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Advanced Polymer Encapsulation

Providing Solutions to Challenging


Marine Repair Projects

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FRP Protection Systems

1 I Repairing Marine Structures


2 I Advanced Pile Encapsulation
3 I Case Studies

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LPG Trestle, Ju’Aymah, Saudi Arabia

Trestle
constructed in
1980
Precast concrete
cylinder piles

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LPG Trestle, Ju’Aymah, Saudi Arabia

Routine
inspection in
1983 (3 years
after
construction) 1”
revealed severe
marine borer
attack
616 piles
affected

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LPG Trestle, Ju’Aymah, Saudi Arabia

The owner required that the repair method…


Would eradicate the existing borers
Would repair the damage done by the borers
Would not be susceptible to future borer attack
Would stay in place and continue to provide
protection for 20+ years without any maintenance

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Repairing Marine Structures

Marine Structures
 Submerged Piles
 Submerged Piers
 Seawalls
 Dams / raceways
 Offshore Platform Supports

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The Need for Repair and Protection

Marine Environment
 Highly Corrosive
Environment
 Susceptible to Rot
 Attack from Marine
Organisms
 Damage from Scour and
Abrasion

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Repairs to Marine Structures

Atmospheric Zone Splash Zone


Repair Zones
 Atmospheric Zone
 Splash Zone
 Submerged Zone

Submerged Zone
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Repairs to Marine Structures

Splash Zone
 Wetting & Drying
Cycles
 Available Oxygen
 Heavy Wear &

Splash Zone
Abrasion

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Repairs to Marine Structures

Repair Challenges
 Durability of Materials for Repair / Protection
 Adequate Performance of Materials for Repair /
Protection
 Proper Placement of Materials for Repair / Protection

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Durability

Polyethylene wraps
 Applied with mastic
 Sometimes with corrosion
inhibitors
 Sometimes with mechanical
fasteners

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Durability

Repair system must be


robust enough to
withstand wear and
abrasion in the splash
zone
 This polyethylene wrap
is less than 1-year old!

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Durability

Nylon bags filled


w/ concrete
 Bags are placed
around pile
 Filled with up
to 9” of
additional
concrete

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Durability

Repair must
maintain integrity
over time
 Concrete shrinks
and cracks
 Nylon bag wears
away

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Durability

Repair must
maintain integrity
over time
 Eventually
concrete debonds
and scours away
 Putting the pile
back to its
original
condition

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Performance

Fiberglass jackets
filled with grout
 Fiberglass
jacket
 Cementicious
grout

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Performance

Repair system must


possess adequate
bond
 Cementicious
grouts do not
bond well to the
fiberglass forms
 Also do not bond
well to the pile
 Jackets slip off
of the grout

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Performance

Repair system must


possess adequate
bond
 Or slide off of
the pile

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Performance

Fiberglass jackets
filled with epoxy
 Neat epoxy has a
higher
coefficient of
thermal
expansion than
pile and the
fiberglass
jacket
 Expansion causes
jacket to
rupture

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Performance

Repair material
must remain in
equilibrium with
substrate
 Or split at the
seams

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Performance

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Neat Epoxy Filled Epoxy Concrete Steel
Coefficient of Thermal
Expansion (10-6 / °C)
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Placement

Fiberglass jacket
with epoxy grout
poured from the
top – down
 Epoxy grout
better matches
the CTE

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Placement

Material must be
able to be placed
underwater without
effecting the
integrity of the
repair material
 Placement from
the top – down
leads to
segregation of
the material

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Placement

Material must be
able to be placed
underwater without
effecting the
integrity of the
repair material
 Large voids form
and cannot be
seen behind the
fiberglass form
 The form
ultimately
debonds
revealing the
voids
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Repairs to Marine Structures

Repair Challenges
 Durability of Materials for Repair / Protection
 Adequate Performance of Materials for Repair /
Protection
 Proper Placement of Materials for Repair / Protection

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FRP Protection Systems

1 I Repairing Marine Structures


2 I Advanced Polymer Encapsulation
3 I Case Studies

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The APE Process

Step 1
 Surface preparation
 Remove marine growth
 Clean rust and scale
 Profile substrate

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The APE Process

Step 1
 Sandblasting
 Pneumatic Rotary Grinder

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The APE Process

Step 2
Translucent
 Fiberglass Jackets Fiberglass
Placed Around Jackets
Structure
 Leaving 3/8” to
1/2” Annulus between
Jacket and Structure
 Seams are sealed with
epoxy

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Purpose Designed FRP Jackets

Step 2
 Appropriately sized FRP
Jackets Delivered to Site
 Polymer Stand-offs
 Seam adhesive applied on
deck

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Purpose Designed FRP Jackets

Step 2
 Jackets set in place
around pile

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The APE Process

Step 3
Temporary Bracing
 Seams are riveted in
place
 Temporary bracing is
installed
 Bottom of Jacket is
sealed w/ epoxy coated
backer rod

Epoxy Seal
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APE Purpose Designed FRP Jackets

Step 3
 Temporary bracing installed

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The APE Process

Step 4
Each component of
a two-
two-component
marine grade A B
epoxy is mixed
with sand

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Epoxy Grout Infill Properly Placed

Step 4
 Plural component grout
plant
 Part A & Part B mixed
with sand in each
hopper

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The APE Process

Step 5
 Grout plant is
attached to injection A B
port in fiberglass
jacket
 Dual-umbilical hose
w/ static mixer at
injection site

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Epoxy Grout Infill Properly Placed

Step 5
 Downstream mixer

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Epoxy Grout Infill Properly Placed

Step 5
 Fluid sand-filled epoxy
grout is dispensed out of
the mixer

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The APE Process

Step 6
 Epoxy grout is pumped
into annulus A B
 Water in the annulus
is displaced and
expunged out of the
top of the jacket

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Epoxy Grout Infill Properly Placed

Step 6
Grout is pumped
into the annulus
Water is displaced
above grout
Grout progress is
monitored

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Epoxy Grout Infill Properly Placed

Step 6
Water is expunged
out of the top of
the jacket

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The APE Process

Step 7
Top of jacket is Seal top of jacket
sealed with epoxy
Bracing is
removed

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The APE Process

Encapsulation is
complete!

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Complete Encapsulation

FRP Jacket
Epoxy Grout Infill
Complete Coverage
of Grout
Well Bonded to the
Pile

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Complete Encapsulation

Epoxy Grout is
pumped under
pressure
Grout penetrates
into cracks and
voids in the
substrate

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FRP Protection Systems

1 I Repairing Marine Structures


2 I Advanced Polymer Encapsulation
3 I Case Studies

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Lake Pontchartrain Causeway,
New Orleans, Louisiana

Pile Encapsulation
 Started in 1988 –
still ongoing
 26 mile long bridge
 54” diameter
concrete cylinder
piles

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Lake Pontchartrain Causeway,
New Orleans, Louisiana

Pile Encapsulation
 Encapsulations soon
after completion in
1989

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Lake Pontchartrain Causeway,
New Orleans, Louisiana

Pile Encapsulation
 Encapsulations in
2002

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Lake Pontchartrain Causeway,
New Orleans, Louisiana

Coring 13-
13-year old
encapsulations

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Lake Pontchartrain Causeway,
New Orleans, Louisiana

Core sample

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Lake Pontchartrain Causeway,
New Orleans, Louisiana

Bond testing 13-


13-
year old
encapsulations

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Rappahannock River Bridge, Tappahannock,
Virginia

1993
RC Piers Showing
Corrosion and
Spalling
Encapsulations all
Above Water

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Rappahannock River Bridge, Tappahannock,
Virginia

1993
RC Piers Showing
Corrosion and
Spalling
Encapsulations all
Above Water

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Rappahannock River Bridge, Tappahannock,
Virginia

Jackets placed
over spalled areas
No patching was
done

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Rappahannock River Bridge, Tappahannock,
Virginia

Completed
Encapsulation

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BG&E Facility, Baltimore, Maryland

Badly deteriorated
H-Piles

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BG&E Facility, Baltimore, Maryland

Encapsulate 44
“H” Piles
Completed in 1993

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BG&E Facility, Baltimore, Maryland

Corroded steel
section replaced
with new
structural steel
Steel channels
bolted and spliced
onto existing
piles

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BG&E Facility, Baltimore, Maryland

Jackets sized to
H-Pile Profile

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BG&E Facility, Baltimore, Maryland

Encapsulations in
place

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Warren Road Bridge,
Baltimore, Maryland

Deteriorated piers
 Large concrete pier

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Warren Road Bridge,
Baltimore, Maryland

Pier Encapsulation:
 Large concrete pier
 Jacket Fabrication

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Warren Road Bridge,
Baltimore, Maryland

Pier Encapsulation:
 Large concrete pier

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Lake Pontchartrain Causeway,
New Orleans, Louisiana

13-
13-year old
encapsulatio
ns

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Des Joachims Hydroelectric Dam
Deep River, Ontario, Canada

Tailrace Structure
 Sits on the Ottawa River
between Ontario and Quebec
 200-km Upstream from
Ottawa, ON
 8 power generation units

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Challenges

Tailrace Structure
 Structure built in 1940’s
 Damage to tailrace from
scour and abrasion

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Challenges

Damage to Piers
 Loss of section
 12” to 18” of section
loss in some instances
 Reinforcing steel
exposed

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Challenges

Repair Procedure
 Restore loss of section
 Protect against future
abrasion damage
 Protect the downstream
ecosystem
 Minimize dam shutdown
time to less than 10-
days

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Concept

Fiberglass Jacket
Contaminated Water
Vacuumed Out
Encapsulation Complete
Epoxy Grout
Pumped In

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Implementation

FRP Panels
 Face of peirs
encapsulated using FRP
panels
 Thicker than usual
panels (1/4”) were
used due to severity of
scour and abrasion
 Panels hoisted into
place

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Implementation

Panels Installed
 Panels are anchored
into the face of the
wall at appx 12”o.c.
EW
 Stiffeners are placed
to resist grouting
pressure

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Implementation

Grouting Operation
 Grout pumped into
annular space
 Expunged water and
excess grout reclaimed
by vacuum pumps
installed on upper
ports
 Contaminated water
disposed of separately
to minimize
environmental impact

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Des Joachims Hydroelectic Dam
Deep River, Ontario, Canada

Encapsulation in Place
 Completed without
dewatering
 Only 7-days of shutdown
time for the generators

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Testing

Core Samples
 Excellent bond to
backwall
 Good grout
consolidation
 No cracking in grout
from exotherm

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Conclusion

Before…

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Conclusion

…and After

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Des Joachims Hydroelectric Dam
Deep River, Ontario, Canada

…and In Service

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Point Murat Pier, Exmouth, Australia

Encapusulate 41
braced piers
Completed in 1997

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Point Murat Pier, Exmouth, Australia

Jackets are field


cut to fit at
connections

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Point Murat Pier, Exmouth, Australia

Jackets are field


cut to fit at
connections

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Point Murat Pier, Exmouth, Australia

Joints are sealed


with epoxy
Grout is injected
into annulus

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Point Murat Pier, Exmouth, Australia

Encapsulation in
place

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LPG Trestle, Ju’Aymah, Saudi Arabia

The 616 piles


were encapsulated
using the
advanced pile
encapsulation
technique in 1984

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LPG Trestle, Ju’Aymah, Saudi Arabia

Over 20 years
later…
The repair and
protection via
Advanced Pile
Encapsulation
remains in
place and
continues to
provided
protection
without any
maintenance

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FRP Strengthening Systems

Thank You!

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