
Baumgartner and Olsen 1995), to investigate whether melt-
(CaO + Na20) , K,O could represent e1ther the K-nch
Ing occurred 1n an open or a closed system, and to calculate
fractionated melt or cumulate K-feldspar. and SiO, could
the volume and compos1t1on of the matenal that was added.
be used to represent the fracttonated melt. In order to
or lost (e.g .. Olsen et al. 2004). The degree of part1al melt-
1nterpret the scatter and trends that a large set of general
Ing (F) can also be constrained, and the vanous conceptual
samples from a mtgmatite terrane generally show tn com -
models for partial melting (e.g.. equilibnum batch-melt-
posttton space. some reference po1nts and trends need to
Ing, fractional melting, disequiltbnum melt1ng. etc.) can be
be establtshed. Ideally, these are the compos1t1ons of the
tested by try1ng to repltcate the measured compos1t1ons of
sampled protolith and the anatectic melt (or melts). If the
the leucosome considered to represent the "1n1tial" melt,
compositton of the melt (from the leucosome) is unavail-
although selecting which distribution coefficients to use 1s
able. then a suitable composition of an expenmental melt
qutte another problem (see comments by Icenhower and
(;.e.. glass) 1s the next best opt1on. The compositional
London 1995), and one outs1de the scope of thts book.
range of fels1c anatectic melts obtained from a parttcular
44 ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -

type of prot olith (e.g., greywacke, pel ite, or felsic) in partial- (Figs. 8c, d) partially overlap the compositional field for
melting expenmen ts below 900°C and at pressures below expenmen tal glasses generated from dehydrati on melt1ng
I0 kbar is relatively small (F1gs. 6a-c); major dive rsity 1n the (i.e., w1thout H,O added). Fo r samples of diatex1te m1g-
compos1t1on of anatectiC melts starts after the hydrous mat1tes (F1gs. 8e-j), the appropna te experimen tal glass
phases have disappeared. From a knowledg e of the melt- compositi ons from partial melt 1ng w ithout H20 added
Ing react1ons and P- T a(H,O) cond1t1ons unde r which the 1nvanably co1ncide w1th those samples of d1atex1te w1th the
migmatite s fo rmed, and the type of prot oilth involved (e.g., lowest MgO, (FeOT + MgO) and CaO contents, but w1th
pelite, greywacke, mafic, gran1te, or tonalite), glass com- h1gh K, 0 and Si02 contents, which from thew petrograp hic
posit ions can be obta1ned from the literat ure with wh1ch charact eristics were essentially anatectic melt.
to define a "field of anatectiC melt." The compos1t1ons of
W 1th the trend between melt and protoilth compos1t1ons
both nat ural melt (from leucosome ) and expenme ntal melt
established, the melt-depl eted or residual rocks (e.g., mel-
are shown in Fig. 8 for compariso n. Any samples of leuco-
anosome and some diatex1te m1gmat1tes) are 1dent1fied
some, or d1atexite migmat1te. that lie 1n (or close to) the
by their position along this trend on t he opposite s1de of
expenmen tal melt field may be "initial" melts, and should
the protolith to t he melt (F1g. 8). However, F1g. 8 shows
be fu rther Investigated us1ng the1r trace-elem ent (1.e.,
that the compositi onal fie ld of t he prot olith is much larger
REE) contents; these samples could be useful in defin1ng
than the compos1t1onal field of the "in1t1al" anatectic melts
the trace-elem ent characten st1cs of the melt. The leuco-
(i.e., excluding leucosom e that is t he prod uct of fract1onal
some compos1tions from metatexit e migmatites derived
crystallization) 1n most m1gmat1te terranes; consequently,
from mafic protoliths (Figs. 8a, b) plot closer to expen men-
the compositi onal field of the res1dual rocks IS large r still.
tal glasses (W) that were generated by H,O-adde d partial
Neverthel ess, assum1ng a representa tive sampling of mel-
melting, than to the glasses (D) obtained from expen-
anosome, 1t could be argued that a t1e line from the densest
ments w1th no H 20 added. This may mean that melting 1n
cluster of melanoso me samples to the melt compos1t1on
these m1gmat1tes was 1n fact H20-fluxed. Leucosom e com-
should pass through the most abundant composit1on of
positions from the Quetico (Ontario) m1gmatite terrane

tion of general sets of samples

Fig. 8. Examples of plots of compatible versus incompati ble elements used in the interpreta
migmatites from the Grenville Front
from migmatite terranes. (a) (FeOT + MgO) versus SiO! and (b) CaO versus iO z for
n of hornblend e and the for-
near Ch ibougamau, Quebec; anatexis at T 800-850°C, P 8- 10 kbar, involving the breakdow
SiO z and (d) (CaO + azO) versus
mation of a tonalitic melt with clinopyroxene and garnet. (c) (FeOT + MgO) versus
anatcxi> at T 700-800° C, P 3-4 kbar, involving the brea k-
Si0 2 for migmatites from the Q uetico Subprov ince, Ontario;
Note that some am pies of di atexitc plor in the
down of biotite and sillimani te and the formation of melt plus cordieritc.
fields, and that the palcosomc (resister) lith-
protolith field, whereas others lie between the protolith and anatectic melt
and ([) (CaO + Nap) versus Kp
ologies have compositions t hat fall outside the protolith field. (e) MgO versus Kp
P 5-7 kbar, principally via the H 10-
fo r migmatites from the Opatica Subprov ince, O ntario: anatexis at T 750-800° C,
versus K!O for migmatites from
prcsenr melting of quartz, plagioclase, and K-feldspar. (g) MgO versus K20 and (h) CaO
the Ashuanip i Subprov ince, Q uebec: anatexis at T 825-875°C , P 6-7 kbar, through biotite
+ quart: + plagiocla>c = melt +
the melt had composit ions of about
orthopyroxene + ilmenite or magnetite . The plagioclase that initially crystallized from
melt and is approxima tely A n 10 . Many samples plot a long
A n 10, whereas the last plagioclase crystalli zed from more evolved
however, that trend also coincides
the trend of melt + residuum (composed of pl agioclase + orthopyroxene). On this plot,
with the accumu lations of plagioclase cry tallizcd from the anatectic melt. (i) (FcOT
+ MgO) versus Kp and (j) CaO
involving the breakdown of mus-
versus SiO! for migmati tes from Saint-Malo, France; anatex is at a T of 750°C, P 4- 7 kbar,
arc explained on the figures)
cm•ite, a nd with biotite genera lly stable. \XIhole-rock data arc shown as points (the symbols
), which arc located at the tips
and arc combined wit h mi neral composit ions (determi ned by electron-microprobe analysi
to the resid uum and a re drawn
of the arrow (sec text for further explanatio n). Solid arrows pertain to minerals belonging
The dotted arrows indicate the composition of the miner-
radiating out from a representative composit ion of the protolith.
from a representa tive in iti al compositio n of the anatectic
als that crystallize d from the anatectic melt, and they arc drawn
, protolith , residuum, plagioclase accu-
melt. The positions of anatect ic melt (al so marked AM where space is restricted)
trend for melts contamin ated with
mulations, and fractionat ed melts arc labeled on the diagrams. Labeled arrows: CA M,
residuu m; A P, trend for plagioclase accumulat ion; FM, trend for fractionat ed melts.
0 represents glass compositions from
xcd experiments.
dehydratio n-melting experimen ts, and \XI represents glass composition from HzO-flu
A ri a., o f MJgmatitc"
--------- --------- --------- ---- 45


e Melanosome
TT Metatexite migmatites
0 In situ leucosome
25 Grenville Front
() Neosome T
unsegregated 20 mafic protolith

0 T Palaeosome
~ • Leucocratic vem
0 + Protohth <ft. trend for melt
~ 15 X Experiment glass "'+-+
~ contaminated
...1-j!;;;,.,_~protolith restdual jwith residuum
t- trend for anatectic
(I] () PI An4o; __ D
~ 10 melt contaminated 0
u... Metatexite migmatites to garnet ~-~X W
. . . . .cf.:.c:_xe.._
' · by residuum melt-product ~ ........::···.....(A
Grenville Front
mafic protolith
ox>xx··.Q;> 0 5 PI An30 j ,.
···.X anatectic
trend for accumulation
a W • melts
b of plagioclase
0 0
40 50 60 70 80 40 50 60 70 80
Si02 (wt %) Si02 (wt %)
25 8
to melt-product
Metatexite migmatites
to • 7 \ ...... plagioclase An20
Grt Quetico subprovince
20 residuum pelitic protolith ·o accumulation
0 ~
•• +
c8~ 0
\ ...of plagioclase

~ 15 I 5
o ~ ..~·Ar:,r><··..........
0 0
:a N
(I] 4 ~
+ 10
z ./ X 0 to
t- + ./ X
0 0(I]
3 #..· X X Qtz
u... 0
2 to • ++
to K-feldspar
5 Crd
+ Metatexite migmatites
FM Quetico subprovince
d pelitic protolith
0 0
55 60 65 70 75 80 55 60 65 70 75 80
Si02 (wt %) Si02 (wt %)

1.7 11
Diatexite migmatites loBI D Diatex1te, melt-rich to
• D1atex1te, Diatexite migmatites
Opatica subprovince 10
res1duum-nch Opatica subprovince
~ D1atex1te leucotonalite protolith
protolith () Patch metatexite 9
• Anatectic granite
j 8
~ I X ~ loB~
N 7
0 z
~ ti+~otolith
:a +
residuu$ X 0(I]
fractionated melts
• 0
() ·-·t:Jo ...o/" • •
to Qtz ~ ~ ············' ·0.··············•····*·····~-
8 ~ P_!... ··· ····· ............ ··· x~~:~d~c • •• ~rs

Xx ~--
f fractionated melts·.,
toQtz X
0 3
0 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 2 3 4 5 6 7
K20 (wt %) K20 (wt %)
6 res1dual PI An33
toOpx ~ Diatex ite migmatites

Diatexite migmatites
Ashuanipi subprovince
6 Ashuanipi subprovince
psammitic protolith

• • psammitic protolith
4 ~

~ Undifferentiated 4
diatexite 1
3 ~~ + Anatectic granite
~ 3
Ol ~7)1t....rf#A~~ u
2 • Ia ~~~ "
CA~ !41
4j to 8t 2

9 "~-~--~~~1'"
2 3 4 5
6 7 8
2 3 4
K20 (wt %)
5 6 7 8
K20 (wt %)

Diatexi te migmatites
to Diatexite migmatites
20 8t
St. Malo St. Malo
pelitic protolith • pelitic protolith
0 Undifferentiated 2
<F. 15 diatexite ~

I + Anatectic
to Crd 0
:::!! 10 u
0 +
5 toQtz 0 .~0

~ El ~
& Pt
AP 0 0 0
.. .........t@. ....Q .....0.
AM)('P~ +X .. ... .O• FM •• •
0~...... .........
--~ 0
0 ~--~--~--~--~~~~~~ 40 50 60 70 80
0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Si02 (wt %)
K20 (wt %)
Fig. 8

t1on of However, the residuum trend for b10t1te dehydrat1on
protoli th for the m1gmat1te terrane. The onenta yroxen e,
trend IS contro lled by wh1ch m1nera ls Ing must lie 1n the direct1on of e1ther the orthop
the melt-res1duum , and
residuu m, and this is a functio n of cordie rite, or garnet vect ors, plus plag1oclase. quartz
are abundant in the le, the res1du um
re- K-feldspar, 1f they are presen t. For examp
both the compos1t 1on of the protoli th and the pressu e ± b1otite ±
part1al melt1n g took place. compos1t1ons (plag1o clase + orthop yroxen
tempe rature cond1t 1ons at wh1ch the Ashuan 1p1
quartz ) for the granulite-faci es m1gma tites 1n
A set of vector s (solid arrows ) can be drawn for each plagio-
these vector s Subprovince lie betwe en the orthop yroxen e and
tolith compos1tion to each res1dual mineral; e-nch res1dua
d from clase vector s on Figs. Bg and h. Orthop yroxen
should contain the residuum compos1t1on denve and
For the sake of clanty, Fig. 8 only shows the can comm only be dist1ngu1shed from cord1ente-
that protol ith.
res1dua l m1nera ls from one typ1cal proto- garnet-nch ones.
vector s to the
lith composition. The t1p of the arrow rests on the If the proto lith field IS well defined, 1n addit1on to
the posi-
1t1on is not at the arrow
compos1t1on; 1fthe m1neral compos relative to the protol ith,
labeled tion of the res1duum and melt
(e.g.. 1t lies off the plot), however, then the arrow 1s ied,
then open- or closed -system behav1 or can be identif
d from a
"to." The melanocratic parts of the m1gmatite denve and this 1s part1cularly useful 1n 1nterpret1ng the proces
deplet ed in
metamafic protol1th shown in F1gs. Sa and b are (e.g., the
that occurr ed 1n m1gmat1tes. Samples of neosome
plagioclase, but are enriched 1n garnet and diops1de patch
unsegregated neosome on F1gs. Sa and b, and the
to the protoli th, wh1ch
IS consis
a res1dua
t1tes 1s
l ong1n.
elonga te metate xlte on Figs. Be and n
that plot Within the field of
The protol ith field for t he1r respective protoli ths may have formed 1n a closed sys-
y along the musco vite vector . but
1n a directi on approximatel should
b1ot1te tem, and are most probably generated in sttu, which
the samples of res1duum from Sa1nt-Malo fol low the at the time of sampli ng.
break- be determ1ned by field observation
trend (F1gs. 81, J), because anatex1s resulte d from the e
Be and (defin
m1nera l. In contra st. the d1atexite m1gmatites in Figs.
down of muscov1te, and b1ot1te remained a stable
Atl.t.., of ~ltgmatttc"
--------- --------- --------- ----47

a field that 1s far larger than that of the proto lith, a feature cases, leucosome (e.g.. Figs. 8d 0 and d1atex1te m1gmat1tes
that may 1nd1cate open-system behav1or. In part1cular. some (Figs. 8g j) have compos1t1ons cons1stent w1th crystalliza-
of the d1atexite samples plot outside the protolith and In, t ion from a fract1onated melt. Figure 8 shows that most of
or close. to t he field of anatectic melt, whereas others the small leucocrat1c ve1ns or dikes and small bodies of ana-
plot beyond the protollth on the s1de oppos1te that of the tectic gran1te that are a common. although not necessarily
anatectiC melt; these two groups of d1atex1te samples are abundant. component of m1gmat1te terranes, have com-
interpreted to have gained melt (i.e.. they are melt-rich dia- positions indicating that they crystallized from an evolved
texlt es) and to have lost melt (i.e .. they are residuum-nch anatectiC melt.
diatex1tes). respect1vely. In contrast. the patch metatex-
ltes and some of the d1atexite m1gmat1tes from the same
migmatite terrane (Figs. Be, 0 plot within the protolith
field and can, therefore. be Interpreted to have ne1ther
lost. nor ga1ned, anatectiC melt. 1.e., to have formed 1n a
closed system. M IG MAT ITE-LIK E ROCKS
The pos1t1on of m1gmat1te samples relat1ve to the res1duum. M1gmat1tes are produced by part1al meltmg, and th1s IS why
protollth. and melt fields has also been used to 1dent1fy they have complex structures and striking appearances. The
samples Infiltrated (Sawyer et al. 1999) or ve1ned (Guern1na anatectic melt has a lower viscosity t han nonmelted rock,
and Sawyer 2003) by leucocratic melt. A position to and th1s enables the melt to segregate from 1ts res1duum
the K"O-ennched s1de of the melt protolith t1e-line could and to collect 1n low-pressure s1tes dunng deformation. Th1s
1ndicate that the InJected melt was a fract1onated one. separat1on creates the light-colored (leucosome) and dark-
colored (residuum) parts of migmatites. The differences
The vanous processes such as contamination and frac-
in the fraction of melt from place to place 1n a migmat1te
tional crystallization that affect the anatectiC melt can also
results 1n a w1de range in rock strength (or competency).
be investigated on these diagrams. Some trends or vectors
Consequently, m1gmat ites deform heterogeneously and
useful in Identifying processes are shown as dotted arrows
develop complex morphologies. as shown in the Illus-
emanat1ng from a s1ngle "typ1cal" 1n1t1al compos1tion of ana-
trations of th1s book. The presence of the segregated
tectic melt in F1g. 8; 1t should not be forgotten that s1milar
leucocratiC doma1ns 1n the darker. more mafic-lookmg host
vectors apply for all the compos1t1ons of anatectic melt.
accounts for the etymolog1cal root of migmat 1te, mean1ng
Using the melt-protolith res1duum tie-line as a reference.
"mixed rock."
melt-denved rocks, such as diatex1te migmat1tes and leuco-
some, that have become contaminated by the res1duum. or However. there are processes other than part1al melt1ng
perhaps by part1cular residual phases, can be distingu1shed that can produce rocks that have light-colored patches. lay-
by a trend (CAM) toward the res1duum. e.g.. in Figs. 8a. b. ers, and ve1ns 1n a darker host and complex morpholog1es.
and g. One 1S subsolidus segregat1on 1n wh1ch the mobile (gener-
ally fels1c) components are separated from the less mobile
Plag1oclase 1s one of the first m1nerals to crystal lize abun-
(generally mafic) ones in a rock, and another is the 1nject1on
dantly from a gran1t1c magma. and Fig. 8 conta1ns a vector
of ve1ns of fels1c magma into a host of another composi-
from the compos1t1on of a representative melt to the pla-
tion. as occurs 1n syntectonic plutons and ve1n complexes.
gioclase that crystallized from 1t. Samples that lie along th1s
Unfortunately. some 1nvest1gators have focused only on the
trend (AP) may represent accumulat 1ons of plag1oclase.
"mixed rock" aspect of light-colored ve1ns in a darker host
Note that the plag1oclase 1n the res1duum and the cumu-
when call1ng thew rocks m1gmat1tes rather than cons1der
late plag1oclase 1n the melt-denved rocks do not. generally.
the other requ1rements, that m1gmat1tes are produced by
have the same compos1t1on. Many of the doma1ns of leu-
part1al melting and are. therefore, found (only) in medium-
cosome (Fig. 8d, but see also F1gs. 5 and 6) and d1atexite
and h1gh-grade metamorphic areas. Consequently, some
migmatites (F1gs. 8g j) 1n migmat1te terranes are accumula-
rocks have been called m1gmat1te that are not. Therefore.
tions of plag1oclase that crystallized from the anatectiC melt.
as an a1d to the 1dent1ficat1on of migmatites. some of the
If the plagioclase that crystallized first IS separated, then
rocks that are commonly m1staken for migmat1tes and
the remain1ng melt has a more evolved. or fractionated,
some cnteria by wh1ch they can be d1st1ngu1shed from m1g-
bulk composition relat1ve to that of the 1n1tial melt. Rocks
mat1tes. are descnbed 1n th1s sect1on. Examples of rocks
that crystallized from evolved melts are typ1cally ennched
that can be mistaken for m1gmat1tes are illustrated in sec-
in K-feldspar and quartz. and lie along a fractionated melt
tion G of the book.
trend (FM) that lies between these two m1nerals. In some
48 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- -------- -

7.1 Rocks formed by

Rob1n (1979) develop ed a model for subsolidus segrega-
tion bet ween layers of d1fferent rat1o of mica to quartz,

subsolidus segregation and hence of different compet ency or viscos1ty. The model
IS equ1valent to a sequenc e containing beds of differ-
Metam orphic differe ntiatio n IS the general term, not
ent modal m1neralogy. Dunng deformation. differences 1n
speofic to any grade of metamo rphism. used to describe
mean stresses betwee n layers set up gradien ts 1n chemical
the moveme nt of matenal 1n a rock dunng metamo rphism;
potent1al, wh1ch drive the movem ent of the more "mobile"
the process, or process es, whereb y the materia l is mobi-
matenal (quartz and feldspar) to the most compet ent lay-
lized 1s not spec1fied . For Holmqu1st (1920) and Eskola
ers (richest in strong minerals, e.g.. quartz and fe ldspar). 1n
(1932). metamo rphic differentiation was accomplished
by the move ment of anatectiC me lt 1n h1gh-grade rocks,
a process that accentu ates the 1n1t1al contras ts 1n compe- •
tency inhente d from sedimen tary depositi on (Sawye r and
wherea s Turner (1941) argued that 1n low-grade chlo-
Rob1n 1986).
rite schists, it was achieved by the movem ent of material
through an 1ntergranular pore-flu id. Subsol idus segreg a- The gram and the layer models show that a driv1ng force for
tion , or subsoli dus differe ntiatio n. refers specifically to d1ssolut1on and movem ent of matenal ex1sts 1f the gra1ns
the movem ent o f material in met amorph ic rocks by pro- are subject to differential stress, but there are different
cesses not 1nvolv1ng a part1al melt. mechan1sms of transpo rt by wh1ch the "mobile" matenal
can move from s1tes of h1gh to low stress (Walthe r and
Many investigators (e.g.. Eskola 1939, Turner 1941. Ramber g
Wood 1983). From slowest to fastest, these are ( I) diffu-
1952, Williams 1972. Rob1n 1979) have noted t he close
Sion through m1neral grains, (2) diffus1on along dry gra1n
assooat1on in low-gra de metamo rphic rocks of light-
boundar ies. (3) d1ffus1on through a flu1d film along a gra1n
colored , quartz-n ch segregat1ons w1th dark-colored. mica-
boundary, (4) solut1on 1n, and diffus1on through , a stat1c
rich bands. Virtually all investigators show that planar
pore-flu1d, and (5) solut1on 1nto an 1ntergranular pore-fluid
subsolidus segrega tions grew dunng penods of penetra tive
that IS advecting.
deforma tion (e.g.. Barr 1985; Mclellan 1983. 1984. 1989;
Sawyer and Robin 1986). wh1ch suggests that they result Models have also been develop ed for the formatio n of
from a stress-d nven phenom enon. subsolidus segregations under cond1t1ons of hydrostatiC
stress (e.g.. Fisher 1973. 1978; joesten 1977) to describe
the diffusion -control led growth of reaction-rim microstruc-
7.2 Models for the process tures and the growth of concret1ons. The dnv1ng forces
of subsolidus segregation 1n these 1sobanc and isothermal models are the chemical
There have been many 1nvestlgat1ons (e.g.. Stromga rd 1973; potential gradients result1ng from small-scale vanat1ons 1n
Rutter 1976; Rob1n 1978. 1979; Fletcher 1982; van der the m1neral assemblages.
Molen 1985; Wheele r 1987 ) of stress-Induced chem1ca l
transfer that address the mechan1sm of subsolidus segrega-
tion 1n rocks. Some investigators cons1der gra1n aggregates 7.3 P-T conditions at which
of one m1neral speoes, wherea s others cons1der layers of subsolidus segregation occurs
different compos1t1ons. Subsolidus segregations form at low metamo rphic grades
and are commo nly reporte d from metased imentar y rocks
In an aggregate of grains subject to a d1fferent1al stress.
1n greensch1st-fac1es metamo rphic terrane s (e.g.. Turner
these d1fferences 1n stress exist along grain interfaces
1941, Vidale 1974, Sawyer and Rob1n 1986). The condi-
because of the vanat1on 1n the onentat1 on of the gra1n
tions of maximum grade of metamo rphism at which they
bounda nes relat1ve to the pnncipal directio n of compre s-
form are well constra1ned 1n several reg1onal metamo r-
sive stress. Such vanation establishes chem1cal potent1al
phic terrane s. The subsolidus segregations that g1ve nse to
grad1ents that dnve the "d1ssolut1on" of "soluble" matenal
stromatic, m1gmatite-like sch1sts 1n central Massachusetts
from the po1nts of highest stress. and its movem ent to the
formed at tempera tures betwee n 550 and 625°C (Tracy
low-stress Interfaces. where 1t "prec1p1tates" and leads to
1985). In northea stern Scotland . the highest-grade subsoli-
the growth of a new mineral or m1nerals. In polym1neralic
dus segregations occur between the kyan1te and sillimanite
rocks. quartz, the feldspars. and carbona te are generally
1sograds. which corresp onds to tempera tures betwee n
more susceptible to stress-In duced chemiCal transfer, and
550 and 600°C and a pressur e of 6 kbar (Mclellan 1989);
hence are more "mobile" or "soluble," than the micas.
Barr (1985) est1mated that the tempera tures were a lit
amphiboles, and accesso ry phases. wh1ch are regarde d
tie h1gher. 580-64 0°C. but still subsolidus. In the Quetico
as "1nsoluble."
Subprovince of Canada, the h1ghest-grade subsolidus segre-
gations formed 1n rocks that reached tempera tures close to
Atl.h of ~1•gmatite'
----------- ----------- --------- 49

• 650°C and pressures of 3-4 kbar (Sawyer and Rob1n 1986).

very close to where the first scattered, anatectic neosome
eas1ly advected. The process of subsolidus segregat1on
may not cease, but it IS simply too slow to contribute to
starts to appear 1n metapelitic rocks. Blom ( 1988) studied the petrological changes that occur once melt1ng starts.
amphibolite- and granulite-fac1es rocks 1n F1nland. and found Poss1bly. subsolidus segregat1on could occur 1n those layers
that the processes of subsolidus segregation operated only not undergo1ng part1al melt1ng, but if these layers become
1n the amphibolite-fac1es part of the reg1on's metamorphic fiUid-absent because of melting nearby, then transport 1n
history, between 500 and 640°C (at about 5 kbar); above them will be greatly 1nhib1ted, and only short-range diffu-
the amphibolite fac1es. they were simply heated up to about sion-induced segregat1on of the type described by Fisher
800°C w1thout any further growth. (1973. 1978) and Trumbull (1988) may operate, produong
small. scattered leucocrat1c patches called flecks.
The max1mum temperatures at wh1ch subsolidus seg-
regations formed by diffusion-controlled processes in Because the process of subsolidus segregation separates the
a hydrostatic stress reg1me are not as well constra1ned. "mobile" quartz and feldspar from the "1mmobile" m1cas, 1t
Trumbull ( 1988) reported that small. equant, subsolidus can produce rocks that resemble m1gmat1tes. Furthermore,
segregat1ons 1n b1ot1te and b1ot1te + hornblende gne1sses s1nce subsol1dus segregations that formed at lower meta-
formed at a temperature between 600 and 700°C. L1ndh morphic grades are commonly preserved 1n the paleosome
et al. (1984) reported temperatures of 550-600°C for parts of migmatites, 1t is clearly desirable that subsolidus
almost identical. equant, diffusion-controlled segregations. segregations be distinguished from neosome 1n m1gma-
tite. In the next sect1on, I outline the pnnc1pal features of

7.4 The relationship between subsolidus segregations that enable th1s to be done.

subsolidus segregation
and migmatites 7.5 Small.. scale features of
All the data presently ava1lable 1ndicate that stress-dnven
subsolidus segregations
subsolidus segregations grow 1n the low- and med1um-grade The mineralogical, microstructural. and morpholog1cal char-
parts of metamorphic terranes, and not in the h1gh-grade acteristics of subsolidus segregations are best known for
parts. Therefore, rocks formed by stress-driven subsolidus those developed from metapelitic and metagreywacke pro-
segregat1on do not fall w1thin Ashworth's (1985) defin1t1on toliths. Consequently. these will serve as the type example.
of m1gmat1te, and because they are not formed by partial
melt1ng, they do not fall w1th1n the defin1t1on of m1gmat1te The constituent parts
proposed 1n th1s book; consequently, they are not consid- Two bas1c types of 1nternal structure have been described
ered to be m1gmat1tes. for subsolidus segregations developed 1n metapelite and
metagreywacke protoliths. The most common type IS
Subsolidus segregations cons1st1ng of quartz-nch veins and
formed by stress-1nduced chem1cal transfer; they are th1n.
pods surrounded by melanocrat1c selvedges (see next
laterally extens1ve, h1gh-aspect-ratio segregations. They
sect1on for a fuller descnption) may be found 1n many mlg-
have an 1nner leucocratic part that is bordered by an
matite terranes. What then is the relationship between the
outer melanocratic nm, beyond wh1ch IS the country rock
process of subsolidus segregat1on and m1gmat1tes? Blom
(Mclellan 1983, 1989; Sawyer and Rob1n 1986; Blom 1988).
( 1988) suggested that subsolidus segregations are not
In most cases, the central, leucocrat1c part IS compara-
expected 1n m1gmat1tes and should, therefore, be regarded
tively homogeneous and dom1nated by quartz, but others
as part of the pre-anatectic history of the rock, i.e., they are
are compositionally zoned (typically a quartz-rich core and
part of the paleosome. Why should subsolidus segregations
a more feldspathic outer part) ow1ng to the accret1on of
seem to stop growing when stress gradients still ex1st? An
successive Increments of d1fferent composition dur·ng pro-
analogy with deformation-mechan1sm maps may prov1de an
grade metamorphism. The dark-colored borders, called
1ns1ght. Space on the maps (e.g., Ashby 1972, Po1ner 1985)
melanocrat1c selvedges, are rarely un1form; typ1cally, there
IS d1v1ded on the bas1s of the fastest, that 1s, dominant, but
IS a progressive decrease in the proportion of quartz and
not exclus1ve, mechan1sm of deformation, because it con-
plag1oclase that produces a progress1ve darken1ng toward
trols the rate at wh1ch bulk deformat1on can proceed. For
the leucocrat1c core. The second type 1s much rarer and
processes occurring 1n high-grade metamorphic rocks. the
IS formed without differential stresses. These diffusion-
1mportant parameter may be rate of transport; 1t controls
controlled subsolidus segregations are typ1cally small (<20 mm)
the rate of petrolog1cal change. Once part1al melt1ng beg1ns,
and pod-shaped; they have a melanocrat1c core surrounded
the melt offers by far the fastest rate of transport by which
by a leucocrat1c mantle, w1th the envelop1ng country- rock
petrologiCal changes can be accomplished, because diffu -
beyond that (Lindh et al. 1984, Trumbull 1988).
sion 1n a melt 1s faster than 1n a solid. Moreover, melt is
50 ------------------------------

The rat1o of leucocrat1c to melanocrat1c parts 1n the stress- phases produced rema1n 1n the melanocrat1c part. but the
Induced segregat1ons 1s a funct1on of volume fraction of "mob1le" phase produced appears 1n the part that IS leuco-
"mobile" m1nerals. A protolith with more quartz and feld- cratic. Curiously, all the reported cases (L1ndh et al. 1984,
spar will have a greater ratio of leucocrat1c to melanocrat1c Sawyer and Rob1n 1986, Trumbull 1988) seem to 1nvolve
parts in the segregation than a protolith with a smaller vol- the same basic reaction: Fe-nch b10t1te == magnetite +
ume fraction of "mobile" m1nerals. For diffus1on-controlled K-feldspar + fluid, although 1n some cases. hornblende also
segregations formed under hydrostatic conditions. the is a product phase.
ratio is fixed by the overall reaction (e.g.. Lindh et al. 1984,
Results from mass-balance studies, whether based on
Trumbull 1988). modal analyses or on whole-rock compositions, show that
subsolidus segregations generally form m s1tu by an essen-
Mineralogy of subsolidus segregation tially 1sochemical process (Sawyer and Rob1n 1986, Sawyer
Ve1ns formed by subsolidus segregat1on 1n the lowest- and Barnes 1988, Mcl ellan 1989, Blom 1988, Trumbull
grade clastiC metasedimentary rocks cons1st almost entirely 1988). Relat1ve to the protolith. the melanocrat1c selvedge
of quartz. but the plagioclase to quartz rat1o 1n the vems represents the in Situ res1due of 1nsoluble or 1mmob11e
increases systematically w1th metamorphic grade from the matenal from which the soluble or mobile components
lower greenschist to the m1ddle amphibolite fac1es (V1dale that compnse the leucocrat1c part were extracted.
1974, Sawyer and Robin 1986). Furthermore. Sawyer and
Rob1n ( 1986) noted an increase 1n the plag1oclase to quartz Microstructure
ratio 1n success1ve increments of matenal added to Indi-
The leucocratic parts are coarser gra1ned than the
vidual segregations as they grew dunng conditions of ris1ng
melanocratic domains, and they are coarser than the pro-
metamorphic temperature. The changing plagioclase to
tolith, unless reduced by later mylonitization or cataclasis.
quartz ratio might be due to the depletion of quartz near
Although the leucocrat1c parts are coarse-gra1ned, their
the segregation, which increases the transport distance
microstructure IS metamorphic and dominated by equant
of quartz and so reduces its effect1ve "mobility." or to an
grams; they do not conta1n pegmat1te. or other 1gneous
1ncrease in the solubility of plagioclase faster than that of
textures and microstructures (Mclellan 1983). Minerals
quartz as metamorphic temperature nses.
1n the melanocrat1c selvedges generally have a strong pre-

Most 1nvest1gators have found the same m1neral paragen- ferred onentat1on; quartz and plag1oclase have tabular
shapes controlled by the preferred onentat1on of the more
eses 1n each part of the segregation as 1n the protolith;
abundant b1otlte. The overall microstructure IS, therefore,
the modal proportions d1ffer greatly, however. In general.
there 1s very little vanat1on in the composit1on of minerals lepidoblast1c or nematoblastic. and IS progressively more
strongly developed toward the melanocrat1c part of the
from the vanous parts of the segregat1on and the adJacent
protolith. Th1s property contrasts with part1al melting, segregat1on, 1.e., w1th progress1ve loss of mobile mmerals
where melanosome and leucosome 1n m1gmat1tes com- (mostly quartz) .
monly have different assemblages of m1nerals. In the
majority of subsolidus segregations. the leucocratic parts
conta1n mostly quartz + plagioclase, some cons1st of quartz
7.6 Outcrop ..scale morphology
+ K-feldspar; consequently, they tend to plot far from the The morphology of subsolidus segregat1ons is cont rolled by
cotect1c l1nes 1n the system Ab An Or Qtz H.O on the1r bulk rheology. which rema1ns that of solid rock. Th1s
CIPW norm d1agrams. The melanocratiC borders are char- represents the major difference bet ween rocks formed
acterized by an ennchment of "msoluble" m1nerals. typ1cally by subsolidus segregation and m1gmat1tes. Structures due
b1ot1te and the accessory m1nerals. relat1ve to the protohth. to magmat1c flow thus do not develop. and older struc-
Garnet. staurolite, hornblende. magnet1te, andalus1te. kya- tures are w1dely preserved. Furthermore, because of their
nJte. and sillimamte also may occur 1n the mafic selvedges. quartz-nch m1neralogy. the leucocrat1c parts of subsoli-
Orthopyroxene has not been reported from subsolidus dus segregations are the most competent part of the rock;
consequently, they commonly become boud1naged dunng
growth, 1n contrast to the leucosome 1n m1gmat1tes.
D1fferent assemblages of m1nerals can develop 1n the leuco-
cratlc and melanocratic parts of the subsolidus segregat1ons Stromatic, or laye red, subsolidus segregations are
1f the melanocratic part becomes depleted 1n one of the charactenzed by th1n (mm em wide) but laterally exten -
"mobile" minerals, generally quartz. Different assemblages sive segregations (meters or more) located 1n the plane of
can also develop if a metamorphic dehydration-type reac- mechanical anisotropy 1n the host, e1ther the foliation planes
tion occurs as the segregation grows and the "1mmob1le" or the compositional layering (see Figs. G I and G2) . The
Atl<.1.., of M1gmar1tc~
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 51

segregat1ons compnse of two parts: a quartz-nch, ve1nlike diatex1te m1gmat1tes 1f the lobate and cuspate boundanes
core and an outer melanocratic border. The segregations to the enclaves are not found; commonly, they may be lost
are concordant to host-rock foliat1on or bedding, and not as a result of high stra1n. The inJeCtiOn of one magma 1nto
discordant (Yardley 1978; Barr 1985; Mclellan 1983, 1984; another of different composition that has already crystal-
Sawyer and Barnes 1988). S1ngle-layer segregat1ons are lized sufficiently (but not completely) that 1t will fracture
common, but the most strik1ng layered structure devel- dunng Intrusion of the second can produce net-ve1n arrays
ops when numerous th1n, parallel segregat ions develop (e.g., Morogan and S0rensen 1994) that may resemble
1n protoliths that e1ther were orig1nally thinly bedded or some net-structured metatexite m1gmat1tes.
else conta1n a closely spaced cleavage or fol1at1on. Layered
subsolidus segregat1ons generally do not form 1n th1ck The w1dest range of m1gmat1te-like 1gneous rocks are
sequences of homogeneous rocks. The overall appearance found where magmas of fels1c or intermediate compo-
of the outcrops, therefore, depends on the distribut1on of Sition were either InJected into, or crystallized in, places
layers of a suitable protolith. of act1ve penetrative deformation. These correspond to
reg1mes of syntectonic emplacement and syntectonic crys-
Dilatant structures, such as 1nterboud1n part1t1ons. can tallization of magma. The s1m1lanty 1n appearance between
be favorable places for subsolidus segregations to develop. 1gneous rocks produced under these circumstances and
Typically, the "mobile" quartzofeldspathic constituents migmatites is not surpnsing. A crystall1z1ng pluton IS a two-
m1grate to the interboudin part1t1on, leav1ng the "immobile" phase system (melt + solid) like a m1gmat1te, and the melt
m1nerals to form a melanocratlc border 1n the adJacent fract1on can separate from the solid 1f there IS an applied
wallrock. Hence, the leucocrat1c parts can be d1scordant stress. Once the magma has crystallized sufficiently
to the foliat1on 1n the host, but are quite short. The for- (M < 0.4) that a ng1d skeleton of crystals is formed, sub-
mation of this type of segregat ion is analogous to pressure sequent deformation of the magma produces structures
shadows (Stri:imgard 1973). The appearance of outcrops (see Figs. G5-G8) that resemble those that develop where
conta1n1ng subsohdus segregat1ons and of metatex1te m1g- partially melted rocks are deformed dunng anatex1s (e.g.,
mat1tes 1n wh1ch leucosome IS located in dilatant structures Fig. 2). The po1nt at wh1ch a ng1d framework of crystals
can be s1milar; they can be d1st1ngu1shed by differences in is formed as magma crystallizes IS referred to as the ngid
the microstructure and mineral assemblages. percolation threshold (RPT) by Vigneresse et al. (1996). In
m1gmat1tes, the part1cular geometry and morphology of
Fleck structures are small, round subsolidus segrega-
the leucosome are controlled by the planar an1sotropy of
tions (F1gs. G3, G4) that commonly have a melanocratic
the protolith and the paleosome, wh1ch may be of pnmary
core surrounded by a leucocrat1c nm, or mantle (L1ndh et
(e.g., bedd1ng) or tectonic orig1n, and by stra1n. The loca-
al. 1984, Trumbull 1988). Trumbull (1988) suggested that
tion of fels1c ve1ns in syntectonic plutons is also controlled
flecks only develop 1n protoliths of certain bulk composi-
by the anisotropy of the host and stra1n, but in th1s case.
tions (notably K-ennched), and are randomly distributed 1n
the an1sotropy is generally a foliat1on acqu1red by sheanng
the1r host. Thew locat1on 1s not d1rectly controlled by planes
in the submagmatic state.
of mechanical an1sotropy, such as fol1at1on. The equant
shape of the flecks and the lack of a penetrative fol1ation in
Syntectonic injection of magma
some hosts suggested to L1ndh et al. (1984) that the fleck
structure IS an example of diffus1on-controlled subsol1dus Subparallel bands of l1ghter- and darker-colored rocks that
segregation formed 1n the absence of differential stress; resemble stromatiC m1gmat1tes can form where magmas of
hence, they resemble patch-type m1gmatites. Past use of different compos1t1ons are 1njected 1nto zones of h1gh shear
the term fleck has been reserved for segregations of sub- stra1n in plutons. Neves and Vauchez ( 1995) reported that a
solidus orig1n; this practice should be continued. stromatic-like alternation of rocks of different compos1t1ons
and microstructures developed only where a synmagmat1c
shear zone traverses the plutomc complex they studied 1n
7.7 Rocks formed in syntectonic Braz1l. They attnbuted the stromatiC layenng to the attenu-
plutons and plutonic complexes ation and disruption of successive, compositionally d1fferent
batches of magma as they were 1ntruded into the shear
The InJeCtion of one magma 1nto another of d1fferent com-
position can produce a wide variety of magma-mingling and
magma-m1xing structures that have been reported from Rocks that resemble stromatiC m1gmat1tes can also form by
a large number of pluton1c complexes (e.g., Mason 1985, the repeated dik1ng of a partially crystallized, darker mag-
Barbarin 1988). Some of these rocks can be m1staken for matiC host-rock by a more felsic magma during noncoax1al
51 ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ -

deformat1on (see F1gs. G9 and GIO). Sheanng 1n the mag- Fract1onated, res1dual melt that IS 1n the 1nterst1ces of the
matic and submagmatic states orients the platy and tabular crystal framework is forced out as poros1ty IS destroyed
mmerals 1n the darker magma. and th1s fabnc can then and the crystal framework compacts. and m1grates 1nto
control the onentat1on of subsequent dikes of the more the dilatant low-pressure s1tes that are growmg nearby.
felsic magmas (e.g.. john and Stunitz 1997) to produce Hence. the segregation of residual melt can be an essen-
compos1t1onally layered rocks that resemble stromatiC m1g- tially m Situ process. JUSt as tn many mtgmat1tes. The volume
mat1tes. In some examples, the fels1c magma is genetically of melt that ts segregated and forced to mtgrate out of the
d1fferent from 1ts host. However. 1n others 1t IS the frac- framework of crystals by deformat1on must decrease as
tionated. res1dual melt expelled from 1t s darker host by crystallization progresses; therefore, the morphology of
shear-1nduced compaction of its crystal framework in the the segregations of residual melt changes also. In the early
submagmat1c state (Cuney et al. 1990, Pons et al. 1995). stages, when the local volume of res1dual melt that has
been squeezed out of the framework IS large, the domatns
If the shear zone rema1ned act1ve after complete crystalli- of expelled melt closely resemble nebulites and diatexite
zation, then the magmatiC and submagmat1c fabrics 1n the m1gmatltes (e.g., Figs. Gil Gl4). As the volume of restdual
darker host and the felsic dikes are overpnnted by solid- melt declines. the orientation and morphology of the tndi-
state mylon1t1c fabncs. and all the felsic dikes show some vtdual structures that are filled wtth res1dual melt change
degree of rotation 1nto parallelism with the t rend of t he and are analogous t o some types of leucosome that form
shear zone. However, 1f the shear zone ceased to be act1ve tn metatexite mtgmat1tes at the beg1nntng of parttal melttng
before complete crystall1zat1on occurred, then the darker (e.g.. Figs. G5 G8). If the melt-filled dtlatant sttes become
host and early light-colored felsic dikes preserve submag- JOined, then the resulttng array of light-colored felsic vetns
matlc fabncs. and the late d1kes cross-cut the earlier ones can resemble the net and ddatant types of metatex-
and have more igneous microstructures (e.g., the Skagit ite migmatite. Locally. pooling of expelled restdual melt
Gne1ss and rocks 1n the nearby Chelan area ofWash1ngton). may result tn the development of foliatton-parallel vetns
Babcock and M1sch (1989) showed a CIPW norm plot 1n (Sawyer 2000).
which the late. cross-cutting d1kes plot on the cotectic line,
whereas the lighter-colored. stromatiC layers plot nearby,
but are displaced slightly toward the albite apex. This rela- 7.8 Vein complexes
tionship could be used to 1nfer that the lighter-colored In some geologtcal settmgs. metasedimentary or plutonic
layers 1n the Skagit gne1ss are 1n fact magmatiC, and result rocks have become vetned wtth felstc melts and magmas
from the syntectonic crystallization of a magma that resem- denved from lower structural levels. These rocks can look
bled the late dikes from wh1ch a res1dual, evolved melt was very much like some m1gmat1tes (Ftgs. G 15- G20), partiC-
expelled after the RPT was reached, leav1ng behind light- ularly tf the lighter-colored, fels1c veins have narrow maf1c
colored. plag1oclase-dom1nant fels1c dikes. selvedges, formed owtng to reactton of the wallrock wtth
the magma. or w1th an aqueous flutd evolved from 1t. and
Syntecto nic crystallization of felsic are mistaken for melanosome. The felstc melts may be
plutonic rocks denved by parttal melttng of much deeper rocks or by the
A vanety of nonstromatlc m1gmat1te-llke structures can syntectontc expulsion of restdual melt from deeper crys-
develop 1n compos1t1onally un1form gramtic plutons under- tallizing plutons. However, because the felsiC melts and
going noncoaxial deformation during the final stages of magmas are not genet1cally related to their hosts, these
crystallization. For magmas of gran1t1c compos1tlon. most rocks do not meet the definttion of mtgmattte. Ustng the
crystall ization occurs over a relatively narrow Interval of same type of reason1ng as Brown (1973), these InJected
temperature. JUSt above the solidus. Consequently, the rocks should be called vein complexes. If the host rock was
fraction of melt decreases sharply near the solidus, and a a m1gmat1te, then the addttton of fels1c vetns or dikes would
crystal framework containing the remaining melt in its inter- make the term "vetned migmat1te" applicable.
stices forms (Bryon et al. 1994). At fract1ons of melt below
0.25, the crystal framework deforms, partly by crystal-
plastiC mechan1sms, and partly by fracture 1n response to
applied stresses. so that small (em-scale) dilatant structures
(shear bands. extens1on gashes. boudm) form in specific
onentat1ons relat1ve to the foliat1on and pnnopal stresses
(Pons et al. 1995, Sawyer 2000).
Atl'" of ~hgmatlt~'
------------ ------------ --------- 5)

7.9 Rocks formed in syntectonic Complexes hav1ng mult1ple syntectonic dikes have some
additional characteristics that are unl1ke stromatiC migma-
• plutonic and vein complexes
compared with migmatites
tites. (I) Most of the fels1c ve1ns are not surrounded by
zones of melanocratic melt-depleted rocks, or they have
melt-deplet1on halos that are far too small to be compati-
Similarities ble w1th 1n Situ segregation of melt. (2) Many felsic ve1ns are,
Multiple injections of magma 1n syntectonic pluton1c com- 1n detail, cross-cutting. (3) The typical width of stromatic
plexes can produce rocks with a number of m1gmat1te-like fels1c ve1ns 1S much greater than the w1dth of the leuco-
charactenst1cs. (I) L1ght-colored ve1ns 1n a darker host can some doma1ns 1n stromat1c m1gmatites. (4) A s1gn1ficant
resemble e1ther leucosome in a paleosome, or leucosome proportion of the fels1c ve1ns 1n most complexes have true
and melanosome. (2) If the light-colored veins have mafic pegmat1t1c textures. whereas a true pegmatit1c texture 1s
selvedges formed by reaction with their wall rocks, then the rare 1n migmatite leucosome. (5) Overall, many migmatlte-
rocks could be m1staken for a migmat1te 1f these are Inter- like complexes of syntecton1c dikes have a far h1gher rat1o of
preted as leucosome and melanosome, respectively, and fels1c ve1ns to darker host than most migmat1tes. Together;
the host rock IS treated as paleosome. (3) The alternation these critena 1nd1cate an ong1n by dik1ng rather than m s1tu
of parallel and laterally pers1stent light and dark layers may melt1ng and segregation processes.
superficially resemble stromatic metatexite migmat ites.
(4) The attenuat1on of structures due to magma mingling
and the development of flow banding 1n zones of h1gh syn-
magmatic stra1n can resemble enclaves of paleosome. or
melanosome, 1n schlienc and schollen d1atex1te m1gmat1tes.
The segregation of fels1c res1dual melt by syntectonic defor-
mation at a late stage of pluton crystall1zat1on can be a local, The final sect1on of th1s book deals with the problems of
in Situ, process that generates 1solated. lighter-colored fels1c work1ng w1th and mapp1ng m1gmat1tes, and these are
ve1ns bordered by melt-deplet1on halos. or more extensive addressed 1n two parts. The first deals w1th the quest1on
arrays of linked light-colored fels1c ve1ns with1n a broader, of what divisions to depict on a map, and the second is
melt-depleted zone. Both are morphologiCally and geo- concerned with what should be noted at each outcrop dur-
metncally s1m1lar to leucosome located 1n dilatant and Ing field work that is of use 1n later, follow-up work 1n the
net-structured metatexite m1gmatites. laboratory. This matenal IS condensed and presented as a
checklist 1n Appendix 9.1.
Migmat1tes have been stud1ed for many reasons. In the
The most obv1ous d1fference between the migmat1te-like
recent past. many studies were 1n some way or another
rocks from syntectonic plutons and true migmatites rests
related to the petrological quest1ons of the ong1n of gran1t1c
w1th the genet1c relat1onsh1p between their const1tuent
magmas and the processes by wh1ch the continental crust
parts. The defin1t1on of m1gmatite requ1res that there be
became compos1t1onally differentiated ; these questions
a genet1c connect1on through part1al melting. In metatex-
remain of great 1nterest. In geodynamiCS, there is presently
lte m1gmat1tes. the melanocrat1c rocks contain petrographic
much Interest 1n the rheology of the cont1nental crust. and
ev1dence for a part1al-melt1ng react1on, and geochem1cal
the effect that weak layers 1n 1t have on the evolution of
and petrographic ev1dence to 1nd1cate that the leucosome
orogens and on the morphology of mounta1n cha1ns and
(or d1atexite migmatite) IS, or was, denved at least 1n part
plateaus. As zones of partially molten rocks are cand1dates
from that anatectiC melt. In contrast, the darker-colored
for weak layers 1n modern orogens, new stud1es on m1g-
rocks from m1gmat1te-like rocks 1n syntectonic pluton1c
mat1tes will no doubt focus on structural and rheolog1cal
complexes do not conta1n petrographic ev1dence for partial -
aspects as a means to study the distnbution and geometry
melting reactions, and although the light-colored. fels1c
of former weak layers and zones of so-called "channel flow"
rocks m1ght be genet1cally related to the darker rocks, 1t is
in anoent. eroded orogens. N o matter what the purpose
not through partial melting. In most cases, the fels1c rocks
IS for study1ng m1gmat1tes, some part of the work wdl likely
have compositions that lie at the far end of the fractional
1nvolve exam1n1ng and mapp1ng them 1n the field.
crystallization trend of the assooated darker-colored rocks,
compatible w1th an ong1n as expelled res1dual melt. not as The task IS to deode what IS cnt1cal to observe and map 1n
a part1al melt. In other cases of syntectonic diking, the light the field, what needs to be sampled, and which aspects of
and dark parts are related by magma m1x1ng; 1n some, they the rocks that crop out at the surface should be portrayed
are not genet1cally related at all. on a map. Not only does th1s enta1l showing the locat1on
54 -----------------------------

and dtstnbutton of the vanous mtgmatites and the adjacent prefix to the mtgmattte type to g1ve map units such as pelittc
rocks. but also the tnternal features and relationshtps withtn metatextte, pelitic diatexite: psamm1t1c metatextte. psam-
the mtgmatites. The chotce of what untts to show is crittcal mttiC diatextte: granittc metatextte and granittc diatextte.
to the usefulness of the map. and although that depends to Some workers have disttngutshed the parts of mtgmatites
a large extent on the size of the map area and the scale of derived from cordtente-beanng melt from those derived
the final map, the principal ingredient to success ts a clear from garnet- and orthopyroxene-bearing melts (Johnson et
understanding of what the purpose and objectives of the al. 200 Ib), or separated btottte diatexites from orthopyrox-
study are before field work begins. ene-bearing diatexites (Makttte 200 I).

Choosing map units on the basis of the percentage of leu-

8.1 First..level map units cosome and leucocrattc veins present ts not recommended
for first-level maps. because of the posstbtlity that some of
For regtonal-scale maps. the map untts are normally the
the '"leucosome" ts in fact later vetn matenal. superimposed
petrologtcally dtsttngutshable rock-types. For migmatites.
on some other m1gmatlte morphology. as dtscussed tn the
these should be the first-order morphologtcal divistons, t.e ..
sect1on on vetn-structured mtgmatttes. The disttnctton
metatexite and dtatextte wtth. tf necessary. a transitional
between metatextte and dtatextte. a dtvtston that already
mtgmattte untt between them. Other units that could be
tncorporates the fraction of melt present 1n the mtgmattte,
shown tnclude the protolith (or whatever IS on the low-
IS preferred.
grade stde of the mtgmatttes) and the nonmigmattte rocks
on the htgh-grade side, most commonly, plutontc rocks
of one sort or another. Paleosome, or resister. ltthologies 8.2 Second..level map units
could be differentiated and shown withtn the mtgmatites. if
This level of map untts ts intended to add a further level
scale permits. Resister lithologies can be an effective way
of detail to the metatextte and diatexite divisions already
of showing some types of pre-anatectic structures in mig-
made on the regional scale, but they could be the primary
matttes, notably folds, and how their geometry may have
dtvistons on a map legend under some Circumstances. For
changed from the non-anatectiC rocks to the mtgmatites
example. tn the detailed mapptng of smaller areas, the
and from low to high grade wtthtn the mtgmatttes. The first
sctentific objeCtives and the opportun1t1es are different
appearance of metatextte mtgmatttes and the passage from
compared to those tn regional mapptng. Small areas in mtg-
metatextte to diatexite are easily identtfied and mapped
matite terranes are typtcally mapped tn detail to examtne
ustng the definttions of both gtven earlier. Whether or not
some speCific petrological or structural problem. such as
these are parallel to tsograds tn the lower-grade rocks
how the local vanations tn morphology of mtgmatites are
may provtde cnttcal tnformatton tn determintng why melt-
spattally related to the structures (e.g.. Oliver and Barr 1997,
ing began or whether the metatextte dtatextte transttion
Brown and Solar 1998a. b). because deformatton appears
ts structurally controlled or not. However, the upper limit
to control the mtgratton and accumulatton of melt. The
of diatexite mtgmatttes can be dtfficult to define, espeCially
mapptng may be requtred as the basis for a petrogenetiC
if, as in many regional migmattte terranes. the dtatextte
or geochemtcal study in whtch case it should be concerned
mtgmatites tend to grade into anatecttc granttes that are
with obtaintng as much information as possible on how and
largely m sttu (autochthonous granite). PlaCing the boundary
where each individual sample collected fits into the overall
tn such cases ts subjective, and depends on the individual
mtgmatite. in other words. to provtde context.
mapper's tolerance to uniformtty 1n diatextte, or to hetero-
genetty in granites. The upper limit of diatextte mtgmatttes For mapping of areas where the variatton in migmattte
tn contact aureoles is commonly much easter to map. even morphology is related to anisotropy tn the protolith or the
where agatnst granite, because migmatites 1n contact aure- paleosome. or to deformat1on style and stratn tntenstty. as
oles generally have a much finer gra1n-size than the rocks well as to fraction of melt present. then the second-order
tn felstc plutons, or mtgmatites from reg1onal metamorphtc morphologtcal terms tn Fig. Ib (plus vetn-structured mtg-
terranes. matlte) are very useful. If used together wtth the systematiC
mapptng of regtonal structures. such as folds. shear zones,
In terranes where the protoltth ts compostttonally diverse.
and large boudins. the distnbutton of these mtgmattte mor-
further dtvtstons of both the protoltth and migmatites may
phologies ts a powerful ;ud tn understandtng the movement
be possible. If a parttcular protolith generates migmatttes
of melt wtthtn anatectic terranes and o rogenic belts: they
of sufficiently different appearance or mtneral assemblage
lead to the tdentificatton of the domatns where net loss of
that they can be dtstinguished and mapped separately, then
melt or net gain of anatectic melt occurred. Zones of rela-
that should also be shown on the map. The additional infor-
tively high syn-anatecttc strain may be disttnguished from
matton concerning the protohth type can be added as a
A ri,,, of ~Hgmarue'
----------------- --------------55

regions of lower-strain by the morphology of the migma- Conductton is the pnnctpal mechantsm of heat transfer
tites present: for example, Brown and Solar ( 1998a, b) tn the conttnental crust. Because heat IS conducted very
found that stromattc mtgmatttes are charactensttc of regtons slowly in rocks, the Earth's crust ts slow to heat up and
of htgher stram. At these scales. vanatton 1n the proportton slow to cool. Virtually all the numencal models of crustal
of leucosome from outcrop to outcrop may be a very use- heattng stnce that of England and Thompson (1984) show
ful parameter to show, although tt would be equally useful slow cooling in the deep crust, except where tt has been
to know whether this was the "initial" anatectic melt, an exhumed rapidly, e.g., tn metamorphtc core complexes.
evolved or fracttonated melt, or an accumulatton of early- The slow response-ttme of the continental crust means that
crystalltztng phases from the anatectic melt. tt ts very unlikely that the complex timing deduced from the
relattonshtp between domatns of leucosome tn mtgmatttes
For the most detailed level of mapptng done at the scale of ts the result of the metamorphtc temperature repeatedly
tndivtdual outcrops, simple untts that are dtrectly related to
cycling back and forth across the solidus to generate multi-
petrology, e.g., leucosome for melt product, melanosome ple partial-melting events. Recent geochronologtcal studtes
for residuum, and paleosome for nonparttally melted rocks from granulite-factes metamorphic terranes (e.g., Zaleskt et
tn a migmatite, can be particularly effective in revealing
al. 1999, Rubatto et al. 2001, Willigers et al. 2001) show
the spattal detatls of the processes that combtne to form that metamorphic temperatures rematned above the gran-
mtgmatttes (e.g., Oltver and Barr 1997; Sawyer et al. 1999;
tte solidus between 30 and SO My. This suggests that once
Sawyer 2001: Guerntna and Sawyer 2003: Marchildon and formed, anatecttc melt can extst tn the mtddle and lower
Brown 2002, 2003). In order to best understand how the crust for a very long penod of ttme. Moreover, 30 SO My
mtgmatttes formed, tt ts very tmportant that the spattal
IS much longer than most deformatton events tn orogens;
relationship between these petrological features and the thus, tt is to be expected that during the period when the
tectonic structures tn the migmatites are shown. middle and lower crust is hot and contains melt, the stress
onentattons and hence deformatton patterns will change.
8.3 Other considerations The sequence tn whtch each "generatton'' of leucosome
in mapping migmatites forms could reflect each melttng reactton that occurred on
Determtmng the relattve chronology of events tn mtgma- the prograde P-T path: for example, the first could have
tttes is an tmportant first step in understandtng how they formed by H 20-present melting, the next by muscovtte
formed . In most cases, the timing of events tn migmatites dehydration melting, and a thtrd by a biotite-dehydration-
is determined by the cross-cutting relattonshtps between melting reaction. Melting could be further spread out in
domatns of leucosome or more commonly by determtntng time (and temperature) because each protolith layer has
the age (i.e., the generatton) of the structural element tn a different composttion. However, the problem wtth thts
whtch the leucosome ts located. These structures mtght be explanatton is that all "generattons" of leucosome coex-
foliation planes, axial surfaces, shear bands, or fold hinges. It tsted as anatecttc melt during t he prograde part of the P T
ts not surpristng, therefore, that the sequenttal nomencla- traJectory, and yet rematned tn thetr separate sttes; netther
ture used in structural geology (e.g., D, 0 2 . .. \ S2 •.. F does thts explanatton allow for commonly inferred differ-
and F2, etc.) has influenced the way the formation of leuco- ences tn competency between the different "generattons"
some, and by extenston, regtonal parttal melting, have been or domams of leucosome. An alternattve, and perhaps
vtewed. The erectton of a chronology of sequenttal ''gener- more likely explanatton, ts t hat each successtve "generatton"
attons" of leucosome over a large area, because tt occuptes of leucosome stmply records the next of many eptsodes tn
a stmilar structural site withtn a mapped area. must be which the melt fractton segregated from the solid fractton,
done wtth constderable cautton; the formatton of leuco- and these are brought about by changes tn the local pres-
some might be diachronous from place to place or even of sure gradients dunng progresstve deformatton.
completely different age between one structural level, or
The segregation of melt dunng the prograde part of the
domain, and another. Some investigators have gone as far
metamorphtc htstory (T > solidus) tnvolves separattng
as to ascnbe each "generation" of leucosome tn a regional
the melt fractton from the restduum and the subsequent
anatecttc terrane to a separate melttng event. The common
mtgratton of the anatectic melt down local pressure-
observatton of one domatn of leucosome cutttng another,
gradients with little or no crystallizatton; much of the
and each located tn a different ''generatton" of structure tn
network of channels through whiCh the melt moved at
contact aureoles where there was only one anatectic event,
this stage may be lost (Sawyer 200 I). However, as the
strongly suggests that thts approach may not the best way
melt starts to crystallize, it becomes a magma consisting
to tnterpret the temporal informatton obtained from out-
of fractionated melt + crystals; typtcally thts occurs once
crops tn regtonal migmattte terranes.
56 --------------------------------

could have formed from a melt generated by H 0-present

temperature starts to decline. If at any t1me after cooling
partial melt1ng. and InJected 1nto country rocks that had
and crystallization have started. a new ep1sode of defor-
not yet melted. It pre-dates part1al melting 1n the hosts but
mation occurs (perhaps F1 folds start to form), both the
belongs to the same anatectiC event. hav1ng formed at a
distribution and magnitude of the pressure gradients will
very different t1me with1n it: the host melted later when
change, and new low-pressure s1tes are created 1n the mig-
the isotherms moved h1gher 1nto the crust. In this interpre-
matite. The melt fraction in the magma will then be dnven
tation, the felsic matenal forms leucocratic veins but not
to migrate again to the new, lowest-pressure sites and will
leucosome: 1t was competent and fine-grained because
leave the minerals that have already crystallized behind:
it crystallized in cool rocks before the m1gmatite formed.
they become the first "generation" of leucosome and mark
Examples of fine-gra1ned. layer-parallel, and discordant
the older, low-pressure sites. Not1ce that at this stage. melt
leucocratiC VeinS formed from a melt generated by nuid-
segregat1on IS not about separat1ng anatectic melt from
present part1al melting and 1njected 1nto the rocks JUSt
its res1duum: it 1s now the separation of the evolved melt
below, and JUSt above. the "melt-in" 1sograd occur at Saint-
fract1on from the solid fract1on that has crystallized from
Malo. France (Brown 1979, Weber et al. 1985. M1lord et al.
the parental anatectiC melt. Th1s segregation process does
two th1ngs. First. 1t 1ncreases the VISCOSity of the ex1St1ng
2001). and 1n the Quet1co Subprov1nce of Ontano. If the
"leucosome" has a melanocrat1c selvedge and 1s quartz-nch.
leucosome from that of a magma (crystals suspended 1n a
then it may be a subsolidus segregat1on. not anatectic 1n
melt) to that of a framework of crystals. s1mply by remov-
ongin. Alternatively, such early "leucosome" may be leuco-
Ing the evolved melt from 1t: the effect of th1s IS to create a
cratic ve1ns that do not belong to the anatectic event that
mechan1cally competent leucosome w1thout the tempera-
created the m1gmatite: 1n this case. they should be signifi-
ture having to go below the solidus. Secondly, the m1gration
cantly o lder than the leucosome 1n the m1gmatite.
of the expelled melt fraction to the new low-pressure site
creates a new leucosome there that is largely melt and.
therefore. of low viscosity: these new domains of leuco-
some may have a different onentat1on determ1ned by the
stresses that led to the new ep1sode of deformation, an F" 9.
fold 1n our example. Th1s segregat1on process dunng cool-
Ing and crystallization may be repeated several times: each
subsequent deformat1on event creates a new low-pressure
site to wh1ch the melt m1grates to form the next "genera- 9.1 Checklist of observations
tion" of leucosome. and 1t makes the older "generations" of
for each outcrop of migmatites
leucosome st1ffer because of the loss of melt from them.
In th1s scheme. the oldest batches of leucosome should The purpose of the observat1ons outlined below 1s to prop-
be plag1oclase-nch (1.e .. they are accumulations of plagio- erly ident1fy and name the m1gmat1te, and to gather field
clase), and the youngest should have the most evolved. information crit1cal to Interpreting the petrological and
or fractionated, compositions. and th1s 1s generally what is geochemical data that will come from later stud1es 1n the
observed in m1gmatite terranes. In general, the network of laboratory.
leucosome in regional migmat1tes marks where melt was
crystalliZing as temperature decilned. However, the array of Observations on the neosome
leucosome in rapidly cooled contact-metamorphic aureoles and paleosome
may record the distnbut1on of melt that ex1sted at temper- (I) If both neosome and paleosome can be Jdent1fied. note
atures much closer to the peak. their relat1ve proportions. Dec1de whether 1t 1s a metatex-
Jte or diatex1te m1gmat1te: ;t IS a metatex1te if paleosome
The oldest "generation" of leucosome in many m1gmat1te
dom1nates and contiguous pre-anatectiC structures are
terranes 1s located parallel to the compositional layer-
present. but a diatex1te 1f neosome dom~nates and pre-partial-
Ing (commonly attenuated bedding). wh1ch IS itself parallel
melting structures are lost.
to the pnnopal foliat1on 1n the rock: together. these loo
are commonly described as a compos1te S /S band1ng. (2) For metatex1tes. (a) 1f the neosome has segregated.
Charactenst1cally, th1s "leucosome" 1s th1n. conta1ns few note the form, s1ze. location. and proport1ons of the leuco-
mafic m1nerals, and importantly. has a very fine graJn-s1ze some and the melanosome 1n the outcrop. and note any
that is much less than in the other domains of leucosome cross-cutting relationships between the doma1ns of leuco-
in the migmatite The Interpretation of th1s generation of some. Is there petrological continuity between doma1ns of
" leucosome" depends on its petrographic features. If it is leucosome? Decide what type of metatexite on the bas1s
plag1oclase-nch and does not have a melanosome. then it of the form of the domains of leucosome. The relat1onsh1p
Ada~ of 1\.figmatitc~

between the host and former segregated melt is next: IS differences 1n relat1ve competence between the different
the leucosome m sttu or 1n-source, or 1s 1t a leucocrat1c "generations" of leucosome.
ve1n or dike? Th1s information can be cntiCal to the inter-
pretation of geochem1cal data. (b) If the neosome has not The purpose of these structural observations IS to diS-
segregated, note how 1ts mineralogy, microstructure, and tinguish pre-part1al-melt1ng from syn-partial-melting
gra1n s1ze compare with its host. Dec1de whether or not structures and to compare the1r d1stnbut1on. ldent1fy the
this IS a patch metatexit e migmatite. (c) For the paleosome, structures that formed after partial melting. Distinguish
identify the rock types present, their mineralogy and micro- melt-rich rocks from melt-poor ones. Finally, interpret the
structures. and 1dentify the structures that were present structural and tectonic history of the m1gmat1tes.
before partial melting.
Way~up criteria in migmatites
(3) For diatex1te m1gmatites, (a) 1f the neosome is unseg-
Determ1mng the way-up d1rect1on, or the structural fac1ng
regated and nonfoliated, it is a nebulit1c d1atexite. (b) If
direct1on. 1n rocks 1s v1tal for understanding the structural
the neosome has now structures or a magmatic foliation,
and tectonic h1story of deformed terranes. Unfortunately,
exam1ne the form of the paleosome or melanocratic mate-
the structures used to determine these geometnc prop-
rial: dec1de if the diatexite m1gmatlte could be a schollen or
erties are progressively lost dunng part1al melt1ng.
a schlieric type. (c) If possible, note whether the d1atex1te
Consequently, tecton1c reconstruction of m1gmat1te ter-
is leucocratiC or melanocratic relat1ve to the "typ1cal" dia-
ranes is very difficult, espec1ally 1n d1atex1te m1gmat1tes.
texlte: describe any leucocratic ve1ns 1n 1t. Dec1de whether
Fortunately, structures that form during the movement
1t IS a melt-rich, residuum-nch, or cumulate-rich d1atex1te
and crystallization of anatectiC melts and that can be used
to det ermine the paleovertical, and hence way-u p in mig-
matites, have been described by Burg and Vanderhaeghe
Petrological observations in the (1993) and Vanderhaeghe (1999, 2001). However, caution
study of migmatites may be required 1n us1ng some of the way-up cntena, as
The mmeralogy, microstructure, and grain s1ze of each part the local pressure-grad1ents down wh1ch melt moved could
of the neosome and paleosome are extremely useful and have been lateral, or even downward-directed. Branch1ng
should be recorded: note anyvanat1ons between and with1n arrays of leucosome indicate now direction, but the direc-
the different doma1ns of leucosome and melanosome. Field tion of now may not have been vertical.
observations should a1m to allow one to deduce P T con-
ditions and melt1ng reactions, to 1dent1fy wh1ch parts of the Sampling of migmatites
outcrop were melt, solid, and part1ally melted solid, and to
The ObJeCtives of the study need to be clear before sam-
1dent1fy the reg1ons of melt loss (res1dual rocks) and of melt
pling beg1ns 1n order to ensure that appropriate matenal 1s
ga1n (vein migmatites, some d1atex1tes). They will prov1de
collected. Res1dual matenal 1s taken for the determinat1on
a possible a1d 1n the later quant1ficat1on of M. to com-
of the P-T conditions, react1on h1story, react1on progress
pare with F. It 1s also important to 1dent1fy the parts of the
(i.e., F), and for microstructural evidence of partial melting.
m1gmatite where no loss, or gain, of melt occurred, 1.e.,
On the other hand, samples from the melt-denved rocks
where the format1on of migmat1te was essentially a closed-
(leucosome and diatex1te) are best for the study of pro-
system process.
cesses such as now of melt, fract1onal crystallization, and
crystal accumulation. Onented samples are required for
Structural observations in the some types of quant1tat1ve microstructural analys1s.
study of migmatites
(I) Record, descnbe, and measure all the structural ele- GeochemiCal samples should be fresh and from parts of
ments (foliations, lineations, folds, shear zones, d1splacement the m1gmat1te that have been fully 1dent1fied 1n the field;
senses. etc.), noting thew locat1on and their geometrical and ideally. they should 1nclude some from the protolith. One
t1m1ng relationships w1th1n each part of the migmat1te. (2) purpose of the samples is to define the key reference-
Identify the parts w1th magmatiC, or submagmat1c, foliat1ons points (protolith, melt, and res1duum) that are necessary
and structures. (3) ldent1fy wh1ch parts of the m1gmat1te for a geochemical 1nterpretat1on of the dataset. These are
terrane represent low, relat1ve syn-anatect1c stra1n and also required for most quant1tat1ve modeling, such as est1-
whiCh are h1gh, and those where there 1s sign1ficant trans- mat1ng F, making mass-balance calculations, and 1nvest1gat1ng
position; the parts of h1gh relative stra1n or transposition the vanous petrogenetic processes. Well-constrained sam-
tend to be dom1nated by layered or stromatiC structures in ples serve to gu1de the interpretation of samples from the
both metatex1te and diatexite m1gmatites. (4) Determine more difficult outcrops.
59 -----------------------------

Dilation-structured migmatite: a type of metatex1te

9.2 Glossary m1gmatite in wh1ch the locat1on of the doma1ns of leu-
Anatexis: a general term used to descnbe part1al melt- cosome, or neosome, IS controlled by the d1stnbut1on of
Ing of the cont1nental crust (in th1s case) w1thout spec1fic dilat1onal structures that develop 1n the competent layers
reference to the degree of partial melting; hence, anatex1s as the migmat1te is deformed.
applies to all stages. from incipient part1al melt1ng right up
Dynamic melting: anatex1s under differential stress con-
to complete fusion . Crustal anatexis is generally accompa-
ditions. This is the general condition during anatexis of
nied by deformation, which enables many other processes
anisotropic rocks undergoing tectonic deformation (for the
to occur, such as segregation of the melt from the solid,
opposite, see Stat1c melt1ng).
m1grat1on of the melt (by porous flow and by channeled
flow), fract1onal crystallization, and magma flow. Evolved melt: the fraction of melt left dunng. or after,
the process of fract1onal crystallization. The evolved melt 1s
Anatexite: a rock formed by anatex1s and the assoCiated
depleted 1n the elements compatible w1th, and ennched 1n
processes; an under-used synonym for m1gmat1te.
the elements incompatible with, the crystall1zed and sepa-
Bedded migmatite : a term for the overall morphology rated mmerals. Synonym: fractionated melt.
of a m1gmat1te 1n wh1ch partial melt1ng and the formation of
Fold-structured migmatite : m1gmatlte that was folded
neosome are confined to certain beds, or layers. The term
while 1t conta1ned melt.
should be abandoned. See Layer-confined m1gmat1te.
Fraction of melt (M,): the fract1on of melt that was pres-
Degree of partial melting (F) : the we1ght fract1on of
ent in a migmatite, or part of a m1gmatite.
melt produced in a rock by melt-producing reactions.
Fractional crystallization : crystallization of a magma
Diatexis: defunct term meaning complete fus1on, now
in which the melt becomes separated from the m1nerals
replaced in common usage by the more useful term
that have crystal lized, result1ng in a change 1n composition
of the remaining melt (it becomes evolved). The separa-
Diatexite migmatite: a m1gmat1te 1n which neosome 1s tion of the melt fraction from the crystals may be brought
dom1nant and melt was pervasively d1stributed through- about by either growth of a certain m1neral at a spec1fic site
out. Pre-part1al-melting structures are absent from the (e.g.. growth of a m1neral on the walls of a dike) or the rel-
neosome. and are commonly replaced by syn-anatect1c ative movement of the crystals of a part1cular m1neral (or
flow structures (e.g., magmatiC or submagmatic folia- m1nerals) relative to the rema1n1ng melt (e.g.. the accumula-
tions. schlieren), or by 1sotropic neosome. The neosome 1s tion of plagioclase).
d1verse in appearance. reflecting a large range 1n the frac-
Granite (or granodiorite, tonalite , etc.) dike (or
tion of melt. It can range from predominantly leucocratic
sill ): the product of crystall1zat1on of a fels1c melt that
to predominantly mesocratic (e.g.. unsegregated melt and
has migrated out of 1ts source region completely, and is
res1duum) to predominantly melanocrat1c. Paleosome
injected into host rocks of lower metamorphic grade, or
occurs as rafts, schollen, and enclaves. but may be absent.
into unmetamorphosed rocks.
In certain Circumstances, it may be useful to d1v1de dia-
texltes 1nto two types. (I) Pnmary d1atexite: a diatexite Initial melt: an anatectic melt formed by a partial-melt1ng
m1gmat1te formed 1n a closed system, where the melt frac- reaction, w1thout modificat1on of 1ts compos1t1on by other
tiOn present is equal to the degree of part1al melt1ng. (2) processes such as fract1onal crystall1zat1on, contamination,
Secondary d1atex1te: a d1atexite m1gmatite in wh1ch the frac- or alteration.
tion of melt required to pass the solid-to-melt trans1t1on
was reached by the mgress of melt (i.e., in an open system
where the fract1on of melt present exceeds the degree of
part1al melt1ng).
Atla' of Migm;Htrc"
------------ -------------------59

Layer-confined or bed-confined migmatite: term Magmatic foliation : preferred onentat1on of m1nerals 1n

for a migmatite 1n which partial melt1ng and the forma- a rock derived from a magma, acquired during flow when
tion of neosome are confined to certain beds, or layers, the crystals suspended 1n the magma were free to rotate
1n wh1ch the bulk compos1t1on was appropriate (fertile) w1th no. or very little, 1nteract1on w1th nearby crystals, I.e.,
for part1al melt1ng. The term 1s scale-dependent. as 1t con- when the magma contamed less than 55% crystals. See
Siders only indiv1dual fert1le layers 1n a m1gmatite; thus, 1ts SubmagmatiC foliat1on.
use cannot be recommended. The neosome v1ewed at
the scale of an individual layer may d1splay a w1de range Mafic selvedge: a part1cular variety of selvedge in which
of morphologies (some layers reta 1n their pre-anatectic mafic m1nerals, most commonly b1ot1te or hornblende,
structures, whereas 1n others they are completely over- predominate and form a thin rim (a few millimeters w1de)
pnnted by syn-anatect1c structures and microstructures). around leucosome. leucocratic ve1n, or gran1te dike.
However, viewed at the appropriate scale, i.e., one that 1s
Melanosome : a residuum that is composed predomi-
representative of the whole m1gmatite, layer-confined or
nantly of dark-colored m1nerals. Definition of melanosome:
bed-confined m1gmat1tes are clearly metatex1te migmat1tes
the darker-colored part of the neosome 1n a migmat1te that
because pre-anatectiC structures, such as layenng or bed-
IS nch 1n dark m1nerals such as b1ot1te. garnet. cord1ente.
ding, are preserved.
orthopyroxene, hornblende, clinopyroxene, and even o liv-
Leucosome: general term for the lighter-colored part ine. The melanosome IS the solid, res1dual fract1on (i.e., it
of the neosome 1n a m1gmat1te. cons1sting dom1nantly of 1s res1duum) left after some, or all, of the melt fract1on has
feldspar and quartz. The leucosome 1s that part of the mlg- been extracted. MICrostructures 1ndicat1ng part1al melt1ng
matite derived from segregated part1al melt; it may conta1n may be present.
microstructures that 1ndicate crystallization from a melt, or
Melt: a silicate liqu1d w1thout crystals.
a magma. Leucosome may not necessarily have the com-
position of an anatectiC melt; fract1onal crystallization and
Mesosome: a part of a m1gmatite that 1s intermediate
separation of the fractionated melt may have occurred.
1n color between leucosome and melanosome. Because
Because the anatectiC melt can be mobile 1n m1gmat1tes.
mesosome can occur 1n the neosome or 1n the paleosome,
leucosome may or may not be found m s1tu; additional
it should be specified from which part of the migmatite the
terms are used to 1nd1cate how far the melt from wh1ch the
mesosome ong1nates. Mesosome should be used only 1n a
leucosome was denved moved w1th1n the m1gmat1te.
descnpt1ve sense.

In situ leucosome: the product of crystallization of an Metatexis: defunct term for part1al melting 1n the con -
anatectic melt. or part of an anatectic melt, that has seg-
tinental crust; the term "anatexis" has precedence and
regated from 1ts residuum. but has remained at the s1te
should be used.
where 1t formed.
M etatexite migmatite: a m1gmat1te that IS hetero-
In-source leucosome : the product of crystallization of
geneous at the outcrop scale, and 1n wh1ch coherent
an anatectic melt. or part of an anatectic melt. that has
pre-partial-melting structures are w1dely preserved 1n the
migrated away from the place where it formed, but IS still
paleosome (where the microstructure appears unchanged),
with1n the confines of 1ts source layer.
and possibly 1n the melanosome (res1duum) part of
the neosome, where the fract1on of melt was low. The
Leucocratic vein or dike : the product of crystalliza-
neosome part IS generally segregated 1nto leucosome and
tion of an anatectic melt. or part of an anatectiC melt, that
melanosome, but neosome in which melt and res1duum did
has migrated out its source layer and been inJected into
not segregate may also occur.
another rock, wh1ch may be nearby. or farther away. but IS
st1l 1n the reg1on affected by the anatect1c event.
Microstructure : term used to describe the onentation,
d1stnbut1on (i.e., spat1al arrangement), relat1ve s1ze, and the
Magma: a sil1cate liquid that conta1ns crystals, which may
internal features of the gra1ns that comprise a rock.
have formed from the melt (liqu1dus phases). be the solid
products of the melt1ng react1on (so-called pentect1c prod-
ucts). or be m1nerals 1n excess.
60 - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - -

Migmatite : a rock formed by part1al melt1ng; a syn- Parent melt: the anatectiC melt from wh1ch the other
onym 1s anatex1te. Defin1t1on of m1gmat1te: a rock found in melts 1n a m1gmat1te were derived, most commonly by
med1um- and high-grade metamorphic areas that can be fract1onal crystallization; generally, the parent melt is an im-
heterogeneous at the microscopic to macroscop1c scale, tial melt, although there are except1ons.
wh1ch consists of two or more petrographically differ-
Parent rock: synonym for protolith.
ent parts. O ne of t hese parts must have formed by part1al
melting and contains rocks that are petrogenetically related Patch migmatite: a type of metatex1te migmatite 1n
to each other (called the neosome) and to their proto- which the neosome occurs tn SIW as small, discrete patches.
lith through partial melt1ng and the segregation of the melt Although typ1cal of the onset of anatex1s, it also occurs in
from the solid fraction. The partially melted part typically many granulite-facies m1gmat1tes.
conta1ns pale-colored rocks that are quartzofeldspathic, or
feldspath1c, 1n composition, and dark-colored rocks that are Protolith: the rock from wh1ch the neosome 1n a m1gma-
ennched 1n ferromagnes1an m1nerals. However, the part1ally t1te was denved. Protolith cannot be present 1n a migmat1te
melted part may simply have changed m1neralogy. micro- because 1t has been converted to neosome. Thus. proto-
structure, and gra1n s1ze w1thout develop1ng separate light lith can only ex1st 1n the lower-grade rocks that d1d not
or dark parts. Migmatites are classified and described on undergo anatex1s. Synonym: parent rock.
the bas1s of thew morphology us1ng a two-t1er system. The
pnmary-level divis1on leads us to metatex1te m1gmat1tes Raft migmatite : synonym for schollen m1gmatite.
and diatexite m1gmatites.
Residuum : the part of the neosome that 1s predominantly
Nebulite migmatite: a type of m1gmatite in wh1ch the t he solid fraction left after part1al melt 1ng and the extrac-
neosome is diffuse and difficult to differentiate from the tion of some, or all, of the melt fraction . Microstructures
indicating partial melt1ng may be present. Some residua are
melanocratic; those rich 1n quartz or feldspar can be leuco-
Neosome : the parts of a migmat1te newly formed, or cratiC or mesocrat1c. See also Melanosome.
reconstituted, by part1al melt1ng. The neosome may or may
not have undergone segregation in wh1ch the melt and Resisters: rocks, typ1cally competent ones, 1n the
solid fract1ons are separated. paleosome that are especially res1stant to microstructural
change. Quartz1tes, calc-silicates, and metamafic rocks are
Net-structured migmatite: a type of metatex1te mig- common res1sters.
matite 1n wh1ch the neosome, or more commonly the
leucosome, or leucocrat1c vems, form a net-like pattern Schliere: a th1n layer compns1ng aligned platy, tabular, or
enclos1ng paleosome or residuum. In some cases. th1s pat- pnsmatic m1nerals 1n a diatex1te m1gmat1te. Commonly, a
tern anses because the domains of leucosome or neosome schl1ere cons1sts ma1nly of b1otlte. but examples nch 1n sll-
have very Irregular forms, but 1n most cases, 1t anses limanite, orthopyroxene. hornblende, or plag1oclase also
because the doma1ns of neosome or leucosome follow two may occur. Schlieren is the plural.
or more systematic orientations.
Schlieric migmatite : a d1atex1te m1gmatite character-
Paleosome: term meaning "old rock" in a m1gmatite; IZed by the presence of schlieren, but few schollen, or rafts.
unfortunately, previous usage is not consistent on which of paleosome matenal.
rocks these are. Here, paleosome IS defined as the non-
Schollen migmatite : a d1atex1te migmatite that conta1ns
neosome part of a m1gmatite that was not affected by
enclaves (called schollen, or rafts) of paleosome matenal or,
part1al melting, and 1n wh1ch structures (such as foliat1ons,
more rarely, res1duum. In many terranes. the schollen show
folds. layenng) older than the part1al melt1ng are preserved.
a progress1on from blocky to rounded or elongate shapes.
The microstructure (s1ze. form, and onentat1on of gra1ns)
and a progressively better alignment 1n the d1rect1on of a
IS e1ther unchanged, or only slightly coarsened, compared
higher fraction of melt and syn-anatect1c stra1n. Raft m1g-
to that 1n s1m11ar rocks JUSt outs1de the region affected by
mat1te is a synonym.
At!," of Mogmatue'
----------------- --------------- 61

Secondary migmatites: a term used to describe migma-

tites formed around a pluton as a result of partial melt1ng
tnggered by the 1nflux of H20 from the crystallizing pluton
1nto the country rocks.

Segregation : term used to describe the overall process

1n which anatectic melt is separat ed from the residuum in
a neosome. However, not all examples of neosome have
undergone segregat1on of the melt.

Selvedge : general term for a nm, or border zone, that

1s not res1duum and is compositionally, m1neralog1cally, or
microstructurally different from the host and that occurs
around a component of a migmatite. Selvedges can be leu-
cocratic, mesocratic, or melanocratic; the most common
are mafic and are composed of b1ot1te; see Mafic selvedge.

Static melting: anatexis that occurs under conditions of

11thostat1c stress w1thout deviatonc stress; cond1t1ons that
approximate th1s state may occur 1n some contact aureoles,
or perhaps tn competent layers (see Dynamic melting).

Stromatic migmatite : a type of metatexite migmatite 1n

which the neosome (leucosome and melanosome), or just
the leucosome, occurs as laterally continuous, parallel layers
onented along the compositional layenng (e.g.. bedd1ng) or
fohat1on. Stromat1c m1gmat1tes are common 1n high-stra1n,
strongly transposed env1ronments, such as crust-scale shear
zones, but not restncted to t hem.

Submagmatic foliation : preferred onentat1on of min-

erals 1n a rock acqutred when the magma 1t formed from
conta1ned suffic1ent crystals that 1nteract1ons occurred
w1dely between them as they rotated 1n the flow, i.e., a foli-
ation formed when the fract1on of melt was greater than
zero, but less than 0.45. lnteract1ons between crystals ini-
t ially form a "t1l1 ng" microst ructure, then a framework of
crystals t hat may subsequent ly become deformed before
the magma sol1d1fied. See Magmat1c foltat1on.

Vein-structured migmatite: a metatex1te or d1atex1te

m1gmat1te 1n wh1ch leucocrat1c ve1ns are consp1cuous and

Ultrametamorphism : term used to describe t he higher-

than-normal degree of metamorph1sm requtred for part1al
melting in t he cont1nental crust.
62 -----------------------------

BABCOCK, R.S. & M1srH, P. (1989): Ong1n of the Skag1t

10 m1gmatites, North Cascades Range. Washmgton State.

Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology I 0 I , 485-495.
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------------------ ---------------63

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Ada~ of M i g matitc ~
----------- ----------- --------79

The Photog raphs

M igmat1tes are the product of the process of partial melting,

but their morphology IS to a considerable extent deter-
mined by other factors. The most Important among these
are (I) the nature of the protolith, 1.e., what rock types 1t SOME EXAMPLES OF
conta1ned and how they were distributed, (2) whether or M IGMATITES [FIGS. AI-A3]
not the rocks were being deformed when they contained
partial melt, as th1s deformation dnves the separat1on of the The photographs 1n this short first section are 1ntended
melt from the solid fract1on, and also changes the shape of to 1ntroduce the reader to the range of morphology that
the rocks through folding, sheanng, and transpos1t1on, and m1gmat1tes can have. The three m1gmat1tes shown were
(3) t1me, as the length of the Interval between melting and derived from protoliths that were compositionally layered,
solidification is critical, e.g., it determines how far melt can but it is whether or not the m1gmatites were deformed
separate from its residuum and how far the microstructure dunng anatexis that largely determmes the appearance 1n
progresses to a fully equilibrated state. Thus, no two m1g- the three cases.
mat1tes are the same; the study of m1gmat1tes 1s not like the
study of fossils, and there 1s no equ1valent to a "type spec-
imen". Compare, for example, petrological spec1mens in
museums; samples of dionte look much the same from one
collect1on to another, but the samples labeled m1gmat1te
are all utterly different. The older literature on m1gmat1tes
does contain l1ne draw1ngs that represent idealized versions
of the relationships between melanosome, leucosome, and
paleosome found 1n migmat1tes. However, one can scour
outcrop after outcrop of m1gmat1te and find noth1ng that
resembles these so-called "class1c relat1onsh1ps". What 1s
found 1n outcrops, or in thin section, is vanety. The line
drawings are a construct, a simplified interpretation of the
connection between morphology and process obta1ned
by the study of naturally complex m1gmat1tes. The photo-
graphs 1n th1s book Illustrate what IS actually 1n m1gmat1tes.

The photographs 1n the following sections of th1s book are

1ntended to g1ve the reader an appreciation of the range
of appearance and microstructure that can be found 1n
m1gmat1tes. All the sect1ons have a bnef Introduction and
all, except the first, have further subdivisions to h1ghlight
specific key top1cs, for example, neosome or diatexite
m1gmat1te or melt 1nclus1ons. The photographs have been
selected w1th two objectives in m1nd; the first photograph
1n a sect1on shows a representative example of the top1c at
hand, and the subsequent ones illustrate the range of varia-
tions that can occur.
80 -------------------------------

Figure I

Fig. A I. The absence of differential stresses dunng anatexis Location: Mount Stafford, Australia. Rock type : metatexite
means that there 1s little dnv1ng force for the separat1on of migmat1te cons1st1ng of alternating layers of neosome and
the less v1scous and less dense melt from the res1dual sol- paleosome; pelit1c protolith Interbedded w1th psamm1te.
Ids. Consequently, the m1gmat1tes that result. such as the partial melt1ng at T ca. 775 785°C. P 3.3 4.0 kbar, on the
one shown 1n th1s figure, have a very different appearance boundary between local metamorphic zones 3 and 4. Image
to the migmatites that form when there are differential and caption : R1chard Wh1te.
stresses, such as those shown in Figs. A2 and A3. In this
Further read1ng: Greenfield, J.E., Clarke, G.L., Bland, M. &
migmat1te, partial melting occurred 1n the absence of differ-
Clarke, D.L. ( 1996): In s1tu m1gmatite and hybrid diatexite
ential stresses and, moreover, affected only the metapellt1c
at Mt. Stafford, central Australia. journal of Metamorphic
beds. because the metamorphic temperatures were t oo
Geology 14 ,413 426.
low for melting to start in the 1nterlayered beds of psamm1te.
As a result, the pellte beds have changed color, become Greenfield, j .E., Clarke. G.L. & Wh1te, R.W. ( 1998): A
much coarser gra1ned. and lost any pre-anatect1c fine-scale sequence of part1al melt1ng react1ons at Mt. Stafford, cen-
structures that they may have had. DIStinct leucosome and tral Australia. journal of Metamorphic Geology 16, 363~378.
melanosome d1d not form in the pelit1c beds because there
was no dnv1ng force for the effect1ve separat1on of the melt White, R.W., Powell, R. & Clarke, G.L. (2003) : Prograde
from the solid (i.e., no movement of the melt occurred). metamorphic assemblage evolut1on dunng part1al melt-
Thus. overall this m1gmat1te cons1sts of neosome. wh1ch ing of metasedimentary rocks at low pressures: migmatites
was derived from the metapelitlc beds, and paleosome, from Mt. Stafford, central Australia. journal of Petrology 44,
wh1ch are the dark psamm1t1C beds that d1d not part1ally 1937~1960.
melt. However, the neosome 1n the center does show slight
separation of the melt from residuum at a scale of I 2 em.
A rias of Migmatites
------------------------------- 81

Fig. A2. Exhumation o f upper
amphiboltte fwes from a m id -crust
depth in the thtckened crust in Bnttsh
Columbta began with crustal exten-
sion 1n the early Tertiary. Partial
melting and the upward migrat ion
of melt occurred during exhuma-
t ion and led to a major weakening of
the crust, which contributed to t he
rise of metamorphic core complexes
and domes, and to the late collapse
of the orogen. The weak, partially
melted rocks 1n the core complexes,
the mtgmatttes, were highly stratned
as the core complexes developed
and were exhumed by detachment
faulttng. The mtgmatttes 1n the photo-
graph are from the Thor-Odin dome
and have a morphology that is char-
acteristic of rocks that were highly
stratned whi le they contained melt.
T he most obvious feature is that t he
maJority of the leucocratic domains
are parallel to the strong tectonic
foliatton and the attenuat ed compo-
Sitional bandtng 1n the mesocratic,
grey paleosome host. The prepon-
derant morphology of th1s mtgmattte
IS stromattc. Closer inspectton tndi-
cates that there are two types of
leucocratiC stromata, a set of narrow
(<3 em) greytsh ones (A) that do not
appear to have etther a conspicu-
ous melanosome or a mafic selvedge
assoCiated wtth them, and a later
group of wider, sl ightly discordant
wh ite domains (B) that commonly
do have a mafic selvedge. The older
grey set may have formed m situ and,
therefore, be leucosome, but the later set was InJected Location: Thor- Odtn dome, Bnttsh Columbta, Canada.
and, therefore, best termed leucocratic vetns. Shorter and Rock type: stromatic metatextte mtgmattte, parttally melted
thtcker leucocrat1c bodtes (C) that are htghly discordant to at upper-amphtbolite-factes conditions. The whtte area in
the foliatton occur 1n extensional structures and small oblique the upper left IS snow. Scale: hammer near the center of
shear zones throughout the mtgmattte. Such leucocrat1c the photograph for scale. /mage: Ohvter Vanderhaeghe.
domains have a semiregular spactng between 50 em and I m,
and commonly have a consptcuous melanosome or a mafic Further reading: Vanderhaeghe, 0., Teysster, C. & Wyso-
selvedge around them; they may also be leucosome. Melt czanskt, R. (1999): Structural and geochronological
may have flowed from the stromatic leucosome to the dis- constraints on the role of parttal meltmg dunng the for-
cordant leucosome as t he migmatite was deformed. In order mation of the Shuswap metamorphic core complex at
to test thts possibility, it would be necessary to determine the latitude of t he T hor Odin dome, British Columbia.
whether there is petrological cont inuity from the stromat iC CanadJOnjournal o(Earth SCiences 36,917 943.
to the dtscordant leucosome in order to establish whether
Vanderhaeghe, 0. & Teyssier, C. (2001): Partial melting and
they contained melt at t he same time.
flow in orogens. Tectonophystcs 342, 451 472.
82 ------------------------------

Figure 3
Fig. A3 . Rocks at Sand
R1ver 1n the Limpopo Mob1le
Belt of southern Afnca have
been deformed and part1ally
melted 1n the deep parts of
an orogen at least once and
possibly three t imes. Many of
the high-grade rocks there
are h1ghly strained. This pho-
tograph shows a migmatite
wh1ch is mostly paleosome
that has strongly attenuated
banding cons1st1ng of layers of
trondhJemltiC, granodiont1c,
and mafic composition. The
more competent layers in the
paleosome are boudinaged.
Laterally persistent, centi-
meter- and millimeter-wide
leucocratic bands (A) occur
in the incompetent trond-
hjemitic and granodioritic
layers that d1d not boudi-
nage. but they are so strongly
attenuated that 1t 1s not pos-
Sible to determine whether
they are felsic dikes or leu-
cosome matenal. However,
there are networks of con-
SpiCUOUS, coarser-gra1ned
leucosome assooated w1th
each of the boudinaged lay-
ers. The appearance of the
leucosome in these layers
depends on structural pos1-
t1on. Leucosome located in
pressure shadows and inter-
boudln partitions are thickest,
have the coarsest grain-size
and are not foliated Traong
along the leucosome doma1ns reveals that they become two migmat1tes is very different, and there are two rea-
finer grained, th1nner. and foliated where located on the sons for th1s. F1rstly, the Thor Od1n m1gmat1te conta1ned
long s1des of boudins, or are 1n shear zones, 1.e., they are much more melt, and so has more and wider bodies of
strongly attenuated where not 1n protected structural s1tes. leucosome. Secondly, the paleosome 1n the Sand R1ver mig-
Some anatect1c melt thus has moved from foliat1on planes matites 1s leucocratlc, and consequently, the leucosome IS
and collected between the boudins. There are a few bod- far less conspicuous.
Ies of leucosome with a coarse gra1n-s1ze and no foliat1on
Location: Sand R1ver Gne1sses. Causeway locality, South
1n dilatant fractures that cross several layers. Their pres-
Africa. Rock type: metatexite m1gmatite; trondhJemite, gra-
ence indicates that anatectic melt was still present as the
nodiorite, and mafic protoliths. Anatexis 1n the granulite
deformation ended. This migmatite and that shown in Fig.
facies, T 800 850°C, P 7 I 0 kbar. Scale: the pocket knife is
A2 w ere both highly strained while melt was present. and
II em long. Image: E.W. Sawyer.
they have similar overall morphologies in wh1ch stromatic
leucosome dominates. However, the appearance of the
Atlas of M igmatitcs
----~------------------------ 83

Neosome in open-system migmatites

B. [Figs. 827-834]
Mtgmatites that form without the additton, or loss, of mate-
rial are said to have formed 1n a "closed system". If material
was added t o, or removed from, t he migmatite during ana-
Neosome and paleosome [Figs. 81-84] texis, then the migmatite formed in an "open syst em". O nce
T he parts of a migmatite created by and during anatexis a low-viscosit y phase (melt) has formed during anatexis,
are cal led neosome. The part not affected by partial melt- open-system behavior very commonly ensues, because
ing, which commonly retains some charactenstics of the the melt fraction has a low vtscostty and is able to move
pre-partial-melting state, is called the paleosome. The out of the more viscous solid residuum. Scale IS an impor-
photographs in this section illustrate some of the char- tant factor in deciding whether the system was "open" or
actenstiCs used to tdenttfy and descnbe neosome and "closed". For practtcal purposes, tf all the melt and residual
paleosome. parts can be identtfied at the scale of a hand spectmen, or
the outcrop, then one can regard the processes of form-
Neosome with leucosome and melanosome tng the mtgmatite as a "closed system". However, if the
t [Figs. 85-814] scale of the separatton between the melt and restduum 1s
greater than the scale of observatton, one regards the mig-
The best-known constituents of neosome are leucosome mattte-forming processes as havtng occurred tn an "open
and melanosome, and they form when the melt fraction system". Migmatites that formed in closed systems are eas-
generated by partial melt ing becomes separated, or seg- ier t o underst and because the relative proporttons of the
regated, from the solid fraction. The leucosome is denved melt and residuu m are preserved in the neosome. In open-
from the melt fract ion, whereas t he melanosome repre- system migmatites. the relative proportions of the melt
sents the solid products of the melting reactton, typically and residuum have been changed. Migmatttes, or regions
as a result of Incongruent melting, and 1t occurs with or withtn migmatites, that have lost melt are recognized by
without excess reactant phases. Some of the common rela- thetr htgher proportion of rest dual material relative to melt.
tionships between leucosome and melanosome that are or melt products (e.g., leucosome). Conversely, mtgmatites
found tn neosome are shown on the followtng photographs. that have had melt added to them can be recognized by a
The examples also show some of the morphologtcal vanety pauctty of residuum. Thts group of photographs show some
dtsplayed by leucosome and melanosome; such vanety IS 1n examples of "open-system" mtgmatites.
large measure due to protoltth antsotropy and the way 1n
whtch it responds to deformatton.
Variations within neosome [Figs. 835-842]

Neosome without distinct leucosome or In many migmatites, there 1s a considerable range 1n the
melanosome [Figs. 815-826] morphology. microstructure and composition within the
leucosome and melanosome they contatn. However, it
Not all examples of neosome develop conspicuous and is the leucosome that shows the most obvious variability
separate domains of leucosome and melanosome, and t his within individual domains, between generations of leuco-
can make the recogn ition of anatexis and therefore mtgma- some, or between the structural sites they occupy in the
tites difficult. However, in most cases, there is little difficulty migmat1te. Thts sectton illustrates some of thts vanability.
tn recogniztng the neosome. One particular morphology of
neosome (Ftgs. B20 B25) appears to be diagnostiC of reac-
ttons involvtng dehydratton melttng of btottte, and perhaps
of hornblende as well.
84 ------------------------------

From leucosome to leucocratic dikes in

migmatites [Figs. 843-848]
The process of melt segregation 1n m1gmatites starts with
the movement of melt from the grain boundaries where it
formed toward channels. The first channels into which melt
flows are located in the source area where the melt formed;
they are surrounded by melt-deplet ed rocks t hat are, typ-
ically, melanocratic. The locat ion of channels is controlled
by such factors as t he nature of the rock's anisotropy, and
the way in which t he rock is deformed. T he channels serve
as both the sites w here melt may collect and as conduits
through which melt flows. Where the melt m the channels
crystallizes, 1t is preserved as the leucosome 1n a migmat1te.
For anat ectic melt to leave 1ts source area and reach higher
levels 1n the crust, the flow of melt must become focused
into progress1vely fewer, but larger, channels. The larger
channels do not have a melanosome around them because
t hey are no longer fed from t he adjacent rocks. In addi-
tion, t he channels are commonly discordant: consequently,
what they contain no longer is cal led leucosome; rather,
they are leucocrat ic veins, or w here larger, leucocrat ic
dikes. Some examples of the transit ion from leucosome to
leucocratic dikes in migmatites are shown in this series
of photographs.

Selvedges in migmatites [Figs. 849-854]

In many migmatites, there are narrow. compos1t1onally and
microstructurally distinct rims around the leucosome and
leucocratic ve1ns; these are called selvedges. The composi-
tionally distinct rims t hat are t he res1dual material left after
the extract ion of the anatectic melt t hat makes up some,
most, or all of the associated leucosome could be called
melt-depleted selvedges. However, t he residual material is
most commonly melanocratic, and the t erm melonosome is
reserved exclusively for t hese. Therefore, the term selvedge
applies to t he narrow, compositionally distinct rim t hat
occurs around leucosome and leucocrat ic veins and t hat is
not formed by t he extraction of anatectic melt . There is no
requirement that selvedges be melanocratic. However, the
most common type of selvedge is melanocratic, and con-
sists of a very thin biot ite- or hornblende-rich nm around
leucocratic veins; such a rim is called a mafic selvedge, not
a melanosome. Mafic selvedges m migmatite terranes are
most commonly developed around late, discordant leuco-
crat ic veins or dikes; they can also develop around granitic
dikes intruded into host rocks t hat are not migmat it es (see
Figs. Gl3, GIS, G l6, and G19).
A tlas o f M igmatitcs
------------ ------------ --------- 85

Figure I

Fig. B I. The migmat1te shown consists of scattered Locotton: Baume migmatite, Ardeche, France. Rock type:
patches of neosome in the paleosome. The paleosome IS a patch metatexite m1gmatlte; quartzofeldspath1c gneiss
mesocrat1c plagioclase quartz-K-feldspar orthogneiss w1th protolith partially melted under upper-amphibolite-facies
<5% biotite + sillimanite, and is recognized by the pres- conditions, T 700 ± sooe, P 3 kbar. Scale : the lens cap is 6
ence of a foliation t hat predates the partial melting. The em across. Image: Pierre Barbey.
small patches of neosome cons1st of a melanocratic (gar-
net + hercynite) part. generally 1n the center, and an outer Further read1ng: Weber, C. & Barbey. P. ( 1986) : The role
leucocrat1c nm with the assemblage K-feldspar + quartz of water, mixing processes and metamorphic fabric in
+ plagioclase. Thus, the neosome appears to have under- t he genesis of the Baume migmatites (Ardeche, France).
gone segregation of the melt from the residual solids. N ote Contributions to Mmerology and Petrology 92, 481 491.
that some patches of neosome do not have a melanocrat1c
core, probably because the plane of the rock surface does
not pass near the center of those patches. Unlike their host,
the patches of neosome do not have a foliation, and they
are generally equidimensional and somewhat irregularly
distributed. However, a band of neosome to the left of the
lens cap IS subparallel to the foliat1on 1n the paleosome, and
1ts origin may be due to the infiltration of a fluid along the
direction of the foliation plane in the host.
86 -------------------------------


Fig. 82 . This m1gmatite has a compos1t1onally un1form Locat1on: Central Metasedimentary Belt. Grenville Prov1nce
and weakly foliated paleosome 1n wh1ch scattered patches near Wakefield, Quebec, Canada. Rock type: patch metatex-
of light-colored neosome have a somewhat 1rregular ite migmat1te; metagabbro protolith, anatex1s at conditions
shape that might be related to fractures that devel- of the upper amphibolite to lower granulite faoes, T ca.
oped in the paleosome at the t1me of part1al melting. The 800°C, P 6- 9 kbar. Scale: the ruler is IS em long. Image :
paleosome is a medium-gra1ned garnet-hornblende- E.W. Sawyer.
plagioclase metagabbro; the neosome has the mineral
assemblage plagioclase + quartz + clinopyroxene + garnet
and is much coarser grained. Hence, a possible reaction
to describe melting is hornblende + plagioclase =
clinopyroxene + melt. The minerals are rather uniformly
distributed in the neosome 1n the upper left. However, the
larger patch of neosome in the center IS more complex, as
the res1dual ferromagnes1an m1nerals (mostly clinopyrox-
ene) are at the marg1n 1n some places, and 1n the center
elsewhere. Because the paleosome conta1ns hornblende,
1t 1s darker colored than the res1dual part of the neosome,
Illustrating that color is not 1nvariably reliable as a bas1s for
dist1ngu1shing paleosome from res1duum, and hence for
genetic 1nterpretat1ons in m1gmat1tes.
A tl as of M igmatite;
----------------- -------------- 87

Figure 3

Fig. 83. Only the fine-grained, grey. lens-shaped body, Locat1on: N emiscau Subprovince, Quebec, Canada. Rock
which can be called either a raft. scholle. or enclave type: schollen diatex1te migmatite; siliciclastic metaturbid-
(labeled P). to the nght of t he center IS paleosome in this Ite protolith partially melted at T 750-820°C, P 4 5 kbar.
m1gmatite: all the rest IS neosome of one sort or another. Scale: the ruler IS IS em long. /mage: E.W. Sawyer.
The paleosome scholle is fine-gra1ned and mesocrat1c: 1t
represents the rema1ns of a plag1oclase + quartz + b1o-
t1te res1ster lithology (a psammite or metagreywacke) that
did not melt, but 1t did undergo boudinage. The rest of the
metasedimentary rocks, of pelitic or semipelitic composi-
tion, underwent partial melting and has been modified . The
neosome 1s morphologically complex. as some parts (top of
the photograph) have a layered appearance. whereas oth-
ers are more 1rregular in form. Because the melt fraction
has been segregated from its res1duum to various extents.
the neosome is compositionally complex also. The melt-
rich parts of the neosome are evident as leucosome (L).
The parts rich in residual minerals are melanocratic (M),
but the parts of the melanosome enriched in biotite are far
darker colored than those parts where garnet IS abundant.
Furthermore, t here are coarse-grained. mesocratic parts to
t he neosome; in these parts, the melt d1d not completely
segregate from the residuum. This migmatite illustrates that
no specific genet ic connotat ion should be attached to t he
parts of a migmatite t hat are mesocratic.
88 ------------------------------


Fig. 84. This migmatite cons1sts almost entwely of neo- Locat1on: Ashuan1p1 Subprovince, Quebec, Canada. Rock
some; 1t IS a diatex1te m1gmat1te. Paleosome occurs only as type: d1atexite m1gmatite; Sllioclast1c metaturbidite proto-
scattered, dark, rounded rafts or schollen in the neosome lith, granulite-fac1es anatexis; T 825-875°C and P 6- 7 kbar:
(e.g., between the hammer and the ruler) . Although leu- Scale: the hammer is 40 em long. Image: E.W. Sawyer.
cocratic relative t o t he paleosome, the neosome cannot
be descnbed as leucosome because 1t conta1ns too h1gh
a proportion of ferromagnesian minerals; biotite and
orthopyroxene in t his case. The neosome is characterized
by a coarse grain-size and by the loss of structures, such as
bedding, that predate the partial melting. The very uniform
appearance of this migmatite could anse because ( I) the
protolith had a very homogeneous bulk composition, so
that the degree of part1al melt1ng was everywhere similar.
or (2) there was very little separat1on of the melt fraction
from the solid fract1on, and consequently, the neosome
d1d not develop consp1cuous leucosome and melanosome.
However, some places are a little lighter colored, or a little
darker colored, than others. Several dark bands (S), which are
concentrations of residual b1ot1te and orthopyroxene (the
melt1ng reaction in these rocks was b1otite + plagioclase +
quartz = orthopyroxene + ilmen1te + melt) are present
at the lower right. These thin bands, ribbons, and foliae of
melanocratic material are called schlieren.
A tlas of M igmati tes
----------------- -------------- 89

Figure S


Fig. 85. The protolith to this migmatite is a foliated meta- Location: Abitib1 Subprovince south of Ch1bougamau,
mafic rock, and the neosome shown has a concentrically Quebec, Canada. Rock type: metatexite migmatite; meta-
zoned structure: there is a rim of melanosome, and an mafic protolith, anatex1s at T 800-850°C and P 8 I 0 kbar.
1nner domain of leucosome. The leucosome is compara- Scale: the ruler is IS em long. Image: E.W. Sawyer.
tively un1form: 1t cons1sts of coarse-grained leucotonalite.
The melanosome, however, is not un1form. It consists of Further readmg: Sawyer. E.W . ( 1991 ) : D1sequ1libnum melt1ng
a clearly v1sible hornblende-rich 1nner part that is essen- and the rate of melt res1duum separation during migma-
tially devoid of plag1oclase and quartz, and a wider and less tization of mafic rocks from the Grenville Front, Quebec.
obvious outer part in which the abundant plagioclase and journal of Petrology 32,701 738.
quartz progressively increase outward to the level found
1n the host, wh1ch is the paleosome where 1t d1d not par-
tially melt. It may not be easy to locate preosely where
the outer edge of the melanosome IS in the field: conse-
quently, petrographic examination of thm sections may be
required to do this if mass-balance calculations are contem-
plated. Geochemical mass-balance of th1s and other areas
of neosome from the outcrop indicates that the neosome
formed in a closed system, i.e., the melt fract1on that cre-
ated the leucosome came from the adjacent melanosome,
which therefore represents a melt-depleted halo around
the leucosome. Anatex1s in a closed system 1n which the
melt and residuum have separated, but remained in place,
is referred to as m situ; hence, this is an example of an m
situ leucosome.
90 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --

Figure 6

quart z leucosome
gly foliated of thin band s (< I 0 mm) of plag1oclase +
Fig. 86. This migmatite consists mostly of a stron nosome. Because
grey. titani te- K-feld spar- horn - w1t h a very narro w hornblende-nch mela
and compositionally banded. the migmat1te
meta diont e paleo some . it occurs parallel t o t he foliat1on and g1ves
blende biotit e- quar tz- plagioclase bed as stromatic.
nt. A large doma 1n a layer ed appearance. 1t can be descn
Ther e are two types of neosome prese some has a small er gra1n -size than the
d 1n a dilata nt T he strom at1c leuco
of low-aspect-rat1o 1n s1tu neosome IS locate struc ture. but wher e the two are
o the foliat1on and leucosome 1n the dilatant
struc ture that has developed obl1q ue t one to the othe r is transi-
. Th1s neosome 1n contact, the transit1on from
the compositional band 1ng 1n the paleosome me borde rs of the
melanosome. tional. In ne1ther case can the melanoso
consists of an inner leucosome and an outer low-a spec t-ratio
d most . but not all of the leuco- stromatic leucosome be traced into the
wh1ch IS developed aroun that both were
are coars er gra1ned than leucosome. T hese relationships could mean
some . Bot h part s of t he neosome
fohat1 on or the band- part1ally molte n at the same time.
the paleosome. They do not have t he
there fore, postdate
Ing present in the adJacent paleosome and, Locat1on: Abit ibi Subprovince south of Chibo
ugam au,
tonalit1c comp o-
these structures. The leucosome port1on IS Q uebe c. Canada. Rock type: meta tex1te
m1gm at1te; meta-
spar), and some of
Sition (plag1oclase + quar tz+ mino r K-feld diorit e proto lit h. anatexis at T 800- 850°
C and P 8-10 kbar.
quar tz are euhe-
the plag1oclase crystals that occu r w1thin Scale: the ruler IS IS em long. Image: E.W . Sawy
ate crystallization
dral . a micro struct ure Interp reted to ind1c
me belon ging t o the leucosome
from a melt. The melanoso
+ hornb lende and. in
has the mineral assem blage plagioclase
quart z and K-feldspar
places. hornblende + plagioclase (i.e.,
ider, and darker, in
are absent). Furth ermo re, it is much w
this mela noso me
some places t han in others; conse quent ly,
t its leucosome
is more irregular and less sym metri cal abou
neoso me consists
t han that in Fig. BS. The second type of
A rias of Migmatites
- -- - - -- - - - - - - - - - 91

Figure 7

Fig. 87. The paleosome part of th1s m1gmat1te 1s a biotite - Locat1on: Arunta Inlier, Australia. Rock type: metatexite
quartz hornblende plag1oclase gne1ss 1n wh1ch folded m1gmat1te; gneiss protohth of 1ntermed1ate compos1tion
grey leucocrat1c plagioclase + quartz layers I 5 mm w1de part1ally melted under conditions of the upper amphibolite
w1thout melanocratic borders IS ev1dent. The neosome to lower granulite fac1es. Scale: the pen IS 14 em long. image
part (around the pen) consists of quartz plag1oclase and capt1on: Tony I.S. Kemp.
K-feldspar leucosome enveloped by melanosome, which
consist mainly of hornblende. T he concentration of horn-
blende to form the melanosome suggests that hornblende
was either not involved in the melting reaction and was
in excess during partial melting, or that hornblende was
a solid product of reaction. The presence of inclusion-
free, presumably melt-precipitated hornblende crystals
1n the leucosome suggests that hornblende was 1ndeed
involved in the melt1ng reaction, wh1ch may have been biO-
tite + plag1oclase + quartz + hornblende = hornblende1
+ melt. Poorly aligned nakes of poikiloblastiC biOtite In the
melanosome probably formed by reversal of the melt-pro-
duCing react1on dunng crystallization of the leucosome.
92 -------------------------------

Figure 8

Fig. 88. A band of quartz + plagioclase + K-feldspar leu- Th1s replacement may be due to the loss of melt, a reaction
cosome about 15 mm w1de can be seen 1n the center of between anhydrous res1dual phases and melt during cool-
th1s photograph. Although 1t 1s not ev1dent 1n th1s close-up, ing, or to react1on with an aqueous nUid.
the leucosome 1s oriented parallel to the compositional lay-
Location: Wuluma Hills, Arunta Inlier, Australia. Rock type:
enng (bedd1ng) 1n the m1gmatite; therefore, the leucosome
metatexite m1gmatite; psammite protolith, partially melted
is descnbed as stromatic. There are prominent. narrow
at T 825-875°C. P ca. 5 kbar. Scale: the ruler 1s graduated 1n
(about 4 mm) borders of melanosome contain1ng large crys-
em and mm. Image: E.W . Sawyer.
tals of garnet, orthopyroxene and biot1te developed along
both sides of the leucosome. The very low modal content
of quartz and feldspar in the melanocratic nms is consis-
tent with the interpretation that they contain the residuum
left after the extraction of the melt that subsequently
crystall1zed to become the leucosome. The grey meso-
cratiC part of the m1gmatite beyond the melanosome 1s
a quartz + plag1oclase + biotite + garnet + K-feldspar ±
orthopyroxene metapsammite, wh1ch on the bas1s of 1ts
m1neral assemblage has undergone part1al melting and IS
mostly residuum. Some porphyroblasts of garnet 1n the
mesocrat1c part have a narrow leucocratic rim, and these
are interpreted to be K-feldspar (a solid product of the
melt-producing reaction) and crystallized melt. Therefore,
the mesocratic part of this migmatite is neosome, not
paleosome. All t he biotite in t he melanosome and some
in the mesocratic part replace garnet and orthopyroxene.
Atlas of Migma[i[es
------------ ------------ ---------93

Figure 9

Fig. 89. The neosome 1n this m1gmatite occurs 1n a layer of Locat1on: Ab1t1b1 Subprov1nce south of Chibougamau.
med1um-grained (2-4 mm) garnet- plagioclase-hornblende Quebec. Canada. Rock type: metatexite m1gmatite: meta-
metamafic sch1st. on which the scale rests. The neosome mafic protolith, anatex1s at T 800- 850°C and P 8-10 kbar.
1s coarse grained (5 12 mm), and cons1sts of buff-colored, Scale : the ruler is IS em long. Image: E.W. Sawyer.
irregularly shaped leucosome of tonalite composition that
conta1ns minor amounts of garnet and clinopyroxene. and
a brown1sh purple. plag1oclase hornblende- clinopyrox-
ene garnet melanosome. If it is assumed that the host layer
has a composition similar to the proto lith of the neosome,
then the 1nferred reaction responsible for partial melting
was hornblende + plag1oclase = melt + clinopyroxene +
garnet. The leucosome occup1es dilatant structures that
formed as the host layer (protoltth) underwent layer-
parallel extension. Contacts between t he melanosome and
leucosome are diffuse: melanosome IS absent where the
leucosome shows a sharp contact w1th 1ts host metamafic
sch1st. Some of the melt thus was able to migrate a short
distance away from its m s1tu melanosome when brittle
fracturing occurred. The leucosome contains large. euhe-
dral crystals of clinopyroxene. whereas the clinopyroxene
1n the melanosome IS generally xenoblastic or sub1d1oblas-
ttc: the clinopyroxene in the leucosome thus crystallized 1n
a melt. Many clinopyroxene crystals have a narrow rim of
94 -------------------------------

Figure I0

Fig. 8 I 0. Th1s strongly foliated metatex1te m~gmat1te from Sillimanite 1n the rest of the melanosome. This microstructure
southern Bnttany has a complex neosome. The grey, fine- 1s interpreted to have fonmed dunng the incongruent melting
grained, sch1stose layers (P) conta1n the m1neral assemblage of biotrt:e. Consequently, the b1otlte bands were present before
quartz+ oligoclase+ b1otrt:e (some layers conta1n m1nor amounts dehydration melt1ng began. Therefore, the b1ot1te bands are
of garnet) and probably underwent little, 1f any, partial melt- interpreted to have developed at the very beg1nn1ng of anatexis,
Ing; they are possibly quartzofeldspath1c paleosome. The coin at which stage H 10-present melt1ng reactions occurred and
rests on one of several coarser-grained layers that contain the did not involve b1otite. T he biot1te bands are an integral part
m1neral assemblage plagioclase + quartz + biot1te ± garnet ± of the melanosome and are not mafic selvedges. Most of the
cordierit e ± Sillimanite and may be residual; these were derived leucosome domains in th1s migmat1te are oriented parallel to
from more alumino us metapelitic beds. Domains of leucosome the compositional layering and foliation. Thus. this is a stromatic
up to a few centimeters wide occur w1th1n the coarser-gra1ned met atexite migmat1te. However; leucosome 1s present between
layers and are either trondhjem1tic (quartz + oligoclase the boudins. The migmat1te thus was defonmed wh1le melt was
+ b1ot1te) or granrt:ic (quartz + K-feldspar + oligoclase + bio- still present.
tite) 1n compos1tion; both may conta1n small amounts of garnet
Location: Port Navalo area, southern Bnttany, France. Rock type:
and s1lliman1te. Many of the leucosome areas have consp1cuous,
stromat1c metatex1te m1gmatite; quartzofeldspath1c and alumi-
coarse-gra1ned melanosome from I to 10 mm w1de around
nous metasedimentary protolith, anateXIS at T ca. 800°C, p ca.
them that conta1ns the mineral assemblage b1ot1te + cordiente +
8 kbar; then decompression to 4 kbar and cooling. Scale: the
sillimanrte ± garnet ± quartz ± plag1oclase. The assemblage IS
coin IS 24 mm across. Image and capt1on: Mike Brown.
cons1stent with a residuum denved by the loss of anatect1c melt
from a pelitic protolith. A n unusual feature of the melanosome Further readmg: jones, K.A. & Brown. M. (1990): High-
1n th1s migmatite 1s the development of prom1nent biot1te-rich temperature 'clockwise' P T paths and melting in the
bands within it. T hese consist almost ent1rely of decussate crys- development of regional m1gmat1tes: an example from southern
tals of biotite up to 2 em long. T he coarse-grained biotite-rich Brittany, France.Journal ofMetarnorph1c Geology 8, 551-578.
bands could be part of the melanosome, or they could be a
Marchildon, N. & Brown, M . (2003): Spatial distribu-
mafic selvedge that fonmed later by reaction between the leu-
tion of melt-bearing structures 1n anatectic rocks from
cosome and its host. The microstructures assooated with the
southern Brittany, France: implications for melt transfer at grain-
bands prov1de the critical 1nfonmat1on. Some b1ot1te in the bands
to orogen-scale. Tectonophysics 364, 215 235.
1S part1ally replaced by a nm of cordiente that separates it from
Aria:, of Migmatites
----------------- ------------- 95

Figure I I

Fig. B II. Migmatites in which the neosome forms par- Location: Abitibi Subprovince, south of Chibougamau,
allel layers are called stromatic; single layers, as in this Quebec, Canada. Rock type: metatexite m1gmatite. meta-
example, are called stroma. The prom1nent layering in the mafic proto lith part1ally melt ed at T 800-850°C and P 8 I 0
paleosome formed when the metamafic protolith under- kbar. Scale: the ruler IS IS em long. Image: E.W. Sawyer.
went noncoax1al sheanng before and dunng part1al melting.
wh1ch attenuated the pre-exist1ng compositional layer- Further reading: Sawyer, E.W. (1991): Disequilibnum melt1ng
ing. The neosome IS parallel to the layering and consists of and the rate of melt-residuum separation dunng m1gma-
two parts: a white leucosome of leucotonalite composition tization of mafic rocks from the Grenville Front, Quebec.
(plagioclase + quartz), and a hornblende-rich. plagioclase- journal of Petrology 32. 701 738.
depleted melanosome. The leucosome contains subhedral
crystals of plag1oclase that have crystal faces against quartz.
and large euhedral crystals of randomly oriented horn-
blende. Both microstructures 1nd1cate crystallization from
a melt. This stromatic neosome is unusual 1n that melano-
some is developed only on one side of the leucosome
and not on both. as is more common. Mass-balance cal-
culations using the whole-rock major- and trace-element
compositions 1ndicate that the neosome probably formed
m a closed system and is, therefore. an example of in s1tu
melting and subsequent segregat1on of the melt from t he
residual solids. This is an example of an 1n Situ neosome; t he
leucosome part may also be called an rn situ leucosome.
96 -------------------------------

Figure I

Fig. 812. The neosome 1n th1s m1gmat1te 1s much coarser Location: Central Metasedimentary Belt, Grenville Provmce
gra1ned than the hornblende + plag1oclase + garnet near Wakefield, Quebec. Canada. Rock type: metatex1te
paleosome upon wh1ch the scale rests. Most of the larger migmat1te: metagabbro protohth. anatexis under condit1ons
doma1ns of neosome are located m and around shear zones of the lower granulite fac1es. Scale: the ruler 1s IS em long.
and 1nterboudin partitions. The melanosome is composed Image: E.W. Sawyer.
of hornblende + garnet + clinopyroxene with m1nor plagio-
clase, and the leucosome mostly cons1sts of plagioclase +
quartz, but locally contains large, euhedral crystals of light
green clinopyroxene. The melting reaction may have been
hornblende + plagioclase clinopyroxene + melt. A lthough
the leucosome and melanosome are 1n contact, the distri-
bution of melanosome is 1rregular and asymmetncal relat1ve
to the leucosome. The darkest parts of the melanosome
are nch 1n hornblende, wh1ch appears to replace clinopy-
roxene. The hornblende m the melanosome thus results
from a late- or post-anatex1s rehydration react1on. Small
amounts of leucosome also are present parallel to the folia-
tion planes 1n the paleosome. Some of th1s leucosome has a
consp1cuous melanocrat1c border (mafic selvedge) resulting
from the late replacement of clinopyroxene by hornblende.
A tlas of Mig ma tites
---------------------------------- 97

Figure I3

Fig. 813. Th1s photograph shows a th1n (10 em) layer of Locat1on: Ab1t1b1 Subprov1nce south of Chibougamau,
plag1oclase ·garnet-clinopyroxene metamafic rock w1th Quebec. Canada. Rock type: metatex1te m1gmatite
quartz-plag1oclase in situ and 1n source tonalit1c leucosome w1th dilatant structures; met amafic protohth, anatex1s at
that occurs w1th1n a garnet-beanng plag1oclase· hornblende T 800-850°C and P 8 I 0 kbar. Scale: the ruler is IS em
metabasiC rock, v1sible in t he upper nght. The photograph long. /mage: E.W . Sawyer.
1S taken normal to the plane of t he layenng, and shows that
most leucosome 1s disposed in an array of linked exten-
SIOn-induced fractures. There are also small, round halos
of leucosome, however, about 8 mm across. surrounding
some of the garnet crystals. The borders of the leucosome
are not planar; rat her, they are h1ghly irregular on the gra1n
scale, wh1ch suggests that they have not been subsequently
deformed. The proto lith of this layer is 1nterpreted to have
had JUSt the opt1mal bulk compos1t1on for part1al melt1ng
to have consumed v1rtually all its hornblende to generate
abundant garnet and clinopyroxene, both of which are very
strong m1nerals. Consequently, as melt1ng progressed, and
the melt fract1on was removed, th1s layer became more
competent than its ne1ghbors and developed many exten-
Sional fractures. The last increments of anatectiC melt in
the layer migrated into t he extensional fractures as they
developed and, when temperat ures declined, crystal-
lized there t o form t he leucosome. A possible melting
reaction is hornblende + plagioclase = melt + garnet +
clinopyroxene .


Figure 14

Fig. 814. This migmat1te was denved from metapelite and Locat1on: Be1t Bndge Complex. Verbaard Farm, South
cons1sts of only two parts, leucosome and melanosome; Afnca. Rock type: stromatic metatex1te m1gmat1te; pelit1c
1t 1s all neosome. However, the adJacent outcrops conta1n protolith, anatexis at T 800 850°C, P 7 I 0 kbar. Scale: the
psamm1t1c, calc-silicate, and mafic resister litholog1es that pocket kn1fe IS II em long. Image: E.W. Sawyer.
can be traced laterally for some distance; thus, 1n the larger
context, th1s 1s a metatex1te migmat1te. The m1gmatlte 1s
polyphase, as it has experienced anatexis and deformation
in the Archean (twice) and aga1n in the Paleoproterozoic.
Hence, the bodies of leucosome display a complex history
of deformation and have been boudinaged and folded at
various times. The domains of leucosome 1n the photo-
graph are located parallel to the foliat1on and compos1t1onal
layenng denved from the original bedding; they are thm,
and have a high aspect-ratio. Hence. the m1gmat1te can be
descnbed as stromatic. The leucosome cons1sts of quartz,
plag1oclase, and K-feldspar 1n vanous proport1ons. and
conta1ns only minor amounts of garnet and b1otite. The
melanocratic, metapehtic rocks between the doma1ns of
leucosome are nch in biotite and garnet. consistent w1th a
melt-depleted, or residual, bulk composition. However, the
metapelitic layers show differences in modal mineralogy,
grain size, and microstructure from layer to layer. These
differences probably reflect the initial variation in protolith
composition from bed to bed.
Atl,ls of Migmatites
------------------ --------------- 99


Fig. B IS . Migmat ites derived from felsic igneous protoliths Location: Opat ica Subprovince. Quebec, Canada. Rock type :
such as granites, leucotonalites and trondhjemites can be patch metatexite migmatite; leucotrondhjemite protolith
very difficult to recogn1ze in the field because the neosome part1ally melted under upper-amphibolite-faoes conditions,
has a compos1t1on. m1neralogy. and microstructure s1milar T ca. 750°C, and P 5 7 kbar. Scale: the ruler 1s 15 em long.
to those of the paleosome. The paleosome 1n th1s m1gma- Image: E.W. Sawyer:
t 1te (P) IS a grey. foliated leucotrondhJemlte. part of a late
Archean. calc-alkaline plutonic arc in the Superior Province Further readmg: Sawyer, E.W. (1998): Format1on and evo-
of Canada. The neosome (N ) forms lighter. pinkish and lution of granite magmas dunng crustal reworking: the
buff-colored. rather nebulitic patches that are slight ly significance of diatexites. Journal of Petrology 39. 11 47 1167
coarser grained and. most notably. devo1d of a foliat1on.
relat1ve to the paleosome. Petrograph1c and geochem1cal
ev1dence 1nd1cates that no segregation of melt from resid-
ual solids occurred as the neosome patches formed; hence.
there is no leucosome and no melanosome, 1.e., the prod-
ucts of anatexis rema1ned 1n s1tu. Locally, there are thin.
pink leucocratic veins (LV) parallel to the foliation in the
paleosome; these represent 1nject1ons of anatectic melt
(1.e.. they are not m situ or in-source leucosome) . The whit-
ISh streaks onented parallel to the scale are scratches on
the surface made when cleanng the outcrop.
100 -----------------------------

Figure 6

Fig. 816. The protolith for th1s m1gmat1te was a strongly Location: Mount Hay. Arunta Inlier. Australia. Rock type :
metatex1te m1gmat1te: foliated charnock1te protolith. par-
foliated. coarse-gra1ned garnet- and orthopyroxene-bear-
tial melt1ng at T 825 875°C. P 6-7 kbar. Scale: the ruler IS
Ing monzogranite to syenogramte that conta1ned abundant
megacrysts of K-feldspar. The gramte occurs as a large d1ke IS em long. Image: E.W. Sawyer.
in a th1ck sequence of mafic granulites. The small degree
of partial melting at this locality has generated scattered
lent icular patches of neosome (N ) located in crenulation
bands that are oriented at a high angle to the pre-existing
foliation . The neosome in th1s migmatite is very difficult
to see largely because it is practically the same color as
the host. One reason for this uniformity IS the very fel-
sic composition of the paleosome. The res1duum left after
the extraction of the small amount of melt generated 1n
th1s migmatite is dominated by K-feldspar. plag1oclase, and
quartz and. consequently. not particularly ennched 1n fer-
romagnes1an minerals relat1ve to the melt-denved port1on.
Hence. there is no distinct leucosome, nor melanosome, to
assist the eye in detecting the neosome. The best criterion
to identify neosome in such circumstances is 1ts truncat1on
of older structures in the paleosome, the foliat1on 1n th1s
A tlas of M igmat ites

Figure 17

Fig. B 17. T he center of this photograph shows a pelitic layer residuum remained intimately associated, a relationship sug-
that has undergone significant partial melting. It is bordered gestive of anatexis in the absence of differential stresses. A
at the top (beneat h the pen knife) and t he bottom by psam- dark-colored layer separates the pelite from t he psammite;
mitic layers in which there was little or no partial melting. this selvedge has formed as a result of interaction between
As the entire pelitic layer has been affected by partial melt- t he psammite and the anat ectic melt in t he pelite.
ing, it can be called neosome, and three components can be
identified w ithin it. The melanocrat ic part consists of scat- Location: Mount Stafford, Australia. Rock type: unsegre-
tered dark grey andalusite porphyroblasts (A); these are gated neosome in a metatexite migmatite; the protolith
surrounded by a dark rim, or corona, of cordierite + spinel was a pelitic layer in a thinly bedded sequence of psammite
symplectite that also contains minor amounts of K-feldspar and pelite, partial melting at T ca. 700°C, P 3.2 kbar in local
and plagioclase. The light grey mesocratic component (R) of metamorphic zone 3. Scale: the pen knife is I I em long. Image
the neosome consists principally of cordierite and K-feldspar and caption : Richard White.
with minor amounts of quartz and biotite, and is interpreted
Further reading: Greenfield, j.E., Clarke, G.L., Bland, M. &
to be t he residuum left after partial melting of a pelitic proto-
Clarke, DL (1996): In Situ migmatite and hybrid diatexite at
lith and the removal of most of the anatectic melt generated.
Mt. Stafford, central Australia. journal o(Metamorphic Geology
Pink leucocratic material consisting mostly of K-feldspar and
14,4 13-426.
quartz is scattered unevenly throughout the neosome; it
forms a rim around the andalusite porphyroblasts, as well Greenfield, J.E., Clarke, GL & White, R.W. ( 1998) : A
as rather nebulous patches and small veins in the mesocratic sequence of partial melting reactions at Mt. Stafford, central
part of the neosome. Because the K-feldspar is commonly Australia.Journal o(Metamorphic Geology 16, 363- 378.
prismatic and occurs in larger crystals of quartz (see Figs.
F47 and F48), t he leucocratic part of the neosome is inter- White, R.W., Powell, R. & Clarke, G.L. (2003): Prograde
pret ed to have crystallized from a melt, and can be termed metamorphic assemblage evolut ion during part ial melt-
leucosome. A lthough the melt and residual fract ions did sep- ing of met asediment ary rocks at low pressures: migmatites
arate, the striking aspect of this migmatite is that the scale from Mt. Stafford, central Australia. journal o( Petrology 44,
of segregation was millimetric only, and the leucosome and 1937- 1960.

Figure 18

1n the neosome began to segregate from the residuum and

Fig. B 18. The m1gmatite 1n th1s photogr aph developed 1n a
formed the Irregular and slightly discordant layers of coarse-
rock that contained layers of different compos ition and texture;
grained leucosome. However. the process did not advance
consequently, the morpho logy of the neosome d1ffers subtly
sufficiently to separate the leucosome from the melanosome
from layer to layer: The pen rests on neosom e that developed
by more that a few mill~meters . Consequently. at the outcrop
from a layer of alum1nous metapelite that contained large por-
scale. the leucosome and res1duum remain interspersed in this
phyroblasts of andalus1te; a s1m1lar layer occurs at the bottom
m1gmatite. The finer-grained and more prom1nently layered
of the photograph. The aluminous metapelite layers under-
neosom e that occup1es the center of the photograph (below
went a s1gn1ficant degree of part1al melt1ng. and the neosom e
the tip of the pen) was denved from a subaluminous. cordier-
that developed 1s complex. as it conta1ns two types of leuco-
lte-nch metapel1te that conta1ned a far lower fract1on of melt.
cratiC and melanocratic doma1ns. The leucocrat1c doma1ns are
and did not conta1n porphyroblasts of alum1nos11icate. The mil-
rich 1n K-feldspar and quartz. On the bas1s of the microstruc-
limeter-scale layenng 1n th1s neosome IS due to the alternat1on
tures that they conta1n, they are Interpre ted to have contained
of leucocrat1c layers nch 1n K-feldspar and quartz with mel-
anatect1c melt; therefore, they can be termed leucosome.
anocratic layers that are rich in cord1ente ; the layering 1n the
Fine-gra1ned leucosome (FL) occurs as narrow layers a few
neosome 1s Interpre ted to m1m1c the fine-scale sedimentary
millimeters w1de that alternate w1th th1n layers of fine-gra1ned
layering of the protolith . The neosome 1n each of the layers 1n
melanosome that IS nch 1n cordient e and Interpre ted to be the
th1s m1gmat1te IS quite different 1n terms of 1ts gra1n s1ze and
res1duum; they are melanosome. Coarser-grained leucosome
the proport ion of leucocratiC matenal that 1t conta1ns; such
(CL) forms somewh at Irregular layers that locally overgrow,
charactenstics are controlle d by the compos it1on and the met-
and even truncate, the alternation of fine-gra1ned leucocrat1c
amorphi c textures that developed 1n the protolith .
and melanocratic layers. The coarse leucosome conta1ns mel-
anocratiC patches (A) that are up to 2 em across. These are Locat1on : Mount Stafford, Australia . Rock type: part1ally segre-
porphyroblasts of alum1nosilicate (aggregates of Sillimanite crys- gated neosome 1n a metatex1te m1gmat1te; th1nly bedded pelit1c
tals that partially, or complet ely, replace andalus1te) that have protolith, partial melt1ng at T ca. 750°C. P 3.2 kbar. on the
been part1ally. or wholly. replaced by a symplect1t1c intergro wth boundar y between local metamo rphic zones 3 and 4. Scale: the
of cordierit e and sp1nel where there was no quartz. The pro- pen is 16 em long./mage and caption: R1chard White.
tolith to th1s neosome was very s1milar to that of the m1gmat1te
shown 1n F1g. Bl7. but perhaps because the degree of partial Further read1ng: see Fig. B 17.
melt1ng was a little h1gher 1n th1s m1gmat1te, the melt fract1on
Arias of Migmat ites

Fig. 8 19. Close-up of a part1ally melted metapelite 1n

wh1ch the melt did not separate s1gn1ficantly from the resid-
uum. The result IS a migmat1te 1n wh1ch the neosome IS
w1thout consp1cuous leucosome or melanosome. However,
1t has a much coarser grain-size and a different microstruc-
tu re t han a metapelite. The dark-colored w1sps are the
rema1ns of psammit ic beds t hat have become folded. N ot e
the absence of either a foliat ion or evidence for folding
w ithin t he petite-derived neosome. The melt ing react ion in
t his quartz-bearing metapelite w as biot ite + sillimanite +
quartz = cordient e + K-feldspar + melt.

Location: Mount Stafford, Aust ralia. Rock type: nebuht1c

diatex1te m1gmat1te; pelit1c protolith, part1al melt1ng at T ca.
700°C, P 3.2 kbar, on the boundary between local meta-
morphic zones 2 and 3. Scale: the ruler IS 15 em lang./mage:
E.W. Sawyer.

Further readtng: see Fig. B 17.

104 ------------------------------

Figure 10

Fig. 820. Th1s photograph shows an outcrop of metatex- solid and melt products of the melt1ng react1on. It can be
lte m1gmatite that contams patches of coarser-grained, div1ded into leucosome and melanosome only w1th some
nonfoliated neosome 1n a matnx of finer-gra1ned, foliated, difficulty because the two are 1nt1mately distnbuted. The
leucogranite gneiss. The neosome cons1sts of wregu- parts of the neosome that consist entirely of quartz, pla-
lar patches and veins. some of wh1ch have locally JOined gioclase, and K-feldspar could be termed leucosome. Other
together to form a vague, net-like pattern. Neosome 1s parts consist of large 1rregular poikdoblasts. or aggregates,
of garnet intergrown with quartz, domains that could be
readily distinguished from the host gneiss by its coarser
grain-size, and by its truncation of the biotite-defined lay- described as melanosome.
ering in the gneiss. The neosome contains conspicuous
Location : Broken Hill area, New South Wales, Australia .
crystals of garnet in a l1ght-colored, quartzofeldspathic
Rock type: net-structured metatexite m1gmatite; quartzo-
matnx: the garnet crystals tend to occur toward the center
feldspathic protolith, anatexis 1n the upper amphibolite
of the patches of neosome and are commonly mtergrown
facies, T ca. 800°C, P 4 5 kbar. Scale: the ruler is 15 em
w1th quartz. There are no rims of melanosome around the
long. /mage: E.W. Sawyer.
neosome. There 1s no garnet 1n the host gne1ss, and there 1s
no b10t1te 1n the neosome. Th1s is an 1mportant observation: Further readmg: Braun, 1., Ra1th. M. & Rav1ndra Kumar, G.R.
from 1t. one can infer that the melt1ng react1on 1nvolved the ( 1996): Oehydrat1on-meltlng phenomena 1n leptyn1t1C
1ncongruent breakdown of b1ot1te 1n a reaction s1m1lar to gne1sses and the generat1on of leucogran1tes: a case study
b1ot1te + plag1oclase + quartz = garnet + K-feldspar + melt. from the Kerala Khondahte Belt. southern lnd1a. Journal of
In that case then, the fol1ated leucogneiss represents the Petrology 37, 1285 1305.
assemblage of reactant m1nerals and could, consequently,
be v1ewed as both the protolith and the paleosome that White. R.W., Powell, R. & Halpin, j.A. (2004): Spatially-
would have melted, if the metamorphic temperatures had focussed melt formation in aluminous metapelites from
been higher. Because the leucogranite gneiss predominates, Broken Hill, Australia . Journal of Metamorphic Geology 22,
anatexis was not particularly advanced 1n this migmatite. 825- 845.
The neosome, on the other hand, represents both the
A tlas of Migmatites

Figure 2

Fig. 821. The light-colored neosome 1n th1s m1gmat1te has

developed 1n a b1otite gne1ss of sem1pelittc bulk composi-

tion, and cons1sts of streaks and patches of coarse-gra1ned

quartz and feldspar with large crystals of garnet. There IS
ne1ther melanosome nor leucosome. The neosome has
ind1st1nct or slightly diffuse boundaries. The minerals 1n the
neosome have no shape-pr eferred onentation, and there is
no foliation. T he streaks of neosome are parallel and follow,
approximately, the foliation in t he host paleosome, giving an
overal l stromatic, or layered, appearance to the migmatite.
Some neosome 1s locally discordant.

Locat1on: Namaqualand, South Africa. Rock type: stromatic

metatex1te m1gmat1te; semipelitic protohth part1ally melted
1n the granulite faoes. Scale: the hammer head IS 10 em
across. Image and caption: Dave Waters.

Further readmg: Waters. D.J. (1988): Part1al melt1ng and the

format1on of granulite facies assemblages 1n Namaqualand,
South Afnca. journal of Metomorph1c Geology 6, 387 404.

Figure ll

Locatron: Sand R1ver Gne1sses. Causeway locality, South

Fig. 822. The neosome tn th1s photograph has devel-
Afnca. Rock type: metatex1te m1gmat1te; leucocratiC, ortho-
oped at the end of a boud1n denved from a res1ster layer
gneiss protolith, part1ally melted 1n the granulite facies.
of slightly darker-colored 1ntermed1ate gne1ss (paleosome)
Scale: the pocket kn1fe IS II em long. Image: E.W . Sawyer.
hosted by a grey leucocrat1c gne1ss. The lighter-colored
gne1ss has locally undergone partial melt1ng and has gen-
erated neosome that dom1nantly cons1sts of feldspar and
quartz, but t hat also contains conspicuous, euhedral crystals
of pyroxene and some of amphibole. Two charact eristics in
particular ser ve to distinguish the neosome in this migma-
tite from the paleosome; it is considerably coarser grained,
and it does not have a foliation. Although the neosome is
lighter in color than the paleosome and could, therefore, be
described as leucocratic, 1t should not be called leucosome
because 1t contains a h1gh proportion of ferromagnes1an
m1nerals that are the product of the melt1ng reaction. The
melt fraction thus d1d not segregate from the solid fract1on
(res1duum), and hence the term leucosome IS lnappropn-
ate for this migmatite; neosome 1s correct. Th1s photograph
illustrates a small part of an extens1ve pavement on which
pre-anatectic compositional layenng and cross-cutting dike
relations can be seen in the orthogneiSS paleosome; hence,
this is a metatexite migmatite.
t A tlas o f M igmatites

t Figure 23


Fig. 823. This migmat1te cons1sts of two ma1n parts, one much, if any, separation of melt from residuum. The alumi-
dark-colored and the other light-colored, and is a good nous metapelite that makes up the dark (melanocratic) part
example of a case in which the leucocrat1c and melano- of the outcrop 1s not paleosome, and ne1ther IS 1t wholly
cratic parts present do not correspond wholly to the res1duum, as 1t does not contain the garnet porphyrob1asts
usual genet1c relationship found between leucosome or the pentect1c K-feldspar: 1t may most closely correspond
(melt-denved part) and melanosome (res1dual part) 1n to the protolith. However, there IS no doubt that the light
m1gmat1tes. The dark-colored part IS a sill1man1te-rich, color of the neosome. due pnnc1pally to the elim1nat1on of
alum1nous metapelit1c schist or gne1ss that conta1ns the min- d1ssem1nated biotite, IS the dominant characteristiC of this
eral assemblage garnet + cordierite + sillimanite + biot1te migmat1te in outcrop: consequently, these domains have
+ quartz + plag1oclase + llmen1te. The light-colored part been referred to as "leucosome".
conta1ns large, prom1nent poikiloblasts of garnet in a med1-
um-gra1ned leucocratiC matnx that is rich 1n K-feldspar and Locat1on: Round H1ll, Broken H1ll area, Australia. Rock type:
quartz. The large po1kiloblasts of garnet occur only in the metatex1te m1gmat1te: aluminous metapelite protolith par-
leucocrat1c matenal. whereas cordierite occurs only 1n the tially melted at T 800°C and P 5- 6 kbar. Scale: the hand
dark metapelit1c gne1ss. The leucocrat1c matenal is inferred lens IS 3 em long. Image and caption: Richard Wh1te. Image
to have formed 1n Situ around the grow1ng poikiloblasts, and previously published as fig. 2a 1n White et al. (2004) and
IS dom1nantly composed of peritectiC K-feldspar, together reproduced with the permiSSIOn of Blackwell Publ1sh1ng.
w1th some K-feldspar, quartz and plag1oclase that crystal-
Further readmg: White. R.W., Powell, R. & Halpin, J.A.
lized from the anatect1c melt. Hence, the light-colored part
(2004): Spat1ally-focussed melt format1on 1n alumi-
of th1s m1gmat1te conta1ns both the products of a pentect1c
nous metapelites from Broken Hill, Australia . Journal of
react1on (K-feldspar and garnet), whiCh would be consid -
Me!Omorph1c Geology 22, 825 845.
ered part of the res1duum assemblage, and the products of
the crystallization of t he anatectiC melt (K-feldspar, quartz,
and plag1oclase). Consequently, the leucocrat1c port1on of
the migmatlte represents neosome that has not undergone
108 ------------------------------

F1gure 24

Locat1on: Round Hill, Broken Hill area, Australia. Rock type:

Fig. 824. This m1gmatite is from the same area as that
folded metatex1te m1gmat1te: alum1nous metapelite pro-
in B23. It too conta1ns dark-colored 1lmenite-
tolith, anatexis at T 800°C and P 5-6 kbar. Scale: the pen
plag1oclase-quartz-b1otite silhman1te cordiente garnet
is 14 em long. Image and capt1on: R1chard White. Image
aluminous metapelite, but there are some lighter-col-
previously published as fig. 2b 1n Wh1te et al. (2004) and
ored layers 1n it that represent th1n, alum1num-poor beds.
reproduced w1th the permiSSIOn of Blackwell Publishing.
Domains of leucocratiC neosome are abundant. and they
contain conspicuous poikiloblasts of garnet. However. there
Further readmg: same as for Fig. B23.
are many more small grains of garnet scattered through-
out the neosome in this migmatite than in that shown in
Fig. B23. As the garnet poikiloblasts do not occur in the
host aluminous metapelite, the aluminous metapelite
in th1s case may correspond more closely to proto-
lith, rather than residuum or paleosome. The neosome
is inferred to have formed m s1tu around the growing
poikiloblasts of garnet and IS dominantly composed of peri-
tectiC K-feldspar with lesser amounts of K-feldspar, quartz,
and plagioclase that crystallized from an anatectiC melt. A
t1ght F antiform folds both the neosome and the compo-
Sitional layering in the alum1nous metapelite; an 52 foliation
defined by an alignment of b10t1te and s1llimamte occurs in
the aluminous metapelite and is oriented parallel to the
axial plane of t he F2 fold. In contrast. the 52 structure in
the neosome is a fracture cleavage, and this is consistent
with neosome already being 1n the solid state during the
Dl event.
A tl as of Migmatites


Fig. 825. Th1s photograph shows a m1gmat1te developed the diffuse and patch morphology of the neosome shown
1n a strongly foliated gamet-K-feldspar-plagioclase- s1lhman1te- 1n Fig. B 15, but also shares the charactenst1c of neosome
quartz biot1te alum1nous metapelite gne1ss. The neosome formed by the Incongruent meltmg of b1ot1te shown 1n Figs.
cons1sts of several diffuse, almost skeletal, coarse-grained B20-B24, or of amphibole.
patches that have a core of p1nk garnet 1ntergrown w1th
quartz and K-feldspar. The garnet-nch cores are sur- Location: Sa1nt-Fulgence, Grenv1lle Province, Quebec,
rounded by a nm cons1st1ng of roughly equal proportions Canada. Rock type: patch metatexite m1gmatite: alum1nous
of K-feldspar, quartz, and plagioclase. Locally, some coarse- pehte protolith, granul1te-faoes anatex1s T 800- 850°C, P
grained b1ot1te replaces garnet and K-feldspar 1n the 5 8 kbar. Scale: the w1dth of the photograph corresponds
neosome. The neosome 1s interpreted to be the m s1tu to 16 em. /mage: E.W. Sawyer.
product of the 1ncongruent melting of b1ot1te by a react1on
such as b1ot1te + silliman1te + quartz + plag1oclase garnet +
K-feldspar + gran1tic melt. Some of the patches of neosome
have a h1gh proportion of garnet and K-feldspar (the solid
products of the melting react1on. cons1dered "peritectic"
phases by some authors), whiCh suggests that these reg1ons
of neosome have lost the1r anatect1c melt. This interpreta-
tion IS supported by the presence of coarse-gra1ned. gran1t1c
leucosome w1thout garnet (e.g., center of the top edge)
located 1n dilatant structures with1n the gne1ss, wh1ch are
Interpreted to have crystallized from the segregated ana-
tectic melt. T hus, t he migmat1te in th1s photograph shares
110 ------------------------------

Figure 826

Fig. 826. The leucosome 1n this m1gmat1te IS qUite evi-

dent. Some domains are parallel to the bedd1ng (stromatiC
morphology), whereas others are discordant (d1latant
morphology), but most of them have somewhat d1ffuse
borders. In contrast. there are no conspicuously melano-
cratlc parts tn the migmat1te. such as melanosome around
a patch of leucosome. However, the m1neral assemblage
(plagioclase + biotite + quartz + garnet), modal propor-
tions, and the whole-rock compos1t1on of the rock around
the leucosome indicate that it IS the res1duum left after
the extraction of melt from a protolith of semipel1t1c bulk
composition. Therefore, the m1gmat1te shown 1n this pho-
tograph cons1sts ent1rely of neosome. The melt fract1on. or
part of 1t, is represented by the leucosome, but the rest of
the rock 1n the photograph IS not paleosome, desp1te 1ts
med1um (mesocrat1c) color. It 1s the res1duum left after the
melt was segregated.

Locat1on: Nem1scau Subprovmce, northern Quebec,

Canada. Rock type : metatextte mtgmattte: sem1pelite proto-
lith partially melted under lower-granulite-faCies condtttons,
T ca. 800°C. P ca. 5 kbar: Scale: the ruler IS IS em long.
Image : E.W. Sawyer.
A rias of Migmat ites

Fig. 827. Thts photograph shows the neosome developed of leucosome that form the linked array are examples of In-
tn the neck regton of a boudtnaged layer 1n a metama- source leucosome. N ote that some parts of these domatns
fic paleosome (P). The macroscopic aspects of the three do not have a prom1nent melanosome. The large tnangu -
stages of melt movement that occur in mtgmatttes are lar doma1n of leucosome 1n the center of the boudin neck
well illustrated. Therefore, this example serves as an intro- m1ght have been part of the system of larger channels t hat
duction to "open-system" mtgmatites. The domatns of belonged to t he tertiar y stage of melt movement t hrough
leucosome t race out a complex pat tern of linked segments wh ich melt moved out of its source layer and fed leuco-
that are parallel to the layering, o rthogonal to t he layenng, cratic dikes elsewhere in t he migmat it e. T he top end of the
and 1n a conJugat e set oriented at about 4S0 to t he layenng. scale rests on a pegmatite vein, not leucosome.
The onentations of t he dilat ational sites are consistent with
layer-parallel ext enston occurnng during anat exis. However, Location: Abitibi Subprov1nce. south of Chibougamau,
the locat1on of melanosome (M) IS more restncted. It gen- Quebec, Canada. Rock type: metatex1te m1gmatite: meta-
erally forms layers oriented parallel. or subparallel, to mafic protolith partially melted at T 800 8S0°C and P 8 10
the foliat1on. Thts arrangement suggests that certain kbar. Scale: the ruler is IS em long. /mage: E.W. Sawyer.
sublayers have lost much more melt than others: tndeed,
Further readmg: Sawyer, E.W. (1991): Disequilibrium melttng
some may not have lost melt. The expelled melt moved
and the rate of melt res1duum separat1on dunng migma-
through the hnked system of dilatant structures and may
tizatlon of mafic rocks from the Grenv1lle Front, Quebec.
ulttmately have dratned out from the layer at the boudin
journal of Petrology 32 , 70 1- 738.
neck. Thus, 1n general, leucosome represents melt fro-
zen 1n t he channel system, and not necessanly the sites Sawyer, E.W . (200 1): Melt segregat1on 1n the cont1nental
where melttng occurred . Some isolat ed, Irregularly shaped crust: distribut ion and movement of melt in anatect ic rocks.
domains of leucosome w ith melanosome around t hem journal of M etamorphic Geology 19, 29 1 309.
(just less than half way down on t he right-hand edge) are 1n
s1tu domains of leucosome, and are loci w here melt has col -
lected after a centimeter or so of porous flow. The domains
112 ----------------------------

Figure 828

Fig. 828. At first glance, th1s outcrop appears to show a Locat1on: Ab1tib1 Subprovince, south of Ch1bougamau,
metamafic rock conta1ning many d1scordant fels1c ve1ns 1n Quebec, Canada. Rock type: ve1ned metatexite m1gma-
fractures; therefore, one may 1nfer that 1t IS not a m1gmatlte. t1te; metamafic protohth part1ally melted at T 800- 850°C
However, m a few places, the presence of 1n Situ neosome and P 8- 10 kbar. Scale: the ruler 1s 15 em long. /mage: E.W.
(N), cons1st1ng of coarse-grained melanosome that conta1ns Sawyer.
minor, th1n (<2 mm) leucosome, indicates that part1al melt-
Further readmg: see F1g. B27.
ing and separation of the melt fraction from the solid have
occurred and that t he rock is indeed a migmatite. Most of
the rock can be considered to be paleosome. In general
(e.g., just above and to the left of the scale), the passage
from paleosome to melanosome is gradational, without the
presence of leucosome, and this suggests the loss of melt
on a local scale. The strik1ng aspect of this outcrop is the
abundance of medium-gramed, leucocrat1c ve1ns that cross
the paleosome, melanosome and m Situ neosome. These
ve1ns lack adjacent melanosome, wh1ch suggests that they
result from fractunng and InjeCtion of melt. Thus, the his-
tory of th1s migmatite 1nvolved part1al melting, then loss of
melt, and finally, addit1on of melt.
t A tl a., of Migmati tes

t Figure 19



Fig. 829. Th1s m1gmat1te was denved from the same lay- Locatton: Abitibi Subprov1nce, south of Chibougamau,
ered metamafic rock as in Fig. B27, but at a locality that Quebec, Canada. Rock type: melt-depleted metatexite
underwent a h1gher degree of part1al melting and a much migmatite; metamafic protol1th part1ally melted at T 800-
greater loss of melt. The migmat1te IS stromatic in that 8500C and P 8 10 kbar. Scale: the ruler IS IS em long.
w1de, dark bands w1th the m1neral assemblage hornblende /mage: E.W. Sawyer.
+ plagioclase + garnet + clinopyroxene alternate w1th th1n,
light-colored plag1oclase-nch layers. The bulk composi- Further reading: see F1g. B27.
tion of the m1gmatite is melt-depleted relat1ve to the likely
protolith composition, confirming its residual appear-
ance. The outcrop contains a linked array of very narrow,
d1scordant stnngers of leucosome (indicated by the arrows)
that conta1n discontinuous pockets and scattered 1nd1v1d-
ual crystals of subhedral plagioclase, and very little quartz.
These stringers of 1n-source leucosome cons1st of accumu-
lations of plagioclase, and are interpreted as the collapsed
(deflated) remains of a channel system through which the
melt generated during anatexis moved out of its residuum.
This is a melt-depleted migmatite. The preservation of
the compos1t1onal layenng that predates the partial melt-
Ing Indicates th1s to be a metatex1te m1gmat1te. In choos1ng
another descnptive term for this migmatite, one has to
decide which trait to emphasize. If morphology is impor-
tant. then "stromatic metatexite migmatite" might be
appropriate. However; if the bulk composition of the mig-
matite is important, then "melt-depleted" or "residual"
would be appropnate.
114 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Figure 30

Fig. 830. Thts close-up photograph shows a patch of

neosome developed tn a grey garnet b1ot1te plagtoclase
quartz alumtnous metapsammtte. The neosome has two
parts. An tnner portton conststs of a stngle, large brown
poikiloblast of garnet that is 1ntergrown wtth quartz (see
Ftg. F74 for an example of the mtcrostructure of the gar-
net quartz intergrowths), and an outer part that consists
predominant ly of medium-grained K-feldspar, wtth a small
proportton of quartz and plagtoclase. The neosome is inter-
preted to be the solid products (i.e., garnet + K-feldspar) of
a melt-producing, btotite-breakdown reactton. The absence
from thts neosome of a leucocratic part that has a gran1t1c
composttton leads to the 1nterpretat1on that the melt frac-
tton generated by the incongruent breakdown of btottte
has mtgrated away. Consequently, the rematntng neosome
conststs essenttally of restduum.

Location: Wuluma Hills, Arunta Inlier, Australia. Rock type:

melt-depleted patch metatextte mtgmattte: alumtnous
psammite protolith, partially melted at T 825 875°C. P ca.
5 kbar. Scale: the ruler IS graduated in em and mm. /mage:
E.W. Sawyer.
t A ri a> of Migmatites

t Figure

Fig. 831 . The large-scale morphology of this outcrop

shows a medium-grained, grey schistose rock that cont a1ns
a few thin ve1ns of gran1te. The gran1te veins occur 1n two
sets that are discordant to the foliation, and a locally pre-
served compositional layenng 1n the host. Together, both
sets of ve1ns comb1ne to form a very open, net-like pat-
tern. Furthermore. the granite ve1ns have no melanosome,
or mafic selvedge, assoc1ated w ith them. Consequently, the
veins may be thought of as injected along two sets of frac-
tures in the host. Hence, at the scale of th1s photograph,
there IS no ev1dence for part1al melt1ng. and 1t 1s not at all
ev1dent that th1s IS an outcrop of m1gmat1te. The ev1dence
for part1al melt1ng comes from the close-up, detailed exam-
1nat1on of the contacts between the ve1ns and the host. as
shown in the next figure (Fig. B32) .

Location: Broken Hill area, New South Wales, Australia.

Rock type: metatexite migmat1te: quartzofeldspathic proto-
lith (Hores gne1ss). anatexis in the upper amph1bohte fac1es,
T ca. 800°C, P 4 5 kbar. Scale: the ruler IS IS em long.
Image: E.W. Sawyer.
116 ------------------------------

Figure 31

' • 1

,, 0! • -
, s'•' . . ". . _ . , .

Fig. 832. Th1s close-up shows the area close to the left edge H. 0-fluxed part1al melt1ng. When the host rocks were at a h1gh
and ust above half way up 1n Fig. B31 The country rock to the temperature. just below the1r solidus, an aqueous flu1d entered
· gran1t1c ve1n" 1s garnet biotite quartz K-feldspar plag1oclase them through a system of fractures and caused HL0-fluxed par-
sch1st. or perhaps gne1ss, 1n wh1ch garnet occurs as scattered tial melt1ng of the quartz + feldspar assemblage 1n the host. Such
porphyroblasts that atta1n 6 mm across. The garnet porphyro- H 0-fluxed partial melt1ng of quartz+ plag1oclase + K-feldspar

blasts do not have a quartzofeldspath1c nm, wh1ch suggests that 1n the protolith also expla1ns the lack of melanosome assooated
they grew as a result of a subsolidus prograde react1on, and not w1th the leucosome. The narrowness, together w1th the w1de
as a result of a melt-produong react1on. Thus, the grey host rock spaong of the stnngers of leucosome, suggests that compara-
does not appear to have undergone part1al melting. Turning to tively little flu1d entered the rocks. so that part1al melting was
the leucocratic "ve1ns," there are four key observations. (I) The only able to occur adjacent to the fracture. The degree of partial
contacts w1th the grey host are diffuse, not sharp, and therefore melt1ng decreased to zero 1n the wallrocks a cent1meter or two
a relat1onsh1p inconsistent with a ''ve1n'' of granitic melt or magma from the fracture. The garnet porphyroblasts that were pres-
InJected into subsolidus rocks, but consistent w1th 1n Situ forma- ent where partial melting occurred were replaced by b1otite.
tion. (2) The size and d1stnbution of garnet porphyroblasts 1n the either as the 1ngress of fluid occurred, or as t he anatectic melt
"ve1ns" are s1m1lar to those 1n the grey host: the gra1ns of garnet crystallized. Because of the small amount of aqueous fluid Intro-
1n the "veins" are thus nhented from the host. and as the "veins" duced and the corresponding small extent of partial melt1ng that
formed, they overgrew or engulfed the gra1ns of garnet. (3) The it caused, the distnbution of the leucosome closely m1rrors the
central parts of the "ve1ns" are quartzofeldspath1c. more leuco- fracture network through wh1ch the aqueous flu1d was trans-
cratlc, and have a gra1n s1ze greater than at the marg1ns or in the ported. The occurrence of part1al melt1ng 1n th1s outcrop 1s the
host: th1s suggests a greater fraction of melt 1n the center of the ev1dence required to call th1s a m1gmat1te. In that case, the grey
"veins" than at the marg1ns. (4) In many places, the garnet por- host rock to the tn Situ leucosome IS paleosome. However. at the
phyroblasts located in the "ve1ns" are completely. or extensively, t1me of partial melting. the grey host rock plus the aqueous flu1d
replaced by biotite, although t here are places where t h1s has not was the protolith.
occurred; overall, more H10 seems to have been available to Location: Broken Hill area. New Sout h Wales. Australia. Rock
alter anhydrous minerals w here t he "ve1ns" formed, compared type: metatex1te migmat1te; quartzofeldspathic metavolca-
to the matnx. These observations. together w1th those made at nic protolith (Hores gne1ss). anatex1s 1n the upper amphibolite
the larger. outcrop scale (Fig. B31). lead to the 1nterpretat1on that facies, T ca. 800°C. P 4 5 kbar: Scale: the ruler 1s IS em long.
the "ve1ns" are in fact 1n Situ stnngers of leucosome formed by /mage: E.W. Sawyer:
Atl as of M igmat ites

Figure 33

Fig. 833. The morphology of the rocks 1n the right half of (melt + res1duum) would have to have formed elsewhere,
the photograph under the maps 1nd1cate a metatexite m1g- where the comb1nat1on of rock fertility and metamorphic
mat1te w1th a layered or stromatiC structure that IS almost temperature enabled >50% dehydrat1on-1nduced melting
trans1t1onal to a diatexite migmat1te. The layered struc- to occur, and then be 1ntruded into the layered metatex-
ture in the migmatite IS due to alternat1ons of leucosome, ite migmat1te. In th1s scenano, the melt fract1on could have
melanosome, and mesocrat1c paleosome. Petrographic separated e1ther after emplacement of the magma mto th1s
and geochemical analyses of these rocks 1nd1cate that the outcrop, leav1ng beh1nd the entra1ned restdual matenal and
degree of 1n s1tu part1al melt1ng 1n the fert1le layers was only a l1ttle anatectic melt trapped between the garnet crystals,
about 20 vol .%, but some of the leucocrat ic layers may or the melt fract1on may have progressively separated from
have formed from InJected anatectiC melt. The pen rests the res1duum as the magma moved through the transfer-
upon the most remarkable feature of th1s m1gmat1te, a dike system from 1ts source reg1on. It may even be poss1ble
quartz plagtoclase K-feldspar-kyantte-b tottte garnet that the garnet-nch res1duum 1tself was capable of granu-
granofels that, because tt truncates the layering 1n the host lar flow (garnet crystals are "rounded" 1n shape) 1f all gra1n
metatexite migmatite (e.g., in center of the photograph), boundaries were in contact with melt. and if it was able to
could be interpreted as a dike tntruded after the formatton intrude as a dike; th1s may occur w1th as little as 7% melt
of the layering tn 1ts host. A petrographtc (see Fig. F46 for a present (Rosenberg and Handy 2005). In a second scenano,
photomtcrograph of thts rock) and geochemtcal analysts of the res1duum is produced m s1tu. T his could be accomplished
the garnet granofels tn the dike are consistent wtth t he rock if the layered metatexite had stopped dehydration melting
betng the residuum left after more than 50% partial melt ing and was cooling, but was still at a temperature above its
of a pelit1c protoltth and the almost complete separation of solidus for H 20 -present melting. The 1ntroduct1on of H 0
the melt fract1on from the soltd. The question IS, how did along a fracture then may provoke further melting through
the res1duum (wh1ch IS normally cons1dered as rema1n1ng m H 20-present react1ons; the degree of melt 1ng that occurs
Situ) from a high degree of partial melting get to be 1n a host depends on how much H 20 was Introduced into the rock.
that experienced a far lower degree of partial melt ing? One Separat1on of the melt fraction results in residual rocks with
scenano IS to move the res1duum. For th1s to happen, a magma a cross-cutt1ng geometry, s1mply because they trace out the
118 ------------------------------

fracture through wh1ch the H 20 entered the rock. In e1ther

scenano, th1s m1gmatite has lost melt and is an example of
an open-system migmatite.

Locat1on: Abaukoma, Yaounde. Cameroon. Rock type:

dike-like residuum in a metatexite migmatite; metapelitic
and metagreywacke protoliths, anatexis at T 800- 850°C.
P I 0- 12 kbar. Scale: the pen is 15 em long. Image: Pier re
Barbey. Previously published as fig. 3a in Barbey et al. ( 1990)
and reproduced with the permission of Oxford University

Further reading: N zenti, J.P., Barbey, P., Macaud11ere, J. & Soba,

J. (1988): Origin and evolut1on of the late Precambnan high-
grade Yaounde gneisses. Precambnan Research 38,91 - 109.

Barbey, P., Macaud1ere, J. & Nzent1, J.P. (1990): High-

pressure dehydration melting of metapelites: ev1dence from
migmatites of Yaounde (Cameroon). Journal of Petrology 31 ,
401 - 427.
Arias of Migmatites

F1gure 34


Fig. 834. The paleosome 1n th1s m1gmat1te IS a light Locat1on: Colorado Front Range, U.S.A. Rock type: metatex-
grey b1ot1te quartz feldspar gneiss. The neosome com- lte m1gmat1te; b1ot1te- quartz feldspar gne1ss protolith
pnses leucocratic layers, conta1n1ng quartz. feldspar. and metamorphosed at T 650 700°C and P 4 6 kbar. Scale:
m1nor amounts of b1otite, that are lined on each s1de by the coin 1s 19 mm across. Image and capt1on: S.N. Olsen.
very narrow, melanocrat1c, biotite-nch and mlcrocline-
poor borders. Result s of mass-balance calculations on Further reading: O lsen, S.N. (1987): The composition and
these m1gmat1tes (Olsen 1982, 1984, 1985) indicate that role of the fl uid in migmatites: a fluid inclus1on study of the
the domains of leucosome are too large relative to the1r Front Range rocks. Contributions to M1neralogy and Petrology
melanocratic borders to consist wholly of melt derived 96, 104- 120.
from t he melt-depleted melanosome; hence, one may con-
Olsen, S.N. & Grant. j.A. ( 1991) : lsocon analysis of mig-
clude that the neosome formed in an open system. Some
matizatlon in the Front Range Colorado, U.S.A. journal of
doma1ns of leucosome contain as little as 5% fels1c material
Metamorphic Geology 9, 151 164.
added from an external source to the locally derived melt,
whereas other domains of leucosome conta1n as much as
90% added material. Thus, the neosome 1n th1s m1gmat1te
formed by a comb1nat1on of mechanisms; some fels1c mate-
nal was Introduced from an external source as ve1ns. and
some partial melt of local origin segregated from the host
1nto the ve1ns, thereby forming the melanocrat1c borders.
It IS the presence of the local melt that makes t h1s a mlg-
matite. A foliat ion defined by biotite 1n the grey gneiss is
oriented parallel to the t race of the axial planes of the folds
that deformed the leucosome.
120 -----------------------------

Figure 35

Fig. 835. Th1s polished slab of a m1gmatite has been chem- Locat1on: Baume m1gmat1tes, Ardeche, France. Rock type:
Ically etched and stained to color the K-feldspar yellow. The metatex1te migmat1te; quartzofeldspath1c gne1ss protolith
sta1ning process reveals that K-feldspar IS not uniformly partially melted under upper-amphibohte-fac1es condit1ons
distnbuted throughout the leucosome; some parts lack at T 700 ± 50°C and P 3 kbar. /mage: P1erre Barbey.
K-feldspar altogether. The polished surface also reveals thin,
Further reading: Weber, C. & Barbey, P. ( 1986): The role
melanocrat1c, biotite-rich layers located between the leuco-
of water, mixing processes and metamorphic fabric in
some and the mesocratic, finer-grained paleosome. These
the genesis of the Baume migmatites (Ardeche, France).
melanocratic layers are far too thin to have supplied all
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 92, 481 - 491.
the quartzofeldspathic material present in the leucosome,
although they may have supplied some of it. This relation-
ship suggests that some of the leucosome material has
been intruded into the migmatite sample. An alternative
possibility IS that the melanocratlc layer did not supply any
matenal to the leucosome at all, but formed as a result of
the 1nteract1on between the InJected melt (or an aqueous
flu1d denved from the crystallization of the leucosome) and
the adJacent paleosome. In th1s case. the b1ot1te-nch layer
could be called a mafic selvedge.
t Atlas of Migmatites

Figure 36


Fig. 836. This stromatic migmatite shows some differ- Locat1on: Glenelg River Complex, Victoria, Australia. Rock
ences in morphology and microstructure among the various type: metatexite migmatite; quartzofeldspathic schist
constituent batches of leucosome. The isoclinally folded protolith, partially melted at T 650-680oC. P 4 6 kbar.
leucosome in the center is finer gratned than the others, Scale: the pencil IS IS em long. Image and capvon: Tony
and has rather smooth margtns agatnst the paleosome. I.S. Kemp.
Although the leucosome at the top also has smooth mar-
gins, it IS nottceably coarser grained than the folded one. Further readmg: Kemp, A.I.S. & Gray, C.M. (1999): Geologtcal
Finally, the thtckest leucosome at the bottom has the largest context of crustal anatexis and granit1c magmatism in the
grain-size, and has margins that are conspicuously irregu- northeastern Glenelg River Complex, western Victoria.
lar in outline. Other important features within the outcrop Australian journal of Earth Sc1ences 46 , 407-420.
are the followtng: (I) the isoclinally folded leucosome is an
Kemp, A.I.S. & Hawkesworth, C.j. (2003): Granitic per-
F2 feature and rotates the S fohatton, (2) elsewhere, the
spective on the generatton and secular evolutton of the
leucosome at the top cuts across the ma1n 52 layering or foli-
conttnental crust. In The Crust. Treatise on Geochemistry 3
ation, and (3) the coarse leucosome at the bottom grades
(R. Rudntck, ed.). Elsevier Sctence, Oxford, U.K. (349 41 0) .
into a small pegmatitic pod that contatns rotated enclaves
that preserve F3 structures. On the basis of these obser-
vations, the differences among batches of leucosome may
indicate that they belong to different generations relative to
the deformation events that have occurred in the mtgma-
tite. As an alternattve, 1f they are all of the same generation,
then the dtfferences in grain stze and mtcrostructure may
indicate that each had a different fraction of melt present at
the t ime of deformation.
122 -----------------------------

Figure 37

Fig. 837. Th1s close-up shows two different types of rocks and developed a senes of fractures, and some gran1t1c
neosome 1n a migmat1te w1th a metamafic paleosome. The melt from the metapelites m1grated 1nto these. An aqueous
neosome at the center of the photograph conta1ns large, fiu1d was exsolved from the p1nk leucocrat1c veins as they
euhedral crystals of clinopyroxene 1n a leucocrat1c matnx of crystallized, and as a result. the metamafic rock around
finer-gra1ned quartz and plag1oclase. The neosome IS Inter- them underwent rehydration and some K-metasomat1sm
preted to be the m s1tu product of a small degree of part1al that produced the hornblende nms and the b1otite.
melt1ng from the incongruent breakdown of amphibole 1n
Locat1on : Saint-Fulgence, Grenville Province, Quebec,
the metamafic host. Locally, orthopyroxene is present with
Canada. Rock type : metatexite migmatite; metamafic
the clinopyroxene. Larger areas of pink-colored leucosome
protolith, anatexis at lower-granulite-facies conditions,
fiank the m situ clinopyroxene-bearing neosome. The pink
T 800-850°C and P 5 8 kbar. Scale: the ruler is marked in
leucocratic veins are granitic in compos1t1on and conta1n
em. Image: E.W. Sawyer.
quartz. K-feldspar, and plagioclase w1th m1nor amounts of
biotite and garnet. The leucocrat1c ve1ns are surrounded by
a halo, or mafic selvedge, 1n which the metamafic host has
been modified; hornblende replaces clinopyroxene (e.g.,
hornblende nm on clinopyroxene 1n the m s1tu neosome).
and some hornblende in the metamafic rock IS replaced by
b10t1te. The metamafic rock occurs as a large (10m) boudm
in pelit1c metasediments. The metapelites have undergone
a greater degree of partial melting, and have lost much of
the melt they generated. They now have a res1dual assem-
blage of minerals, quartz + plagioclase + biotite + garnet +
si llimanite + K-feldspar ± cordierite (e.g.. Fig. B38). During
regional deformation, the metamafic rock was considerably
more competent than the surrounding metasedimentary
Atlas of Migmat ites

t Figure 38



Fig. 838. The grey part of this m1gmatite contains two rock event experienced by the migmatite. Lens-shaped domains
types: a K-feldspar garnet-silliman1te-biot1te plagioclase of leucosome (L) that have sharp edges, but lack either gar-
quartz metapelite (Pe) that has prom1nent dark foliae nch 1n net or cordierite, also occur with1n the metapehtic layers;
b1otite and sillimanite, and more mass1ve, lighter-colored gar- these may represent some of the escaped melt. The absence
net- biotite- plagioclase- quartz metasedimentary material of a foliation in the leucosome, and the presence of crys-
(Ps) of init1ally psammopelitic composition. The modal miner- tal faces on cordiente and feldspar where aga1nst quartz,
alogy of the metapelite layers ind1cates that they are res1dual suggest that melt1ng and sheanng wer e synchronous. The
after the loss of anatectic melt , but it is uncertain whether neosome (N) in the psammopelitic layers consist s of very
the psammopelitic layers have lost melt. T he morphology small euhedral crystals of garnet in a quartz + plagioclase +
of the portions derived from the anatectic melt 1n the dif- K-feldspar groundmass. The melt1ng react1on thus was essen-
ferent layers of this migmatite is Interesting. The metapelitic t ially the same as that which occurred 1n the pelite layers.
layers contain large, prominent porphyroblasts of garnet and However, the morphology of the neosome is different; the
cordiente (Crd), some of which are partially surrounded ratio of melt to garnet was much h1gher, and the domains of
by a narrow rim, or moat, of leucosome. Some of the gar- neosome have a diffuse marg1n. Both these features are con-
net crystals, but especially the cordierite, are poikiloblasts sistent with in s1tu formation of the neosome and no loss of
intergrown with quartz and feldspar; this microstructure melt. Thus, the melting react ion was essentially the same in
suggests that the leucosome and garnet (or cordierite) are both types of layer, but the final morphology of the migma-
the melt and solid products, respectively, of the incongruent tlte that developed in each layer is controlled by the relative
melting of biotit e. A possible react1on for these rocks IS competency of each lit hology.
biotite + sillimanite + quartz + plagioclase = garnet (or
cordierite) + K-feldspar + melt. The lent1cular shape of Location: Sa1nt-Fulgence, Grenville Province, Quebec, Canada.
the garnet, or cordierite, plus leucosome pods, their sharp Rock type: metatex1te migmatite; metapel1tlc protolith, ana-
contacts with the residual met asedimentary material, and texis at lower-granulite-facies conditions T 800- 850°C
the low ratio of leucosome t o garnet (or cordierite), sug- and P 5 8 kbar: Scale: the ruler is IS em long. /mage:
gest that these domains have lost melt dunng the sheanng E.W. Sawyer:
124 -----------------------------

Figure 39

Fig. 839. The light grey rock 1n the lower part of the or that the differences 1n gra1n-s1ze are the result of each hav-
photograph IS a b1ot1te orthogne1ss paleosome, whereas mg a different rate of cooling. However, the spaces that the
the dark-colored metamafic rock 1s 1n part paleosome and domains of leucosome occupy may have started to form at
1n part melanosome. The doma1ns of leucosome hosted by different t1mes, and may well have undergone different histo-
the metamafic rock have the same m1neralogy. essentially nes of deformation as the melt w1th1n was crystallizing. For
plagioclase + quartz, w1th minor amounts of hornblende example, the leucosome 1n the 1nterpart1tion space has the
and pyroxene. The po1nt of interest 1n this m1gmatite is the coarsest grain-size because that s1te was dilatant during crys-
d1fference in grain-size of the various bodies of leucosome. tallization, whereas the doma1ns of leucosome w 1th the finest
The coar sest grain-size is shown by the leucosome (LI) grain-size were located in sites where the deformation varied
located m the 1nterpartition space between the boudins. during crystallization and the growing crystals were periodi-
A finer gra1n-size exists in the four offshoots of leucosome cally deformed and their gra1n-s1ze reduced. D1fferences in
(L2) that occur parallel to the layenng w1th1n the two bou - grain-s1ze and microstructure from one type of leucosome
dins. These offshoots have an Irregular outline, and at least to the next m1ght not 1nd1cate that the various types belong
one of them is in contact w1th melanosome, evidence that to d1fferent generations; the1r local structural posit1on should
suggests a local derivat1on for some of the melt that made always be cons1dered.
the leucosome. The doma1ns of leucosome (L3) with the fin-
Locatton: Be1t Bndge Complex, Baklykraal Farm, South Afnca.
est gra1n-size occur on the outs1de edge of the boud1naged
Rock type: metatex1te m1gmat1te; metamafic protolith, par-
layer; they have the smoothest edges, and locally, the crys-
tially melted 1n the granulite faoes. Scale: the pocket knife 1s
tals 1n them have a shape-defined preferred onentat1on.
II em long. /mage: E.W . Sawyer.
Close exam1nation of all these domains of leucosome shows
that there are no cross-cutting relations among them; rather Further readmg: Marchildon, N . & Brown, M . (2003): Spatial
there is a smooth passage from one to t he next over which distribution of melt-bearing structures in anatectic rocks
the grain-size changes rapidly. Thus, one can conclude that all from southern Brittany, France: implications for melt transfer
cont ained melt at the same time. Consequently, it is unrealis- at grain- to orogen-scale. TectonophysiCS 364 , 215- 235.
tic to regard their solidification as occurring at different t1mes.
A tl as of Migm atite~


Fig. 840. Th1s m1gmatite IS made up ent1rely of neosome. and doma1n may be a raft of paleosome. or less fert1le protolith. that
shows a w1de range of leucocrat1c through mesocrat1c to mel- has been somewhat modified dunng part1al melt1ng. but did
anocratic parts. Coarse-gra1ned melanocrat1c rafts in the upper not become as melt-depleted as the melanocrat1c rafts above
center and left contain the mineral assemblage orthopyroxene it. Much of the rest of the migmatite can also be described as
+ garnet + clinopyroxene, with a very small amount of plagio- mesocratic. but 1t has a substantially d1fferent morphology and
clase: these rafts (R) are Interpreted to be res1duum left after microstructure; rt does not occur as rafts (also called schol-
the extraction of anatectiC melt. The lower nght comer conta1ns len). Rather. rt is the matnx (M2) that conta1ns the melanocrat1c
the most leucocrat1c part of the m1gmat1te: a coarse-grained and mesocrat1c rafts. The mesocratic matnx decreases in grain-
hornblende-pyroxene quartz- plagioclase tonalitic leucosome size and changes its mineral assemblage from orthopyroxene
(L) 1n wh1ch retrograde hornblende part1ally replaces clino- + quartz + clinopyroxene + plag1oclase near the leucosome
pyroxene that is Interpreted to be crystallized anatectiC melt. to hornblende + clinopyroxene + plag1oclase farther away.
Coarse-grained leucosome can be traced throughout much of Th1s gradat1on 1n the mesocratlc matnx and the network of
the m1gmatite in a vague. net-like pattern that encloses vanous leucosome it contains are Interpreted to represent the partially
types of mesocratic rock. The thinnest segments of the leuco- melted source and the network of channels by which anatectic
some network contain the h1ghest proport1ons of clinopyroxene melt was segregated from 1t. The extract1on of melt from the
and orthopyroxene. and may have crystallized from melt that mesocratlc domain was Incomplete. as 1t did not progress suf-
had a substantial res1dual component entra1ned in 1t. Many of the ficiently to form melanocratic residuum. but enough melt was
pyroxene crystals are euhedral. which suggests that t hey crystal- extracted so that coarse-gra1ned leucosome could develop. The
lized in the melt. The rounded mesocratic domain (M) below presence of schollen in the migmatite suggests that sufficient
the center of the photograph conta1ns the mineral assemblage part1al melt was present that layers of more competent matenal
plag1oclase + clinopyroxene + hornblende ± garnet ± ortho- (e.g.. res1duum and less fertile units) were disrupted and rotated
pyroxene. It has the smallest grain-s1ze (lobe on the nght) and in the matrix; hence, th1s IS a d1atexite m1gmatite.
the h1ghest contents of hornblende and plagioclase. This meso-
cratic domain in the m1gmatite may be closest in composition Locatton: Ashuanipi Subprovince, Quebec. Canada. Rock type:
to the metamafic protolith. However. parts of th1s domain schollen diatexrte; metamafic protolrth. granulite-facies anatexiS.
are locally coarser gra1ned and ncher 1n pyroxene and, conse- Scale: the st1cker wrth the number IS 2.5 em wide. /mage: E.W.
quently. are Interpreted as res1duum. Therefore, this mesocratic Sawyer:
126 --------- --------- --------- ---

Figure 41

Fig. 841 . This migmat1te conta1ns coherent layers (30 50 that the rat1o of melanocrattC core to leucocratic nm dif-
em thick) of different composition that are interpreted fers from one neosome to the next. Re-Integration of the
to have ong1nally been bedd1ng. The grey-colored lay- melanocrat1c and leucocrat1c parts of the patches of
ers have h1gh modal proport1ons of cord1ente and are neosome shows that some are the product of closed-
interpreted to have lost most of the anatectic melt that system tn Situ partial melt 1ng. However, most have too large
formed 1n them, even though they are not melanocrat1c. a melanocratic component relat1ve to the stoich1ometry ofthe
The parts of th1s m1gmatite that were derived from ana- melt1ng reaction 1n these rocks; 1n these cases. the neosome
tectic melt exhibit a w1de range of morphologies. Some formed tn sttu, but lost much of 1ts anatectiC melt, leav1ng 1t
anatectic melt collected parallel to the bedding and formed with an overall residual bulk composition. This type of melt-
high-aspect-rat1o doma1ns of leucosome. Elsewhere, anate- depleted neosome 1n patches IS common 1n the higher-grade,
ctic melt collected 1nto smaller, lens-shaped bodies located granulite-facies parts of migmat1te terranes. The melt lost
1n shear bands and formed leucosome that is approxi- from the neosome may have contributed to the two types
mately parallel to the ax1al planes of small-scale folds; these of high-aspect-ratio leucosome present elsewhere in the
are onented approximately parallel to the ruler: Both outcrop. Th1s metatex1te m1gmat1te is not domtnated by
these types of leucosome have a relatively small propor- any particular type of leucosome or neosome morphology.
tion of ferromagnesian minerals 1n them, wh1ch indicates This fact makes it difficult to choose an add1t1onal descnp-
that they represent accumulations of anatectiC melt that tive term for it; neither patch, stromatic, nor net-structured
had segregated from the residuum. However, the po1nt of IS really representative of 1ts overall appearance 1n outcrop.
Interest here 1s the scattered, irregularly shaped patches of
neosome that cons1st of a conspicuous melanocratic core
Location: Wuluma Hills, Arunta Inlier, Austral1a. Rock type:
surrounded by a leucocratic nm. The melanocratic cores
metatex1te migmat1te; Al-poor psamm1te protolith, par-
cons1st of one, or perhaps a few large crystals of ortho-
tially melted at T 825 875°C, P ca. 5 kbar. Scale: the ruler is
pyroxene that are 1ntergrown w1th elongate blebs of
15 em long. Image: E.W. Sawyer:
quartz, whereas the leucocrat1c rims contain quartz, pla-
gioclase, and K-feldspar. It is ev1dent from the photograph
Atlas of Migmatites

Figure l

Fig. 842. The protolith to th1s m1gmat1te was a leuco- Locat1on: OpatiCa Subprovince, Quebec, Canada. Rock type:
granodionte that conta1ned mafic layers (probably diatex1te m1gmat1te: leucogranod1orite protolith, anatexis at
mafic dikes). During the subsequent anatexis, the leuco- T ca. 750°C, and P 5 7 kbar. Scale: the ruler is 15 em long.
granodiorite partially melted, but the mafic layers did /mage: E.W. Sawyer.
not: they were res1sters. Where the fraction of melt in
the leucogranod1onte was suffic1ent that it could flow. Further read1ng: Sawyer, E.W. ( 1998): Format1on and evo-
a diatex1te m1gmat1te was formed, and the res1ster layers lution of gran1te magmas dunng crustal rework1ng: t he
were disrupted and became enclaves in the neosome, as s1gn1ficance of diatexites.Journa/ of Petrology 39, 1147 1167.
in this image. Diffusional exchange between the anatec-
tic melt and the fragments of the mafic resister occurred.
Some hornblende at the edges of the resisters was con-
vel'ted to biotite, and the adjacent neosome was enriched
in plagioclase, possibly by transformation of K-feldspar to
plag1oclase, which formed a white rim around the layers
of res1ster. Elsewhere, the resister layers became dlsag-
gregated, and the adjacent neosome IS contam1nated w1th
xenocrystic hornblende. This outcrop illustrates that there
can be a considerable range in the composition of t he melt-
derived parts of migmatites aris1ng from contamination, or
diffus1ve exchange w1th res1ster lithologies; th1s poss1b1lity
should be cons1dered when sampling.
128 -----------------------------


Fig. 843. Th1s granuhte-fac1es m1gmat1te has promi- Location: Kapuskas1ng Structural Zone, Ontano, Canada.
nent domains of melanosome that follow the foliat1on Rock type: metatex1te m1gmat1te; mafic gne1ss protolith par-
and compositional layenng 1n the mafic gne1ss precur- tially melted at granul1te-fac1es condit1ons. T ca. 850°C. P
sor. The abundant areas of leucosome, however, d1splay a II kbar. Scale: the Brunton compass is 8 em across. /mage:
more complex and h1erarchical arrangement. Th1n bod1es D.R.M. Patt1son.
of 1n s1tu leucosome (LI ) are assoCiated directly with the
Further readmg: Hartel, T.H.D. & Pattison, D.R.M. (1996):
melanosome and are oriented either parallel. orthogonal,
Genesis of the Kapuskasing (Ontario) migmatitic mafic
or oblique to the layering; these form an interconnected
granulites by dehydration melting of amphibolite: the impor-
network. Some more continuous, layer-parallel domains of
t ance of quartz to reaction progress. journal o( Metamorphic
in-source leucosome (L2) with a thin melanosome occur
Geology 14,591 6 11.
outside t he most melanocratic layers. and appear to have
been fed by the network of th1nner, orthogonal and oblique Sawyer, E.W. (2001): Melt segregation in the continental
doma1ns of leucosome. These layer-parallel domains then crust: distribut1on and movement of melt in anatectic rocks.
connect to much wider bod1es (L3). wh1ch cross the layer- journal o( MetamorphiC Geology 19, 291-309.
ing 1n the m1gmat1te. The absence of melanocrat1c borders
to these w1de, cross-cutting bod1es suggests that they did
not attract melt from the1r hosts, but are s1mply condu1ts
for the migration of melt out of the source reg1on. Hence,
the wide felsic bod1es should be called leucocrat1c vem and
not leucosome.
A ria-. of M igm a t it e>

Figure 4

Fig. 844. The init1al compositional heterogeneity. due to the melt in this leucosome (L3) was derived locally, then
the Intrusion of mafic and felsic 1gneous rocks that com- th1s is an in-source leucosome; if it is not, then it IS a leuco-
prised the protollth of this migmat1te, has been strongly cratic vein. Detailed exam1nat1on of the contacts between
attenuated by h1gh strain synchronous w1th anatexis. the different segments of leucosome 1nd1cates the absence
Domains of leucosome are espeoally ev1dent in the of abrupt changes 1n gra1n s1ze or compos1t1on; there IS con-
mafic parts of th1s m1gmat1te. because the color contrast tinUity throughout the array. Th1s find1ng IS Interpreted to
between paleosome, melanosome, and leucosome parts mean that the ent ire array of leucosome conta1ned melt at
IS greatest there. The leucosome exhibits a range of mor- the same time and, hence. that melt migrated out of the
phologies, which correlates with 1ts structural position. m1gmatite through the array along progressively fewer and
Bodies of leucosome oriented parallel to the compositional wider channels. finally migrat1ng through the I 0-cm-wide
layenng (LI) and the follat1on have the h1ghest aspect-ratio channel marked by the leucosome in the lower right. A
and could be called stromatiC leucosome. Most bod1es of Similar, w1der leucocrat1c ve1n on the left may represent the
leucosome (L2) are located e1ther between boud1ns (low- prox1mal end of another array of leucosome that dra1ned
est aspect-rat1o) or 1n sets of conJugate extensional shears melt from the part of t he m1gmat1te farther to the left.
and fractures (intermediate aspect-rat 1o). However, most
stri king in this outcrop IS the combination of all domains of Location : Sand River Gne1sses. Causeway locality, South
leucosome to form an ordered, branched array. The thin- Africa. Rock type: metatexite m1gmatite; metamafic and
nest domains of leucosome form the m sttu parts of the metagranodioritic to tonalltic protolith, partially melted 1n
network, whereas the thickest doma1ns of leucosome (L3) the granulite fac1es. Scale: the pocket kn1fe IS II em long.
1n the array clearly cross-cut the layenng 1n the paleosome Image: E.W. Sawyer.
and melanosome at the lower right of the photograph. If

Figure 4S

Fig. 845. Migmatites in southern Brittany are located continuous; there is no mineralogical or microst ructural dis-
south of the transcurrent Sout h Armorican Shear Zone. continuit y between the material in the leucosome and that
Shearing during anatexis is probably the reason why the in the vein. T his relationship indicat es that when the gra-
southern Britt any migmatites have a predominantly stro - nitic vein formed, the stromatic leucosome still contained
matic morphology (see also Fig. BIO). Typical ly, thin bodies melt. The stromatic leucosome, the discordant leucosome,
of feldspar-rich leucosome oriented parallel to the foliation and the granit ic veins together constituted a cont inuous
alternate with biotite-rich melanocratic layers and rarer, melt-bearing network in the migmatite. Since the stromat ic
fine-grained biotite-quartz-plagioclase schists. However, domains of leucosome are associated with melt -depleted
not all the bodies of leucosome in the migmatites are par- melanosome, but the granitic veins are not, anatectic
allel to the foliation and compositional layering. In many melt is interpreted to have moved subhorizontally a short
places, the stromatic migmatites contain cross-cutting bod- distance, from where it formed along channels now repre-
ies of leucosome located in interboudin partitions and sented by t he stromatic leucosome, to t he steeply dipping
extensional shear structures, and are also cut by discordant cross-cutting structures now represented by t he leucogra-
veins of leucogranite that may be several meters t o t ens of nitic dikes, through which it was then able t o escape and
meters long. Although the cross-cutting relationships indi- feed higher-level granit ic plutons.
cate a clear progression in "structural" age from stromatic
leucosome through discordant leucosome to granitic vein, Location: Port N avalo area, southern Brittany, France. Rock
there is no progression in "petrological" age. T his photo- type: metatexite migmatite; quartzofeldspathic and alumi-
graph shows t he contact relat ionships between a granitic nous gneiss protolith partially melt ed at T ca. 800°C. P ca.
vein I 0- 15 em wide and the host stromat ic metatexit e mig- 8 kbar, then decompressed to 4 kbar, followed by cool ing.
matite. The granit ic vein truncates the layering defined by Scale: the coin is 23 mm across. Image and caption: Mike
the melanosome and t he biot ite-quartz-plagioclase schist. Brown. Image previously published as fig. I0. 11(b) in Brown
but it does not appear to t runcate the st romatic leucosome. (2006) and reproduced w it h the permission of Cambridge
The passage from st romatic leucosome (most evident in the University Press.
wider domains) to discordant granite vein is petrologically
At hh of Mig mati te~
13 1

Further readmg: Jones, K.A. & Brown. M. (1990): High-

• temperature "clockwise" P-T paths and melting 1n the

• development of reg1onal m1gmat1tes: an example from

southern Bnttany, France. journal of Metamorphic Geology 8 ,
551 - 578 .

• Marchildon, N . & Brown, M. (2003) : Spatial distribution of

melt-bearing structures 1n anatectic rocks from southern
Bnttany, France: implications for melt transfer at grain- to
orogen-scale. Tectonophysrcs 364, 215 235.

Brown, M. (2006): Melt segregat1on from lower conti-

nental crust of orogens: the field ev1dence. In Evolut1on
and D ifferentiation of t he Cont inental Crust (M. Brown
& T Rushmer eds.). Cambridge Un1vers1ty Press, U.K.
(33 1-383).
132 ------------------------------

Figure 6

Fig. 846. Th1s outcrop of the southern Brittany m1g- conta1ned far less melt. or were solid. so that the melt 1n
mat1tes show features that may have formed dunng the vem could not 1nteract w1th melt 1n the wallrocks.
the wan1ng stages of the system shown 1n Fig. B45. The
Locatton: Port NavaJo area. southern Bnttany. France. Rock
m1gmat1te 1S dom1nated by th1n stromatic leucosome and 1ts
type : metatex1te m1gmat1te; quartzofeldspath1c and alumi-
adJacent melanosome, but also conta1ns d1scordant bodies
nous gne1ss protolith partially melted at T ca. 800°C. P ca.
of leucosome and dikes of leucogranite (under the ruler) .
8 kbar. then decompressed to 4 kbar, followed by cooling.
The d1scordant leucosome and leucogran1tic ve1ns com-
Scale: the ruler is 15 em long. Image: E.W. Sawyer.
monly display a change in the contact relationships with
the host stromatic migmatites along their length. Most Further read1ng: see Fig. B45.
of the discordant bodies of leucosome appear to root in
small shear zones, shear bands, or asymmetncal boudin
structures, where they have d1ffuse contacts w1th the host
(discordant leucosome on the nght) stromat1c m1gmat1te.
Farther along, the d1scordant bodies of leucosome w1den
and develop sharp marg1ns aga1nst the layers of melano-
some. but are petrologically continuous w1th the stromatiC
leucosome. as shown 1n Fig. B45. However. a few ve1ns of
leucogranite show a d1fferent relat1onsh1p along the1r length.
and cross-cut both the stromat1c leucosome and the bor-
der of melanosome 1n the host m1gmat1te (ve1n on the left).
and may even contain fragments of the wallrock. These
part1cular discordant veins thus are late and formed as the
migmatites solidified ; t hey are rooted 1n melt-bearing layers,
but then propagated into parts of the migmat1te that either
A tl as of M igmati tcs

Figure 7

Fig. 847. Th1s photograph is taken look1ng down 1nto the that anatect1c melt accumulated 1n the fold hinges. Some
core of a meter-scale S-shaped synform, and shows the of the melt 1n the h1nges was locally denved (g1v1ng rise to
root of two gramtic dikes. The core of the fold (top nght of 1n sttu and 1n-source leucosome) , but some may also have
the photograph) consists of metapelite (Pe) with abundant m1grated up to the hinge from a lower position on the fold
leucosome, whiCh ind1cates that 1t contained a h1gh frac- hmbs (to form leucocrat1c veins or patches). The late b1o-
tion of melt, and the outer part (center left) cons1sts of a t1te IS Interpreted to have formed when H,O. released as
th1ck layer of mass1ve quartz-nch metapsamm1te (Ps). The the accumulated melt crystallized, hydrated the res1dual min-
metapsammite has undergone little or no partial melt1ng, erals. Some of the accumulated melt was able to escape
and can be regarded as a paleosome resister lithology in the from the pelite layer and cross the massive metapsammite
m1gmatite. In contrast, the pelite has undergone extens1ve layer through the I O-cm-w1de dike (it could also be called a
partial melting and has developed melanocratic garnet- and ve1n) that crosses the m1ddle of the photograph (01). The
orthopyroxene-nch res1dual rocks (R). The mass1ve meta- dike IS rooted 1n the synform and IS onented subparallel to
psammite served as an impermeable layer above the pelite, the axial plane of the fold. A second leucocrat1c dike (02)
and enabled anatectic melt to accumulate in the pelite layer that penetrated no more than 50 em 1nto the metapsam-
under 1t, 1n both the synform and adJacent ant1form h1nges. mlte occurs to the nght, and confirms that the source of the
Locally, the melt fract1on became suffioently volum1nous 1n melt was the pellte layer; hence, the term leucocrat1c dike or
the pehte that the foliat1on and melanocrat1c res1dual lay- ve1n IS appropriate. An 1ncrease in pressure on the magma 1n
ers 1n it became d1srupted as the folds tightened. Thus, the t he pehte layer as the fold tightened may have enabled the
morphology that developed in the pelite layer at the fold formation and propagation of the fracture through which
h1nge is transitional from metatex1te to diatex1te m1gma- some of the magma was able to escape. The dike contains
t1te. An extens1ve dark nm (S) that consists pnnopally of several large crystals of garnet, some of wh1ch have a nm of
late biot1te occurs at the boundary between the melt-nch b1otite; some aqueous nu1d thus was released as the magma
pelite layer and the massive psamm1te. Th1s rim, together in the dike crystallized and reacted with the garnet to form
w1th the extensive replacement of garnet and orthopyrox- the biotite rim. The scale rests on a shear zone that is located
ene by b1ot1te in the res1dual rocks, prov1de further ev1dence on the steep, nght nank of the synform.
134 -----------------------------

Location: Wuluma Hills. Arunta lnl1er. Australia. Rock type:

leucocrat1c dike in a metatexite m1gmatite; metapelit1c
protohth, partially melted at T 825 875°C. P ca. 5 kbar. Scale:
the ruler IS IS em long. Image: E.W. Sawyer.

Further read1ng: Sawyer, E.W., Dombrowski, C. & Collins,

W .J. (1999): Movement of melt dunng synchronous reg1onal
deformation and granulite-facies anatexiS, an example
from the Wuluma Hills, central Australia. In Understand1ng
Gran1tes; 1ntegrating New and Classical Techn1ques (A.
Castro, C. Femandez & J.-L. Vigneresse, eds.). Geolog1cal
Sooety, Speoal Publication 168,221 237.
Atlas of M igmatites

Figure 48

Fig. 848. Overall v1ew of the m1gmat1te outcrop shown

1n Fig. B47. taken from above and look1ng down the h1nge
of the folds. The two dikes (D I and 02) that emerge from
the pel1t1c layer 1n the synform can be seen m the left half
of the photograph. JUSt to the right of the scale. Part of the
complementary ant1form is just v1s1ble at the extreme right.
Tight, minor folds can be seen 1n the metapelite; the lay-
enng that IS folded involves a combination of biotite-rich
pelite. leucosome, and biot ite + garnet + orthopyroxene
melanosome material.

Locauon: Wuluma Hills, Arunta Inlier. Austral1a. Rock type:

leucocrat1c dike in a metatexite m1gmat1te; metapelit1c pro-
tolith. part1ally melted at T 825 875°C. P ca. 5 kbar. Scale:
the ruler IS IS em long. Image: E.W. Sawyer.
136 -----------------------------

Figure 49

Fig. 849. A prominent mesocratiC selvedge IS developed interpreted as res1dua. Thus, the selvedges are interpreted
1n th1s m1gmat1te between the discordant, feldspar-rich as a diffusion halo between the host and the leucocratlc
leucocratic vein and 1ts host. The dom1nant p1nk1sh grey vein 1ntruded 1nto 1t. Poss1bly. a grad1ent 1n silica act1v1ty
port1on of th1s outcrop is medium-gra1ned neosome that between the quartz-rich host and the intruded quartz-
was derived from a semipelit1c protolith. The grey neosome poor magma ex1sted and drove the diffusion of silica from
has two parts. A darker-colored part w1th the m1neral the host toward the leucocrat1c vein, producing the meso-
assemblage quartz + plagioclase + K-feldspar + biotite + cratic selvedge.
garnet ± cordierite is interpreted to be residual; the lighter,
Location: Wuluma Hi lls, Arunta Inlier, Australia. Rock type:
K-feldspar + quartz + plagioclase granitic parts occur as
selvedge around leucocratic vein in a metatexite migmatite;
small, diffuse, and elongate patches. These pink1sh string-
metapelitic protolith, partially melted at T 825-875°C, P ca.
ers are interpreted to be 1n situ leucosome. The neosome
5 kbar. Scale: the ruler IS IS em long. /mage: E.W. Sawyer.
is 1ntruded by a discordant, quartz-poor leucocratic vein
that has the mineral assemblage K-feldspar + plag1oclase
+ garnet + quartz + biotite; the b1ot1te replaces garnet.
Prom1nent mesocratic selvedges that are I 2 em wide
occur between the host and the leucocrat1c ve1ns. Contacts
between the selvedges and the p1nk1sh grey host are grada-
tional, and their grain s1zes and m1crostructures are s1milar,
wh1ch suggests that the selvedge may have formed from,
or overprinted, the host. The selvedges are not enriched in
ferromagnesian minerals relative to the host, but do appear
to be enriched in quartz. Consequently, they are not
A d a\ of Migma rire,

Figure SO

Fig. 850. This photograph shows several bodies of gar- Location: Round Hill. Broken Hill, Australia. Rock type:
net-bearing. quartz K-feldspar leucosome developed in metatexite migmatite; sem1pelitic protolith, partial melt1ng
a med1um-grained ilmenite- plagioclase quartz- bJOtJte- at T 800°C and P 5 6 kbar. Scale : the pen is 14 em long.
sJihmanJte cord1ente garnet gneiss. All the doma1ns of Image and capt1on: R1chard Wh1te.
leucosome are separated from the1r host by a very narrow.
melanocrat1c nm that 1s nch in biot1te. The nm 1s probably Further readmg: Wh1te. R.W.. Powell, R. & Halp1n, J.A.
a retrograde feature that formed as the melt in the leuco- (2004): Spatially-focussed melt formation 1n alumi-
some crystallized ; hence, it is a mafic selvedge and not a nous metapelites from Broken H ill, Australia. Journal of
melanosome. The domains of leucosome in this photograph Metamorphic Geology 22, 825 - 845.
differ markedly from others present 1n m1gmatites of the
same area (shown 1n Figs. B23 and B24) 1n that they do not
conta1n large poikiloblasts of garnet. Th1s difference 1s inter-
preted to Jnd1cat e that the leucosome in th1s 1mage may
have formed 1n a different way to the others 1n the area.
H ere, the leucosome probably formed by the physical seg-
regation of anatectic melt from the adjacent gneiss. Thus, it
IS essentially wholly denved from anatectic melt. whereas

the leucosome shown in Figs. B23 and B24 formed by the 1n

s1tu growth of the solid products garnet and K-feldspar and,
consequently. was mostly solid as 1t grew, w1th a lesser pro-
portion of anatectic melt. React1on between the evolved
melt generated, or an aqueous nUid exsolved as the leuco-
some crystallized, and residual minerals such as cordierite
in the host formed the biotite-rich mafic selvedge.
138 -----------------------------

Figure BS

Fig. BS I. Leucocrat1c ve1ns 1ntruded into migmat1te ter- the edge of the ve1n. The b10t1te-rich rim is too narrow to
ranes dunng the wan1ng stages of anatex1s commonly be the complementary extract1on zone of the melt from
develop th1n mafic selvedges. This photograph shows such wh1ch the leucocratic ve1n crystallized; hence. 1t is not a
a th1n (I 3 mm wide). b1ot1te-nch mafic selvedge devel- melanosome. Moreover, the host probably did not part1ally
oped between a discordant leucocratiC ve1n and 1ts grey melt. The mafic selvedge is interpreted to have formed as
metasedimentary host. The leucocrat1c ve1n, a peralumi - a result of react1on between the evolved felsiC melt from
nous leucogranite, contains the m1neral assemblage quartz which the vein crystallized and the host schist.
+ plagioclase + K-feldspar + biotite + garnet. with minor
Location: Quetico Subprov1nce, Canada. Rock type: leuco-
amounts of muscovite, apat1te, and tourmaline. The whole-
cratic vein with mafic selvedge 1n a psammitic layer;
rock composition of the leucocratic vein suggests that it
metamorphic conditions T 700 800°C and P 3- 4 kbar.
crystall1zed from a fractionated anatectiC melt denved
Scale: the ruler is 1n centimeters and millimeters. Image:
from a metapelltic protolith. Part1al melt1ng has probably
E.W. Sawyer.
not occurred 1n the b1ot1te- quartz plag1oclase psamm1t1C
sch1st that hosts the gran1t1c ve1n. However. the Interbed-
ded pelit1c layers do conta1n a res1dual m1neral assemblage:
s111iman1te + K-feldspar + b1ot1te + cord1ente + quartz +
plag1oclase (e.g.. Ftg. F43). The mafic selvedge IS only a few
gra1ns w1de and cons1sts predomtnantly of b1ot1te that has a
much coarser grain-size than the b1ot1te 1n e1ther the ve1n
or the host schist. Garnet crystals occur locally w1th1n the
selvedge, and closely resemble the garnet crystals in the
vein. The mafic selvedge is slightly thicker 1n concavities at
Aria> of 1\ligma t itc~

Fig. 852. The dark grey rock 1n th1s photograph IS a garnet- mafic selvedge. This feature is attributed to the alterat1on of
diopside plag1oclase hornblende metamafic rock. It contains plag1oclase caused by the aqueous fluid from the felsic melt.
a few thin (< 10 mm) leucocratic ve1ns that are subparal- Melanocratic bands also occur subparallel to the layenng 1n the
lel to the compos1t1onal layenng. However. the most strik1ng metamafic schist and appear to form lateral bndges between
feature of the outcrop 1S the array of subparallel lenses and cha1ns of small lenses of leucotonalite. The dark color of these
elongate patches of coarse-gra1ned leucotonalite that are on- bands IS due to the replacement of dlops1de by hornblende,
ented at about 70° to the compos1tional layenng. Examination and IS interpreted as ev1dence that t he exsolved aqueous
of nearby outcrops reveals that the lenses of leucotonalite are fluid was locally able to infiltrate parallel to the foliation of the
oriented parallel to the ax1al planes of a senes of t1ght folds. metamafic rock. The widespread development of retrograde
A melanocrat1c rim IS developed around each lens. Thus, at hornblende has obscured any melanosome that may have
first sight, the outcrop appears to conta1n leucosome w1th ex1sted 1n the metamafic host. Hence, 1t IS not certa1n whether
melanosome and could, consequently. be cons1dered a the metamafic part of the outcrop 1s a m1gmat1te. However.
metatexite m~gmat1te. However. the dark nms are narrow and the grey rocks in the top nght corner of the photograph are a
cons1st predominantly of coarse-gra1ned hornblende and bio- metatexite m1gmatlte: the silliman1te-garnet b1ot1te quartz-
tite. There are two generat1ons of hornblende: one IS of s1milar plagioclase pelitic schists contain patches of neosome that have
morphology to the hornblende in the metamafic rock farther cores of poikiloblastic garnet intergrown with quartz that are
away from the leucocrat1c lenses, and is Interpreted to be pro- surrounded by a plag1oclase + K-feldspar + quartz leucosome,
grade, whereas the other replaces d1ops1de and IS retrograde. cons1stent w1th the Incongruent melting of b1otite. Some of the
B1otite part1ally replaces hornblende close to the leucocrat1c garnet po1klloblasts conta1n scattered inclus1ons of s1ll1mamte.
lenses. These lenses are 1nterpreted to have crystall1zed from a
Location: Central Metasedimentary Belt, Grenv1lle Prov1nce.
fels1c melt 1ntruded 1nto the metamafic rock parallel to the ax1al
planes of local folds, and the dark rim around them seems to
near Wakefield, Quebec, Canada. Rock type: lenses of
leucotonalite w ith mafic selvedges 1n a metatex1te mlgma-
be mafic selvedge formed by reaction between the metamafic
tite: metagabbro protolith, lower granulite-facies conditions
host and the felsic melt, or an aqueous flu1d exsolved from it
during crystallization. Many of the larger lenses of leucotonalite
T ca. 800°C, P 6-9 kbar. Scale: the ruler is IS em long. Image:
E.W. Sawyer.
exhlb1t a w1de, lighter-colored selvedge or halo outs1de the
140 - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - -


Fig. 853 . This complex migmatite prov1des a good example composed of b1ot1te occur at the margms of a folded, p1nk
of a mafic selvedge. The prom1nent layenng 1n the m1gmat1te leucocratic ve1n 5- 10 em w1de that occurs 1n the upper half
is pre-anatectic; the light grey layers are b1ot1te plag1oclase of the photograph. Although the ve1n IS hosted by pelite, the
quartz psamm1t1c schists (Ps), the med1um grey layers are mineral assemblage 1n the mafic selvedge is not s1milar to the
garnet cordierite-quartz-K-feldspar plagioclase-sill1man1te residua assooated w1th e1ther the stromatic leucosome or
biotite pelit1c schists (Pe), and the dark grey layers are the patches of neosome. Consequently, the mafic selvedge
biotit e plagioclase hornblende sch1sts (H s) t hat were 1s interpreted to result from react1on between an inJected
poss1bly mafic volcanic rocks, or sills. The evidence for vein of granit1c magma and its pelitic host, and not to be a
partial melting and, therefor e, for considering this a migma- residuum generated by partial melting. This interpretation
tite, can be found in the pelitic layers. At the bottom left, is supported by observations in adjacent outcrops, where a
stromatic, p1nkish grey granitic leucosome (LI) occurs in t hin mafic selvedge occurs adjacent to d1scordant pink gra-
a grey sch1st that has the m1neral assemblage plag1oclase + nitic veins. Because the stromatiC leucosome is folded by the
s1111man1te + b1ot1te + cord1ente + K-feldspar + quartz, w1th mesoscale tight folds ev1dent 1n the photograph, the patches
m1nor garnet. The leucosome IS Interpreted to be denved of neosome are equant and have d1ffuse edges, even though
from the anatectic melt of an alum1nous pelite v1a a reac- located 1n the core of the folds. Both types of leucosome
tion such as b1ot1te + sill1mamte + quartz + plag1oclase = have igneous microstructures, and the fold1ng is cons1dered
melt + cord1erite + garnet + K-feldspar, and the host schist to have occurred wh1le anatectiC melt was present in the
IS Interpreted t o be the res1duum. but 1t 1s not melanocratiC. rock. As another 1nterest1ng feature 1n th1s m1gmat1te, garnet
Another pelit1c layer, located 1mmediately above the dark developed at contacts between the mafic and pelit1c layers,
grey layer that crosses the center of the photograph, con- but not at the contacts between mafic and psammitic layers.
tains addit1onal evidence for partial melting. Diffuse patches
Locat1on : Sa1nt-Fulgence. Grenville Province, Quebec,
of neosome (N ) have a core consisting of quartz + garnet
Canada. Rock type: leucocratlc vein w 1th mafic selvedge in a
surrounded by quartz + plagioclase + K-feldspar in a leuco-
metatexite migmatite; metasedimentary protolith, granulite-
cratic rim, which suggests that the neosome formed in situ
facies anateXIS at T 800 850°C, p 5 8 kbar: Scale: the ruler is
by a similar melting reaction, but in a slightly more iron-
marked 1n em. Image: E.W. Sawyer.
nch pelite. Conspicuous, narrow mafic selvedges (MS)
Atl ~1; of Migmatite;

Figure S

Fig. 854. Th1s photograph 1s a close-up of the 1ntenor dike. then the narrowness of the 1nd1v1dual ve1ns may mean
of a meter-wide granitic dike, one of several that are on - that th1s part1cular dike was not a successful conduit for
ented parallel to local shear zones and the axial surfaces of the transfer of melt. Alternatively, the repeated dik1ng
mesoscale folds developed in metatexite m1gmatites. In gen- may simply be a record of the waning pulses of melt in the
eral. these dikes are Interpreted to be part of the transfer wider dike.
network of condu1ts through wh1ch anatect1c melt moved
from the migmat1tes to small gran1te plutons grow1ng in Locauon: Wuluma H1lls, Arunta Inlier, Australia. Rock type:
larger dilatant sites nearby. Because these dikes are still leucocrat1c vein with mafic selvedge, metatexite m1gmatite;
with1n their broad source-volume, they belong to the cat- metapelitic protolith, partially melted at T 825 875°C. P ca.
egory of leucocrat1c dikes. The photograph shows several 5 kbar: Scale: the ruler is IS em long. /mage: E.W. Sawyer.
th1n (I 1.5 em) leucocrat1c veins, onented roughly parallel
to the scale, and each has very narrow b10t1te-nch mafic
selvedges. The selvedges are interpreted to have formed as
a result of interaction between with veins and their host. A
stnking feature of the host is that it conta1ns numerous b1o-
t1te-nch foliae that are regularly spaced about 1.5 em apart,
the same spacing as the mafic selvedges at the edges of the
leucocratic veins. Both the thin veins and their host dike
rocks have granitic bulk compositions, similar gra1n-s1zes,
and s1m1lar microstructures. The host dike thus probably
was Itself constructed by the mult1ple Injection of many th1n
leucocratic veins, each of which developed a mafic selvedge.
The two more prominent leucocratic veins just happen to
be the last increments of melt injected into the dike. If the
th1n ve1ns represent the entire h1story of now of the larger
142 X~
----------~~~~--~M~ET~A~T~E~ ~E~X~I~T~E.

Migmatites from the contact aureole of the

C. Duluth Igneous Complex [Figs. CS, C6]
Mafic rocks of the Duluth Igneous Complex (DIC), 1n
METATEXITE AND northern Minnesota, were intruded over a very narrow
DIATEXITE, THE FIRST- ORDER time period around I 098 Ma, and produced a considerable
DIVISION OF MIGMATITES contact-aureole in the Archean and Proterozoic country
rocks. T he inner part of the aureole locally reached the
The photographs in this section show the striking change
pyroxene hornfels facies, and anatexis ts particularly evident
tn the morphology of migmatites that takes places between
in the pelit ic and semipelitic rocks of the Virginia Formation,
the lowest- and the highest-grade parts of most migmatite
on the western stde of the DIC. The depth of tntrusion was
terranes. T he same changes occur whether the migmatttes
relatively shallow; estimates of the pressure of the contact
formed in a regtonal, or tn a contact metamorphtc setting.
metamorphtsm are tn the range 1.5 2 kbar.

Migmatites from the contact aureole of the

Upper amphibolite facies, regional migma-
Ballachulish Igneous Complex [Figs. CI-C4]
tites from Saint-Malo, France [Figs. C7, CB]
The Ballachulish Igneous Complex (BIC), tn the Scotttsh
The Satnt-Malo Terrane conststs largely of metasedimentary
Htghlands, was emplaced tnto Dalradtan metasedtmen-
rocks of Bnovenan age; greywacke and pelittc compostttons
tary rocks at about 425 Ma. The metasedtmentary rocks
predominate. These rocks were partially melted during an
were regionally deformed and metamorphosed to the
upper-amphibolite-facies metamorphtc event at 536 ± 14
greenschist facies before t he intrust on of the BIC. Intrusion
Ma. Melting occurred through the breakdown of muscovtte,
occurred at a pressure o f 3 ± 0.5 kbar (corresponding to
and biotite generally rematned stable. Diatexite migmatites
a depth of about 10 km) and a contact-metamorphic
occur in the central part of the terrane and are partial ly
aureole. locally up to 2 km wide, developed around the
sur rounded by an envelope of metatextte migmatites.
BIC. Rocks tn the inner part of the contact aureole were
N onmelted Bnoverian metasedtments are well exposed
parttally melted.
south of the migmatttes in the estuary of the Rance.

Further readmg: Fraser, G.L., Patttson, D.R.M. & Heaman,

Further readmg: Brown, M. (1979) : The petrogenests of the
L.M. (2004) : Age of the Ballachulish and Glencoe Igneous
St-Malo migmattte belt, Armoncan Masstf, France, with
Complexes (Scottish Highlands), and paragenests of ztrcon,
particular reference to the dtatexttes. Neues jahrbuch fur
monazite and baddeleytte tn the Ballachulish aureole. journal
Mtneralogre, Abhandlungen 135, 48 74.
of the Geologrcal Society of London 16 1, 447 462.
Milord, 1., Sawyer, E.W. & Brown, M. (200 1): Formation of
Harte, B., Pattison, D.R.M. & Ltnklater, C.M. (199 1): Field
diatexite migmattte and grantte magma during anatexts of
relations and pet rography of partially melted pelite and
semi-pelitic metasedimentary rocks : an example from St.
semi -pelitic rocks. In Equilibrium tn Contact Metamorphism:
Malo, France. journal of Petrology 42 , 487-505.
the Ballachulish Igneous Complex and its Aureole (G. Voll ,
J. Topel, D .R.M. Pattison & F. Seifert, eds.) . Springer-Verlag. W eber, C., Barbey, P, Cuney, M. & Martin, H . ( 1985): Trace
Hetdelberg, Germany ( 181-209). element behaviour during migmatization. Evidence for a
complex melt-residuum flutd interaction in the St. Malo
H olness, M. & Clemens, j D. ( 1999): Partial melting of the
migmatitic dome (France) . Contnbuuons to Mmerology and
Apptn quartzite driven by fracture-controlled H 20 tnfiltra-
Petrology 90, 52 62.
tton tn the aureole of the Ballachulish Igneous Complex,
Scotttsh Highlands. Contnbutrons to Mmeralogy and Petrology
136, 154-168.

Patttson, D .R.M. & Harte, B. (1997): Geology and evolutton

of the Ballachulish Igneous Complex and aureole. Scowsh
journal of Geology 33, 1-29.
A tlas of Migmatites

Upper amphibolite facies, regional migma- Further reading: Guern1na, S. & Sawyer. E.W. (2003): Large-
tites from the Opatica Subprovince, Quebec scale melt-deplet1on 1n granulite terranes: an example from
• [Figs. C9, C IOJ the Archaean Ashuan1p1 subprov1nce of Quebec. Journal of
Metomorph1c Geology 21 , 18 1 20 I.
The Opat1ca Subprovince, in central Quebec, consists
principally of tonalit e trondhjemit e-granodiorite (T TG) Percival, J.A ( 199 1) : Granulite-fac1es metamorphism and
plutonic rocks with ages between 2825 and 2702 Ma, crustal magmatism in the Ashuan1pi com plex, Quebec
1nto w h1ch plutons belonging to a monzodiorite tonalit e Labrador, Canada. Journal of Petrology 32, 1261 1297.
granodiorite suite were int ruded between 2697 and 2693
Ma. A subsequent high-grade metamorphic event led Sawyer, E.W. ( 1994): Melt segregat1on in the continental
to widespread partial melt1ng of rocks of the tonalite crust. Geology 22, 1019 1022.
trondhjemite granodiorite suite 1n the center of the
subprov1nce. and to the generation of m1gmat1tes and Sawyer, E.W. (2001): Melt segregation 1n the cont1nental
anatectiC leucogran1tes between 2681 and 2678 Ma. Partial crust: distribution and movement of melt in anatect1c rocks.
melt1ng occurred under conditions of the upper amphibo- Journal of Metamorphic Geology 19. 291 309.
lite faoes (T ca. 750°C, P 5-7 kbar), and probably mvolved
the innux of aqueous nuid.

Further readmg: Davis, W.J., Machado, N., Gariepy, C.,

Sawyer, E.W. & Benn, K. (1995) : U Pb geochronology of
the Opat1ca tonalite gneiss belt and 1ts relat 1onsh1p to
the Abitibi gr eenstone belt, Supenor Province, Quebec.
Canad1an journal of Earth Sciences 3 2 , 113-127.

Sawyer, E.W. ( 1998): Formation and evolution of granite

magmas dunng crustal reworking: the Significance of dia-
texJtes.Journal of Petrology 39, 1147 1167.

Sawyer, E.W. & Benn, K. (1993): Structure of the h1gh-grade

Opat1ca Belt and adJacent low-grade Ab1t1bl Subprovince,

• Canada: an Archaean mountain front. journal of Structural

Geology 15, 1443 1458.
• Granu lite-facies, regional migmatites
r from the Ashuanipi Subprovince, Quebec
• [Figs. Cll, Cl2]

• T he migmatites in the Ashuan ipi Subprovince, Quebec

Labrador, were derived from A rchean siliciclastic
sedimentary mat erial deposited by turbidity-current
act1on. The beds 1n the sedimentary sequence range up
to a meter th1ck, but the typ1cal th1ckness IS I0 20 em.
Some beds were graded during depositiOn, and th1s has
resulted 1n a compos1t1onal gradat1on w1th1n the beds;
the tops have a broadly pelitic composition, whereas the
bottoms are greywacke (psamm1t1c). Plag1oclase-nch
metagreywacke w1th a simple plag1oclase + quartz + bJo-
tJte + quartz m1neral assemblage dom1nates (ca. 85%)
the sedimentary pi le and was volumetrically the principal
protolith to the m1gmatites. Partial melt1ng 1n t hese rocks
occurred through the biotite-dehydration reaction: biot1te +
plagioclase + quartz =
orthopyroxene + melt ± ilmenite.
The average degree of part ial melting was about 3 1 vol.%.
144 ------------------------------


Fig. C I. One of the first 1ndicat1ons of the onset of Further reading: Pattison, D .R.M. & Harte, B. (2001): The
part1al melt1ng in the field is the presence of very nar- Ballachulish Igneous Complex and Aureole: a Field Guide.
row (<2 mm) feldspar-nch leucocrat1c ve1ns 1n pelitic and Ed1nburgh Geolog1cal Sooety Gu1debook Series, Edinburgh,
semipelit1c hornfelses. Th1s photograph shows that the U.K. 148 p.
leucocratlc ve1ns are located parallel to the foliation (indi-
cated by the pencil) , and in orientations that are oblique to
the layering in the hornfelses. Locally, the veins form a net-
like pattern in their hosts. Very narrow biotite selvedges are
present around some of t he veins. In thin section, the veins
show K-feldspar grains w ith crystal faces in contact with
"xenomorphic-interst itial" quartz, a microstructure indica-
tive of crystallization from a melt. The ma1n macroscopic
charactenst1c of th1s migmatite is the cont1nuity of pre-
anatect ic structures (bedding and foliat 1on) 1n the
paleosome; hence, it is a metatexite m1gmatite.

Locot1on: east s1de of the aureole. Rock type: metatex1te

m1gmat1te; t he protolith was interbedded pelite and seml-
pelite of the Appin Phyllite, anatexis at T 650 730°C. Scale:
the pencil is IS em long. /mage: D.R.M. Patt1son. Previously
published as Photo 20 in Pattison and Harte (200 I) and
is reproduced w it h t he permission of The Edinburgh
Geological Society.
Atlas of Migmatites

Figure l

Fig. C2. Migmatites with a very distinctive appearance are Location: east side of contact aureole, I 00 m from con-
produced at slightly higher grades from protoliths consisting tact. Rock type: metat exit e migmatite; the prot olith was
of thin pelitic and semipelitic beds. T he photograph shows a t hinly bedded pelite and semipelite of the Appin Phyllite,
sawn slab of this type of migmatite, which has been etched partially melted at T 650 - 730°C Scale : the lens cap is
and stained to reveal the K-feldspar. The competent layers, 65 mm across. Image : D .R.M. Pattison. Previously published as
typically rich in cordierite, have been extended and become fig. 3 in Pattison and Harte ( 1988) and is reproduced with
trains of rectangular boudins, whereas the less competent t he permission of Blackwell Publishing.
units (partially melted semipelitic layers) have deformed by
• ductile flow and remain more or less continuous, but are Further reading: Pattison, D.R.M. & Harte, B. ( 1988):
Evolution of structurally contrasti ng migmatites in t he
• thin ned. Coarser-grained leucocratic material extracted
from the partially melted semipelitic layers occupies the 3-kbar Ballachulish aureole, Scotland. journal ofMetamorphic
dilatant spaces between the rectangular boudins, but Geology 6 , 475 494.
also occurs as veins that cross the layering. Although t he
proportion of leucosome is locally higher, and this
migmatite is more strained than t hat shown in Fig. C I, the
pre-anatectic structures remain continuous. Thus, this too
is a metatexite migmatite.


Fig. CJ. The migmatites located 1n the parts of the aure-

ole that reached the highest metamorphic temperatures,
and consequently generated the h1ghest fract1ons of melt,
have a very different appearance. Th1s cut and sta1ned slab
shows rectangular boudins generated by the pull1ng apart
of the more competent (more v1scous, or st1ffer) metasedi-
mentary layers enclosed 1n an anatectic melt-nch matnx. In
contrast to Fig. C2, t he blocks of t he competent rock have
been moved apart and rotated such that the onginal orien-
tation and cont inuity of the pre-partial-melting structures
(bedding and foliation) are disrupted and destroyed; hence,
th1s is a d1atexite m1gmatite.

Location: screen with1n the 1ntrus1ve body, east s1de of the

complex. Rock type: d1atex1te m1gmat1te; protolith was
th1nly bedded pehte and sem1pelite of the Appin Phyllite,
part1ally melted at T 750- 800°C. Scale: the co1n 1s 19 mm
1n d1ameter. Image: G.L. Fraser.
A tlas of Migmat ites

t Figure

• Fig. C4. The migmatites closest to the intrusive body on its the aureole, the temperat ure of melt ing was relatively low

• west side show the greatest disruption of the pre-partial -

melting layering. and were mapped as the "chaotic zone" by
(ca. 650- 700°C) . This situat ion is attributed t o t he innux
of H 20 at peak metamorphic conditions released from the
• Pattison and Harte ( 1988). The outcrop appearance of the crystallization of t he underlying intrusive body.
"chaotic zone" migmatites is a jumbled mass of psammite,
semipelite, and pelite blocks (i.e .. schollen or rafts) wit hin Location: "Chaotic Zone" on the western side of t he intru-
t a coarser-grained, lighter-colored semipelitic matrix. Some sive body. Rock type: diatexite migmatite; the protolith
was pelite and semipelite of t he Leven schist; anatexis at
schollen have recti linear outlines, but ot hers are rounded.
The matrix is generally without a foliat ion or compositional T 650- 700°C. Scale: the lens cap is 65 mm across. Image:
layering, but where present, it appears to bend around the D.R.M. Pattison. Previously published as fig. 13 in Pattison
schollen in a manner suggestive of now. The semipelitic and Harte ( 1988) and is reproduced w ith t he permission of
matrix has a granular microstructure and contains patches Blackwell Publishing.
of int erstitial-xenomorphic quartz and K-feldspar that,
Further reading: Pattison, D.R.M. & Harte, B. ( 1988) :
together w ith the now-like foliation, st rongly suggest that
Evolution of st ruct urally contrasting migmat it es in the
the matrix contained a substantial fract ion of anatectic melt.
3-kbar Ballachulish aureole, Scotland. journal ofMetamorphic
However, the semipelitic bulk composition of the matrix,
Geology 6, 475-494.
and the scarcity of both leucosome and melanosome in the
"chaotic zone," suggest that the melt fraction did not seg-
regate from the solid resid uum in the mat rix. The fraction
of melt in many parts of the "chaot ic zone" migmatit e was
sufficiently high that bulk now of the migmatite could occur.
The st ronger layers (with a lower fraction of melt) were
disrupted during the now and became t he schollen in the
portions with a higher fraction of melt. Even though the
"chaotic zone" experienced the highest extent of melting in
I 48 _______M_IG__M_ A__T_ I_T-=-E--5_FR_O____M_T__H__E:.._C..::.....:. C....:.
O_N__T_A:...: :...:R
T_A_:_:U :...:O:...:L:-=-
..:..:E E


Fig. CS. Th1s migmat1te 1s typ1cal of those developed 1n the Location: Linwood Lake, area 35m from the western
outer part of the anatectiC zone. The original sedimentary contact w1th the DIC. Rock type: net-structured meta-
layenng 1n the hornfels derived from the V1rg1n1a Formation texite m1gmat1te; peltt1c and sem1peltt1c protolith; anatex1s
rema1ns ev1dent and can be traced laterally across out- at T ca. 750°C. Scale: the ruler 1s IS em long. Image:
crops: hence, this a metatex1te m1gmatite. Two sets of E.W. Sawyer.
th1n discordant domains of leucosome cross the compo-
sitional layering in the hornfels and locally form a net-like
pattern A systematic sense of displacement across the
oblique domains of leucosome suggests that they occupy
a conJugate set of extens1onal shears related to shorten1ng
perpendicular to the layering. This IS possibly due to load-
ing of the footwall by the DIC as 1t was emplaced. Another
set of somewhat th1cker, stromatic doma1ns of leucosome
that are onented parallel to the bedding also 1s evident.
All the leucosome matenal 1s fine-gra1ned (0.5 mm). but
still much coarser grained than the paleosome (0. 1 mm).
Although not vis1ble 1n outcrop. the doma1ns of leuco-
some are bordered by a narrow melanocrat1c selvedge that
results from the alteration of cordiente 1n the wallrock (see
Fig. F88). After local segregation of melt from the wallrocks
1nto nearby low-pressure s1tes (the extensional shears) to
create the leucosome, crystallization of the melt appears
to have released some H20, which then reacted with
cordierite in the wallrock.
Atlas of Migmatites

Figure 6

t I ~~

Fig. C6. The migmatites from the highest -grade parts of resu lting diatexite magma, occurred without any significant
the Duluth aureole no longer contain recognizable and segregat ion of the melt fraction from the residuum frac-
coherent structures that predate the partial melting and tion. In other words, most of these diatexite migmatites
are, therefore, diatexite migmatites. Like the one in this represent a closed anatectic system.
photograph, they are typical ly very uniform, medium-
grained (0.5-2 mm), mesocratic rocks that locally contain Location: Linwood Lake, area 5 m from the western contact
small elongate fragments (schollen) of hornfels that are, with the DIC. Rock type: diatexite migmatite: pelitic and
in places, aligned. In many cases, the migmatites have a semipelitic protolith: anat exis at T 800-825°C. Scale: the
foliation defined by the parallel orientation of tabu lar min- ruler is IS em long. Image: E.W. Sawyer.
erals, typically plagioclase. cordierite, and orthopyroxene:
typically, t here are no leucocratic segregations or mafic
schlieren developed. Locally, deflect ions in the trend of
the foliation define small shear zones that formed in the
magmatic stat e. Furthermore, cordierite, plagioclase, and
K-feldspar commonly have crystal faces against abundant
pockets of coarser-grained, equant but irregularly shaped
quartz, K-feldspar and plagioclase. The microst ructures
indicate that these migmatites contained a significant frac-
t ion of melt , and that they developed their foliation by
the alignment of crystals in a flowing magma. The modal
proportions of plagioclase, quartz, biotite. cordierit e,
K-feldspar, and orthopyroxene, together with the whole-
rock composition of most of the diatexite migmatites in the
Duluth aureole, indicate that partial melting of the pelitic
and semipelitic protoliths, and subsequent flow of t he
ISO ------------------------~----

Figure 7

Fig. C7. Neosome 1n the m1gmat1tes located close to the

melt-1n 1sograd on the southeastern s1de of the Sa1nt- Malo
m1gmat1te terrane, 1n Bnttany, formed first 1n the musco-
VIte-nch semipelit1c layers. The bod1es of neosome are
stromat1c and cons1st of thin, coarse-gra1ned muscov1te +
K-feldspar + plagioclase + quartz leucosome bordered by
b1ot1t e -rich melanosome . The start of partial melti ng in
the migmat it es at Saint- Malo involved the breakdown of
muscovite; biotite remained stable and was concentrated
1n the melanosome. Beds of psammitic and calc-silicate
compos1tion were not as strongly affected by partial melt-
Ing, and hence these are paleosome resister litholog1es at
th1s stage. Consequently, the cont1nu1ty of structures that
predate the partial melt1ng, sedimentary layenng 1n th1s
case, 1s preserved 1n these low-grade m1gmat1tes, and hence
th1s 1S a metatex1te m1gmatlte.

Locatton: La Landrais, Sa1nt-Malo m1gmat1te terrane, France.

Rock type: metat ex1te migmat1te; Bnoverian sem1pelitic
protolit h from just on the high-grade s1de of the "melt-1n"
1sograd, T ca. 650°C, P 4- 7 kbar. Scale: the ruler 1s 15 em
long. /mage: E.W . Sawyer.
Atlas of M igmatites

Figure 8

Fig. C8. Regional metamorphic temperatures were higher

farther into the Saint-Malo migmatite terrane; consequently,
anatexis was far more extensive. A featu re common of
virtually all of these migmatites is the absence of any lat-
erally coherent structures that predate the partial melting;
hence, these are diatexite migmatites, and they consist
largely of neosome. The relative proportions of leucocratic
to melanocratic material in the neosome, and the ratio of
neosome to paleosome, vary considerably from outcrop to
outcrop. In the example shown here, t he neosome is meso-
cratic overall, and consists of w ider leucocrat ic layers, or
bands, that alternate with rather discontinuous, curviplanar
biotite-rich foliae, called schlieren. In addition, the remains
of a large schollen of a resister lithology also can be seen.

Location: Saint-Malo migmatit e t errane, France. Rock type:

mesocratic diatexite migmatite; semipelitic and pelitic pro-
tolith, partially melt ed at T ca. 750°C, P 4-7 kbar. Scale: t he
side of t he yellow box is 17 em long. /mage: E.W. Sawyer.
152 ------ ------ ------ ------ ------

Figur·e 9

Fig. C9. A continuous foliat ion, or com posit ional lay- occur in shear zones located on the long limbs of t he asym-
ering, that predates the partial melting can be seen in all metrical folds. The pink veins have a composit ion suggestive
the migmatites developed 1n the lowest-grade parts of of a probable derivation from a similar protolith; they may
the anatectic zone in t he Opatica Subprovince; thus t hey represent injections of anatectic melt.
are metatexite migmatites. Two principal morpholog1es of
Locat1on: Opatica Subprovince, Quebec, Canada. Rock type:
metatexite migmat it e have developed from the tonalit e-
metatexite migmatite; tonalit e protolith, partially melted
trondhjemi te-granodio rite plutonic protoliths. Patch
under conditions of the upper amphibol1te facies, T ca. 750°C,
migmatites (see Figs. BIS and 012) formed in the Opatica
and P 5-7 kbar. Scale: t he ruler is IS em long. /mage: E.W.
Subprovince w here there was no penetrative deformation
of the protolith during part1al melting, r.e., they occur 1n
low-strain environments. This photograph shows another
morphology. which developed as the protolith was sheared
during partial melting. The light-grey and darker grey lay-
ers are a compositional banding that existed before partial
melt1ng and are due to changes in the ratio of plagioclase
to quartz + K-feldspar. These layers were deformed into
north-vergent, asymmetrical folds dunng partial melting.
Light-grey, coarser-gra 1ned, diffuse areas of neosome that
do not have a foliation are located in shear planes on the
limbs of the folds or subparallel to the axial surfaces of the
folds. The neosome is slightly lighter colored than t he rock
around it, but not really leucocratic. The diffuse edges sug-
gest t hat t his is in situ neosome. The outcrop is also cut by
thin, pink leucocratic veins that tend to have diffuse mar-
gins; some of these veins are folded. Commonly, the ve1ns
Atlas o f M igmatites

Figure I0

Fig. C I 0. Migmatites in the center of t he anatectic melt ed rocks were able t o flow, and th us destroy the pre-
region in t he Opatica Subprovince do not contain con- anatexis structu res t hey contained . The only pre-anatexis
t iguous st ructures t hat predate t he partial melting; the structures that remain are those preserved in t he entrained
structures they cont ain are essentially syn-anatect ic. This schollen or rafts; hence, this is a diatexite migmatite and
example shows lens-shaped schollen of grey, fo liated represent s a more advanced stage of anatexis than t hat
biotite- quartz- plagioclase tonalite in a pink, coarse- recorded in Fig. C9.
grained biotite-quartz- K-feldspar- plagioclase granite
host. Some schollen are fragments of resister lithologies, Location: Opatica Subprovince, Quebec, Canada. Rock type:
but most have bulk composit ions indicating that t hey are diatexite migmatite; metatonalite protolit h, anatexis under
melt-depleted and hence residua. The microst ructure in conditions of t he upper amphibolite facies, T ca. 750°C,
t he leucocratic matrix varies considerably from place to and P 5-7 kbar. Scale: the ruler is IS em long. Image: E.W.
place. In many places, as in t his image, the microstructure is Sawyer.
isotropic and granit ic, but elsewhere, there are domains in
which tabular crystals (plagioclase, K-feldspar, and biotite)
are aligned, forming a magmatic fo liat ion with o r without
biotite schlieren. In places, coarse-grained granitic veins
have intruded finer-grained rocks, but elsewhere (e.g., just
below t he center of the photograph), coarse-grained rocks
simply occur as diffuse pat ches in finer-gra ined ones. The
leucocrat ic part of this migmatite contains some K-feldspar
crystals that are euhedral, and others that have rational
crystal faces at mut ual contacts with quart z, text ures that
are indicative of crystallizatio n from a melt. These observa-
tions suggest that in the center of the Opatica Subprovince,
t he fraction of melt was sufficiently high that the partially
154 -----------------------------

Figure I I

Fig. C II . This m1gmatite 1s dom1nated by grey metased- partial melting and segregat1on process could be the source
Imentary rocks and has a relatively m1nor proport1on of of large volumes of granitiC magma 1n the continental crust;
leucosome. Since the streaks of leucosome are mostly for the Ashuamp1 Subprovince, melt-depleted migmatites
located parallel to the bedding and foliat1on, the migmatlte such as this are est1mated to have produced 640 000 km
could be called stromatic. The mineralogy and whole-rock of gran1t1c magma. In assigning th1s m1gmat1te a further
compos1t1on of the metasedimentary rocks 1n this migma- descriptive term, a decision has to be made as what char-
tite are not consistent with an interpretation that they are acteristic needs to be emphasized; two possibilities are its
paleosome, but indicate that they are the residuum left morphology and its bulk composition.
after the extraction of about 30 vol.% anatectic melt of
Location: Ashuanipi Subprovince, Quebec, Canada. Rock
granitic composition. This degree of melt loss far exceeds
type : residual metatexite migmatite; metaturbidite proto-
the volume of leucosome present in the outcrop; hence,
lith, with partial melting at T 825-875°C, P 6-7 kbar. Scale:
anatexis and the format1on of th1s m1gmatite were the result
the ruler is IS em long. Image: E.W. Sawyer.
of an open-system process at the scale of the outcrop. The
preservation of structures and layering that predate partial
melt1ng in the residuum after the loss of such a large volume
of melt 1ndicates that the melt was contmuously drained
from the res1duum dunng anatex1s. If the melt had accumu-
lated 1n the rock up to a large fraction (> I 0%), then bulk
flow would have occurred by one process or another, and
that would have destroyed the layering. Because all the lay-
ers were fertile, and the melt-segregation process allowed
only a small fraction of melt to exist in the rock at any one
t ime, the resulting migmatite is essentially all neosome, but
a residual one in which pre-anatect ic structures are pre-
served. Large areas of fertile rocks undergoing this type of
Atlas of Migmatites


Fig. C l2 . In this migmatite, schollen (or rafts) of melt- Location: Ashuanipi Subprovince, northern Quebec, Canada.
depleted metasediment ary rocks identical to the resid - Rock type: schollen diatexite migmatite; metaturbidite proto-
ual parts of t he metatexite migmatites (e.g., Fig. Cl l) occur lith part ially melted at T 825- 875°C, P 6- 7 kbar. Scale: t he
in a coarser-grained, lighter-colored host; in th is case, ruler is IS em long. /mage: E.W. Sawyer.
then, the rafts are the residual part of the neosome and
not paleosome. However, in some out crops, the schol-
len include ultramafic, mafic, and vein quartz resister
lithologies, and these are all that remains of t he paleosome.
Microstructures that indicate the flow of magma (i.e., melt
containing crystals) and crystallization of a melt are com-
mon in the matrix around the schollen. Examples of such
microst ructures include the tiling of tabular crystals of feld-
spar, the local development of euhedral crystals of feldspar
and orthopyroxene, and of minerals wit h crystal faces
against large interst it ial crystals of equant, xenomorphic
quart z. The most important characteristic of t his migma-
tite, the one that identifies it as a diatexite migmatite, is the
absence of structures that predate the partial melting in the
mat rix around the schollen. T he matrix is neosome also,
and the absence of discrete melanosome and leucosome
in it indicates that the melt fract ion and solid fraction did
not become separated during anatexis. Rat her, they flowed
together as magma.
156 --------------------------~

Metatexite migmatites with a nebulitic

D. structure [Figs. 011, 012]
The term nebufltrc has been used 1n two ways to descnbe
SECOND-ORDER m1gmatites. The term is most commonly used to
MORPHO LOGIES IN M IGMATITES describe doma1ns of neosome that have an 1ndistinct. dif-
fuse or "fuzzy" boundary w1th a volumetrically dominant
The second-order morphologies in migmat1tes can be paleosome, so that the contact between them is typ-
related to the melt fraction present 1n the m1gmat1te and, ICally interpreted to be gradat1onal. This usage applies to
1n a general way, to stra1n, or how the protollth responded metatexite m1gmatites. The second usage applies to the
to stran With the photographs 1n th1s sect1on, 1t w1ll be descript1on of larger reg1ons where fa1nt. ghostlike relics of
possible first to examine the range of different morphol- discontmuous. but not disrupted. paleosome can be seen
ogies that can be found 1n metatex1te m1gmat1tes. where through the "cloudiness" of the neosome. Th1s use refers
paleosome dommates, and 1n wh1ch structures that to d1atexite migmatites. Nebulit1c m1gmatites have a homo-
predate part1al melt1ng are preserved. Then, the mor- geneous microstructure (i.e .. no foliat1on. or magmat1c flow
phologieS found 1n d1atex1te m1gmat1tes, where neosome structure. and have not segregated into leucosome and
predom1nates, and 1n whiCh coherent pre-anatectic struc- melanosome). Consequently, they are mterpreted to form
tures are destroyed and replaced by structures formed 1n envwonments of very low syn-anatect1c strain.
during anatex1s.
Metatexite migmatites with leucosome in
The start of partial melting [Figs. 01 - 06] dilatant structures [Figs. 0 13-022]
An important part of mapping in metamorphic terranes is Where anisotropic rocks are deformed, differences in the
the determination of isograds. In high-grade metamorphic viscosity of the layers can result in stra1n-rate discontinui-
terranes, the "melt-in isograd" marks the beginn1ng of the ties along the layer boundaries that are accommodated by
zone of anatexis. It IS where migmatites beg1n to appear. the formation of dilatant structures; boudinage and folia-
However, noticing the first signs of part1al melting 1n the tion boudinage are two well-known examples. If partial
field IS not easy. The photographs 1n th1s sect1on show melt is present in the rock dunng deformation, then it will
examples of the incipient stages of anatexis. Because part1al m1grate to the dilatant s1tes, where the pressure in the rock
melt1ng has barely started 1n these rocks, structures that is lowest. If the melt rema1ns there and crystallizes, it will
pre-date partial meltmg, for example, bedd1ng, composi- form leucosome. Leucosome located in dilatant sites is very
tional layering, foliations, and folds, rema1n prominent in the common in migmatites and exhib1ts a very wide range of
paleosome; hence, these are metatexite migmat1tes, albeit morphology that is pnncipally controlled by the nature of
w1th a very small proportion of neosome. the anisotropy. Leucosome in dilatant sites related to the
development of folds will be dealt with later.
Metatexite migmatites with a patch
structure [Figs. 07-0 I0] Metatexite migmatites with a net structure
Patch migmatites are a type of metatexite migmatite 1n [Figs. 023-030]
which the neosome occurs as patches in the paleosome. A net structure is formed in a metatexite migmatite where
The patches of neosome can be sharply defined or they two or more sets of leucosome segregations intersect to
can be diffuse or nebulose. Similarly, the neosome may, or create a net-like pattern of leucosome enclosing rhomb- or
may not, have segregated into leucosome and melanosome. lozenge-shaped domains of paleosome or. in some cases,
Patch migmatites are most commonly found in the lowest- melanosome. A net structure is very common in metatex-
grade parts of migmatite terranes, and are preserved in the ites, and its development appears to be a necessary step
parts of an anatectic terrane where the syn-anatectic strain in the extraction of large volumes of melt from anatectic
was low (see also Fig. Bl). terranes and the creation of large areas of melt-depleted
A tlas of M igmati res

Metatexite migmatites with a layered or The transition from metatexite to diatexite

stromatic structure associated with low migmatites [Figs. 041-046]
strain [Figs. 031-034]
Metatexite migmatites are characterized by the wide-
A stromat ic or layered morphology results w here the spread preservation of t he structures that existed before
neosome in a migmatite occurs as parallel, laterally con- anatexis. In contrast, diatexit e migmat ites are characterized
tinuous bands in two dimensions and parallel sheets in the by the general absence of coherently preserved structures
third. The bodies of neosome must also be parallel to the t hat predate t he partial melting, i.e., diatexite migma-
principal planar structure in the host. Most commonly, this t ites are largely, or wholly, neosome. The destruction and
is a foliation, but it can also be com positional layering, e.g.. overprinting of old structures in migmatites are progres-
bedding in a sequence of t hinly bedded pelites, semipelites, sive, and in many migmatite terranes, there is a transitional
and psammit es. The t erm stromatic usually is applied to the zone between metatexite and diatexit e migmatites in
leucosome in a migmatite because it is the most prominent which paleosome is sequentially disrupted and consumed
part of the neosome. However, t here is no reason why a into the neosome. O ne of the feat ures of this t ransition is
migmatite consisting of parallel bodies of melanosome, the preservation of fragments of the metatexite migmatite
say after the loss of melt, cannot also be called stromatic. as abundant enclaves, which are called schollen, or rafts;
In this sect ion, I show examples of migmatites with a hence, these transitional rocks are called schollen diatexites
stromatic morphology that is an initial, low-strain feat ure or raft diatexites. In ot her migmatite terranes. the change
of the migmatite. In the next section, I wi ll show exam- from metatexite to diatexite migmatite is abrupt. This first
ples with stromatic morphology arising from high strain group of photographs shows examples of the early stages
during anatexis. in the formation of diatexite migmatites.

Metatexite migmatites with layered or Oiatexite migmatites with schollen and with
stromatic structure due to transposition schlieren structures [Figs. 047-052]
[Figs. 035-040] There is a systematic change in the morphology of diatexite
A feature of st romatic. or layered, migmatites from zones migmat ites in t he direction of higher metamorphic grade
of high st rain is the intensity and continu ity of the layering, and increased fract ion of melt away from t he metatexite
and the remarkable regularit y in the widt h and spacing of to diat exit e transit ion. The proportion of rafts, or schollen,
the domains of leucosome. A microstructural examination decreases, and correspondingly, the pro portion of leuco-
of the leucosome is especially important. If the leucosome cratic neosome increases. Schollen of metatexite material
contains magmat ic or submagmatic microstructures, then in t he neosome tend to become progressively more len-
the term layer or stromatic migmatite is just ified. However, ticular in shape and are no longer angular, whereas schollen
if the microstructures all formed in the solid state, t hen composed of resister lithologies, such as calc-sil icates or
the rocks may have acq uired their layered structure after vein quartz. are commonly rounded and equidimensional.
the melt in them had completely crystal lized; in t hat case, Schlieren, t he t hin persistent layers of dark minerals found
the term migmat ite. although possibly appropriate for t he in diatexite migmat it es (and in some granites), start to
protolith of the highly strained rock, is not appropriate become prominent in the mat rix and commonly define
for t he rock overall. It should be named accordingly (e.g., flow lines around t he schollen.
prot omylonitic migmatite, mylonitized migmat ite) .
158 ----------------------------

Oiatexite migmatites with schlieren Oiatexite migmatites at high strains

structures [Figs. 053-056] [Figs. 063, 064]
The morphology of diatex1te m1gmatites may appear Where the melt fract1on in a diatex1te m1gmatite 1s suffi-
to become less complex as the proport1on of schollen Ciently h1gh that crystals are in a dilute suspension, magma
decreases. However. th1s may well be a misconception, and flow can occur w1thout 1nteract1on between the solid crys-
many diatex1te migmatites exhibit s1gn1ficant local variations tals, and high strains are not fully recorded. As the melt
1n color, grain size. microstructure, and composition, most fraction decreases, the crystals start to interact and to cre-
commonly in the form of discontinuous bands, or layers. ate a framework, and th1s can be deformed and preserve
The most w1dely known type of compos1t1onal variation are a record of the stra1n. Diatexite m1gmatites that had a
schlieren, the thin layers of dark m1nerals found in d1atex1te framework of crystals enclosing melt-filled pockets, where
m1gmatites and 1n some gran1tes. Commonly. schlieren are deformed at h1gh stra1ns. can develop strongly layered
nch 1n b1ot1te, but they can also conta1n other platy or rod- morpholog1es compns1ng bands of the deformed crystal-
shaped m1nerals such as plag1oclase. S1lliman1te. amphibole. framework material and leucosome bands cons1sting of the
and orthopyroxene. Schlieren generally show a consid- melt expelled from the framework as 1t collapsed.
erable ennchment 1n accessory m1nerals. It 1s likely that a
number of different processes can produce schlieren. They
all requ1re that the host was 1n1tially a magma, however.
Mechanisms that have been suggested 1nclude, amongst
others, flow sorting, filter press1ng, and eros1on of the rafts
or schollen.

Oiatexite migmatites [Figs. 057-062]

The highest-grade parts of many migmat1te terranes con-
tain portions of outcrops, whole outcrops. or larger areas
1n wh1ch only syn-anatect1c or younger structures are pres-
ent. In these rocks. the proportion of neosome IS very h1gh,
that of paleosome is correspondingly m1nor, and schol-
len and schlieren are few, or even absent. Consequently.
changes 1n microstructure and compos1tlon that account
for the morphological vanat1ons 1n these m1gmatites tend
to be very subtle, but these are not homogeneous, or uni-
form. migmatites. Furthermore, many examples of diatexite
migmatite contain leucosome and leucocratic veins of late
anatectic age. There is no prefix term to descnbe the mor-
phology of these rocks; they are the quintessential diatexite
migmatites. Diatexite migmat ites can be mesocratic, leuco-
cratic, or melanocratic, and these variations in color have
been found to correspond to the bulk composition of the
protolith, the degree of enrichment 1n the melt fract1on
and in the res1duum fraction, respectively. Consequently,
a descriptive term used to describe the compos1t1onal,
mineralogical, or microstructural vanat1ons w1th1n an
outcrop of diatex1te m1gmat1te, or over a larger reg1on, may
be useful.
A tlas of Migmatites

Figure I

Fig. D I. Subtle ev1dence that partial melt1ng has started 1n Locotton: Mount Hay, Arunta Inlier. Australia . Rock type:
th1s granulite-fac1es metamafic rock is v1sible 1n the center nebulit1c patch metatex1te m1gmat1te; metamafic protohth,
of the image. Th1n. wh1te 1ntergranular nms are developed partial melt1ng at T 825- 875°C, P 6 7 kbar. Scale: the ruler
around the solid product and reactant phases. The wh1te IS IS em long. Image: E.W. Sawyer.
nms consist of quartz and plag1oclase, and represent crys-
tallized fi lms. and small pockets, of melt that formed on the Further readtng: H arte, B., Patt1son, D.R.M. & L1nklater, C.M.
grain boundaries between the react ant minerals. As the ( 199 1): Field relations and petrography of partially melt ed
melt did not separate from t he residuum, the neosome pelit e and semi -pelit ic rocks. In Equilibrium in Contact
composition should represent the protolith composition. Metamorphism : t he Ballachulish Igneous Complex and its
The melting reaction was hornblende + plag1oclase + quartz Aureole (G. Voll, j. Topel. D.R.M. Pattison & F. Seifert, eds.).
= orthopyroxene + melt. The thin leucocratic bands par- Springer-Verlag. Heidelberg. Germany ( 181 - 209).
allel to the ruler are subsolidus segregat1ons that predate
anatex1s. At the mop1ent stage of anatexis shown by th1s
m1gmat1te, the degree and extent of part1al melt1ng are
very m1nor. so that at the outcrop scale. the m1gmat1te
preserves all of the features of its unmelted lower-grade
equ1valents; thus, 1t 1s a metatexite m1gmat1te. As the edges
of th1s neosome are very difficult to define prec1sely, and
the neosome occup1es a discrete, small volume 1n the
paleosome, t he migmatite could, if des1red, be described as
a nebulit ic patch metatexit e migmat ite.
160 -----------------------------

Fig. 02. Dunng 1nc1p1ent melt1ng of th1s metamafic rock,

the t1ny fract1on of melt that was generated m1grated to
the low-pressure sites adjacent to the competent crystals
of garnet. The sol1d product of the Incongruent break-
down of hornblende was clinopyroxene, and th1s mineral
occurs in the groundmass, and hence rema1ned at the site
where the melt formed. The melting reaction was possibly
hornblende + plagioclase + quartz = clinopyroxene + melt ±
garnet. Most, if not all, of the garnet in this iron-rich meta-
mafic rock was present before partial melting occurred;
rocks in the lower amphibolite facies that have similar bulk
compositions contain abundant porphyroblasts of garnet.
The metamafic rock IS Fe-nch because 1t crystallized from a
melt that was the evolved product of the fract1onal crystal-
lization of a more prim1t1ve parental basalt magma, one that
had crystallized magnes1an oliv1ne and pyroxene.

Locatton: Ab1tib1 Subprovince, south of Ch1bougamau,

Quebec, Canada. Rock type: metatex1te m1gmat1te; meta-
mafic protolith part1ally melted at condit1ons JUSt below the
"orthopyroxene-in" 1sograd, T 800- 850°C, P 8- 10 kbar.
Scale: the ruler is IS em long. /mage: E.W Sawyer.
A tlas of Migmat ites

Figure l

Fig. 03 . Incipient partial melting in t his plagioclase- Locatton: Saint-Fulgence, Grenville Province, Quebec, Canada.
hornblende metamafic rock has produced very small, Rock type: patch metatexite migmatite; metamafic prot o-
elongate patches of neosome. The neosome contains lith, anatexis at conditions of the lower granulite facies,
small subidioblastic crystals of clinopyroxene in a tonalitic, T 800-850°C, P 5-8 kbar. Scale: t he ruler is 15 em long.
plagioclase + quartz groundmass. This assemblage is inter- Image: E.W. Sawyer.
preted as indicating that the neosome represents the in situ,
nonsegregated products of the incongruent breakdown of
hornblende by a reaction such as hornblende + plagioclase
+ quartz clinopyroxene + melt. The domains of neosome
are 5-10 em long, spaced about 75 em apart, and are all
elongate in the same direction. In this particular metamafic
rock, there are no obvious structures associated with the
orientat ion of the domains of neosome. However, the ori-
entation of the domains of neosome in the metamafic layers
does correspond to t he orientation of the axial planes to
small asymmetrical, Z-shaped folds developed in t he adja-
cent metapelitic beds. Although partial melting was incipient
in the metamafic layers, it had reached a far more advanced
stage in the pelitic layers, which have lost significant amounts
of anatectic melt and now have assemblages of residual
minerals and appropriate melt-depleted bulk compositions
(see Fig. B38).
162 -----------------------------

Figure 4

Fig. 04. The onset of part1al melt1ng 1n coarse-gra1ned

fels1c rocks can be difficult to detect because the
paleosome and neosome are very s1milar 1n color. mineral-
ogy. and m1crostructure. This example from the "melt-1n"
1sograd shows a small. diffuse leucocrat1c patch. or lens.
located along a small, isolated shear zone, vis1ble as a curva-
ture of the pre-partial-melting foliation and compositional
banding in the paleosome. The neosome is recognized by
1ts slightly coarser grain-size. diffuse margins, and because
it has essentially no foliation, characteristics that together
1ndicate m s1tu formation. A th1n vein of anatect1c melt has
1ntruded the paleosome JUSt below the patch of in sttu
neosome. The preservat1on of pre-anatectic structures and
the dom1nance of paleosome 1ndicate th1s to be a meta-
texlte m1gmatite. Furthermore. the form of the neosome
means that the descnpt1ve term "patch" could be applied
also. The ve1ns become more abundant, and the patches
larger. in the dwection of 1ncreas1ng metamorphic grade.

Locat1on : Opatica Subprovince, Quebec, Canada. Rock type:

patch metatexite migmatite: tonal1te gneiss protolith, par-
tial melting at conditions of the upper amphibolite facies,
T ca. 750°C, P 5- 7 kbar. Scale: the ruler is 15 em long.
Image: E.W. Sawyer.
Atlas of Migmatites

F1gure DS

Fig. 05. Part1al meltmg 1n these peht1c m1gmatites Location: L1nwood Lake area 50 m from the western con-
occurred as the rocks were undergo1ng m1nor extens1on tact of the Duluth Igneous Complex, Mmnesota, U.S.A.
parallel to the layenng. Th1s migmatite IS from JUSt 1ns1de Rock type: metatexite m1gmat1te; pelite and semipellte pro-
the "melt-1n" 1sograd in the contact aureole of the Duluth tolith, anatexis at T 700-750°C, P 2 kbar: Scale: the scale is
Igneous Complex (DIC) and, therefore, shows a m1gmatite 15 em long. Image: E.W. Sawyer.
formed 1n a sett1ng of very low degree of partial melting.
The anatectic melt generated 1n the rocks has migrated a Further readmg: Holness, M. & Clemens, J.D. (1999): Partial
few millimeters from the grain boundaries where it formed melting ofthe Appin quartzite driven by fracture-controlled
into small extensional shear zones nearby, and created the H 20 infiltration in the aureole of the Ballachulish Igneous
network of millimeter-wide bands of leucosome. At the Complex, Scottish Highlands. Contnbuuons to Mmeralogy
microscopic scale, the bands have diffuse margins suggestive and Petrology 136, 154-168.
of local segregation of the melt, rather than the inJection
of anatectic melt into fractures, and a granular microstruc-
ture. which may be the result of rap1d cooling 1n the contact
aureole. Because the bedding, a structure that ex1sted
before anatex1s, 1s preserved 1n a coherent manner, th1s 1s
a metatexite migmat1te. The arrangement of the doma1ns
of leucosome, albeit very thin, in this migmat1te has created
a net-like pattern, and such morphology 1s very common
1n metatex1te migmatites; th1s could also be descnbed as
a net-structured metatexite migmat1te. The fine gra1n-s1ze
of this migmatite is characteristic of migmatites developed
from low-grade metasedimentary protoliths in shallow
contact-metamorphic aureoles (see also Fig. D6).

Figure 6


: t.
-m .
,z -
::! ·
" 3: .
- m.
. ;n
m ~
- CJ)

Fig. 06. This migmat1te records the early stages of par- The neosome appears to be located 1n shears developed
tial melt1ng in a metasedimentary enclave w1th1n the Kuna on both the long and short limbs of asymmetncal crenula-
Crest Granodiorite 1n the western part of the Tuolumne tion folds prom~nent 1n the center of the photograph. Thus,
Complex, Yosem1te National Park, California. The metased- they are oriented approximately parallel to the axial sur-
imentary protolith consisted of interlayered S1lioclast1c faces of the folds.
rocks ranging in composition from pelite to quartzite, but
Location: May Lake area, Tuolumne Complex, Yosemite
psammite predominates. The metasedimentary rocks were
Park, U.S.A. Rock type: metatexite migmatite; metapsam-
intruded by numerous thin granitic dikes, probably from the
mite protolith containing felsic veins. Scale: the ruler is
nearby El Capitan granite, some IS Ma before they were
IS em long. Image : E.W. Sawyer.
incorporated into the younger Kuna Crest Granodiorite as
an enclave and experienced minor partial melting. The pho-
tograph IS dominated by paleosome that consists of grey,
quartzofeldspathic metapsamm1tic schist that contains lay-
ers of pale buff quartzite 1- 2 em th1ck. Both are cut by th1n,
sl1ghtly discordant gran1tic (G) layers that have th1n biotite-
nch mafic selvedges. The ev1dence for part1al melt1ng 1n the
enclave is the local presence of 1nconsp1cuous, th1n, diffuse
bodies of pale grey neosome (N) that have not segregated
into leucosome and melanosome parts. The neosome has
a slightly coarser grain-size than the grey metapsammite
paleosome, and this may account for its slightly lighter color.
A tla s o f Migma tites

Figure D7

~ 15
V294 7 •I

Fig. 07. Th1s photograph shows the first m1gmat1tes that 1n th1s migmatite appear to have formed m sttu. The dif-
appear 1n an Archean prograde metamorphic sequence ferences 1n 1nternal structure between adJacent patches of
that runs from greensch1st through amph1bohte to the neosome must represent local d1fferences 1n the degree to
granulite fac1es. The neosome occurs as patches that are wh1ch the melt and res1duum were able to separate.
much coarser gra1ned and more heterogeneous than the
surrounding paleosome, a composit ionally layered plagio- Location: Abitib1 Subprovince, south of Chibougamau.
clase hornblende metamafic rock. The preservation of Quebec, Canada. Rock type: patch metat exite migmat1te;
compositional layenng that predates anatexis indicates that metamafic protolith, partial melt 1ng at condit ions close
this is a metatexite migmatite. The patches of neosome to t he transition from t he amphibolit e t o granulite facies,
consist of a plagioclase + quartz leucocratic port1on and a T 800- 850°C. P 8- 10 kbar. Scale: t he ruler is IS em long.
clinopyroxene + hornblende + garnet melanocratic part. Image: E.W . Sawyer.

Clinopyroxene generally forms the largest crystals. and

1n many cases. 1t conta1ns inclusions of hornblende. Thus,
the melt1ng react1on may have been s1milar to hornblende
+ plagioclase + quartz garnet + clinopyroxene + melt.
The largest patch of neosome has a uniform d1stnbut1on of
leucocratiC and melanocratic constituents. and 1t has a dif-
fuse border. However. the patch of neosome 1n the lower
right has a very narrow, out er melanocrat1c nm. and a more
leucocratic core, wh1ch contains large crystals of clinopyrox-
ene. As the bulk geochemical composit ion of t he patches IS
similar to that of t he paleosome, t he patches of neosome
166 - - - - - - - - - -

Fig. 08. The grey paleosome of this m1gmatite IS a planar, discordant leucocrat1c vems that are rich 1n quartz
medium-gra1ned garnet- .and sllllmanite-beanng biotite- and K-feldspar. These veins are Interpreted to be denved
quartz-plagioclase sem1peht1C sch1st. It conta1ns several from a fractionated anatectiC melt that Intruded the mlg-
small, coarse-gra1ned patches of neosome, each a few matite when 1t was close to 1ts solidus temperature.
centimeters across, that contain the m1neral assemblage
Location: Lac Sa1nte-Mane. Central Metasedimentary Belt,
plagioclase + K-feldspar + quart