Notes on use of pseudo measurement to enhance observability of an system

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Notes on use of pseudo measurement to enhance observability of an system

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1.0 Introduction

In these notes, we explore two very practical

and related issues in regards to state estimation:

- use of pseudo-measurements

- network observability

It is important to keep in mind that the objective

of state estimation is to obtain a computer model

that accurately represents the current conditions

in the power system. So if we can think of ways

to improve the model using something other

than actual measurements, we should feel free to

do that.

are used in the state-estimation algorithm as if

they were. If we can know with certainty that a

particular pseudo-measurement is accurate, we

should use it as it will increase the accuracy of

our state estimate.

1

The most common “exact” pseudo-measurement

is the bus injection at a substation that has no

generation and serves no load. Figure 1 below

illustrates.

Bus p

Fig. 1

In Fig. 1, bus p has no generation or load. We

therefore know the real and reactive power

injection of this bus with precision; it is 0. And

so we can add two more measurements to the

measurements that we actually have:

zi hi ( x) i (1)

zi 1 hi 1 ( x) i 1 (2)

2

where:

zi Pp ,inj 0 (3)

“Measurements”

zi 1 Qp ,inj 0 (4)

hi ( x) Pp ,inj V p Vk G pk cos( p k ) B pk sin( p k ) 0

n

k 1

(5)

hi 1 ( x) Qp ,inj V p Vk G pk sin( p k ) B pk cos( p k ) 0

n

k 1

(6)

We recognize the summations of eqs. (5) and

(6) as the power flow equations for real and

reactive power injection, respectively.

distributed errors for the pseudo-measurements.

We can account for the fact that these pseudo-

measurements are exact by letting σi and σi+1 be

very small (and therefore the corresponding

weights, 1/σi, and 1/σi+1, to be very large) The

weighted least-square estimation algorithm is

then carried out as usual.

3

3. Observability

Recall our very first example at the beginning of

the first set of state estimation notes. It is below.

I1, I2, and voltage E are unknown. Let

R1=R2=R3=1.0 Ω. The measurements are:

meter A1: i1,2=1.0 Ampere

circuit, which in this case is nodal voltages v1,

v2, and the voltage e across the voltage source.

+ V -

R1

Node 1 Node 2

● A1

+ -

●

e A3

I1 I2

R2 R3

A2

● Node 3

Fig. 2

4

To determine the state of the circuit (v1, v2, and

e), we wrote each one of the measurements in

terms of the states. We then expressed these

four equations in matrix form:

1 1 1 1.0

1 0 0 v1 3.2

v 2

0 1 0 0.8

e (7)

0 0 1 1.1

Let’s denote terms in eq. (7) as A, x, and b, so:

Ax b (8)

We solved eq. (8) using:

x A A A b G A b A b

T 1 T 1 T I

(9)

First, the gain matrix is given as

1 1 1

1 1 0 0 2 1 1

1 0 0

G A A 1 0 1 0 1 2 1

T

0 1 0 (10)

1 0 0 1 1 1 2

0 0 1

The inverse of the gain matrix is then found

from Matlab as

3 1 1

G 1 3 1

1 1

4 (11)

1 1 3

5

The pseudo-inverse is then

3 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 3 1 1

A G A 1 3 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 3 1

I 1 T 1 1

4 4 (12)

1 1 3 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 3

the 3 states from the 4 measurements as

1.0

1 3 1 1 3.125

x A b 1 1 3 1 0.875

I 1 3.2

4 0.8 (13)

1 1 1 3 1.175

1.1

we lost a measurement? Let’s say that we lost

A1, the measurement on the current flowing

from bus 1 to bus 2. Let’s see what happens.

(corresponding to, in eq. (7), the first row of the

A-matrix and the top element in b-vector).

1 0 0 v1 3.2

0 1 0 v 0.8

2 (14)

0 0 1 e 1.1

6

Actually, here the matrix is 3×3 and therefore

we can solve exactly as:

v1 3.2

v 0.8

2 (15)

e 1.1

But let’s go ahead and use eq. (9) to see what

happens.

1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0

G A A 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0

T

(16)

0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1

The inverse of the gain matrix is then

1 0 0

G 0 1 0

1

(17)

0 0 1

The pseudo-inverse is then

1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0

A G A 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0

I 1 T

(18)

0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1

the 3 measurements is then

7

1 0 0 3.2 3.2

x A b 0 1 0 0.8 0.8

I

(19)

0 0 1 1.1 1.1

Compared to the solution of eq. (13), our

estimate can be assumed to be less accurate

(since it is based on fewer measurements), but at

least we still did obtain a solution.

Let’s say that we lost A1, the measurement on

the current flowing from bus 1 to bus 2, and A2,

the measurement on the current flowing from

bus 1 to bus 3. Let’s see what happens.

equations (corresponding to, in eq. (7), the first

row of the A-matrix and the top element in b-

vector).

v1

0 1 0 0.8

0 0 1 v2 1.1

e (20)

8

The matrix is once again non-square, so we

must use our least-squares procedure.

0 0 0 0 0

G A A 1 0 0 1 0

T 0 1 0

(16)

0 1

0 0 1

0 0 1

The inverse of the gain matrix is, however,

singular – it’s determinant is zero (or

equivalently, it has a zero eigenvalue). As a

result, it can not be inverted. In this case, our

process must stop since we need G-1 to evaluate

x, as indicated in eq. (9), repeated below for

convenience.

x A A A b G A b A b

T 1 T 1 T I

(9)

What is the problem here?

enough measurements. In this case, the system

is said to be unobservable. This means that

despite the availability of some measurements,

it is not possible to provide an estimate of the

states with those available measurements.

9

Example:

Consider the system in Fig. 3. This is the same

system considered in our previous set of state

estimation notes and in your homework

assignment. There are real power measurements

taken at P12, P13, and P32. But we assume that the

measurements P13 and P32 fail so that we only

have the measurement P12=0.62 pu. As in

previous examples, assume all voltages are 1.0

per unit, all measurement devices have σ=0.01,

and that the bus 3 angle is reference. The state

vector is x=[θ1 θ2]T as before.

Bus 1 Bus 2

P12

P13

P32 Bus 3

Fig. 3

10

a) Determine the vector of measurement

expressions h(x), the derivative

h( x )

expressions H , and the weighting

x

matrix R.

b) Develop A H T ( x)R 1 H ( x) , b H T ( x) R 1z h( x)

and comment on our ability to solve

AΔx=b for Δx.

Solution:

(a)

h1 ( x) P12 V1 g12 V1 V2 g12 cos(1 2 ) V1 V2 b12 sin(1 2 ) 5 sin1` 2

2

h1 ( x) h1 ( x) h1 ( x)

H ( x) 5 cos(1 2 ) 5 cos(1 2 )

x 1 2

R 2 0.0001.

(b)

First get A.

5 cos(1 2 )

A H T ( x) R 1 H ( x)

100005 cos(1 2 ) 5 cos(1 2 )

5 cos( 1 2

)

25 cos 2 (1 2 ) 25 cos 2 (1 2 )

10000

25 cos (1 2 ) 25 cos (1 2 )

2 2

Now get b.

11

5 cos(1 2 )

b H T ( x) R 1 z h( x) 100000.62 5 sin 1` 2

5 cos(1 2

)

3.1cos(1 2 ) 25 cos(1 2 ) sin 1` 2

10000

3.1cos(1 2 ) 25 cos(1 2 ) sin 1` 2

25 cos 2 (1 2 ) 25 cos 2 (1 2 ) 1

10000

25 cos 2

( 1 2 ) 25 cos 2

( 1 2

)

2

3.1 cos(1 2 ) 25 cos(1 2 ) sin 1` 2

10000

3.1 cos(1 2 ) 25 cos(1 2 ) sin 1` 2

or

25 cos 2 (1 2 ) 25 cos 2 (1 2 ) 1

25 cos 2

(1 2 ) 25 cos 2

(1 2

) 2

3.1 cos(1 2 ) 25 cos(1 2 ) sin 1` 2

3.1 cos(1 2 ) 25 cos(1 2 ) sin 1` 2

The above equation solves according to

1

2

1

25 cos 2 (1 2 ) 25 cos 2 (1 2 ) 3.1 cos(1 2 ) 25 cos(1 2 ) sin 1` 2

25 cos (1 2 ) 25 cos (1 2 ) 3.1 cos(1 2 ) 25 cos(1 2 ) sin 1` 2

2 2

require the matrix determinant, which is:

25 cos 2 (1 2 ) 25 cos 2 (1 2 )

25 cos (1 2 ) 25 cos (1 2 ) 0

4 4

det

25 cos (1 2 ) 25 cos (1 2 )

2 2

12

The matrix is singular and we cannot solve the

equation.

observable if A H T ( x)R 1 H ( x) is non-singular.

matrix rank:

The maximum number of linearly independent

rows in an m×n matrix A is the row rank of A,

and the maximum number of linearly

independent columns in an m×n matrix A is

the column rank of A.

If A is m×n, then: row rank≤m & col rank≤n.

For any matrix A: row rank=col rank≡rank.

power system state estimation problem that m>n

(more measurements than states). The power

system is observable if matrix A H T ( x)R 1 H ( x) is

nonsingular, and this occurs if H has rank n,

where n is the number of columns of H.

13

Most state estimators will perform an

observability analysis. If the network is

unobservable, it may be the case that some

pockets or islands of the network are still

observable. Thus we also need to be able to

identify observable parts of the system from

unobservable parts of the system. Doing so will

will enable us to determine from which part of

the network we need to obtain additional

measurements.

covered in [3, ch 7].

4. Approximate pseudo-measurements

observability. If the network is not observable,

i.e., if we do not have enough independent

measurements, then we will not be able to

obtain a network model.

14

When the state estimator detects that the

network is unobservable, it can make use of

approximate pseudo-measurements. Examples

of such approximate pseudo-measurements

include:

Information obtained from plant operators over

phone or e-mail.

Information obtained from previous

measurements.

Information obtained from a load flow

calculation.

In using approximate pseudo-measurements, it

is generally good practice to pair it with a

relatively large variance in the weighting

matrix, given that it is in fact “approximate.”

estimate of the states given all available

measurements, there remains the rather

important question of:

How good is the state estimate?

15

Clearly, if the state estimate is very poor, we

will not want to use it even if it is the “best.”

quality.

Bad data: Some data might be completely

erroneous, polluted with some kind of gross

error beyond the normal meter error. For

example, a transducer may be wired

incorrectly or is malfunctioning and gives a

negative number or a zero or a number that is

10 times what it should be.

Meter error: We have already discussed that

meter error will always be present. We should

check to ensure that there is not one or more

meters in a crucial location having magnitude

large enough to cause the entire state estimate

to have unacceptable quality.

in Section 12.6.1 “Detection and Identification

of Bad Measurements,” which depends on

Hypothesis Testing.

16

[1] W. Brogan, “Modern Control Theory,” Prentice-Hall, 1982.

[2] G. Strang, Linear Algebra and its applications,” Harcourt-Brace, 1988.

[3] A. Monticelli, “State estimation in electric power systems, a generalized

approach,” Kluwer, 1999.

17

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