0 views

Uploaded by Anre Thanh Hung

good

good

© All Rights Reserved

- caracterización de yacimientos
- Theory of regionalized variable.pdf
- WETTABILITY AND RELATIVE PERMEABILITY OF LOWER CRETACEOUS CARBONATE ROCK RESERVOIR, SAUDI ARABIA
- Use of Computers in Textile Industry_By_AbuBakkar Marwat
- climate change maps
- 323-1301-1-PB
- Role of discrete simulation in refinery offsites design Simulation in Refinery Offsites Design
- Why-use-JKSimBlast.pdf
- Lecture 13
- Mx 201010 En
- spe113409.pdf
- Flier_Howto_RemoveStructuratedNoise-2.pdf
- Module I Intro
- Ecology Questions
- Chapter 18
- Volkwein
- 11-3827_CS_Petrfac_refresh (1).pdf
- Scientists Say We’Re on the Cusp of a Carbon Dioxide–Recycling Revolution
- EE 564-Stochastic Systems-Momin Uppal
- m1 w10

You are on page 1of 14

DOI 10.1007/s12665-013-2653-z

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

predictions of geologic heterogeneities and leakage potentials

for hypothetical CO2 sequestration sites

Weon Shik Han • Kue-Young Kim •

Na-Hyun Jung • Eungyu Park

Received: 19 August 2012 / Accepted: 30 June 2013 / Published online: 16 July 2013

Ó Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Abstract The present study focuses on understanding the of CO2 plume migration, the observations in the geosta-

leakage potentials of the stored supercritical CO2 plume tistical simulations were confirmed and the GCMC-based

through caprocks generated in geostatistically created predictions showed underestimations in CO2 leakage in the

heterogeneous media. For this purpose, two hypothetical stationary case, while the SISIM-based predictions showed

cases with different geostatistical features were developed, considerable overestimations in the non-stationary case.

and two conditional geostatistical simulation models (i.e., The overall results suggest that: (1) proper characterization

sequential indicator simulation or SISIM and generalized of low-permeability layering is significantly important in

coupled Markov chain or GCMC) were applied for the the prediction of CO2 plume behavior, especially for the

stochastic characterizations of the heterogeneities. Then, leakage potential of CO2 and (2) appropriate geostatistical

predictive CO2 plume migration simulations based on techniques must be selectively employed considering the

stochastic realizations were performed and summarized. In degree of stationarity of the targeting fields to minimize the

the geostatistical simulations, the results from the GCMC uncertainties in the predictions.

model showed better performance than those of the SISIM

model for the strongly non-stationary case, while SISIM Keywords Geologic CO2 sequestration Geostatistics

models showed reasonable performance for the weakly Leakage Sequential indicator Markov chain

non-stationary case in terms of low-permeability lenses

characterization. In the subsequent predictive simulations

Introduction

Electronic supplementary material The online version of this Prior to commercial-scale CO2 injection, various preceding

article (doi:10.1007/s12665-013-2653-z) contains supplementary

material, which is available to authorized users.

assessments from laboratory- to pilot-scale verifications

and numerical simulations have been conducted by inter-

W. S. Han N.-H. Jung national scientific and engineering communities in pursuit

Department of Geosciences, University of (1) safe and secure storage (Audigane et al. 2007; Han

of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, USA

et al. 2010b; Juanes et al. 2006), (2) short- and long-term

K.-Y. Kim monitoring (Bateson et al. 2008; Emberley et al. 2004;

Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Lewicki et al. 2005; Newell et al. 2008; Wells et al. 2007),

Daejeon, Republic of Korea and (3) risk assessment (Kopp et al. 2010; Rohmer and

Bouc 2010; Siirila et al. 2012; Smith et al. 2011). The

S. Choung

Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University majority of these studies reached similar conclusions,

of Science and Technology, Pohang, Republic of Korea suggesting that sound characterizations of the subsurface

heterogeneity are the most important requirement for

J. Jeong E. Park (&)

constructing conceptual models and conducting associated

Department of Geology, Kyungpook National University,

1370 Sangyeok-dong, Buk-gu, Daegu, Republic of Korea analyses (Ambrose et al. 2008; Han et al. 2010a; Hovorka

e-mail: egpark@knu.ac.kr et al. 2004; Jahangiri and Zhang 2011; Lengler et al. 2010;

123

2740 Environ Earth Sci (2014) 71:2739–2752

Li et al. 2011). Nevertheless, the detailed characterization developed from these two geostatistical models, two

of such complex subsurface heterogeneities at the site-wide hypothetical cases describing the CO2 injection formation

scale is often constrained due to issues related to the project under the low-k caprock were designed.

resources and budgets. For this reason, investigators often

rely on limited numbers of hard data collected within the

boundaries of the sites (e.g., withdrawn borehole core or Non-parametric geostatistical models: generalized

logging data). To overcome such limitations at the site- coupled Markov chain and sequential indicator

wide scale, geostatistics and the associated simulation simulations

methods could be applied. The uncertainties associated

with subsurface characterizations play important roles in Often the sequence of sedimentary rock strata is shifted in

the sound predictions, which suggest incorporation of field- time. From a geostatistical point of view, the variable

collected borehole petrophysical and geophysical survey sequence of the sedimentary profiles may be described as

data with the stochastic analyses techniques. Recently, having non-stationarity. Also, the lithologic transition in

researchers in the field of geological CO2 sequestration the positive and the negative vertical directions are mutu-

have started to acknowledge the importance of the geo- ally incompatible and terminated in the different litholog-

statistical simulations to better grasp the CO2 plume dis- ical sequences, in general. Park (2010) defined these

tribution, trapping, and leakage through preferential observations as expressing directional non-stationarity. For

pathways in geological heterogeneity (Table 1). the characterizations of a deep sedimentary basin, the

A number of stochastic geostatistical simulation models lithological non-stationarity and the directional non-sta-

are applicable including sequential Gaussian simulation tionarity in the transitions are equally important and,

(SGSIM), turning band simulation (TB), sequential indi- therefore, must be considered.

cator simulation (SISIM), and Markov chain-based SISIM Figures 1a and 2a show distributions of three rocks in

(Carle and Fogg 1996; Deutsch and Journel 1998; Man- two deterministic cases (cases 1 and 2), in which the rock

toglou and Wilson 1982). Recently, the indicator-based with medium k (RT1: 10-14 m2) occupies the upper half

generalized coupled Markov chain (GCMC) model has and the rock with high k (RT2: 10-13 m2) occupies the

been proposed as a viable multidimensional option where lower half of the domain. The low-k rocks (RT3: 10-16 m2)

the directional asymmetry distribution of the subsurface with elongated lens shape are distributed around the inter-

media can be handled efficiently (Park 2010; Park et al. face between the high- and medium-k rocks. The model

2007). domains for two cases are identical with 4,000 m 9 100 m

The aforementioned simulation tools can be divided into size and are uniformly discretized by 40 m 9 1 m grids.

parametric (e.g., TB, SGSIM) and non-parametric (e.g., The primary difference between cases 1 and 2 is the size

SISIM, GCMC) groups. The parametric simulation meth- of the elongated lenses and their distribution patterns. In

ods assume that subsurface media include a non-extreme case 1, representing a weakly non-stationary field, the

value and, concurrently, the property transitions in space distributions of low-k lenses were concentrated around the

are relatively smooth (Wen and Kung 1993). The optimal mid-x and -y locations, where only four wide-ranged lenses

sites for geological CO2 sequestration should not have existed (Fig. 1a). On the other hand, in case 2 representing

smooth changes in the media properties. Rather, they are a stationary field, the scales of the low-k lenses were short,

expected to have abrupt changes in permeability (k) or and they were distributed across the entire range along the

porosity (/), in which a higher k and / formation lies x-direction. In these heterogeneity fields, artificial bore-

under a lower k and / layer serving as a capping formation. holes are assigned in which the x-positions are randomly

Therefore, the geologic setting with two extreme para- selected (Figs. 1b, 2b). To further mimic actual borehole

metric distributions is characterized as an optimal site for drilling, the maximum depths of the boreholes are also

geologic CO2 sequestration. In such a case, indicator-based chosen randomly. For case 1, totally 10 boreholes are

non-parametric simulations are recommended because the collected for conditioning data and, for case 2, 15 bore-

methods do not assume Gaussian or smooth transitions of holes are used considering the increased heterogeneity of

the media properties. the structures.

The present study emphasizes understanding the use- Table 2 shows the one-step transition probabilities (TPs)

fulness of the stochastic and non-parametric geostatistical matrices and the approximated mean lengths (lk ) of three

characterization due to the nature of abrupt transitions in rocks along the positive/negative x- and y-directions

targeted and capping formation. For this purpose, two obtained from the nearest neighborhood interpolation from

representative non-parametric geostatistical simulation the collected borehole data in case 1 (Fig. 1b). The lk of

models, SISIM, and the recently developed model of each rock is acquired from Carle and Fogg (1996) and Park

GCMC were chosen. To compare the heterogeneity fields (2010);

123

Environ Earth Sci (2014) 71:2739–2752 2741

Table 1 Summary of previous studies adapting geostatistical techniques in geologic CO2 sequestration related field

Geostatiscal approaches Heterogeneity Approaches Flow simulator Study objectives

field

Han et al. Sequential Gaussian (GSLIB: Uncorrelated Multiple CMG’s GEM (CMG 2007) Understanding CO2 trapping

(2010a) Deutsch and Journel 1998) random field realizations mechanisms (mobile,

Various residually, dissolution-, and

corrected mineral-trapped CO2)

random field

Flett et al. Sequential Gaussian and Binary Single CHEARS Understanding CO2 trapping

(2007) sequential indicator uncorrelated realization mechanisms (mobile,

(GSLIB: Deutsch and random field residual-, and dissolution-

Journel 1998) trapped CO2)

Doughty and Markov chain (TProGS: Fluvial deltaic Single TOUGH2 (Pruess et al. Understanding spatial CO2

Pruess Carle and Fogg 1996, 1997) Frio formations realization 1999) plume distribution

(2004)

Jahangiri and Sequential Gaussian (GSLIB: Uncorrelated Multiple Eclipse 300 (Schlumberger Understanding spatial CO2

Zhang Deutsch and Journel 1998) random field realizations 2008) plume distribution

(2011) Various

corrected

random fields

Lengler et al. Sequential Gaussian Uncorrelated Multiple TOUGH2 (Pruess et al. Understanding CO2 trapping

(2010) (Pebesma 2004) random field realizations 1999) mechanisms (mobile and

Various dissolution-trapped CO2)

corrected

random fields

Pau et al. Uncorrelated In-house code and Understanding the onset time

(2010) random field TOUGH-MP (Zhang of dissolved CO2

et al. 2008) convection

Ide et al. Sequential Gaussian Correlated Single ECLIPSE 100 Understanding spatial CO2

(2007) random field realization (Schlumberger 2005) plume distribution

Zhang et al. Sequential Gaussian (GSLIB: Correlated Multiple ITOUGH (Finsterle, 2004) Testing the methodology of

(2011) Deutsch and Journel 1998) random field realizations estimating residually

trapped CO2 using a single-

well injection withdrawal

Farajzadeh Fourier transform (Bruining Correlated Multiple In-house code Identifying three flow

et al. (2011) et al. 1997) random field realizations regimes (fingering,

dispersive, and channeling)

for dissolved CO2

convection

Kumar et al. Fourier transform (Jennings Uncorrelated Single CMG’s GEM (CMG 2007) Understanding CO2 trapping

(2005) et al. 2000) random field realization mechanisms (mobile,

residually, and dissolution-

trapped CO2)

lk ¼ 1 op0kk oh h¼0 Dx=ð1 pkk Þ ðk ¼ 1; 2; 3Þ; ð1Þ y-directions differ considerably. As one of the most obvi-

ous examples, the TP from RT2 to RT1 is zero to positive

where p0 kk is continuous and pkk is the one-step recurrent y-direction, while the TP from RT1 to RT2 is zero to the

TP from rock type k to k. Along the positive and negative negative y-direction. In case 1, the lk of RT1 and RT2 are

x-directions, the directional non-stationarity is not severe 7,214.5 and 8,650.7 m, respectively, which are about twice

and, therefore, the diagonal components of the positive and the domain length along the x-direction. On the other hand,

negative TPs are almost identical. In the horizontal direc- the lk of RT3 is 926 m, similar to the actual mean length of

tion, RT1 and RT2 do not communicate in both ways, RT3 measured from the original data (=877.3 m) in

while RT2 has the largest self-TP and RT3 has the small-

Fig. 1a. In the y-direction, there is a discrepancy in the lk of

est. The differences between the positive and negative TPs

RT1 and RT2 measured along the positive and negative

are significant for the y-direction due to the directional non-

directions. The estimated lk of RT1 and RT2 in the positive

stationarity. Therefore, the diagonal as well as off-diagonal

y-direction are 41.1 and 135.4 m, respectively, while those

components of the TPs from the positive and negative

123

2742 Environ Earth Sci (2014) 71:2739–2752

deterministic k field of case 1,

which includes upper formation

(RT1: 10-14 m2, red color),

lower formation (RT2:

10-13 m2, green color), and

low-k lenses (RT3: 10-16 m2,

blue color). Case 1

characterizes the heterogeneous

k field where the low-k lenses

extend laterally long. b The

collected k values at the

randomly penetrated boreholes

deterministic k field of case 2,

which includes upper formation

(RT1: 10-14 m2, red color),

lower formation (RT2:

10-13 m2, green color), and

low-k lenses (RT3: 10-16 m2,

blue color). Case 2

characterizes the heterogeneous

k field where the low-k lenses

extend laterally short. b The

collected k values at the

randomly penetrated boreholes

in the negative y-direction are 255.1 and 35.5 m, respec- components considerably differ, except for the component

tively. These inconsistencies indicate that there is strong of RT3 to RT3. The most notable difference is that the

directional non-stationarity in the vertical y-direction. The positive TP from RT1 to RT2 is given as zero, while the

embedded RT3 shows an identical lk of 4.0 m in both of the negative TP from RT2 to RT1 is also zero. The lk of RT1

directions. and RT2 to the x-direction are 9,069.3 and 5,609 m,

Table 3 shows the one-step TPs matrixes and the lk in respectively, and that of RT3 is 469 m. The discrepancy in

case 2 data. Similar to case 1, RT1 and RT2 do not com- the lk of RT1 and RT2 measured along the positive and

municate with each other in both the positive and negative negative directions is not as great as that for case 1. The

x-directions. Only slight differences occur in both the estimated lk of RT1 and RT2 in the positive y-direction are

diagonal and the off-diagonal components of the positive 25.1 and 27.4 m, respectively, while those in the negative

and negative TPs. In the y-direction, the overall y-direction are 51.6 and 17.5 m, respectively. In case 1, the

123

Environ Earth Sci (2014) 71:2739–2752 2743

RT1 0.9994 0.0 6.160E-04 RT1 0.999 0.0 9.977E-04

RT2 0.0 0.9998 1.576E-04 RT2 0.0 0.9983 1.675E-03

RT3 5.759E-03 5.040E-03 0.9892 RT3 8.94E-03 1.405E-02 0.977

TPM along negative x-direction TPM along negative x-direction

RT1 0.9996 0.0 4.107E-04 RT1 0.9989 0.0 1.103E-03

RT2 0.0 0.9996 3.678E-04 RT2 0.0 0.9982 1.783E-03

RT3 8.639E-03 2.16E-03 0.9892 RT3 8.102E-03 1.322E-02 0.9787

TPM along positive y-direction TPM along positive y-direction

RT1 0.9757 1.367E-02 1.065E-02 RT1 0.9601 1.341E-02 2.65E-02

RT2 0.0 0.9926 7.387E-03 RT2 0.0 0.9635 3.652E-02

RT3 5.4E-02 0.1951 0.7509 RT3 0.154 0.343 0.5028

TPM along negative y-direction TPM along negative y-direction

RT1 0.9961 0.0 3.921E-03 RT1 0.9806 0.0 1.937E-02

RT2 1.399E-02 0.9718 1.42E-02 RT2 1.38E-02 0.9427 4.349E-02

RT3 0.1497 9.935E-02 0.7509 RT3 0.2152 0.282 0.5028

Mean length along x-direction Mean length along x-direction

lix (m) 7,214.5 8,650.7 926.0 lix (m) 9,069.3 5,609.0 469.0

Mean length along positive y-direction Mean length along positive y-direction

1 i

lx (m) 41.1 135.4 4.0 1 i

ly (m) 25.1 27.4 2.0

Mean length along negative y-direction Mean length along negative y-direction

2 i

ly (m) 255.1 35.5 4.0 2 i

ly (m) 51.6 17.5 2.0

differences between lk in RT1 and RT2 along the y-direc- maps, the fitness and the unfitness measures introduced by

tions are from 3.3 to 7.2 times in total. However, in case 2, Park (2010, Eq. (6)) are computed. The EP predicts the

the differences are a minimum of 1.1 times and a maximum actual RT3 distribution correctly with 0.76 and incorrectly

of 2.9 times. The smaller differences in the y-directional lk with 0.026. Figure 2 (ESM only) shows the EP maps

of case 2 compared to case 1 can be attributed to the generated from the SISIM realization of case 1. In the input

reduced non-stationarity and it may be concluded that the data, ordinary kriging was used as an estimator, and the

geospatial regularities are increased in case 2. The employed semi-variogram models were all spherical,

embedded RT3 in case 2 also shows identical lk , similarly which have no nugget effects and the sills are uniformly

for case 1, of 2.0 m in both directions. 1.0. Due to the higher entropy at the lithological interface

Based on the conditioning borehole logging data and the of SISIM (Park 2010; Park et al. 2007), the EP distributions

geospatial statistics (i.e., TPs matrixes, lk , and lithological of the rocks show blurring around the rock parcels (Fig. 2a

proportions), a total of 100 realizations are generated using and b, ESM only). Note that the almost symmetric EP

SISIM (Deutsch and Journel 1998) and GCMC (Park distribution of RT3 is peculiar in SISIM (Fig. 2c, ESM

2010), respectively. From the superposition of the 100 only) due to the incapability of handling asymmetric rock

realizations, the ensemble probabilities of each rock juxtaposition of indicator semi-variogram. Employing the

occurrence are computed in Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4 (ESM fitness and the unfitness measures, the EP maps correctly

only). For the conversion of the correlation scales (kk ) of predict the distribution of RT3 with 0.37 and incorrectly

each rock from the lk , the equation of kk ¼ xð1 pk Þlk with 0.028. These values indicate the low quality of the

with x = 1.5 by assuming a spherical lithological structure SISIM predictions compared to GCMC. In addition, the

is applied (Ritzi 2000) and the values are used as the input underestimation of the structural extension of RT3 to the

model parameters of SISIM. x- and y-direction in the SISIM is also distinctive relative to

Figure 1 (ESM only) shows the ensemble probability the GCMC (Figs. 1c and 2c, ESM only).

(EP) maps from the GCMC realizations of case 1. To Similarly, Fig. 3a–c (ESM only) shows the EP maps of

explain the predictability and the unpredictability of EP GCMC realizations in case 2 as shown in Fig. 2a. The

123

2744 Environ Earth Sci (2014) 71:2739–2752

distribution of the RT3 is predicted correctly with 0.69 in Table 4. In all simulations, supercritical CO2 was

fitness, and incorrectly with 0.029 unfitness value. Com- injected at a depth of 1,080 m and in the middle of the

parison of the EP map in Fig. 3c (ESM only) with the model (x = 2,000 m) during a 2-year period with a con-

deterministic k field shown in Fig. 2a, however, indicates stant rate of 0.5 million metric tons per year. This injection

that the RT3 extension predicted from GCMC seems to be rate and period were chosen to approximate the injection

slightly exaggerated, which may lead to overestimation of size of a medium-scale CO2 sequestration demonstration.

the performance of low-k lenses as capping formation. The primary drainage curves of CO2 and brine in relative

Finally, Figs 4a–c (ESM only) shows the EP maps from the permeabilities were calculated from Parker et al. (1987)

SISIM of case 2. The almost symmetric probability dis- and the associated imbibition curves of CO2 from Land

tribution of RT3 can be confirmed from Fig. 4c (ESM (1968). In addition, the capillary pressure is calculated

only) similar to the SISIM predictions in case 1. The fitness from Parker et al. (1987). Their mathematical expressions

and the unfitness measures were 0.37 and 0.037, respec- are described in Table 5. Finally, all simulations were

tively, which indicates a lower prediction quality than that performed with CMG’s GEMTM simulator, a multidimen-

of the GCMC counterpart. sional, finite-difference, isothermal, compositional simu-

lator (CMG 2007). A detailed description of the GEM

simulator is discussed in previous studies of subsurface

Numerical model settings CO2 plume behavior (Bachu et al. 2009; Bryant et al. 2008;

Ghaderi et al. 2011; Kumar et al. 2005; Saadatpoor et al.

With two hypothetical and deterministic k distributions 2010; Wong et al. 2007).

(Figs. 1, 2) and their stochastic realizations, two-dimen-

sional cross-sectional models were designed. The models

represent the candidate formation for geologic CO2 Results and discussion

sequestration with depths ranging from 1,000 m at the top

to 1,100 m at the bottom. For initial conditions, the model CO2 injection simulations on two hypothetical

is fully saturated with brine and assigned a hydrostatic and deterministic cases

pressure (P = qwgh) and temperature (T = 10 ? 0.025 h)

ranging from 10.0 to 11.0 MPa and from 35 to 40 °C, Figure 3a–d shows the snapshots of CO2 mass distributions

respectively. As such, the formation pressure and temper- at years 2, 50, 100, and 200 from the deterministic CO2

ature are above critical conditions (7.38 MPa and 31.1 °C) injection simulation on case 1. The purpose of the simu-

for supercritical CO2 (Span and Wagner 1996). The lation is to build a benchmark model for predictive simu-

detailed parameters of the base case model are summarized lations based on geostatistical realizations as discussed in

the ‘‘CO2 injection simulations on conditional stochastic

fields’’.

Table 4 Model parameters describing a generalized two-dimensional

The intrinsic driving force for the injected CO2 move-

model

ment was the buoyancy originating from the density dif-

Number of elements x-Direction: 400, y-direction: 1, ference between the supercritical-phase CO2 and brine,

z-direction: 100

resulting in a CO2 plume migration opposite to the gravi-

Size of each element (m) Dx = 100, Dy = 2,000, Dz = 1

tational direction (Fig. 3a). In the simulation, when the

Initial pressure condition Hydrostatic gradient from top (10.0)

(MPa) to bottom (12.0)

plume reached the low-k lens (RT3), the shape of the CO2

plume changed to an inversely shaped cone due to the

Initial temperature condition Geothermal gradient from top (35) to

(°C) bottom (40) lateral spreading and retarded vertical movement of CO2

Permeability: k (m2) RT1: kv: 10-14 m2 and kh: 10-15 m2 within the low-k lens. Two different transports controlling

RT2: kv: 10-13 m2 and kh: 10-14 m2 the CO2 plume distribution around and within the low-

RT3: kv: 10-16 m2 and kh: 10-17 m2 k lenses are observed. First, when an upward migrating

Porosity: / 0.1 CO2 plume encountered a low-k lens, the CO2 plume

Brine density: qbr (kg/m3) 1,100 accumulated and spread under the low-k lens, displacing

CO2 density: qCO2 (kg/m3) *690

the brine. Immediately, the CO2 plume migrated around the

low-k lens because it was difficult to penetrate the low-

Maximum residual CO2 0.1

saturation: Smax k lens before enough pressure was built up. Due to this

gr

Boundary conditions Top and bottom boundaries: no flow

reason, only a certain amount of CO2 penetrated through

the low-k lens (year 2 of Fig. 3a). The CO2 plume kept

Lateral boundaries: constant pressure

expanding underneath the low-k lens until it reached the

Simulation period 200 years

lateral margin of the low-k lens where the CO2 plume

123

Environ Earth Sci (2014) 71:2739–2752 2745

Table 5 Mathematical representations of relative permeability, cap- the low-k lens was so slow that substantial amounts of CO2

illary pressure curves, and hysteresis effect were accumulated within the low-k lenses.

Drainage: n = 4.2, Sr = 0.1 Figure 4a–d shows the distribution of CO2 mass in case

krCO2 and krbr br Sr

S þS S 2 where the scales of the low-k lenses are shorter than those

m ¼ 1 1=n; Sbr ¼ S1S r

; St ¼ br 1S

CO2

r

r

0:5 1=m

krbr ¼ Sbr 1 1 Sbr along the x-direction. Although the geospatial structure and

0:5

1=m m

1=m m 2

the distribution of the low-k lenses differ in cases 1 and 2,

krCO2 ¼ St Sbr 1 Sbr 1 St the CO2 transport mechanisms are essentially the same as

krCO2 : Relative permeability of CO2; krbr : Relative those previously described. More CO2 escaped in case 2,

permeability of brine because the lateral extents of the low-k lenses are shorter

SCO2 : Saturation of CO2; Sbr : Relative permeability of than those of case 1. In case 2, even before the cessation of

brine CO2 injection, the CO2 plume has already reached the

Sr : Irreducible saturation of brine; n: Van Genuchten upper formation (RT1) by detouring around the low-

curve shape parameter

1 1

k lenses (Fig. 4a). Consequently, the CO2 arrival time at

Imbibition: Smax ¼ Sgrh S1gh þ 1

krCO2

gr the top of the model domain was shortened where the CO2

SCO2 Sgrh

SCO2 ðshiftedÞ ¼ Sgh Sgrh Sgh plume arrived earlier than year 50 (Fig. 4b), but in case 1

krCO2 ðSCO2 Þ ¼ krCO2 ðSCO2 ðshiftedÞÞ the arrival time was over 100 years (Fig. 3c).

Smax

For further quantitative characterization, mass fraction

gr : Maximum residual saturation; Sgh : SCO2 when

the shift to imbibition occurs of supercritical CO2 within each rock type and that of CO2

Sgrh : Sgr corresponding to Sgh dissolved in water were calculated as time evolved

Drainage and n = 4.2, Sr = 0.1, a = 5.2 9 10-4, b = 2

(Fig. 5a, b). Immediately after starting the CO2 injection,

imbibition: 1=n the CO2 mass fraction in the lower formation (RT2) started

1 1=m

Pc Pc ¼ ab Sbr 1 to decrease until the saturation of mobile CO2 reached the

Pc : Capillary pressure; a; b; n: Van Genuchten curve threshold of residual CO2 saturation. When all the mobile

shape parameter CO2 had disappeared so that only immobile CO2 remained

in the lower formation, the CO2 mass fraction reached a

constant value of approximately 0.18 in both cases. Spe-

cifically, the reduction rate of the CO2 mass fraction in case

migrated upward. The escaping CO2 plume at the margin 1 is slower than that in case 2. The different reduction rates

of the low-k lens was impeded again when the plume are closely related to the length of the low-k lenses (RT3).

encountered a subsequent low-k lens (Fig. 3b). Henceforth, For example, because the lengths of the low-k lenses are

the CO2 plume repeated the horizontal spreading until it short in case 2, CO2 can easily detour the low-k lenses,

reached the margins of the low-k lenses. In contrast to the resulting in large amounts of CO2 mass being able to reach

fast-flowing CO2 plume, by detouring around the low-k the upper formation in a relatively short time of less than

lenses, certain amounts of CO2 directly penetrated across 2 years (Fig. 5a). In case 1, with the long length of low-

the low-k lenses at a condition in which the cumulative k lenses, the CO2 mass arrived at the upper formation

pressure underneath the low-k lenses was large enough to 20 years later.

overcome the capillary entry pressure of the low-k lenses The changes of CO2 mass within the low-k lenses were

(Fig. 3b–d). The penetration rate of the CO2 plume through governed by the CO2 mass flowing in and out of these

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

Fig. 3 CO2 mass distribution (kg) in the deterministic case 1 domain shown in Fig. 1a at: a 2 years, b 50 years, c 100 years, and d 200 years

123

2746 Environ Earth Sci (2014) 71:2739–2752

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

Fig. 4 CO2 mass distribution (kg) in the deterministic case 2 domain shown in Fig. 2a at: a 2 years, b 50 years, c 100 years, and d 200 years

Fig. 5 Evolution of 1 1

supercritical- and dissolved- (a) (b)

Case 1

phase CO2 mass fraction: a CO2 Case 2

mass in upper (RT1) and lower 0.8 Lower 0.8

formation (RT2)

(RT2) formations and b CO2

Mass fraction of CO2

dissolved in brine 0.6 0.6 Dissolved

in brine

0.4 0.4

Upper

formation (RT1)

Low k

0.2 0.2 lenses (RT3)

0 0

0 40 80 120 160 200 0 40 80 120 160 200

Time (year) Time (year)

lenses. When the CO2 mass flowing in the low-k lenses was further detail, multiple realizations from GCMC and SISIM

greater than that flowing out, the CO2 mass fraction within after conditioning the borehole logging data were

the low-k lenses increased, but when the CO2 mass flowing employed in cases 1 and 2. Then, numerical CO2 plume

in was smaller than that flowing out, the CO2 mass fraction migration models based on randomly selected 50 realiza-

decreased (Fig. 5b). Overall, the low-k lenses with longer tions are transiently simulated over 200 years.

extent (case 1) preserved more CO2. Finally, CO2 dissolved

in brine is approximately the same in both cases until year CO2 injection simulations on conditional stochastic

70, but after this year the amount of CO2 dissolved in brine fields

for case 2 is decreased distinctively. The reduction of the

CO2 dissolution rate in case 2 occurred due to the early Case 1

arrival of the CO2 plume at the topmost boundary where

CO2 and brine interactions are reduced due to the large Figure 6a, c shows the permeability distributions of case 1

amount of CO2 accumulation (Fig. 4c, d). Additionally, the from randomly selected GCMC and SISIM realizations,

residence time of CO2 mass in low-k lenses was greater in respectively. From two sequences of simulations, dissimi-

Case 1 than Case 2 (Figs. 3c, 4c). Thus, CO2 in Case 1 will larity of the spatial variation in CO2 leakage is observed at

have more time to interact with brine before it reaches the 100 years (Fig. 6b, d). The most peculiar difference is the

topmost layer, resulting in the increase in the amount of geometry of CO2 plume distribution, the leakage pathways,

dissolved CO2 in brine. and the amount of CO2 plume arrived at the topmost

In these two cases possessing different degrees of non- boundary of the model domain. As seen in the GCMC

stationarity, the CO2 mass distributions at three formations simulations (Fig. 6b), relatively large CO2 masses were

showed significant discrepancy with time, suggesting that accumulated in the injection formation (RT2) with large

the geostatistical configuration, structures, and patterns of lateral extent. In the upper (RT1) formation, the CO2 plume

the capping formation play important roles in the CO2 leakage occurred locally only to the left of the injection

storage and migration characteristics. Therefore, to tackle borehole. Due to the localized leakage processes, CO2 mass

123

Environ Earth Sci (2014) 71:2739–2752 2747

Fig. 6 a Representative k field chosen from GCMG realizations in realizations in case 1. d CO2 mass distribution (kg) at 100 years,

case 1. b CO2 mass distribution (kg) at 100 years, simulated in the simulated in the chosen SISIM k field

chosen GCMC k field. c Representative k field chosen from SISIM

was highly concentrated only at a few locations of the dependent on the detouring length of the migration path-

topmost boundary. In contrast, the CO2 plume predicted ways, which determines the probability of the CO2 plume

from SISIM realization leaked uniformly though RT1 contacting the CO2-unsaturated brine. For this reason, the

formation (Fig. 6d). Preliminarily judging from the single slight underestimation of the dissolved CO2 in brine rela-

realizations at GCMC and SISIM, the CO2 migration tive to the deterministic prediction implies that the pre-

simulation based on an SISIM realization overestimated dicted migration length of the CO2 plume in the GCMC

the leakage of the CO2 plume to the RT1 formation. This prediction is shorter than that of the deterministic

overestimation can also be foreseen by some degree in the prediction.

analysis of the ensemble probabilities map of SISIM In contrast to the transient evolution of CO2 mass

(Fig. 2c, ESM only) where the sizes of the low-k lenses fraction through the GCMC realizations, the SISIM real-

(RT3) were underestimated compared to those of the izations showed significant over- or underestimations

GCMC simulation (Fig. 1c, ESM only). However, it should subjected to deterministic predictions (Fig. 7). As dis-

be noted that the localized CO2 accumulation reaching the cussed earlier in the ensemble probability distributions in

topmost layer is less for SISIM than GCMC prediction. GCMC and SISIM (Figs. 1c, 2c, ESM only), the extent of

In Fig. 7, the mass fraction evolutions of supercritical the low-k lenses (RT3) was shorter in the SISIM predic-

CO2 within RT1, RT2, and RT3 formations and dissolved tions than in the GCMC predictions. For this reason, the

CO2 in brine from GCMC and SISIM realizations of case 1 CO2 mass fractions preserved in RT2 and RT3 are signif-

are plotted. The solid-black lines represent the determin- icantly underestimated in the SISIM-based simulations.

istic simulations shown in Figs. 3 and 5, and the dashed- Especially in the later time, most curves of the determin-

black lines show the arithmetic means calculated from istic CO2 mass fraction deviate outside the 99 % prediction

GCMC and SISIM realizations. The pink- and blue-shaded intervals, except the CO2 mass fraction in RT2. The

areas represent 99 and 80 % prediction intervals, respec- asymptotic levels of CO2 mass fractions in RT2 predicted

tively. In the GCMC realizations, the deterministic CO2 from GCMC, SISIM, and the deterministic simulations

mass fraction evolutions of the upper formation (RT1), were coincident after 100 years, suggesting that the amount

lower formation (RT2), low-k lenses (RT3), and dissolved of residually trapped CO2 in RT2 was not sensitive to the

CO2 in brine fall within the 80 % prediction intervals. In configurations or distributions of the low-k lenses (RT3).

detail, the deterministic lines do not coincide with the To obtain further quantitative comparisons of the sta-

simulated mean dashed lines. Rather, the CO2 mass frac- tistics in CO2 leakage masses, histograms representing the

tion from multiple realizations showed a certain range of CO2 mass fraction within RT1 are plotted from GCMC-

variation relative to the deterministic prediction, which and SISIM-based simulations, progressively from years 1

may be biased. The simulated mean of the CO2 mass through 200 (Fig. 5, ESM only). In the GCMC-based

fraction in RT1 was positively biased compared to the simulations, until year 10, the occurrence of CO2 mass

deterministic line, while those in RT3 and the dissolved fractions in RT1 was small and only a few predictions

CO2 in brine were slightly underestimated in their deter- showed meaningful CO2 leakage. For this reason, the his-

ministic predictions. The overestimation of the CO2 mass togram of CO2 mass fraction showed a log-normal or an

fraction in RT1 directly links to the underestimation of exponential distribution up to year 20. Between year 50

RT3 because the performance of low-k lenses is critical to and 100, the histograms evolved from the log-normal to the

determine the amount of CO2 mass leaving the lower half normal distribution, suggesting that vertical CO2 move-

of the simulated domain. The dissolved CO2 in brine is ment is distinct. The histograms of the SISIM-based

123

2748 Environ Earth Sci (2014) 71:2739–2752

Fig. 7 Mass fraction evolution of supercritical-phase CO2 predicted deterministic case and the means calculated from 50 GCMC and

from 50 GCMC and 50 SISIM realizations in case 1. Dark solid and SISIM realizations, respectively. Pink and blue-shaded areas repre-

dashed lines represent the evolution of CO2 mass fraction from the sent 99 and 80 % prediction intervals, respectively

predictions are similar to those of the GCMC to some Figure 9 shows the CO2 mass fraction evolutions at the

degree. However, the log-normal shaped histogram was upper formation (RT1), lower formation (RT2), low-

maintained only until year 2. Overall, the variances of k lenses (RT3), and dissolved CO2 in brine from case 2. In

histograms predicted from the SISIM are significantly the GCMC-based simulations, the mean of realized simu-

larger than those of the GCMC, and the mode of the his- lations slightly deviates from the deterministic curves,

togram is not as distinctive as the GCMC counterpart in the especially at the early time. Specifically, the CO2 mass

mid to later simulation time. Clearly, heterogeneity pre- fractions from the realized simulations were underesti-

diction from two different stochastic approaches controls mated relative to the deterministic curve in RT1 and,

the rate of CO2 plume migration to RT1; the leakage rate consequently, both RT2 and RT3 were overestimated. At

was faster in SISIM than in GCMC. the later simulation time, the deterministic curves mostly

The red- and blue-dashed lines indicate the CO2 mass fall within the 80 % prediction intervals and the degree of

fraction in RT1 predicted from the deterministic and the the over- or underestimation becomes less.

mode of multiple realizations, respectively (Fig. 5, ESM In contrast, the SISIM-based simulations show a wide

only). The disparity between the red- and blue-dashed lines range of prediction variations, resulting in both the 80 and

implies the degree of accuracy predicted from the sto- 99 % prediction intervals being noticeably wider than

chastic simulations. As seen, most deterministic values are those of the GCMC-based simulations. Nevertheless, the

located close to the predictive mode of the GCMG-based means of the SISIM-based simulations generally match

simulations, but significantly deviate from the mode of the with the deterministic prediction better than those of the

SISIM-based simulations. GCMC-based simulations. The superior predictions of

mean CO2 mass fraction by the SISIM-based simulations

Case 2 can be attributed to the better correlation scale represented

by the SISIM ensemble probability map of RT3 (Fig. 4c,

Two representative realizations of case 2 are plotted in ESM only). In addition, a larger variance of SISIM-based

Fig. 8a and c. Figure 8b, d is the associated CO2 plume simulations can be foreseen in the diffused ensemble

distributions at year 100, and the benchmark deterministic probability distribution of RT3. From this analysis, the

prediction of the CO2 plume distribution in the same year is SISIM-based prediction could be more suited for the field

plotted in Fig. 4c. The upward flux of the CO2 mass from the conditions where heterogeneity structures show stationarity

GCMC and SISIM realizations reasonably matches with the similar to the synthetic case 2. However, the large vari-

deterministic prediction. At the topmost boundary, CO2 ances associated with SISIM-based predictions may cause

mass was more concentrated in GCMC simulations. Nev- additional problems in practice.

ertheless, it can be noted that geostatistical predictions from Finally, histograms representing the CO2 mass fraction

both GCMC and SISIM work better in Case 2 than in Case 1. in RT1 are drawn from GCMC and SISIM (Fig. 6, ESM

123

Environ Earth Sci (2014) 71:2739–2752 2749

Fig. 8 a Representative k field chosen from GCMG realizations in realizations in case 2. d CO2 mass distribution (kg) at 100 years,

case 2. b CO2 mass distribution (kg) at 100 years, simulated in the simulated in the chosen SISIM k field

chosen GCMC k field. c Representative k field chosen from SISIM

Fig. 9 Mass fraction evolution of supercritical-phase CO2 predicted deterministic case and the means calculated from 50 GCMC and 50

from 50 GCMC and 50 SISIM realizations in case 2. Dark solid and SISIM realizations, respectively. Pink and blue-shaded areas repre-

dashed lines represent the evolution of CO2 mass fraction from the sent 99 and 80 % prediction intervals, respectively

only). In the histogram of the GCMC-based predictions of Even though the means of the distribution match with the

case 2, a similar transition from a log-normal to a normal deterministic prediction better, considerable uncertainty is

distribution as that in case 1 is observed. Compared to case associated with SISIM-based prediction due to the non-

1, this transition occurs relatively quickly. The earlier regular distribution and higher standard deviation of the

transition in case 2 indicates the earlier arrival of the CO2 predictions.

plume to RT1, which is due to the relatively short corre-

lation length of the low-k lenses in the x-direction. The Estimation of CO2 leakage potentials at the topmost layer

histograms of the SISIM-based predictions slightly differ

from those of the GCMC-based simulation. The histogram The CO2 mass that accumulated at the topmost model

seems to be closer to the mixture of a log-normal and a domain 200 years later was quantified from deterministic

normal to a uniform distribution rather than a single log- cases and the ensembles of the Monte Carlo simulations

normal distribution in the early simulation time. Also, the based on GCMC and SISIM of Cases 1 and 2. In Fig. 7a

variance of the histograms is considerably wider than that (ESM only), the CO2 mass distribution (black) estimated

of GCMC-based predictions. The non-regularity of the from the deterministic case 1 showed two modes at x = 1.8

transient histogram continued to the end of the simulations. and 2.2 km with the localized CO2 accumulation. The

123

2750 Environ Earth Sci (2014) 71:2739–2752

ensemble of CO2 mass prediction from GCMC (blue) especially at the early time. In contrast, the SISIM-pre-

showed dispersed leakage potential and consequently the dicted means generally show good agreement with the

integrated CO2 mass under the curve was overestimated deterministic prediction, but show a wide ranges of pre-

relative to the deterministic prediction. The modes of diction variances. Both simulations suggested that the sizes

GCMC ensembles were at x = 1.6, 2.2, and 2.7 km, which of the low-k lenses were critical to determine the amount of

are similar to the modes of the deterministic estimation. In CO2 leaking to RT1. However, the amount of residually

contrast, the ensemble mass predicted from SISIM (red) trapped CO2 remaining in RT2 was fairly consistent in all

shows highly dispersed leakage potential implying the fast realizations and was less sensitive to the variations of the

arrival of CO2 mass at the broad area. CO2 mass leakage low-k lens sizes or structures. Finally, CO2 mass dissolved

potential follows a bell-shaped distribution with single in brine was governed by the length of the migration

mode at x = 1.8 km. Overall, it may be concluded that the pathway.

leakage potential from GCMC simulation shows better Throughout the comprehensive ‘‘Monte Carlo’’-typed

predictability compared to that from SISIM in Case 1. analyses, the study suggests that geostatistical prediction is

In Case 2 representing stationary field, more CO2 mass a useful tool for characterizations of subsurface heteroge-

evidently accumulated at the topmost model domain neities where the information is significantly limited and

compared to Case 1 (Fig. 7b, ESM only). In the deter- the uncertainties affect critically various decisions on the

ministic estimation from Case 2, there exist clear modes at geologic CO2 sequestration sites. In the situation, every

x = 1.2, 1.7, and 2.4 km where the mode at x = 1.7 km is conceivable tools as well as supportive information need to

the most peculiar. The ensemble predictions from both be incorporated to limit the uncertainty. In the present

GCMC and SISIM are similar to the deterministic one. The study, considerations on geostatistical models are high-

predicted mode of the ensemble based on GCMC is at lighted by assuming that only a few borehole data are

x = 1.6 km and that of SISIM at x = 1.7 km, which available. In real practices, geostatistical subsurface esti-

indicates the slightly better predictability of SISIM at the mations are generally adopted. There could be more dif-

topmost layer. ferent types of data including geophysical information,

geological inferences of the experts, etc., which might limit

the uncertainties due to the absence of direct information

Summary and conclusions and result in improved predictions on the subsurface.

Nevertheless, the present study will provide useful infor-

The presented study focused on understanding the uncer- mation as a worst case where the information on subsurface

tainties of two non-parametric geostatistical applications is extremely limited, in which a choice of geostatistical

(GCMC and SISIM) in subsurface heterogeneity and their models could be sensitive to the final decision depending

associated effects on CO2 plume migration predictions. on their capability of handling spatial non-stationarity in a

Two hypothetical models were developed. In case 1, rep- suitable manner.

resenting a weakly non-stationary field, only four wide-

ranging low-k lenses existed around the mid-x and -y loca- Acknowledgments This work was jointly supported by ‘‘Technol-

ogy development for CO2 geological storage demonstration through

tions. On the other hand, in case 2 representing a stationary participating in the Canadian projects (2011T100100331)’’ of the

field, the scales of the low-k lenses were relatively short Korea National Oil Corporation (KNOC) and ‘‘Block funding projects

compared to those in case 1, and were distributed across (GP2012-030)’’ of Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral

almost the entire range along the x-direction. Resources (KIGAM) transferred from the Korea Institute of Energy

Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grants.

In case 1, SISIM underestimated the horizontal extent of

the low-k lenses relative to the GCMC prediction, resulting

in more CO2 leakage to the upper formation. For this

reason, the GCMC-based simulations represented the

deterministic prediction better than those from the SISIM References

realizations. Histogram analysis of CO2 mass fractions

within RT1 indicates that the histogram follows a log- Ambrose WA, Lakshminarasimhan S, Holtz MH, Núñez-López S,

Hovorka SD, Duncan I (2008) Geologic factors controlling CO2

normal distribution in the early period, but later evolves to storage capacity and permanence: case studies based on expe-

normal distributions. The transition from log-normal to rience with heterogeneity in oil and gas reservoirs applied to

normal distribution occurred quickly in the SISIM real- CO2 storage. Environ Geol 54:1619–1633. doi:10.1007/s00254-

izations. In case 2, the GCMC models slightly overesti- 007-0940-2

Audigane P, Gaus I, Czernichowski-Lauriol I, Pruess K, Xu T (2007)

mated the vertical and horizontal extensions of the low- Two-dimensional reactive transport modeling of CO2 injection

k lenses, causing the deviation of the predicted means in in a saline aquifer at the Sleipner site, North Sea. Am J Sci

the GCMC realizations from the deterministic curve, 307:974–1008. doi:10.2475/07.2007.02

123

Environ Earth Sci (2014) 71:2739–2752 2751

Bachu S, Pooladi-Darvish M, Hong H (2009) Chromatographic Jahangiri HR, Zhang D (2011) Effect of spatial heterogeneity on

partitioning of impurities (H2S) contained in a CO2 stream plume distribution and dilution during CO2 sequestration. Int J

injected into a deep saline aquifer: Part 2. Effects of flow Greenhouse Gas Contr 5:281–293. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.

conditions. Int J Greenhouse Gas Contr 3:468–473. doi: 2010.10.003

10.1016/j.ijggc.2009.01.002 Juanes R, Spiteri EJ, Orr FM, Blunt MJ (2006) Impact of relative

Bateson L, Vellico M, Beaubien SE, Pearce JM, Annunziatellis A, permeability hysteresis on geologic CO2 storage. Water Resour

Ciotoli G, Coren F, Lombardi S, Marsh S (2008) The application Res 42:W12418. doi:10.1029/2005WR004806

of remote-sensing techniques to monitor CO2-storage sites for Kopp A, Binning PJ, Johannsen K, Helmig R, Class H (2010) A

surface leakage: method development and testing at Latera contribution to risk analysis for leakage through abandoned wells

(Italy) where naturally produced CO2 is leaking to the in geologic CO2 storage. Adv Water Resour 33:867–879. doi:

atmosphere. Int J Greenhouse Gas Contr 2:388–400. doi: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2010.05.001

10.1016/j.ijggc.2007.12.005 Kumar A, Ozah R, Noh M, Pope GA, Bryant S, Sepehrnoori K, Lake

Bruining J, van Batenburg DW, Lake LW, Yang AP (1997) Flexible LW (2005) Reservoir simulation of CO2 storage in deep saline

spectral methods for the generation of random fields with power- aquifers. SPE J 10:336–348. doi:10.2118/89343-PA

law semivariograms. Math Geol 29:823–848. doi:10.1007/ Lengler U, De LM, Kühn M (2010) The impact of heterogeneity on

bf02768904 the distribution of CO2: numerical simulation of CO2 storage at

Bryant SL, Lakshminarasimhan S, Pope GA (2008) Buoyancy- Ketzin. Int J Greenhouse Gas Contr 4:1016–1025. doi:10.1016/

dominated multiphase flow and its effect on geological seques- j.ijggc.2010.07.004

tration of CO2. SPE J 13:447–454. doi:10.2118/99938-PA Land CS (1968) Calculation of imbibition relative permeability for

Carle SF, Fogg GE (1996) Transition probability based indicator two- and three-phase flow from rock properties. SPE J

geostatistics. Math Geol 28:453–477. doi:10.1007/BF02083656 8:149–156. doi:10.2118/1942-PA

CMG (2007) User’s guide GEM, Advanced Compositional Reservoir Lewicki JL, Hilley GE, Oldenburg CM (2005) An improved strategy

Simulator (version 2007). Computer Modeling Group Ltd, to detect CO2 leakage for verification of geologic carbon

Calgary sequestration. Geophys Res Lett 32:L19403. doi:10.1029/

Deutsch CV, Journel AG (1998) GSLIB: Geostatistical Software 2005GL024281

Library and User’s Guide, 2nd edn. Oxford University, New Li S, Zhang Y, Zhang X (2011) A study of conceptual model

York uncertainty in large-scale CO2 storage simulation. Water Resour

Doughty C, Pruess K (2004) Modeling supercritical carbon dioxide Res 47:W05534. doi:10.1029/2010WR009707

injection in heterogeneous porous media. Vadose Zone J Mantoglou A, Wilson JL (1982) The turning bands method for

3:837–847. doi:10.2113/3.3.837 simulation of random fields using line generation by a spectral

Emberley S, Hutcheon I, Shevalier M, Durocher K, Gunter WD, method. Water Resour Res 18:1379–1394. doi:10.1029/WR

Perkins EH (2004) Geochemical monitoring of fluid–rock 018i005p01379

interaction and CO2 storage at the Weyburn CO2-injection Newell DL, Kaszuba JP, Viswanathan HS, Pawar RJ, Carpenter T

enhanced oil recovery site, Saskatchewan, Canada. Energy (2008) Significance of carbonate buffers in natural waters

29:1393–1401. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2004.03.073 reacting with supercritical CO2: implication for monitoring,

Farajzadeh R, Ranganathan P, Zitha PLJ, Bruining J (2011) The effect measuring, and verification (MMV) of geologic carbon seques-

of heterogeneity on the character of density-driven natural tration. Geophys Res Lett 35:L23403. doi:10.1029/2008GL

convection of CO2 overlying a brine layer. Adv Water Resour 035615

34:327–329. doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2010.12.012 Park E (2010) A multidimensional, generalized coupled Markov

Finsterle S (2004) Multiphase inverse modeling: review and chain model for surface and subsurface characterization. Water

iTOUGH2 applications. Vadose Zone J 3:747–762 Resour Res 45: W11509. doi:10.1029/2009WR008355

Flett M, Gurton R, Weir G (2007) Heterogeneous saline formations Park E, Elfeki AMM, Song Y, Kim K (2007) Generalized coupled

for carbon dioxide disposal: impact of varying heterogeneity on Markov Chain model for characterizing categorical variables in

containment and trapping. J Petrol Sci Eng 57:106–118. doi: soil mapping. Soil Sci Soc Am J 71:909–917. doi:10.2136/

10.1016/j.petrol.2006.08.016 sssaj2005.0386

Ghaderi SM, Keith DW, Lavoie R, Leonenko Y (2011) Evolution of Parker JC, Lenhard RJ, Kuppusamy T (1987) A parametric model for

hydrogen sulfide in sour saline aquifers during carbon dioxide constitutive properties governing multiphase flow in porous

sequestration. Int J Greenhouse Gas Contr 5:347–355. doi: media. Water Resour Res 23:618–624. doi:10.1029/WR023i004

10.1016/j.ijggc.2010.09.008 p00618

Han WS, Lee S-Y, Lu C, McPherson BJ (2010a) Effects of Pau GSH, Bell JB, Pruess K, Almgren AS, Lijewski MJ, Zhang K

permeability on CO2 trapping mechanisms and buoyancy-driven (2010) High-resolution simulation and characterization of den-

CO2 migration in saline formations. Water Resour Res sity-driven flow in CO2 storage in saline aquifers. Adv Water

46:W07510. doi:10.1029/2009WR007850 Resour 33:443–455. doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2010.01.009

Han WS, McPherson BJ, Lichtner PC, Wang FP (2010b) Evaluation Pruess K, Oldenburg CM, Moridis G (1999) Tough2 user’s guide.

of trapping mechanisms in geologic CO2 sequestration: case Version 2.0. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley,

study of SACROC northern platform, a 35-year CO2 injection California

site. Am J Sci 310:282–324. doi:10.2475/04.2010.03 Ritzi RW (2000) Behavior of indicator variograms and transition

Hovorka SD, Doughty C, Benson SM, Pruess K, Knox PR (2004) The probabilities in relation to the variance in lengths of hydrofacies.

impact of geologic heterogeneity on CO2 storage in brine Water Resour Res 36:3375–3381. doi:10.1029/2000WR900139

formations: a case study from the Texas Gulf Coast. In: Baines Rohmer J, Bouc O (2010) A response surface methodology to address

SJ, Worden RH (eds) Geological storage of carbon dioxide. uncertainties in cap rock failure assessment for CO2 geological

Special Publication, Geological Society of London, pp 147–163 storage in deep aquifers. Int J Greenhouse Gas Contr 4:198–208.

Ide ST, Jessen K, Orr FM (2007) Storage of CO2 in saline aquifers: doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2009.12.001

effects of gravity, viscous, and capillary forces on amount and Saadatpoor E, Bryant SL, Sepehrnoori K (2010) New trapping

timing of trapping. Int J Greenhouse Gas Contr 1:481–491. doi: mechanism in carbon sequestration. Transp Porous Med

10.1016/S1750-5836(07)00091-6 82:3–17. doi:10.1007/s11242-009-9446-6

123

2752 Environ Earth Sci (2014) 71:2739–2752

Schlumberger (2005) Eclipse reference manual Wen X-H, Kung C (1993) Stochastic simulation of solute transport in

Schlumberger (2008) Eclipse reference manual 2008A heterogeneous formations: a comparison of parametric and

Siirila ER, Navarre-Sitchler AK, Maxwell RM, McCray JE (2012) A nonparametric geostatistical approaches. Ground Water 31:

quantitative methodology to assess the risks to human health 953–965. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6584.1993.tb00869.x

from CO2 leakage into groundwater. Adv Water Resour Wong S, Law D, Deng X, Robinson J, Kadatz B, Gunter WD,

36:146–164. doi:10.1016/j.advwaters.2010.11.005 Jianping Y, Sanli F, Zhiqiang F (2007) Enhanced coalbed

Smith J, Durucan S, Korre A, Shi J-Q (2011) Carbon dioxide storage methane and CO2 storage in anthracitic coals—Micro-pilot test

risk assessment: analysis of caprock fracture network connec- at South Qinshui, Shanxi, China. Int J Greenhouse Gas Contr

tivity. Int J Greenhouse Gas Contr 5:226–240. doi:10.1016/ 1:215–222. doi:10.1016/S1750-5836(06)00005-3

j.ijggc.2010.10.002 Zhang K, Wu Y, Pruess K (2008) User’s guide for TOUGH2-MP-a

Span R, Wagner W (1996) A new equation of state for carbon dioxide massively parallel version of the TOUGH2 code. Lawrence

covering the fluid region from the triple-point temperature to Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley

1100 K at pressure up to 800 MPa. J Phys Chem Ref Data Zhang Y, Freifeld B, Finsterle S, Leahy M, Ennis-King J, Paterson L,

25:1509–1596. doi:10.1063/1.555991 Dance T (2011) Single-well experimental design for studying

Wells AW, Diehl JR, Bromhal G, Strazisar BR, Wilson TH, White residual trapping of supercrtical carbon dioxide. Int J Green-

CM (2007) The use of tracers to assess leakage from the house Gas Contr 5:88–98. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2010.06.011

sequestration of CO2 in a depleted oil reservoir, New Mexico,

USA. Appl Geochem 22:996–1016. doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.

2007.01.002

123

- caracterización de yacimientosUploaded byJesus Bc
- Theory of regionalized variable.pdfUploaded bysisi
- WETTABILITY AND RELATIVE PERMEABILITY OF LOWER CRETACEOUS CARBONATE ROCK RESERVOIR, SAUDI ARABIAUploaded byari_si
- Use of Computers in Textile Industry_By_AbuBakkar MarwatUploaded byAbu Bakkar
- climate change mapsUploaded byapi-326090724
- 323-1301-1-PBUploaded byHeap Ke Xin
- Role of discrete simulation in refinery offsites design Simulation in Refinery Offsites DesignUploaded byflavio_cordero_1
- Why-use-JKSimBlast.pdfUploaded bysuigeneris11
- Lecture 13Uploaded byshankar
- Mx 201010 EnUploaded byHadassa Cabral Ribeiro Gripp
- spe113409.pdfUploaded byعبدالغفار بيزان
- Flier_Howto_RemoveStructuratedNoise-2.pdfUploaded bybidyut_iitkgp
- Module I IntroUploaded byWilber Yucra
- Ecology QuestionsUploaded byBosco785
- Chapter 18Uploaded byyog
- VolkweinUploaded byzuenbo
- 11-3827_CS_Petrfac_refresh (1).pdfUploaded byAlexandra Romero
- Scientists Say We’Re on the Cusp of a Carbon Dioxide–Recycling RevolutionUploaded byAlexandra Velicu
- EE 564-Stochastic Systems-Momin UppalUploaded byWaseem Abbas
- m1 w10Uploaded byapi-284752912
- M1_w10.pdfUploaded byYasin
- Howard- Respiratory Control SystemUploaded byTanmay Pal
- An Econometric Measurement of the Impact of Marketing Communication on Sales in the Indian Cement IndustryUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Bulletin 09Uploaded byYoily Gonzalez
- MesoMacroscaleSimulations--CDSMUploaded byvetti Kutty
- 4th ISEGTC salomaoUploaded byMarcos Sarmet Salomão
- 1-s2.0-S0377027307001230-mainUploaded byisaac
- Public Health Determinants and TrendsUploaded byTaylor Lott
- Pazdrii v ArticleUploaded bySCASPEE
- ENSC110 Craig Renewable Energy & Policy Targets 18Uploaded byTrevor Craig

- Introduction to Static Model DevelopmentUploaded byNwonye Chukwunoso
- 1-s2.0-S1876610213005122-mainUploaded byAnre Thanh Hung
- li2016Uploaded byAnre Thanh Hung
- 10.0000@Www.onepetro.org@Conference Paper@SPWLA JFES 2015 FUploaded byAnre Thanh Hung
- 56_sequence Stratigraphic Study of Biwa Field in Greater Ughelli Depobelt, Niger Delta, NigeriaUploaded byAnre Thanh Hung
- Global PlatecUploaded byAnre Thanh Hung
- 4620_14753_1_PB_engl (1)Uploaded byAnre Thanh Hung
- 49907Uploaded byAnre Thanh Hung
- 1570217802Uploaded byAnre Thanh Hung
- PphElements Synopsis Agenda Bio 2014 11Uploaded byAnre Thanh Hung
- 21-1-37-1-10-20170420Uploaded byAnre Thanh Hung
- _20110705_101343_2_jon_gluyas_CeRees_1015Uploaded byAnre Thanh Hung
- Herrmann v55p22Uploaded byAnre Thanh Hung
- Spwla1 Auh2010 Med NotesUploaded byAnre Thanh Hung
- 1-s2.0-S0920410509000072-mainUploaded byAnre Thanh Hung
- Co2 Storage Depleted Oilfields Global Application Criteria EorUploaded byAnre Thanh Hung
- TGEO0047Uploaded byAnre Thanh Hung
- s12517-012-0747-7Uploaded byAnre Thanh Hung
- nr1_p349-366.pdfUploaded byAnre Thanh Hung
- GeologyUploaded byAnre Thanh Hung
- Batok Embanglian E 2013 Pet Eng MSc ThesisUploaded byAnre Thanh Hung
- A-Survey Paper Context Awareness for-Smart-EnvironmentUploaded byAnre Thanh Hung
- ETS TOEIC Test 1200 Answer Key.pdfUploaded byAnre Thanh Hung
- JBES-Vol6No4-p571-575Uploaded byAnre Thanh Hung
- HFU AND FZIUploaded byAnre Thanh Hung
- Shaly SandUploaded byAnre Thanh Hung
- HFU AND PERMEABILTY PREDICTIONok.pdfUploaded byAnre Thanh Hung
- 2dseismic and HFUUploaded byAnre Thanh Hung
- Rock Typing Flyer 220612Uploaded byJesus Angel Hernandez

- Catalogo SKFUploaded bya5085937
- sig-Lecture 1Uploaded bySherif Ayad
- Eclipse Ti Brochure(1)Uploaded bySukhdeep Kumar
- C-External Lab Questions 2012Uploaded byVeda Samhitha
- Nerve and Synapse Lab HandoutUploaded byjava4folks4
- PV_1200_Englisch.pdfUploaded byAgnieszka Zgrzywa
- Design of Steel Beams (1)Uploaded byChris Lee
- L3-Group-8Uploaded byBadulla M. Twaaha
- 1Uploaded byArgie Adduru
- Unit III Thick Cylinders- e Notes -PVRaoUploaded bykumaravel07
- Method Validation on Drug SubstancesUploaded bySrikanth Nagabiru
- Diffraction of LightUploaded bySingh Pushparaj
- QMIN13-GLM_MultivariateUploaded byEmad R. H. Issak
- Remoulding Test SpecimenUploaded byDr Wong Kim Yuen
- Chap 5Uploaded bySivakumar Ramalingam
- CVNG 2005 May 2009 Shrivastava and Chadwick ModifiedUploaded byrajal11
- Physical Chem 1 (Combined)Uploaded byYit Juan
- Gas Processing 1215Uploaded byRenato Benintendi
- L16 Chemical EquilibriumUploaded bysalmanarss
- NS107S-SA RGB Pixel LED datasheetUploaded byJason Gong
- Fisica SolucionesUploaded byYairEdwardSantiago
- 2006-7 Module 113 - lecture 7Uploaded byapi-19928045
- 20982_21Uploaded bydraindrop8606
- Numerical Analysis of Flows in a Solar Chimney Power Plant with a Curved JunctionUploaded bySEP-Publisher
- Calculus 08 Techniques of IntegrationUploaded bykumar830
- Atomic TheoryUploaded byCardoza Ryan
- ChemistryUploaded byOyedeji
- Matrices wUploaded byNur Syahadah
- Math4_5_2018.pdfUploaded by67409b5322
- A Practical Approach for Design of Marine Propellers With Systematicpropeller SeriesUploaded byMerrel Ross