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Engineering Structures

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/engstruct

strengthened with steel clamps and bolts

Hrvoje Smoljanović, Željana Nikolić ⇑, Nikolina Živaljić

University of Split, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Geodesy, Split, Croatia

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: This paper presents a new robust ﬁnite-discrete element numerical model for analysis and prediction of

Received 16 November 2013 the collapse of dry stone masonry structures strengthened with steel clamps and bolts. The model

Revised 19 December 2014 includes fracture and fragmentation of the blocks as well as a cyclic behaviour, yielding, stiffness

Accepted 5 February 2015

degradation, failure and the inﬂuence of pulling out of the clamps and the bolts from the stone block.

Available online 6 March 2015

The developed model can be used for the estimation of the seismic resistance of historical dry stone

masonry structures reinforced with steel clamps and steel bolts, which is very important for the

Keywords:

structures classiﬁed as cultural heritage.

Dry stone masonry structures

Steel clamps

Ó 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Steel bolts

Finite-discrete element method

Incremental dynamic analysis

recognizing new contacts. To overcome this limitation some ﬁnite

A large part of cultural heritage all over the world are historical element formulations with large displacements [13,14] and con-

structures built as dry stone masonry. However, some of them tact detection have been developed [15].

which were originally built with mortar joints have experienced It is noted that other attractive tools for modelling of dry stone

a signiﬁcant loss of mortar during time and the behavior of these masonry structures are based on a discrete element method [16–

structures becomes similar to those made of dry stone masonry. 23]. The common idea in different applications of the discrete ele-

Most of these structures have been damaged due to seismic activ- ment method to masonry structures is the idealization of the mate-

ity [1]. With the aim of increasing their resistance, many of dry rial as a discontinuum where joints are modelled as contact

stone historical structures were further strengthened by steel surfaces between different blocks. This approach is suitable for

clamps and bolts. modelling different types of non-linear behaviour including large

In order to evaluate the resistance of these structures and to be displacements and rotation with complete detachment of blocks.

able to preserve the cultural heritage it is necessary to develop a In recent times an increasing number of models attempted to

numerical model which could take into account all the effects combine the advantages of ﬁnite and discrete element methods

occurring in dry stone masonry structures including the fragmen- [24–28]. The most advanced and most often used numerical meth-

tation of the blocks and non-linear behaviour of steel clamps and ods which combine the advantages of the ﬁnite and discrete ele-

bolts during dynamic loading. ment method are Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA)

The most commonly used numerical tool for the analysis of [29] and Combined Finite-Discrete Element Method (FEM/DEM)

masonry structures is the ﬁnite element method where the mate- [30–32]. These methods are designed to handle contact situations

rial is regarded as a ﬁctitious homogeneous orthotropic continuum in which transition from continua to discontinua can appear. DDA

[2–6]. These models encounter a signiﬁcant limitation to simulate is more suitable for static problems, while FEM/DEM is more suit-

strong discontinuities between different blocks of the masonry. For able for problems involving transient dynamics until the state of

overcoming these limitations joint interface elements were devel- rest or steady state is achieved.

oped to model the discontinuities [7–12]. Most of these models Within the framework of the FEM/DEM method the blocks are

cannot take into account the mutual mechanical interaction, ﬁnite discretized by constant strain triangular ﬁnite elements. Material

non-linearity, including fracture and fragmentation of discrete ele-

ments as well as cyclic behaviour during dynamic load [33], is con-

⇑ Corresponding author.

sidered through contact elements which are implemented within a

E-mail address: zeljana.nikolic@gradst.hr (Ž. Nikolić).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2015.02.004

0141-0296/Ó 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

118 H. Smoljanović et al. / Engineering Structures 90 (2015) 117–129

ments is considered through the contact interaction algorithm

based on the principle of potential contact forces [36,37] and the

Coulomb-type law for friction [38]. The method uses an explicit

numerical integration of the equation of motion.

The FEM/DEM method was successfully applied in the analysis

of dry stone masonry structures and showed good agreement with

experimental results [39]. This model is capable of predicting the

collapse mechanism of dry stone masonry structures under seismic

loads as well as for determining the safety of the structure with

regard to the occurrence of the collapse load. Due to this reason

the combined ﬁnite-discrete element method is used as a basis

for developing a new numerical model for steel clamps and steel

bolts which is presented in this paper. This model can be useful

in making the right decisions regarding the restoration of dry stone

masonry structures which have experienced deterioration over

time. It can be important because the most part of these structures

are classiﬁed as cultural heritage.

Fig. 2. Steel clamps and bolts.

strengthened with two types of steel clamps (Fig. 1). Steel clamps

model for steel clamps and bolts has been implemented into a

of type I (Fig. 1a) are inserted on the lateral surface of the structure

Y2D computer program which will be presented below.

into the previously made holes that are subsequently backﬁlled.

Schematic presentations of steel clamps type I and II and steel

These types of clamps are most commonly used in strengthening

bolts modelled in this paper are shown in Fig. 2.

of dry stone walls. Considering the dynamic response of structure

in plane, extracting of this type of clamps from stone block cannot

occur. Steel clamps of type II (Fig. 1b) are inserted on the top side of 3. Discretization of a dry stone structure with steel clamps and

stone blocks into the previously made holes. They are often used in bolts

the construction of dry stone arches. Unlike clamps type I, in the

case of dynamic response of structures in the plane, clamps type In this numerical model each stone block is modelled as a dis-

II can extract from the previously made holes due to the relative crete element which is discretized by constant triangular ﬁnite ele-

displacements of the stone blocks. In that case, clamps type II lose ments. Contact interaction between stone blocks is considered

its carrying purpose which is necessary to take into account in through the contact interaction algorithm based on the principle

numerical modelling. Both types of steel clamps have only tension of potential contact forces [36,37] which include the Coulomb-type

bearing capacity. The steel bolts are most commonly used when law for friction [38]. Material non-linearity, fracture and fragmen-

connecting the capitals and columns or capitals and upper beams tation are considered through the contact elements which are

(Fig. 1c) and they dominantly have shear bearing capacity. implemented within the ﬁnite element mesh of each block.

Due to the presence of many parameters which affect on beha- The steel clamps type I and II and steel bolts were modelled

viour of clamps and bolts in dry stone masonry structures such as with one-dimensional elements which can be placed in arbitrary

the elastic properties of stone and steel, the width and depth of the positions inside the stone ﬁnite elements.

hole into which the clamps and bolts are inserted, elastic proper- Discretization of dry stone masonry structure with embedded

ties of inﬁll material, geometry of clamps and bolts, etc., it is very steel clamps types I and II and bolts is shown in Fig. 3.

difﬁcult to develop numerical model which can take into account

all types of failure mechanisms and especially the inﬂuence of local 4. Material model of the stone block

interaction between the bolt or clamp on one side and masonry

block on another. The most important features that characterize the non-linear

In order to be able to analyse such dry stone masonry structures behaviour of dry stone masonry structures due to seismic activity

by the ﬁnite-discrete element method, a new robust numerical are mutually sliding of blocks along contact surfaces, the rotation

Fig. 1. Steel clamps and bolts: (a) steel clamp inserted on the lateral face of the structure; (b) steel clamp inserted on the top side of stone blocks; (c) steel bolts [40].

H. Smoljanović et al. / Engineering Structures 90 (2015) 117–129 119

Fig. 3. Discretization of dry stone structure with steel clamps and bolts.

tion between the blocks, the presence of asperities in contact sur-

face of stone blocks which exert inﬂuence on the normal and

tangential stiffness of the structure, etc. Material nonlinearity

accompanied with fracture and fragmentation of stone blocks is

not so present in dry stone masonry [39,41], however it became

noticeable in the case of large compressive stress, or in the case

of the progressive collapse of the structure.

Due to the previously mentioned facts, in the model presented

in this paper the behaviour of a constant triangular ﬁnite element

is linear viscoelastic in compression and tension. The relation

between stress and strain is given by Hooke’s law according to:

Fig. 4. Strain softening curve deﬁned in terms of separations.

E ^ E ^

T¼ Ed þ Es þ l

D ð1Þ

1þt 1 2t

where T is the Cauchy stress tensor, E is the modulus of elasticity, t implementation, it is enforced through the penalty function

^ ^

is Poisson ratio, Ed is the shape changing part and Es is the volume method [36].

changing part of Green-St. Venant strain tensor, l is the damping For separation d 6 dt the bonding stress is given by:

" 2 #

coefﬁcient and D is the rate of the deformation tensor [30]. The last

2d d

term in Eq. (1) presents the energy dissipation due to the propaga- r¼ ft ð2Þ

dt dt

tion of elastic waves occurred by contact interaction of two adjacent

blocks. where dt = 2hft/p0 is the separation corresponding to the bonding

The presented numerical material model in ﬁnite element can stress being equal to the tensile strength ft, h is the size of particular

be additionally improved by introducing the diffuse dissipative element (average length of side of triangle) and p0 is penalty term.

mechanisms (micro-cracks) accompanied by strain hardening in In that way the separation of adjacent elements before reaching the

pre-peak fracture process [42–44] which would be interesting for tensile strength is normalized by the element size.

analyses of dry stone masonry structures under high compressive After reaching tensile strength ft stress decreases with an

loads. increasing separation d and at d = dc bonding stress tends to zero.

Material nonlinearity in post-peak fracture process including In literature this phenomenon is known as the strain softening.

fracture and fragmentation are realized by a combined single and The stress–crack opening curve which describes the strain soften-

a smeared crack model in contact elements [34]. ing behaviour of the stone at the fracture process zone after peak,

The cracks are assumed to coincide with the ﬁnite element depends primarily on the type of stone and its structure, which is

edges, which are achieved in advance through the topology of adja- characterized with the shape, size and orientation of minerals in it.

cent elements being described by different nodes. The separation The curve used in presented numerical model represents an

of these edges induces a bonding stress which is taken to be a func- approximation of the experimental stress–separation curves on

tion of the size of separation d (Fig. 4). The area under stress– concrete specimens [45], however, it proved to be in good correla-

separation curve represents the energy release rate Gf = 2c, where tion with experimental results describing fracture process in other

c is the surface energy, i.e. the energy needed to extend the crack quasi-brittle materials that have a disordered internal structure

surface by unit area. like brick [46] and stone [39]. For separation dt < d < dc the bonding

In theory the separation, d = dt = 0 coincides with the bonding stress is given by:

stress being equal to the tensile strength ft, i.e., no separation

occurs before the tensile strength is reached. In the actual r ¼ yft ð3Þ

120 H. Smoljanović et al. / Engineering Structures 90 (2015) 117–129

where y is a heuristic scaling function representing an approxima- expected place, or by improving presented numerical model by

tion of the experimental stress–separation curves taken according introducing embedded discontinuity [42–44] which is proved to

to Hordijk [45] provide a mesh-invariant response.

5. Numerical model of steel clamps

where c1 = 3 and c2 = 6.93, while the damage parameter D(d) is

determined according to the following expression: 5.1. Steel material model

ðd dt Þ=ðdc dt Þ; if dt < d < dc ; The stress–strain relationship for a monotonically increasing

DðdÞ ¼ ð5Þ

1; if d > dc loading in steel is shown in Fig. 5a. The hysteresis behaviour of a

steel is enforced through Kato’s stress–strain model [48] shown

As an alternative to the described curve, one can use the curve

in Fig. 5b. From the given strain, stress is calculated by the follow-

proposed by Hillerborg et al. [47].

ing expressions:

The edges of two adjacent elements are held together by shear

stress calculated by using the penalty function method [36]. After

(1) during unloading (Fig. 5b, curve (1)):

reaching shear strength fs, which coincides with sliding t = ts, the

stress decreases with an increasing sliding t and at t = tc shear rsc ¼ f y Es ðesh esc Þ ð8Þ

stress tends to zero. For sliding ts < |t| < tc shear stress is given by:

where Es is Young’s Modulus of steel.

s ¼ ð1 DðtÞÞf s ð6Þ (2) during negative loading (Fig. 5b, curve (2)):

" ,( ! )#

where D(t) is the damage parameter given by: EB

rsc ¼ f y a faða 1Þg ðesc esh þ ey Þ þ a 1

fy

ðt ts Þ=ðtc ts Þ; if t s < t < t c ;

DðtÞ ¼ ð7Þ

1; if t > t c ; ð9Þ

In presented numerical model crack pattern is pre-determined where EB ¼ ðEs =6Þ log 10ðesh ey Þ, a ¼ Es =ðEs EB Þ;

with ﬁnite element mesh. In cases when the cracking of stone (3) during reloading–unloading (Fig. 5b, curve (3)):

blocks are expecting, this problem can be avoid using relatively

rsc ¼ rpm þ Es ðesc epm Þ ð10Þ

small meshes and consequently moderate CPU power [35], adopt-

ing large ﬁnite element mesh which can provide cracks on where rpm is the minimum value of rsc in its loading history;

(a) (b)

Fig. 5. Stress–strain model of steel: (a) monotonic loading; (b) cyclic loading (Kato).

H. Smoljanović et al. / Engineering Structures 90 (2015) 117–129 121

(4) during reloading (Fig. 5b, curve (4)): Coordinates of point P1 in current conﬁguration can be obtained in

" ,( ! )# similar way.

EB

rsc ¼ f y þ rpm þ f y a faða 1Þg ðey esc þ epm Þ þ a 1 Strain of steel clamp is given by

fy

ð11Þ lc li

esc ¼ ð14Þ

li

5.2. Steel clamps type I where lc and li are lengths of a steel clamp in current and initial con-

ﬁgurations respectively.

The steel clamp type I was deﬁned by its ﬁrst P0 and end P1 The force in steel clamp (Fig. 7a) is given by

points (Fig. 6). The strain of a steel clamp in any time step can be

obtained from coordinates of these points in current conﬁguration. jf 0sc j ¼ jf 1sc j ¼ Asc rsc ð15Þ

Coordinates of point P0 in current conﬁguration are obtained

according to where Asc is the cross-sectional area and rsc is the stress of the steel

clamp obtained from the steel material model. Forces f0sc and f1sc

x0c ¼ a0 þ a1 x0i þ a2 y0i acting in points P0 and P1 are distributed into the nodes of the par-

ð12Þ

y0c ¼ b0 þ b1 x0i þ b2 y0i ent stone triangular ﬁnite element in the form of equivalent nodal

forces (Fig. 7b).

where x0i i y0i are coordinates of point P0 in initial conﬁguration.

Unknown coefﬁcients ai, bi i = 0, 1, 2 can be obtained from the

5.3. Steel clamps type II

known coordinates of a parent triangular ﬁnite element in current

conﬁguration which leads to

The steel clamp type II was deﬁned by its ﬁrst point P0, the end

xic ðxji yki xki yji Þ þ xii ðxkc yji xjc yki Þ þ yii ðxjc xki xji xkc Þ point P1 and the anchorage length lk (Fig. 8). The intersection

a0 ¼

xii ðyji yki Þ þ xji ðyki yii Þ þ xki ðyii yji Þ between the blocks edges and line segment P0 P1 gives the referents

xic ðyji yki Þ þ xjc ðyki yii Þ þ xkc ðyii yji Þ points R0 and R1 (Fig. 8).

a1 ¼ The coordinates of points P0, P1, R0 and R1 in the current con-

xii ðyji yki Þ þ xji ðyki yii Þ þ xki ðyii yji Þ

ﬁguration are obtained in a similar way as it was shown in the

xic ðxji xki Þ þ xii ðxkc xjc Þ þ xjc xki xji xkc model of steel clamps type I. The strain of steel clamps is given

a2 ¼

xii ðyji yki Þ þ xji ðyki yii Þ þ xki ðyii yji Þ by (14) where lc and li are the lengths of the steel clamp type II

ð13Þ

yic ðxji yki xki yji Þ þ xii ðykc yji yjc yki Þ þ yii ðyjc xki xji ykc Þ in current and initial conﬁgurations respectively (Fig. 8). The stress

b0 ¼ in the steel clamp type II rsc is obtained from the stress–strain rela-

xii ðyji yki Þ þ xji ðyki yii Þ þ xki ðyii yji Þ

tion deﬁned by the steel material model.

yic ðyji yki Þ þ yjc ðyki yii Þ þ ykc ðyii yji Þ

b1 ¼ The inﬂuence of tangential separation p is approximately taken

xii ðyji yki Þ þ xji ðyki yii Þ þ xki ðyii yji Þ

into account through a reduction of stress r0sc given by

yic ðxji xki Þ þ xii ðykc yjc Þ þ yjc xki xji ykc

b2 ¼

xii ðyji yki Þ þ xji ðyki yii Þ þ xki ðyii yji Þ

r0sc ¼ zrsc ð16Þ

(a) (b)

Fig. 7. Steel clamp type I forces: (a) force in steel clamp; (b) equivalent nodal forces.

122 H. Smoljanović et al. / Engineering Structures 90 (2015) 117–129

when there is no shear separation while it is equal to zero when the

shear separation is equal to lk. For shear separation 0 < p < lk the

scaling function depends on the elastic properties of stone and a

steel clamp, the width of the hole in which the steel clamp is

embedded, the elastic properties of the inﬁll material, the cross sec-

tion area of the clamp, etc. In this numerical model the scaling func-

tion is assumed as [49]

ea D

z ¼ 1:0 ð17Þ Fig. 11. Stress ﬁeld in clamp and in stone around the clamp.

1:0 þ ðea 1:0ÞD

where variable D = D(p) is determined according to following

load compressive in stone linearly decreases to a depth of three

expression

8 thicknesses (Fig. 11) of clamp, local crushing of stone would not

< 0:0

> for p ¼ 0:0; appear if it is

DðpÞ ¼ 1:0 for p P lk ; ð18Þ

>

: f u hb 6 3hbð3:3f c Þ=2 ð20Þ

p=lk other;

which leads to

The shape of function z for different values of shape parameter a is

shown Fig. 9. f c P 0:2f u ð21Þ

In absence of experimental results the shape parameter a = ac

where b is width and h is the thickness of clamp.

for steel clamps can be initially set to zero which leads to a linearly

Adopting the value of tensile strength of steel fu being equal

decreasing function. If experimental results exist, parameter ac can

500 MPa, the compressive strength of stone should be higher than

be chosen to best ﬁt experimental data.

100 MPa in order to avoid local crushing of stone. Taking into

The force in a steel clamp (Fig. 10a) is given by

account that the average compressive strength of stone ranges

jf 0sc j ¼ jf 1sc j ¼ Asc r0sc ð19Þ between 80 MPa and 250 MPa [51] and that clamps are usually

made of copper with tensile strength signiﬁcantly smaller then

Forces f0sc and f1sc acting in points P0 and P1 are distributed into the

500 MPa, it can be concluded that adopted assumption is justiﬁed.

nodes of the parent stone triangular ﬁnite element in the form of

Due to these reasons, it is expected that local nonlinearities which

equivalent nodal forces (Fig. 10b).

can appear around clamp have no signiﬁcant inﬂuence on the glob-

In actual implementation it was assumed that local crushing of

al dynamic behaviour of the structure.

stone around clamp type I and II would not appear. Taking into

account that the local compressive strength of stone is 3.3 times

5.4. Behaviour of clamps type II under monotonic loading

higher than the global compressive strength fc [50] and assuming

that in the case of local crushing of stone around the clamp the

The model described above has been implemented in the Y2D

code which is based on the combined ﬁnite-discrete element

method [31,52].

The behaviour of clamps type II under monotonic loading was

performed on two rigid triangles connected with a steel clamp

(Fig. 12). The material characteristics of the steel clamp are shown

in Table 1.

The monotonically increasing load was performed in terms of

constant velocity vx and vy in point B. Velocity vx was equal

vx = 0.2 m/s while velocity vy was varied with values of 0.0 m/s,

0.2 m/s, 0.3 m/s and 0.4 m/s.

The stress–strain relation in a steel clamp for all cases of loading

is shown in Fig. 12. It can be seen that for velocities vy different

from zero, the reduction in stress occurs due to the extracting of

Fig. 9. Reduction factor for different values of shape parameter a. the steel clamp from the stone block. Extracting of the steel clamp

(a) (b)

Fig. 10. Steel clamp type II forces: (a) force in steel clamp; (b) equivalent nodal forces.

H. Smoljanović et al. / Engineering Structures 90 (2015) 117–129 123

Fig. 12. Stress–strain relation in steel clamps for different cases of loading.

Table 1

Material characteristics of steel.

Modulus of elasticity Yield stress Ultimate stress Cross section area Strain (end of yield) Ultimate strain Break strain

Es (MPa) fy (MPa) fu (MPa) As (m2) esh eu ebr

183,000 446 640 0.05 0.005 0.100 0.120

from the block increases with the increase of the velocity vy, which Tangential separation s induces shear stress ssb in the steel bolt

leads to the additional reduction of the stress in the steel clamp. and at separation s = spb the shear stress reach its maximum fsu

(Fig. 14a). With increasing tangential separation s > spb shear stress

decreases and at separation s > stb it drops to zero and the bolt is

6. Numerical model of steel bolts assumed to be broken.

Values of fsu, spb, stb and shape of functions, which deﬁne the

The steel bolt was deﬁned by its ﬁrst point P0 and the end point relation between shear separation and shear stress, depends on

P1. The intersection between the blocks edges and line segment elastic properties of stone and a steel bolt, the width of the hole

P0 P1 gives the referents points R0 and R1 (Fig. 13). The coordinates in which the steel bolt is embedded, the elastic properties of the

of points P0, P1, R0 and R1 in current conﬁguration are obtained in a inﬁll material, the cross section area of the bolt, etc., and need to

similar way as it was shown in model of the steel clamps type I. be determined experimentally for each particular case.

(a) (b)

Fig. 14. Material model in the steel bolt: (a) shear stresses versus shear separation; (b) cyclic behaviour.

124 H. Smoljanović et al. / Engineering Structures 90 (2015) 117–129

8

The maximum value of shear stress fsu in steel bolt is limited < 2 jsj jsj 2 f z for jsj 6 s ;

spb spb su pb

with shear strength of bolt material fsb which can be written as ssb ¼ ð29Þ

:

zfsu for jsj 6 spb ;

f su 6 f sb ð22Þ

The inﬂuence of normal separation o is approximately taken

and with shear stress in bolt which cause local crushing of stone into account through a reduction of stress s0sb given by

around the bolt. The shear strength of steel fsb can be determined

from the tensile strength fu by applying the Von Mises yield criteri- s0sb ¼ zssb ð30Þ

on which leads to where z is the scaling function. The scaling function is equal to one

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ when there is no normal separation while it is equal to zero when

f sb ¼ 1=3f u ð23Þ

the normal separation is equal to l/2 where l is the steel bolt length.

Taking into account that the local compressive strength of stone For normal separation 0 < o < l/2 the scaling function depends of

is 3.3 times higher than the global compressive strength fc [50] and elastic properties of stone and a steel bolt, the width of the hole

assuming that in the case of local crushing of stone around the bolt in which the steel bolt is embedded, the elastic properties of the

the compressive stress in bolt linearly decreases to a depth of three inﬁll material, the cross section area of the bolt, etc. In this numer-

diameters of bolt, it can be written ical model the scaling function is assumed according to relation (17)

2 where the variable D = D(o) is determined according to following

d p 2 expression

f su 6 3d ð3:3f c Þ=2 ð24Þ

4

D ¼ DðoÞ ¼ 2o=l ð31Þ

which leads to

Cyclic behaviour of bolt (Fig. 13b) is assumed as

f su 6 6:3f c ð25Þ

Dðstb spb Þ þ spb

where d is diameter of bolt. z ¼ zðDmax Þ ð32Þ

Dmax ðstb spb Þ þ spb

In actual implementation for separation 0 6 |s| < spb shear stress

is given by where Dmax is the maximum value of D(s) in its loading history.

2 ! Shear force in the steel bolt (Fig. 15a) is given by

s s

ssb ¼ 2 f su ð26Þ jf 0sb j ¼ jf 1sb j ¼ Asb ssb ð33Þ

spb spb

where Asb is cross-section area of the bolt.

where value of spb is treated as input parameter. For separation spb -

Forces f0sb and f1sb which are assumed to act in the centre of the

6 |s| < stb shear stress is assumed as

bolt anchored in the stone block, are distributed into the nodes of

ssb ¼ zfsu ð27Þ the parent stone triangular ﬁnite element in the form of equivalent

nodal forces (Fig. 15b).

where z is the scaling function deﬁned with (17) where

8

< 0:0

> for jsj < spb ; 6.1. Behaviour of bolts under monotonic loading

D ¼ DðsÞ ¼ 1:0 for s P stb ; ð28Þ

>

: The model described above has been implemented in the Y2D

ðjsj spb Þ=ðstb spb Þ other;

code which is based on the combined ﬁnite-discrete element

The value of the shape parameter a = abs needs to be chosen to method [31,52].

best ﬁt experimental data. In the absence of experimental data it The behaviour of the model of bolts under monotonic loading

can be set to initial value abs = 0 (Fig. 9). However, collapse of the was performed on two rigid triangles connected with steel bolt

stone masonry structures usually occurs due to the loss of the glob- (Fig. 16). The parameters applied in the numerical analysis are

al stability and this parameter has no inﬂuence on the global struc- shown in Table 2.

tural behaviour. If the collapse of the structure caused by the The monotonically increasing load was performed in terms of

breaking of the bolts, parameter abs has only inﬂuence on the shape constant velocity v = 0.2 m/s in point B. Initial normal separation

of the load–displacement curve in softening phase, but not to the o in numerical analysis was varied with values of 0.0 m, 0.05 m

value of collapse load. and 0.075 m.

The complete relationship for the shear stress as the function of Shear stress–shear separation relations in steel bolts for differ-

shear separation can be written as ent initial normal separation are shown in Fig. 16. It can be seen

(a) (b)

Fig. 15. Steel bolt: (a) force in steel bolt; (b) equivalent nodal forces.

H. Smoljanović et al. / Engineering Structures 90 (2015) 117–129 125

Fig. 16. Shear stress–shear separation relations in steel bolt for different initial normal separation o.

Table 2 granite columns with Dorian capitals are located at the entrance

Numerical parameter of steel bolt.

of the Prothyron. The capitals support the broad gable with an arch

Diameter Tangential Ultimate tangential Break tangential in the middle. The structure was originally built of dry stone blocks

strength separation separation with steel bolts embedded between columns, capitals and the

D (mm) ftb (MPa) spb (mm) stb (mm)

upper beams. Along the upper edge of broad gable the structure

50 369.5 0.05 3.00 was supported by wooden beams in direction perpendicular to

the plane of the structure, which makes it suitable for analysis with

2D numerical models. Throughout history deformations of the

stone blocks which constitute the broad gable have occurred with

that increasing the initial normal separation, the reduction in shear

the movement of the central columns. Due to the movement of the

stresses also increases.

blocks, restoration of the structure was performed using copper

clamps during the period of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

7. Numerical application In order to evaluate the dynamic response of the structure, the

incremental dynamic analysis of the original geometry of the

7.1. Seismic analysis of the Prothyron in Split – Croatia structure before the restoration was applied. The analyses were

performed for three cases: (a) structure without steel bolts and

The following example shows the application of the developed copper clamps, (b) structure with steel bolts embedded between

model (FEM/DEM method) for the simulation of the dynamic columns, capitals and the upper beams (original structure before

response of the structure of the Prothyron in Split (Fig. 17) to seis- restoration), (c) structure with steel bolts and copper clamps

mic load. (structure after restoration).

The Prothyron is located on the south side of the Peristyle (the For all three cases the structure was exposed to horizontal and

square in front of the Cathedral of St. Domnius). Four massive vertical ground acceleration (Fig. 18) which was recorded on

15.4.1979 in Dubrovnik on rock soil during an earthquake with

the epicentre in Petrovac (Montenegro). The accelelogram was

ﬁrstly scaled on peak ground acceleration ag = 0.22 g which is valid

for Split. After that the acceleration was gradually increased to the

collapse of the structure.

Figs. 19 and 20 respectively show the geometry and discretiza-

tion of structure.

Young’s Modulus of clamps and stones and tensile strength of

clamps used in the numerical analysis are taken from the literature

[53] and shown in Table 3. Bolts were made of steel with known

tensile strength. Shear strength of steel was obtained from steel

tensile strength fst by applying the Von Mises yield criterion given

by (23) and it was adopted as 239 MPa. Assuming the value of

compression strength of stone being equal 100 MPa, shear stress

in bolt which leads to the crushing of the stone can be obtained

Fig. 17. The Prothyron entrance at the Peristyle in Split. according to (25) and is equal 630 MPa. Since the shear strength

0.8 0.8

0.6 0.6

2

2

acceleration / m/s

acceleration / m/s

0.4 0.4

0.2 0.2

0.0 0.0

-0.2 0 10 20 30 -0.2 0 10 20 30

-0.4 -0.4

-0.6 -0.6

-0.8 -0.8

time / s time / s

(a) (b)

Fig. 18. Ground acceleration recorded during the Petrovac earthquake (1979. Montenegro): (a) horizontal direction; (b) vertical direction.

126 H. Smoljanović et al. / Engineering Structures 90 (2015) 117–129

Table 4

Material characteristics of stone.

strength strength tension shear

ft (MPa) fs (MPa) Gft (N/m) Gfs (N/m)

10 20 720 1440

ag = 0.22 g showed that the movement of the blocks, i.e. opening

of the joints appeared for a dry stone structure (Fig. 21a) and a

structure with steel bolts (Fig. 21b). For a dry stone structure with

steel bolts and copper clamps (Fig. 21c) there was no opening of

the joints.

Dynamic analysis showed that the collapse of dry stone struc-

ture occurred for the acceleration of ag = 0.45 g (Fig. 22a). For the

same acceleration the structure with steel bolts also sustained total

collapse (Fig. 22b). Dry stone structure with steel bolts and copper

Fig. 20. Finite element mesh of the Prothyron structure.

clamps has experienced the movement of the blocks i.e. opening of

the joints (Fig. 22c).

The collapse mechanism for dry stone structure with steel bolts

of steel is smaller than the shear stress in bolt which leads to and peak ground acceleration of ag = 0.45 g over time is shown in

crushing of the stone, shear strength of steel was adopted as the Fig. 23. It can be seen that the collapse of the structure with steel

shear strength of the bolt. bolts occur due to the spacing of central columns followed by col-

In the performed analyses the damping coefﬁcient was assumed lapse of central arc. It can be concluded that the contribution of

and equal 35 106 which was proven to provide a realistic predic- bolts in terms of increasing seismic resistance is insigniﬁcant and

tion of behaviour in dry stone masonry [39]. The value of sliding that the bolts had only a constructive purpose in the construction

friction was supposed and it was adopted as 0.6. phase.

Material characteristics of stone which were used in numerical The behaviour of the structure with steel bolts and copper

analysis and which values were not available were assumed on the clamps for an acceleration ag = 1.2 g over time is shown in

basis of data from literature [51] and shown in Table 4. Fig. 24. The ﬁgure shows that the broad gable with embedded cop-

per clamps behaves as one body.

Normal stress in the copper clamp C1, shear stress in the steel

bolt B1 and displacement of the top of the structure in time for

Table 3

ag = 1.2 g, are shown in Fig. 25.

Material characteristics of steel and stone [53].

The performed analysis shows that the original structure before

Sample Young’s Modulus Tensile strength its restoration with the copper clamps had low seismic resistance

E (MPa) fst (MPa)

because the signiﬁcant displacement of the central block occurred

Bolt 181,000 414 at a design acceleration ag = 0.22 g. The inﬂuence of embedded

Clamp 65,000 125 copper clamps for seismic resistance of structure is signiﬁcant

Stone 48,400 –

since the collapse of the structure appears for ag = 1.2 g.

H. Smoljanović et al. / Engineering Structures 90 (2015) 117–129 127

Fig. 21. The enlarged central section between the two central columns of Prothyron for acceleration ag = 0.22 g: (a) dry stone structure; (b) dry stone structure with steel bolts

embedded between columns, capitals and the upper beams; (c) dry stone structure with steel bolts and copper clamps.

Fig. 22. The enlarged central section between the two central columns of Prothyron for acceleration ag = 0.45 g: (a) dry stone structure; (b) dry stone structure with steel bolts

embedded between columns, capitals and the upper beams; (c) dry stone structure with steel bolts and copper clamps.

Fig. 23. Collapse mechanism of dry stone structure with steel bolts in time: (a) t = 0.0 s; (b) t = 11.8 s; (c) t = 17.2 s; (d) t = 17.9 s; (e) t = 18.7 s; (f) t = 19.6 s.

128 H. Smoljanović et al. / Engineering Structures 90 (2015) 117–129

Fig. 24. Dry stone structure with steel bolts and copper clamps in time: (a) t = 9.8 s; (b) t = 12.0 s; (c) t = 15.1 s; (d) t = 23.5 s; (e) t = 27.6 s; (f) t = 32.2 s.

1.0

displacement / m

0.5

0.0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

-0.5

-1.0

t /s

(a) (b) (c)

Fig. 25. Response of dry stone structure with steel bolts and copper clamps in time for ag = 1.2 g: (a) normal stress in the copper clamp C1; (b) shear stress in the steel bolt B1;

(c) displacement of the top of the structure.

The purpose of this analysis was to show the possibility of the describe the behaviour of clamps and bolts which are often used

presented model in seismic analyses of historic dry stone masonry in strengthening dry stone masonry structures. These are:

structures. Relevant conclusions for the seismic resistance of this

structure can be carried out on the basis of an analysis for a set an embedded model of steel clamps type I which are inserted on

of seven accelelograms compatible with the soil type [54]. the lateral surface of the structure;

an embedded model of clamps type II which are inserted on the

8. Conclusions top side of stone blocks;

cyclic behaviour, yielding and failure of the steel for clamps

This paper presents a new robust numerical model for analysis type I and II, as well as the inﬂuence of pulling out of the clamps

and prediction of the collapse of dry stone masonry structures type II from the stone block;

strengthened with steel clamps and bolts. The model is based on an embedded model of steel bolts which are inserted on the top

a combined ﬁnite-discrete element method with the possibility side of stone blocks;

of the modelling of contact interaction, energy dissipation during cyclic behaviour, stiffness degradation and failure of the bolt

impact, block deformability, fracture and fragmentation which and the inﬂuence of pulling out the bolt from the stone block.

are important especially in the analyses of structures under high

compressive loads. The developed model can be used for the estimation of the seis-

Several numerical algorithms were developed and implement- mic resistance of historical dry stone masonry structures rein-

ed in a combined ﬁnite-discrete element code to realistically forced with steel clamps and steel bolts, which is very important

H. Smoljanović et al. / Engineering Structures 90 (2015) 117–129 129

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