National University of Singapore School of Design and Environment Faculty of Architecture Raja Mohd.

Fairuz HT044971R Priscilla Ang HT044929W AR5752, Independent Study Module, Construction Prototype th 16 November 2004, Tuesday

Bamboo, an Alternative to Sustainable Construction in Cambodia

1. BAMBOO: AN EXTRAORDINARY GIFT OF NATURE Since the dawn of civilization, bamboo has been widely utilized in various and ingenious ways. Japan, China, Philippines, Indonesia, and many other Asian countries, have used this marvelous grass in the construction of bridges, town and rural houses, sewers, water canals, in the production of paper, musical instruments, and many other items. It is an almost infinitely useful material with new applications being discovered every day in the fields of medicine, pharmaceuticals, and chemistry. Bamboo as a Plant Standing tall and slim, with its leaves whispering in the wind, bamboo has an exotic beauty that goes beyond being a part of pleasant scenery. Bamboo belongs to the Gramineae family; hence, it is actually a grass and not a tree. However, its stem (culm) is "woody" in nature. Bamboo grows and matures within five years. As a comparison, a hardwood such as pine needs more than 10 years to mature, while softwoods such as acacia need 6-7 years. One can almost see it grow, as some bamboo species can grow by about half a meter per day. Bamboo’s widespread and strong root system binds soil particles to prevent erosion and landslides. Its large total leaf area, along with its roots, absorbs and binds pollutants in the soil, water and air. In this way, bamboo aids the conservation of soil and water, particularly in barren areas and undeveloped lands. Harvested when newly sprouted and tender, bamboo can be consumed as food. The crisp texture and subtle flavor of bamboo shoots have made them a favored component in many eastern cuisines. Bamboo can be used for medical purposes as well. The shoot of yellow bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) is known to be a cure for jaundice. It contains the organic compound hydroxy benzaldehyde, which serves as an antitoxin in the liver. There are innumerable other uses of bamboo: as containers, musical instruments, mats and mattresses, boats, weapons, toys, fishing rods, paper pulp, and many more. It was even used as the first lamp filament in 1880 by Thomas Edison, as he could not find any other material suitable for the purpose. Cambodian tropical forests consist of various hardwood and softwood tree species, such as teak, meranti, gadog, mahogany and rubber. These have been exploited. Especially since the 1970s,

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to meet the rapidly growing industrial production and consumer needs for wood, mostly for building materials and various industries (such as pulp and furniture). Today, Cambodia’s tropical forests are approaching a crisis situation in that the current and projected rates of their exploitation exceed the rate of possible replacement. The unsustainability of this resource may well lead to commercial and genetic extinction of several valuable tropical wood species. It will take several years for a new forest to mature and become harvestable. Hence, the current unsustainable scale of exploitation puts tremendous pressure on natural forests. There has always been a need to seek wood substitutes. Bamboo can meet this demand. Because of the fact that the nation suffered a long period of political crisis, bamboo flora like the biodiversity generally has been considered a low priority issue and the future of bamboo flora research remains somewhat uncertain. The bamboo forest (Russey Khley) is more than often a result of the degradation of the tropical rainforest by humans. It is therefore a formation with a limited number of species. Bamboo usually grows under tall trees. When the trees are cut down, the bamboo gets the sun and spreads fast. If the forest was not artificially exploited, it would progressively return to its original biodiversity as a dense forest. Owing to Cambodia’s tropical climate, bamboo grows in most parts of the country. Some commonly found species having commercially important value are Bambusa Bambos (Rusey Khley), B. Burmanica (Rusey Sroy Chin), B. Flexuosa (Rusey Srok), B. Vulgaris (Rusey Koa) and Oxytenanthera Dense (Rusey Ping Pong). Other species like Arundinaria Ciliate , A. A Pusilla (Rusey Prech), Bambusa Blumeana (Rusey Rlek) are used daily as food, for making musical instruments, kitchen utensils, fences, matting slat traps and floats. Some ethnic groups in northeast of Cambodia are permanently settled in bamboo forests as they are cultural and materially reliant on these resources. If the bamboos no longer exist in their village they move the village to another area where the bamboo grows.

Bamboo as a Material Owing to the tropical climate, bamboo grows in most parts of the country. Out of date data, lacking quality and quantity, research constraints and the rapid pace of change of the country’s administration make it difficult to reach a definite estimate of the number of species. Cambodia’s forests have not been comprehensively surveyed for bamboos. In addition, bamboos have been excluded from forest flora because they are considered as village plants, or are found growing in logged or secondary forests. The only reference on Cambodian bamboo is by Camus and Camus (1923) in the Flore Generale de L’indochine. It includes 14 genera and 72 species for Indo-china. The taxonomy of the species found in Cambodia is still in its preliminary stage of investigation. Referring to existing data of the bamboo flora available, it is estimated that there are at least 10 species of 4 genera (bambusa, arundinaria, dendrocalamus and oxytenanthera) of which the number of species under Bambusa predominate. It is assumed that the bamboos present are not only as diverse as in neighboring countries but also includes some native, endemic and threatened or endangered species. Based on this very optimistic assumption, there seems to be great potential for the usage of bamboo. Therefore, it is worthwhile to look at bamboo as an economic resource for the purpose of Cambodian development. In order to use bamboo as a potential economic resource, it is important to understand bamboo’s superior qualities. Bamboo has an astonishing reputation as a strong construction material, having been used for centuries for structural purposes. Bamboo’s cell structures and technical properties resemble those of wood, yet it is superior in both strength and elasticity when compared with wood and steel. Bamboo fiber has a static tensile strength of up to 400 N/mm², as against 50 N/mm² of wood, 370 N/mm² of construction steel and 700 N/mm² of glass fiber. The modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of bamboo have been proven to be equal to those of hardwood. After

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so as to be more appreciated among urban as well as the rural dwellers. Six kinds of musical instruments accompany an Ayai performance. The Cambodian demography as of three years ago shows that more than half of the population was under 15 years old. a double-reed flute made of bamboo. along with its rapid regeneration. and the Choeng (tiny pair of cymbal) Some musicians also include one more instrument. The end result may produce an architectural design with modern qualities at the same time respecting the traditional aspects. Among those traditions affected. chemical substances and mechanical forces. the proportion of people in their 50s and 60s was about the same. Several kinds of bamboo flutes are played in many parts of the island. There is the Tro Sor (a violin-like instrument with light tones). This instrument is only used in the Arakk (worship of the spirit) and Kar 3 . Although there is no prize for the best lyrics. Bamboo in the Past Cambodian Bamboo Culture Bamboo has had an immense influence on the life and culture of the South East Asian people for centuries. The physical and mechanical properties of bamboo. A dying trade. Bamboo products have been neglected. Available natural. "A quarter of a century" corresponds to "one of generation ". therefore. which also left its mark on Cambodian traditional tradition: there are some people older than 60 who knew the skills of tradition weaving. the Skor (a hand-drum). there is an urgent need to find older weavers to convey their skills to the younger generation in Cambodia. it is important to discuss how technology can be appropriate for a given environment. human and cultural resources are the key elements to consider in the process. About 15 songs make up an average Ayai performance. legends. bamboo’s skin contains an abundant proportion of silica that protects the surface from termites. Bamboo musical instruments are in use throughout the Cambodia. songs and folklore and it carries many symbolic meanings in its various uses. This paper investigates possible construction methods to further utilize bamboo as a low cost alternative to building construction in developing countries like Cambodia . people always enjoy themselves and audiences love it. One singer poses a question or a quiz and the other sings an answer in response. but the population in their 30s and 40s is extremely small.its first three years of growth. but there are hardly any people younger than 50 who have mastered it. and Vietnamese intervention in 1979 until the foundation of the transitional government in 1993. Bamboo has often figured in local paintings. It involves two people pitching their wits against each other through singing. Pey Ar. the Takhe (a guitar-like instrument). The traditional Khmer lifestyle and culture in Cambodia was disrupted for a quarter of a century during the reign of Commander-in-Chief Lon Nol (1970-1975). the old Cambodian art of weaving bamboo was one of them. it is hoped to highlight bamboo’s unique characteristics. Ayai verses are required to rhyme. Ayai is a popular art form that is held in high esteem by Khmer people all through Cambodia. which could serve to change people’s perception of bamboo and reduce the stigma currently attached to bamboo materials. because bamboo is widely used by rural people. like poems.Through the introduction of modern technology with tradition. it carries the image of a poor man’s timber. heavy tones). 2. the Khmer Rouge (1975-1979). particularly those living in rural areas. or have been drowned among a sea of products made of new materials. However. the Kloy (a kind of flute). the Tro Ou (another violin-like instrument that has hard. Sometimes. make bamboo a potential material to supplement wood. This highly unbalanced demography is a direct result of the history of armed conflicts in Cambodia since 1970. especially since most of them are perceived as not being "modern". called a Khim (a harp with 16 strings which is struck with bamboo hammers).

As bamboo is still a ubiquitous in Cambodia. and mortar. This tradition of bamboo utilization continues and most of the bamboo artifacts described above are still being made and widely used. gentle. Therefore negative images—such as being cheap. historical. are sometimes incorporated into the design. playing. disposable and common—are as well attached to bamboo. brick. often with elevated tile roofs. The general population builds homes on wooden stilts high above ground. such as wood. The watery melodies tinkled on bamboo xylophones or Roneat ek serve the same purpose. aesthetic. mainly to capture the cool breeze. brick. Various color schemes. it costs almost nothing to purchase the material. The instrument is rattled to provide musical accompaniment to dances. Much of this styling and materials are imported (or influenced by) from neighboring Thailand. with temples being the highest of them all. clay tile. bamboo. Yellow and white are two of the most common color schemes being used. Elaborate details are added to the front facade. such as wood. straw thatch. respectful. These concepts help to define Khmer architecture in today Cambodia. The structures are often elevated high above ground. such as wide use of concrete. With economic improvement. some as bright as a rainbow. and mortar. especially during the Angkor period. and security/safety elements into the design. those that intertwine with Colonial (French) flavor. The image of being ‘traditional’ is thus firmly attached to bamboo. straw thatch. politeness. These homes are still built on wooden (some are now built with adaptive concrete) stilts high above ground. are very popular. and palm leaf. despite the many layers of valuable traditional meaning. free flowing (inside out). especially for hotels and public facilities. religious. The height of these government buildings vary from a low single story and up to 10 stories high. to enhance the aesthetic value of a building. relaxation.(wedding) ceremonies. often incorporates open. Approximately 80% of the general populations still use locally found materials. modern Khmer architecture has strong Western (Colonial) influence. during Angkor period. peaceful. Bamboo wares and constructions are easily replaceable and hence are commonly used by low-income communities. bamboo. learning. to build their homes. with laterite blocks as foundations and sometimes as pathway and stair paving. functional. elaborated details and color schemes are the favorite for 4 . brick. Traditionally. massive. Traditional Khmer styles. such as schools and temples. Government facilities are commonly using cast-in-place concrete with large wooden windows and flat roofs. Private homes and commercial buildings use a combination of concrete. These materials are commonly used for public facilities. from molding and/or castin-place. contemplation. and palm leaf. Khmer architecture involved the use of solid sandstone blocks and brick bars for wall and roofing. This is especially true for poorer people in the countryside. Wood and clay tile were traditionally used to construct palaces for royalty and homes for the elites. and yet well within human dimensions. The Origins of Khmer Architecture Khmer architecture. The general population uses locally found materials. Presently. to build their homes. regardless of materials used. as well as to avoid flooding and encroachment by insects and small animals during the Monsoon season (from June-December). Some are now completely enclosed with glass windows with the increase use of air conditioning systems. quiet. The scale is often grand. meditation. multiple storied concrete houses with elevated tile roofs. massive. powerful-awe struck. both traditional and contemporary.

the role of custom. including language. The same is true of development. the house will tilt and the occupants will feel unstable and insecure. widening the gap between rich and poor. intellectual and spiritual beliefs and needs. the environmental. architecture and arts. “Culture” is often a difficult concept to define. However. the economic pole is rapidly expanding at the expense of the environment. ill at ease with the surrounding environment and unsuitable for habitation by the majority of the population. For sustainable development to be successful there needs to be more interaction between science and the arts. In reality. The idea that rapid economic growth would lead to a gradual filtering down of benefits to the mass population has. influential in shaping the ideas. It shapes the way people think and learn about the world (including themselves) and how they interact with it. social and cultural considerations will be weakened or damaged. 5 . This view ignores the fact that these art forms have always been. In its broadest sense it can be defined as the human-made part of the environment”. as they work their way up the economic ladder. social and environmental aspects in addition to the economic concerns. In Cambodia today. If economic development is the only consideration. Life is seen not only as the concern of people as related to other people or society. the environmental. culture is a combination of these three definitions. this definition is so wide-encompassing that it becomes difficult to give it any real meaning. wood houses with tile or imported tin roofs are still the dream of the people in the countryside. It includes whole systems of beliefs.are of equal importance and strength. culture is believed to be a barrier to change. values. Culture and Sustainability During the past decade development aims in Cambodia have mainly focused on economic growth with little or no consideration of the social. institutions and social relations. resulted in imbalance. between nature and culture. something to be overcome or eliminated if people are to achieve progress. There is now a growing realization that development cannot be based on economic aims alone. Culture defines how people relate to nature and their physical environment. culture and Cambodian society. customs. cultural or environmental aspects. science and technology. it must address cultural. the cultural and the social . It can be defined as an understanding and appreciation of the arts such as painting. For development to be sustainable. between technology and traditional knowledge. This is a situation which needs to be readdressed to prevent the scenario of an unstable house. nor meets the needs of the whole population. in reality. It can be defined as the primitive and ritualistic practices and superstitions of a certain group or community of people which are unrelated to everyday modern life. and will continue to be. slowly causing environmental degradation and the disintegration of social structures. It encompasses a broader anthropological sense of a whole way of life of a particular group or people. However.the city dwellers. and how they express their attitudes to and beliefs in other forms of life. including their material. attitudes. resulting in a development that is neither sustainable. the values and beliefs of a society. culture and religion is still meaningful. It comprises all the expressions of creativity.the economic. In many societies. cultures and religious beliefs. 3. Viewed in this way. This linkage is increasingly being recognized as a valuable way of protecting the environment and natural resources and it is important that this is acknowledged by the decision makers and governments when formulating their development policies. If one pole is shorter or weaker than the others. Each of the supporting house-poles has to be of equal length and strength for the house to be stable and secure. but as the concern of all humankind as related to nature. The image of a traditional Khmer house can be used to suggest that sustainable development can only be achieved when the different aspects . music and literature.

the word to eat (nyham bai) is synonymous with eating rice. as a result. but also modes of life. for example. The further people become removed from their heritage and cultural values. in turn. often consider societies which have few outward signs of cultural wealth as having little or no culture. 1982 3 Societies which have a rich wealth of tangible cultural resources. the word aon is used to describe this show of respect as well as to describe the bending over of a mature rice stalk: The interplay of cultures and environments has often been translated into the creation of cultural landscapes. where intangible cultural beliefs are represented in a tangible form. such societies often have a particularly strong and adaptable culture. there would be no tangible cultural resources. intellectual and emotional features that characterize a society or social group. Culture is: “The whole complex of distinctive spiritual. As a result. also shaped by the environment. influence the type and extent of its interactions with other human groups. the following proverb which conveys the message that respect should be shown to elders. for example. It becomes easy to believe that resources are virtually limitless and can be used at the flick of a switch or turn of a tap. Natural resources are put under increasing pressure to provide for the industrial and urban needs of the consumer society. resources are often judged solely by their economic worth rather than their life-support capacity. Cultures are. the Cambodian population has become an increasingly urban one. In a large part. Culture also plays an integral part of architecture as it makes up the genius loci of the place.both animal and plant. But. and influence its beliefs. the growth of the urban environment has brought new and vastly increased damage to the natural environment and to the traditional patterns of relationships between the Cambodian society and their physical environment. the less awareness people have of the effect of the environment on their well-being and of the impact of their lifestyles on the environment. material. Many Khmer proverbs draw on images of rice to convey traditional wisdom. the visible symbols of a particular group of people. or at least replace them with trees which can bear fruit for us to eat. local systems of knowledge developed over centuries are lost. If we cut them we have to replant them. As a result. fish. Cultures cannot survive if the environment on which they depend is seriously degraded or destroyed.” 6 . In Khmer. such as the temples of Angkor in Siem Reap province. It includes not only the arts and letters. palaces. historic events and cultural values are shaped by humankind’s response to the environment. Over the last few decades. Climate. Without the intangible cultural resources. value systems. Jarai Man. with the population of urban centers rising at an annual rate of about 16% since 1994.” UNESCO World Conference on Cultural Policies. because intangible cultural resources are usually deeply rooted in history and kept within the minds and souls of people. It is the intangible cultural resources that make up the diversity of mankind and influence the production of the material cultural resources. landscapes and even traditional societies become commodities that can be exploited for exchange within the market economy. Mexico City. often of a temporary nature. Khmer culture often reflects this reliance on and closeness to the rice crop. Trees. bringing the rain and providing a sanctuary for animals. natural setting and available resources affect the ways of life of a population. it is everything that forms the specific characteristics and originality of a people or a community and which gives each of us our cultural identity. They decide the individual and community use of natural resources. In other words. Ratanakiri Province “This is the value of trees: preventing strong winds. The majority of the Cambodian population has long been involved with wet-rice cultivation and. the fundamental rights of the human being. Cultures shape the environment. The move to cities and urban centers has opened up opportunities for many people and is often considered a sign of development and modernization. language and creativity. at the same time. traditions and beliefs. For the Khmer people. temples and sculptures. cultural identities disintegrate and the natural resource base is eroded for monetary gain. However. minerals.

traditional knowledge. If the “progressive” society is the dominant force. Lack of recognition or loss of this cultural diversity and the environment in which it thrives. International assistance projects and government decision making bodies need to better understand and incorporate all aspects of Cambodian culture into their development efforts in order to provide greater benefits to the whole population and to gain the support and co-operation of the local people. This is a view often perpetuated by “progressive” societies who see these “traditional” societies as an obstacle to development and national growth. traditions. People need to be more aware of the effect of the environment on their well being and of the impact of their lifestyles on the environment. One result of the current environmental crisis is that over the last few decades “progressive” nations have begun to reassess their cultural beliefs and look for answers in traditional beliefs. These groups have acquired knowledge and skill through hands-on experience of living in close contact with their environment. and that this relationship is a determining factor in ensuring sustainable human development. Cham. The solution to this problem requires new means and approaches which emphasize the importance and need for respecting different cultural systems of value and knowledge. all of which result in their having marginal influence in decision making processes. Their culture is seen as something that is unchanging and backwards. In addition. The environmental crisis has demonstrated that development cannot be based on economic values and technology alone. such as agrarian cultures. Chinese. The destruction of natural habitats is often accompanied by the degradation of the ways of life. religious teachings or the ideologies and practices of indigenous people. The challenge to people in cities is to reconstruct the vital and dynamic relationship between the local community. in the lowland plains of Cambodia. and an erosion of the natural resource base on which the people depend.Growing urbanization and interaction with the larger world is increasing the vulnerability of “traditional” societies or indigenous people. art forms and values are restricted. Sustainable. the decline of certain ways of life. This is true of both the indigenous people in the north-eastern provinces of Cambodia and the rural societies. between ecosystems and cultural identity. Values have to be re-thought. remoteness from economic and political centers. The outcome of such policies is usually a loss of cultural identity. the prevalent belief tends to be that the only way to civilize these people and realize progress is by absorbing them into the dominant society. This is often most noticeable today in the case of indigenous peoples. long-term and equitable economic growth depends on more careful management of resources rather than on intensive use. between habitats and cultures. They are often left out of the mainstream of economic development due to differences in language and customs. 2. and lack of formal education. There is an urgent need for progressive and developing societies to re-asses their lifestyles and attitudes in relation to the environment and their utilization of resources. which is often the case. its environment and its cultural identity. Vietnamese. Cambodia has long been a rural society where people have managed natural resources based on traditional methods. and can create a divided and unstable society. and their systems of resource management have 7 . There is now recognition that there exists a mutually dependent relationship between biological diversity and cultural diversity. indigenous highlanders and other ethnic15 groups. The study of the interrelationships between culture and environment is important for two major reasons: 1. heritage and identity of the communities who live in these habitats. Cambodia is a multi-cultural nation with a population consisting of urban and rural Khmer. consisting of farmers and fishermen. language. and a loss of knowledge about this habitat. This can partly be done through acknowledging and learning from rural cultures or indigenous groups who still have strong links with the natural world in which they work and live. is commonly accompanied by the destruction of the habitat which supported them. will limit the ways in which Cambodians as a whole can adapt to modernization in a sustainable and fulfilling manner. as the use of their languages.

Cambodia’s plans for large scale agricultural development will cause enormous changes for the rural people living off the land. the villagers are worried about social problems which may arise from the need to find new land or jobs. This is our original homeland. there was also an essential need to understand the Khmer culture and society (i. Similarly. Once moved from traditional homelands. These systems are linked together…. the sustainability of its development. we will have lost everything. It is our history: people concentrate around the wetlands and rivers for the fish. and the livelihoods and associated cultural values will vanish. the Temple of One Hundred Columns.” For the preservation of the natural environment it is essential that the traditional resource systems and cultural values of these societies are recognized. These communities need to retain their rights to make informed choices about how they will develop and adapt their way of life to changing circumstances. if they are moved from their homeland.developed as a response to this. Sensitivity and Bamboo Architecture Come December. Kratie province. The relocation of communities from traditional homelands as a result of large-scale economic development projects can also have a negative impact on traditional resource management systems and environmental conservation. Sambor Resident “If they build the dam and the district floods. Small farming communities will be disrupted. even if they are given money. communities tend to lose their sense of affinity with their surrounding environment and their customary observances become disrupted. or rebuilding their businesses. The project aims to spread awareness on the importance of conservation and its vital impact on Cambodia’s environment. the fishermen whose livelihood revolves around the Tonle Sap or Mekong river have detailed knowledge of the species to be harvested. Having had adequate understanding of the genius loci or “sense of place” of the site and what materials are appropriate to use there.” It is people such as these who are often the first to realize the damage caused to the environment by large-scale exploitation of resources and development projects. Survival of these groups has ensured that the resources they use are managed in a sustainable way. because it is their livelihood that suffers the most quickly and to the greatest extent. all of which can result in unsustainable resource management practices. Over-exploitation of resources will result in food shortages at a later date. 4.if that link is cut. and an ancient ancestral burial ground both lie within thepotential reservoir area. In Sambor district. but damaging the way of life of the rural populations who receive little or no benefits from the “sale” of their common natural resources. the area they occupy. Similarly. then grow rice and work the land. 8 . Relocation schemes often require communities to be moved to unfamiliar areas and to re-establish their livelihood practices with little or no knowledge of the local environment. peaceful Kampi village in Sambor district. a group of Singaporean youths on a mission goodwill expedition will be invading the quiet. villagers have expressed concern about the flooding of their traditional homelands if the construction of a proposed hydro-electric dam goes ahead. Kratie province. the ecosystem will be destroyed. In addition. and the appropriate time for harvesting. the destruction of Cambodian forests for economic gain is not only destroying Cambodia’s ecological balance. Cambodia with a shared motive of building a visitors’ centre for the near extinct Irrawaddy dolphins that is unique in that area. “Cambodia has survived thousands of years with the wetlands and with the natural ebb and flow of the rivers.) before any design could conceptualize.e. Wat Sor Sor Moui Roy. The villagers don’t want to move. how people live and work and play etc. the Mekong River and thus.

The rows of shingles are fixed to the roof battens by an inserted key which prevents them from sliding off. floors and roof form linings rather than stiffening elements of the non-rigid framework because braces and diagonal stays are usually absent in those planes. Enhancing buildability and efficiency in construction. watch the rice grow. beading. But this roofing is no longer rain proof after being weathered under longer periods of rain. the fanning-out of the branches and the twisting of leafs necessitate more layers of leaf bundles.So says a Khmer popular philosophy: "Listen to the wind. These shingles look like brushes with long bristles. battens. The basic external layers that form the house like walls. why many houses in earthquake stricken zones are being designed with bamboo. the ridge is the most exposed part of the rain-proof layer. Because of the better drainage the shingle should contain no nodes outside the batten area. Rigid connections or joints are very rarely used. rails. Roofing with shingles made from bamboo shavings have a thick layer and are exceptionally wind and rain proof. simple assembly. namely: pre-fabrication. Roofing The simplest roof covering is formed by bamboo shingles which are as long as the rafters. The lancet shingle roofing is very expensive. The framing is connected by articulated joints so that there is always interconnectivity of all the framing bars. providing security to the dwellers. halved canes. Layer is placed upon layer up to the ridge. In comparison with covering consisting of stranded palm leaves the bamboo leaf cover has some disadvantages. Thus each part is able to transfer all axial and transversal forces to each other enforcing flexibility. laths.The structural safety of the skeletal structure is almost exclusively provided by the posts anchored in the ground. The building materials as well as the structure have a high elasticity and low mass by the usage of bamboo. bamboo boards and rope ties." The choice of bamboo as the primary building material was the result of the above research and the abundance of it being found in the vicinity of Kratie region. This is the reason. Typical bamboo elements are canes. The multi-layer shingle roofing is the most expensive and heaviest type of roofing. creating these shingles. These are cut from bamboo laths in the length of segments. a steeper roof pitch and more solid substructure. Above all. and make love (not necessary physical act). Bamboo canes are halved along their length and the diaphragms are removed. the structure must be able to withstand dynamic loads. and easily dismantled and reused bamboo elements. The roof structure is made of solid timber. it is no surprise that the usage of timber as the primary building material is fast being replaced by bamboo. The shingles are placed with their concave side upwards. The only vertical and horizontal forces acting on the structure are wind pressure. When using organic materials for roofing. simple replacement of structural parts. On the back of the lancet shingle a tongue is split away from the bark layer and this tongue is inserted between pairs of roof battens. They are threaded to the ridge and placed in same Roman tile fashion. Instead of a roof covering one can call this a roof wall due to it having a thickness of up to one metre. Each row of shingles is threaded onto a strip and tied to a pole which simultaneously functions as the purlin and roof batten. These shingles are not fixed at the eaves. live loads and deadweight. half a bamboo cane is placed on the ridge joint with its convex side up. This layer is secured by bars against being lifted off by the wind. The next roof covering is then composed of double layers of shingles. The lancet shape. The presence of the normal posts. for example wind gusts. The roof surfaces are protected 9 . With hard roofing materials. Bamboo offers a surprisingly large number of applications and uses. There are several advantages being offered from this type of construction. They are bent over a batten and sewn together. Bamboo as a building material in the bamboo architecture is used for several constructions as described below: Typical Khmer Bamboo house Bamboo houses are essentially skeletal buildings with raised floors and main posts anchoring from the ground. but held in position by their own weight. purlins and rafters form the longitudinal and transversal bamboo framework. With soft roofing materials the parting at the ridge has to be covered with an especially carefully applied layer of material. roof moisture.

The idea of the interlocking structure: columns and roof truss and beams enhance the inter-dependency between the villagers. which has been applied to bamboo since 10 . as the vessels in the bamboo wall tend to close within 24 hours of the bamboo being cut and prevent the penetration of the preservative. whose water catching function is. Another method is to arrange freshly cut bamboo poles upside down and set oil (diesel fuel) on top of the open stalks for about one week to push out the bamboo sap. Once the skin is wounded or split. the simple structure is cool. invented in 1839 by a French medical doctor of the same name. The visitors centre is essentially a multi purpose hall with very flexible internal planning so that it can double up as a community hall for the Kampi residents. thereby weakening the physical structure of the bamboo. the Mekong River and the dolphins. An exception are gutter-type purlins. They talk of the transience of existence. Traditional bamboo preservation involves the immersion of bamboo poles in mud and water for approximately one month. the poles are steeped or immersed in various chemical substances to displace the sap with the chemical. This highly flexible public space was designed to supply for an economically diverse. It is a play space for small children during the day. The columns are made of 2 bamboo poles reinforced with concrete foundation. The visitors’ centre is situated along the banks of Mekong River at the existing jetty where tourists can book a boat to see the dolphins. The centre will be built over a period of 2 weeks by communal labour and with donations of materials from local and foreign sources.against the wind by wide-mesh lattices of bamboo strips. The simplest materials and techniques are employed: The traditional local bamboo with layers of translucent polycarbonate. the exhibits are hung from partitions that are moveable and removable to create yet another spatial configuration according to need and use. while some others can create tunnels in the bamboo wall. A fully bamboo building. an inexpensive modern material. for example. rather than only in the evenings or at night. pests that feed on bamboo sap can invade the pole. 5. collecting breezes and providing shade. The preservation of green bamboo has to be performed soon after harvest. termites and fungi. Some pests can turn the bamboo into powder from the inside within a short period. and yet reassure with the regularity of the simple rhythms of the almost archetypal structure. Preservation techniques for bamboo seek to eliminate any possibility of invasion by pests. The outer skin of bamboo protects the inner parts. however. There was a very strong play of light and shadow in the facades. preservation techniques. The roof is mono pitched. The project is intended to emphasise independence over dependence. Open to all sides. the times of year and of day. independent community. The process. so public activities can be conducted during the day. aiming to create public spaces offering direct routes to encourage the community to express its strength and vitality. and will perhaps be used as a centre for training and research of the dolphins offered to older children and young adults. only secondary. including borers. A sort of minimalism expressing a great aesthetic. Having an open plan. Bamboo houses usually have no gutters. Construction was carefully worked out so that both local and foreign youths could build the centre themselves. A widely used chemical preservation process is the "Boucherie method". showing a great sense of ownership and an exemplary relationship between architecture and community. with a break n the roof form to denote a difference between the entrance and the main hall space. Located within Kampi village which houses some 120 families make a living mainly from fishing and farming where is no electricity and no communal facilities. Bamboo for the future Contributions from advanced technology can improve the performance of bamboo through. The patterns of light and many degrees of shade record the movements of the sun against the heavens. which are still being developed to increase the durability of the material. In chemical preservation processes. it had to be fully treated with anti-pesticides to prevent insect rot.

which then can serve as parts of huts such as walls. bamboo can be a substitute or supplement material to wood. Therefore. Producing bamboo goods has long been a source of secondary income to supplement income from agricultural work. in some cases even to metal. No adhesive is used in the weaving process. Several layers of the flat bamboo material can be pressed together to make boards of different thickness. and a well-coordinated management of these resources. wherein the material is immersed in the preservative substance and covered with a plastic sheet to let the substance diffuse. The disadvantages created by traditional methods and 11 . bamboo material will be able to perform efficiently and prove itself as a competent and exciting material. some others are still under development. as the space should be adequate to accommodate the harvested bamboo. the technique calls for bamboo materials in flat form (tied splits or woven mats). though it is the most effective preservation process. The traditional technologies have been. in the past. ceiling and flooring. Therefore. The improved bamboo materials that have resulted have demonstrated performance and appearance that are comparable to timber.or motor-driven) to replace to inject chemicals under pressure. the modified Boucherie method requires significant outlay in terms of capital. which is becoming increasingly scarce. The skills and tools to produce traditional bamboo goods are locally available and are part of the existing socio-cultural structure. The first modern attempt to make bamboo into thick firm sheets. A dip-diffusion method is applied for split bamboo. Preservative treatments of bamboo have some restrictions. yet. and even more far ranging possibilities if the same techniques were used to press the layered splits into other shapes. With modern applications that can expose its superior qualities. intelligent and appropriate uses of the material. It takes approximately two weeks to complete the process. was made in China during the Second World War. which can serve as boards. While some of these advanced techniques have been perfected in China and elsewhere (such as in India). For example. the Boucherie equipment and the treated bamboo poles that need drying. Bamboo’s cell structures and technical properties resemble those of wood. human and material resources. The site requirement is also large. it is superior to most woods in both strength and elasticity. Techniques designed to improve bamboo’s performance as an industrial material have resulted in various kinds of bamboo boards. In principle. The preservation site has to be located close to the bamboo plantation area for the process to be practical.1947. The Boucherie process has seen later modified by the addition of a pump (hand. which are converted into boards by applying an adhesive and pressing under a predetermined temperature and pressure. for interior elements and construction purposes. The adhesive substance impregnates the bamboo thoroughly and the result is a strong board. It has become clear that there are numerous potential product applications for bamboo boards. Design professionals can be expected to come up with creative. The advanced treatments have generally been developed by scientists and engineers through research in material sciences. the Boucherie method works effectively only under certain conditions. Conclusion Bamboo grows rapidly and matures within five years. The method requires qualified workers to supervise the equipment and control the proportions of the chemical substances. since freshly cut bamboo poles must be treated as early as possible. involves the use of gravity to push out the sap and push in the preservative. fully appropriate to the environment both socio-culturally and environmentally. as a renewable natural resource. Traditionally. Bamboo is very easy to obtain since it grows in abundance throughout Cambodia. bamboo can be made into sheets by weaving thin bamboo strips manually into mats. 5.

skills and resources which enable them to make free and reasoned choices. The focus of economic policies ought not to be purely on monetary values. take shelter. Future development decisions need to be based on all the people having access to information. knowledge and experience should contribute towards a restoration of identity. will lead to a greater sense of national pride and a respect for Cambodia’s environment. These treatments can improve bamboo’s performance. architecture and sustainability is obvious. combined with the extreme low cost of the material and its association with poor rural areas. replacing timber as a primary sustainable construction material. Cultural features have persisted in Cambodia despite severe civil turmoil. At the end of the day. dignity and self-esteem which. while others have been altered or re-created over the passage of time.design. A building. If development is based on those cultural elements that made people strong in the past. perhaps the sense of ownership and accomplishment of building finish the building as a team brings about that indescribable sense of achievement. there is always this need to respect the traditions and culture in the village and country. There is a need to utilize these traditional forms in new ways in order to reestablish and reinforce their validity. Advanced preservation and treatment technologies for bamboo have been developed since the 1940s. no matter how simple. and promote a truly Cambodian framework for development. somewhere they can seek comfort in. and adapted them to modern times and needs. live or work in. It should be a place where the locals can retreat. it would create a self-developing group of motivated people. and new treatments are currently being explored. a renewed respect for the positive aspects of Cambodian culture. Local construction and local materials should also play an important part of the design. play. Culture can be seen to play an increasing role in raising environmental awareness and in helping to conserve the world’s natural resources. but also on the improvement of quality of life indicators. but a sense of cultural identity helps to place people in relation to their environment and realize the impact the destruction of the environment will have on their lives in the short and long term. in turn. should at the end of the day merge in nicely with the landscape and the other houses around. Particularly in Cambodia. attach a stigma to bamboo as a traditional material meant for low-end applications aimed at economically poor people. 12 . When it boils down to designing particularly in a village. A nostalgic image of Cambodian life prior to the war torn 1970s is neither helpful or constructive in tackling the environmental issues in Cambodia today. where the recent history of violence and conflict has resulted in a general feeling of insecurity and an attitude of looking after ones-self. The interconnectivity of culture. which are reflected in the different cultures and the eco-systems in which these cultures thrive.

13 . Narayanamurty and Dinesh Mohan 1972 The use of bamboo and reeds in building construction /[prepared for the United Nations Secretariat] New York : United Nations Siegfried Gass. Marcelo 1993 New Bamboo : Bamboo architecture and design Bogotá : Villegas Editores . Jurgen Hennicke 1985 Bambus = Bamboo Stuttgart : Institut fur Leichte Flachentragwerke. London : Intermediate Technology Publications Janssen.Bibliography Dumarcay. Used in appendixes 1 and 2.A. Jacques and Royere. 1995 Building with bamboo : a handbook. K. Pascal 2001. Cambodian Architecture: Eighth to thirteenth Berkeley: Brill. London : Troika Janssen. Koln Villegas. Bosto. Universitat Stuttgart : Vertrieb. Kramer-Verlag David Farrelly 1984 The Book of Bamboo Sierra Club Books http://bambus. Jules J. 1985 A series of articles on the use of bamboo in building construction Netherlands : Eindhoven University of Technology D.de/eng/ Providing information on properties of bamboos and connection joints. Heide Drusedau.rwth-aachen.A. Jules J. . Leidon.

28° to +50° Bamboos grow mainly on C C. Several root systems can penetrate and overlay each other. sometimes brown to black 14 . thick. in particular. Bamboo canes have a circular cross-section and are axially slightly conically tapered. For this reason the diameter of the cane does not indicate its age. Root Monopodial species Bamboo has durable rootstocks. There they grow for several years until they emerge from the soil in the shape of short. The monopodial species grow horizontally over large distances. climatic and soil conditions Geographical distribution The main area of distribution is the tropics. later becoming yellowish. A rhizome stolon will grow in length by 1 . The shape of the canes varies between straight and exactly vertical. Like the grasses they have tubular blades. Emerging with its definitive circumference from the soil without increasing in diameter later. Its circumferential and longitudinal growth increases annually. The species "Guadua angustifolia" will reach length of up to 20 . There is no other plant which grows as fast as bamboo.25 m with a diameter of 12 cm. it delays the draining and soaking-away of rain water and thus serves as a moisture store. the differentiated rhizome system will begin to develop. The canes of bamboo consist of nodes. From that point the bamboo shoot will develop into a cane at enormous speed. Shorter canes taper more strongly than the longer ones. These species can be found in subtropical regions with a temperate climate Sympodial species The sympodial species develop horizontally over short distances growing in a circular spreading pattern by 1 -3 rhizome bulbs per original rhizome. Also the cane diameter remains unchanged as long as the cane stands. Growth The growth pattern of the bamboos is a singular combination of grass. The bamboo root network thus forms a supremely effective protection against erosion. overhanging or zigzagged.6 m per annum with an average life span of ten years. The segment closest to the ground increases in size first. As a form of reinforcement they increase the resistance of the cane against splitting and buckling. Bamboo is distinguished by its longitudinal growth. The segmental length increases from the base of the cane to its middle and decreases again towards the top. Bamboo grow at sea level and can be found at altitudes of up to 3800 m. There is a regular succession of nodes and segments in rhizomes. They prefer well drained soils but grow also in wet and even marshy locations. Smaller species have canes consisting of 15 20 segments. They do not tolerate saline soils. lancet shaped cover leaves and panicular flowers and from a subterranean rootstock branch extensively to form dense to loose bushes. For this reason the long canes are preferred for building purposes. The growth pattern of the trunk is similar to that of the palm tree.Appendix 1 Geographical distribution. The species "Guadua angustifolia" grow 12cm per day. The numbers and lengths of the segments per cane differ according to species. The average length of the canes amount 8 -15 m with a diameter of 5 . the rhizomes. Like leaf bearing trees they increase their crown every year by throwing out new branches and also shed their leaves each year. sandy loam to loamy clay soils. whereas larger species can have up to 55 segments. Section through a bamboo rhizome Each shoot pushing out of the soil contains already in miniature all the nodes. Frequently the segments at the top become solid. The age is judged by the sound of the cane and the appearance of its surface. Their points bend upwards and allow the new cane to mature. After about the first three years of growth the canes start lignifying and silicate slowly. Most bamboo species have an average segmental length of 35cm. According to the type of branching of the rhizomes the main group of the bamboos is called monopodial. Cane Segments of the cane The basic form of the bamboo plant consists of a branch system of segmented axes. The following characteristics distinguish bamboos from grasses: the longevity of their canes. Within a year at the latest it will reach its full size and the sheath leaves dropped completely. leaf-bearing tree and palm. each axis branches off another. curved or creeping. In most cases the interior of the cane remains hollow. animal and mechanical exposure. canes and branches. The surface of the young cane is green. The bamboo skin contains a high proportion of silicate acid. segments and diaphragms which the fully grown cane will posses later. Species with a solid cross section are rare. whereas the other group is called sympodial. These species are characteristic of the tropics. Most bamboo species grow at temperatures from . After a seedling has produced the first rhizome. It is only after twelve and more years that canes of full thickness and height will be produced. their branching and the lignification. There is no main axis for a central stem. Because of the hard silicate layer of the outer surface. It is only then that they become useful as structural timber. At first the canes appear as small buds at the nodes of the rootstock. segments and diaphragms. bamboo is highly resistant against chemical. Not only has the diameter of the bamboo canes decreased with increasing height but also the wall thickness. Some species of bamboo grow 5cm per hour. South-East-Asia. conical shoots surrounded by sheath leaves. resulting in cumulative root stolon. At irregular intervals the lateral buds produce single cane stems from which new canes grow upwards. From the base to the top they taper very gradually. Bamboo bud with sheath leaves The nodes provide the insertion points of the shed sheath leaves.12 cm and a wall thickness of 10 mm. and the one at the top last.

12 weeks. The bark develops cracks orthepoles split axially. Life span The canes die and fall to the ground only a few weeks after the production of flowers and fruits. When you cook bamboo. The reason for this growth in size is the strengthening of the rhizomes. Passive methods Covered bridge from Jörg Stamm Simple constructive measures like lifting up the pillars or an out jutting roof can help to extend the life time of the bamboo distinctly. The branch bases sprout from the nodal protuberances. The remaining canes not only support the young shoots but also maintain the full power of the rhizomes. Aktive methods Oven to smoke bamboo Smoking: Another possibility to preserve the bamboo is smoking it in its own resin. beetles and termites. Because of its low weight the load-bearing structural elements are only subjected to minimal addition loads. the smaller the leaves. This flowering can extend over large areas and even through entire countries. With mass flowering all the clusters are in flower simultaneously. The bamboos normally flower in the last months of a year and seeds mature at the beginning of the next year. After felling the branches have to be carefully removed so that the outer skin of the cane is not damaged. Branches and leaves Branch serving as support The cane remain free of branches for a period of not more than year until develops its full height. Like our leaf-bearing trees. storage and drying Bamboo preservation All bamboo fruits are edible. the starch and nutrient content will be reduced. so the structure of the outer zone changes and becomes more C resistant against insects. With sporadic flowering the flowers appear only in particular clusters and on isolated canes within that clusters. Heating: The canes are heated in kilns to ca. The air-drying process in frames with good air circulation takes 6 . Frame for storage At intervals of two to four years up to 30 % of the mature poles are removed from the cluster. Some species are distinguished by a longitudinal stripe pattern of different colours and widths. Bamboo cane with branches and leaves Usually bamboos flower only once in their lifetime and die after bearing fruit. The surface is mat or shiny. This branching process proceeds from the top downwards and. As infill for cavity flooring or walls they provide a good insulating material. This reduces attack by beetles because the insects are less active. The Problem is to find a container that is big enough to cook the canes in it. the bamboo sheds its leaves every year but with the following difference: the new leaves start growing without delay. The correct seasons for felling are autumn and winter in the subtropics and the dry season in the tropics. In the latter case the flowering period and the life span are not equal because the plant can flower frequently without dying. The poles can crack up easily. that the bamboo will be attacked by animals or vegetable pests like fungi. Some species can also flower annually without dying. after the ripening of the seeds. 150° for a short time. The rhizomes are fully developed only after many years and can then produce canes of the full height and diameter. The majority of bamboo species produce ripe fruits only rarely. After this no new leaves are formed. There are two possibilities for drying the bamboo canes. The branches carry stemmed grass leaves which can be of various widths. rain and soil moisture.3 weeks. The branch forks are suitable as supports for lighter structures. Long and broad bamboo leaves are also used for roofing. Two to five year old bamboo poles are considered most suitable for building and other purposes. They have a strong connection between the diaphragm and the nodal bead. in few species. The pests can attack living bamboo canes and felled ones and can perforate them to such an extend that it becomes unusable. The ability of the seeds to germinate is very low. With the large species the life span is determined by the flowering period which can be up to 100 years. The individual flowers are formed from ears and panicles and measure only a few millimeters. Bamboo can be cultivated by division. Bamboo poles should be stored horizontally and frequently supported so that they can neither sag nor bend. the first new bamboo plants can be seen on the ground. They should be protected against sun. Harvesting. The smaller species flower after approximately 3 to 4 years. Most fruits fall to the ground before ripening. whereas larger species can flower after 20 to 80 and in certain cases after 120 years. To cultivate artificially the bamboo is surer and much quicker consequently. Felling is best carried out using a machete or similar tool. These are 10 to 50 cm high tin canes which are thicker and longer than the previous ones are added. In general one can say that the taller the bamboo cane. So the best time for harvesting is the drier and cooler season when the insects are less active. from cuttings or by layering. Bamboo preservation in general Beetle "Lyctidae" With increasing moisture of the bamboo increases the danger. But some species of Bamboo do not tolerate quick drying. During the flowering period the canes shed their leaves. Frequently their rhizomes are exhausted and also die. may extend to the base of the cane. The flowering pattern may be divided into sporadic and mass flowering. 15 .and either of uniform colour. The kiln-drying process takes only 2 . At the start of the rainy season. The smoke makes the rind unpalatable to insects which therefore decline the bamboo.

Treatment of the surface Bamboo shaped under heat These information about bleaching and dyeing are determined for small parts for kite-constructions. 2. Sawing Scorch drilling Producing bamboo planks By means of splitting you get halved canes. Fire resistance of a bamboo cane filled with water Tensile strength: The fibres of the bamboo run axial. It can also be split with a knife frame into four or eight segments. 10-16 %. Elasticity: The enormous elasticity of bamboo makes it to a very good building material for earth-quake endangered areas. so the colour will become more regular. When heated above 150° C. the use of cranes is mostly unnecessary. Bamboo being forced to grow in a box Shaping: Bamboo which grows in a box gets a square shape. The working of bamboo These methods prevent the invasion of pests during changing the surface of the bamboo or remove the nourishment of the insects. the bamboo can be carbonized. Up to the age of 18 months. Dyeing: Every country has developed its own traditional method of dyeing. Shrinking: Bamboo shrinks more than wood when it loses water. because the salt will stay in the bamboo and can bring moisture and fungi into the canes. of persevered bamboo ca. It is a cheap. Remove the wax. all diaphragms have to be perforated or all segments drilled. 15-17 %.Immersion: Freshly cut canes are immersed in water for 4-12 weeks. Impregnating coatings: Coatings with borax are ecological and widely used. the bamboo will get perished. strips and battens. These methods only dye the surface of the bamboo. In addition. fast growing material with excellent statistics according to the mechanical properties. Bleach before dyeing. The life time of not-persevered bamboo will be ca. Other methods: In Japan. the bamboo will be brown through and through. DDT. In principle: 1. It can be transported and worked easily. Bleaching: Bleaching in hydrogen peroxide removes traces of resin or wax. the moisture must be kept away. Using insecticides is ecological not acceptable. 2 1/2 years. Streams are more suitable than stagnant ponds. 3. hydrochloric acid is put on the bamboo and the canes are put in an oven. The canes get a brown colour. Recommendable methods: Splitting: very easy as long as you work along the cane axis. but its not possible to construct connections that can transfer these tensile strengths. The strips can be used as ties or be woven to make strings and ropes. The Characteristics of Bamboo induce Parameters for Processing Bamboo itself has a lot of advantages using it for building houses. The tensile strength of these fibres is higher than that of steel. bamboo keeps its shape after it goes cold. After that. the canes can be peeled. The cane is split in halves and quarters and the driven apart by a wedge. Bleaching and dyeing possibly can change the structure of the bamboo that far. bridges. If it stays in it too long. Bamboo can be worked with the simplest tools which must be especially sharp because of the highly silicified outer zone. fix the colour in a solution of vinegar. So it can be better used for connections. The nourishment for insects (starch and sugar) is removed. in the wall thickness ca. Cutting with a machete-type or knife used for cutting. it can’t support enough weight. Bamboo shrinks in the cross section ca. it can stand a temperature of 400° C while the water cooks inside. 10 years. all the nodes are smashed and the wall of the pole is split over its entire length and forced open until the wall of the pole lies flat. The connections are the difficult structures in bamboo 16 . rangoo oil or slurries from lime or cow dung are also used. the surface will be peeled off. To get a through and through dyeing. To get planks. To preserve the bamboo inside of the pole. Bending: Freshly cut. otherwise the colour can’t penetrate into the bamboo. Treating the canes with copper sulfate will give a green colour to the bamboo and protects it from mould. Filled up with water. The bamboo is put into a boiler and is incubated with a pressure of 5 kg/cm³ and a temperature of 150° C for 20-30 min. The canes can tear apart at the nodes. lime slurries. To protect the bamboo from fungi and mould. PCP and others. In the outer zone are highly elastic vascular bundles that have a high tensile strength. After dyeing. bamboo can be bent and will keep this shape after drying. Another advantage of bamboo is its low weight. These are kerosene. Tool wear is considerably high. Fire resistance: The fire resistance is very good because of the high content of silicate acid. Saltwater is not suitable. Nevertheless these methods should be introduced.

• The face of the cane is very slippery and hard. • Bamboo fibres only grow in the longitudinal direction. Bamboo is a natural material that varies in diameters. Here are a few reasons: Bamboo has got a round profile. because there are no cross fibres. • Bamboo is not suitable for loads in cross direction. There is no material to tighten the bamboo in the middle of the cane. Creating connections with round profiles are leading to difficult geometric structures at the knot. • Bamboo is hollow.constructions. length and quality according to the climate. • 17 .

They are more wear- 18 . the fibres are watered before tying around the bamboo. 3. Bambu . Nowadays also industrial materials are used: iron wire (zinc coated) • plastic tapes/ ropes • 2. the bamboo is often split by the wedge shaped nail. The advantage of this system is. In this case the bolts have to transfer tensile and compressive forces. For overhead construction this system has to be examined by an official institute. Induo .Spatially frame-works This frame-work works on bamboo with diameters small than 80mm. Within this construction the tube wall is not weakened by drillings. Friction-Tight Rope Connection Joints • Lashing ties: The common type of connection at a joint is lashing. coconut. 5. Prefabricated bamboo sticks with certain length are covered with a cap and connected with synthetic resin. plug-in / bolt connections Constructions with secondary interlocking elements are often used in context with rope connections. The metal nail is a perforating element. Interlocking connections Constructions elements made of bamboo are suitable for lots of uses. you can easier do repairs of defective posts. Different kinds of holes are cut into the bamboo and make it possible to connect the round bamboo rods. Traditionally natural materials are used: • cocos / sago palm fibre • bast strips of bamboo • • rattan For tight connections green bamboo strips are used. Nowadays also plastic cords are used. Combined connections Double post. like they are traditionally used for carpenter-like constructions in Germany. The ties are also of organic material and therefore provide optimal compatibility between the elements of the construction system. friction-tight rope connections Friction-tight rope connections are the common connecting method.Appendix 2 Least-Tech versus High-Tech There seem to be two parties in modern bamboo architecture: • those who use bamboo as an alternative material connected with industrial standard elements like steel plates. Positive fitting connections Wooden connections with slit and tenons. This system makes it possible to transfer about 100% of the maximum rated load of large bamboo diameters. Bamboo ropes of twisted bamboo fibres are produced in lengths up to 350m.System. Because of this. Within bolting together or wedging the bamboo. lots of its tightness won't be transferred by the construction element. In wooden connections this is done by different kinds of profiles. bast. Because of that the grouting mass runs between the materials and confirms this construction. While drying. These threaded bolts can transfer about 50% of the tractive force.Tec solves this problem. For a tight connection of the cap and the bamboo are covered with circular grooves. • Cords and ropes are made of bamboo bark.or sago palm fibres. are rare. There are two exceptional cases: The Guadua angustifolia and Chusquea bamboo from central and southern America. Pan . the fibres shorten and the connection becomes stronger. positive fitting connections are used in traditional bamboo buildings. If the bamboo is not fresh at all. here with bounded knot and continuous handle. encumbrances of the roof and the floor are absorbed by different posts. For compressive forces is a front plat necessary. Bamboo has different diameters and is thicker near the knots. 4. types of connections 1. There are three reasons: • bamboo is round • bamboo is hollow • bamboo splits But although there are these problems. nuts and bolts • and those who try to find a modern least-tech connection which can be produced very cheap and assembled by unskilled workers. Different aims followed by the use of bamboo lead to different connection layouts. 6. We chose the way that power transition is done as a criterion to separate them from each other.

The plate is projected.are bamboo canes which often are only fixed with the lashing ties. If the bolt is conical.2m).5m. the fibres shrink and the connection tightens. So additional arrangements like lashing or bolts are necessary for a save connection. • In plane or space trusses. Soaked before use they are more pliable. Two slots are needed in the bamboo cane to control cracking during the insertion of the wood cylinder. When drying. Lashing ties . The caps can be made of synthetic. Plug-in Connections and Bolt Structure • Plug-in connections: Carpenter like connections with mortise and tenon are seldom used in bamboo structures. the bolt and the wedge . The bolt keeps the connection in place even if the rope or cord lengthens. But even if not. The additional bandage prevents the sling from slipping. Rattan tie to fix a plug connection Friction-Tied Rattan Connection Joints. Scaffold braces . 1m. With a tensile strength of 720 kp/cm³ a rope of an arm’s thickness can bear up to 14 tons. Bamboo often grows slightly bend. • Joint with two connections. the broader nodium in addition complicates slipping of the beam. rattan or lianas. • Connection with inner plug and a horizontal drill-hole to fix the connection with a lashing tie. directly on the bamboo. If the wedge shrinks. Additional lashing or wedging keeps things in place. • System advantages are its low price and the availability of the parts.0. the beam may crack at the drill-hole. On the other hand plug-in elements like bolts or consoles you find very often. Any normal glue provides a capacity far larger than that of bamboo in the tangential direction. . unique length (e. and then normal wood construction methods can be used for connection. The figure shows a connection in which a small box is made of steel plates. The steel plate C is introduced in the slot of the wood cylinder and glued to it with a mixture of epoxy resin and portland cement. They can destroy the bamboo cane. Bamboo canes connection with lashing ties and a draw stick With the help of the draw stick the lashing tie is tightened. threads or flanges fixed to the caps. Binding wire is (as plastic cords are) an industrial product. Zinc coated wire has the same lifetime as bamboo. Plait strips: Usual plait materials are rind strips of bamboo. The cap fastening is done with a gauge. Welding is thought of here because it is cheaper than machining of the tips. To give the connection cap/bamboo a high tensile strength the bamboo ends are given circular grooves and the inner cap is covered with circular notches. There can be bores. • Woodcore connection. A piece of wood can be used and glue can be employed to stick it to the inner surface of the bamboo. Five holes. If you try to screw or wedge the bamboo its high strength won’t be transferred. so the connecting mass acts like a claw between bamboo and cap. Otherwise the plug may break out. At the knots it is a little thicker. • Rope connection fixed with bolt. There are two bamboo species which can be nailed: Guadua angustifolia and Chusquea. Avoid connections which produce great forces vertical to the cane axis. If the lashing is tight and the plug fits quite well into the opening. • Bolt structure This is a type of connection for greater diameters with a hardwood bolt and wedge. Predrilling is a method to prevent splitting. Also you must pay attention that the holes are not too close to the end of the canes. aluminum or steel. the plates from two or more incoming elements can be pre welded to each other and then the rest of the connection can be assembled. The wood fitting can be extended outside the culms to meet the out coming piece of wood from other elements.connection of a purlin and two braces with three drill-holes. The use of nails may split the bamboo particular old and dry canes.Tec construction elements eliminate these weak points. the connection is save in all directions. Again a combination of bolts and lashing to connect the canes. this connecting method can be very durable at less force. the beam can be easily pulled out of the opening. If you use steel or aluminum 19 . Both ends are covered with caps that are connected with artificial resin or another filling mass. With the wedge driven into the opening.a more extravagant connection. • Connection with a steel tension clamp.The bamboo canes are cut into the desired. If connected at a post nodium. It is even possible to produce them. by using the synthetic spray technique. The end of the beam and the tie do the power transmission. so that its outer extreme can be adapted for different applications. Then the stick is fixed to the post. Leaving the low-tech sector. as indicated in the details D and E. The inner plug prevents the beam from slipping down the post and the lashing is against unplugging. so the caps are aligned exactly parallel and in a reproducible distance. the strips of the horizontal beam are pressed into the hole and fix the beam. Bambu . but in some cases this can be achieved Bambu-Tec Construction elements Construction elements made of Bamboo that can be used for various tasks. The steel tips are then welded directly to those surfaces. so that the faces are perpendicular to the axis of the incoming elements.g. If the connection is not tight enough. the diameter of the bamboo cane varies and it is a little oval. Interlocking Connections Interlocking Connections are achieved by gluing or shedding connection elements in or around the bamboo. both plug and lashing can do the power transition.• • • resistant than standard ropes. with the use of steel elements a lot more connections become possible. A disadvantage of these connections is that you don’t use the whole diameter for power transmission. • Interlocking connection with a wedge.

System advantages are [like transportation armature] its price and its deliverability from stock. • Induo-anchor technique For big bamboo diameters the Induo-anchor can transfer nearly 100% of the maximum load of the cane cross section. . If overhead working is necessary tests by an officially recognized material testing. Static. The installation can start immediately without long prefabrication of the dowels. The installation can start immediately without long prefabrication of the dowels. tent constructions. roof and half-timbered constructions Transportation armature / Screw connections • Transportation armature with pressed concrete. The system strength depends on the concrete/bamboo connection. purlin with cleat. It can easily be shed with a bamboo cane. The sleeve stick (with sleeve and connection flange) . (Germany) Pan-space truss consist only of two elements . constructive and economically. scaffolding. Furthermore they can be dismantled and reused.50% of the maximal tensile force if threaded bars are glued or shed into the cane ends. tied knots. Disadvantage of Induo-anchor is its high price. Combinations • Double jamb connection Double jambs. on the concretes (or filling mass) compressive strength. • Reinforcement Continuity Screw Connection System. straight model) as well as on the tractive direction and the joint design. The optimal solution for all static component connections. • Steel-neb-connection . 20 . The base element of this connection is a conical steel connecter which is centric screwed from the inside to the Induo-anchor bore on the one side and to the thread bore of the joint element on the other. used for: . Steel balls with thread bores are used as joint points.the Pan-ball knot and the cane with shed thread rod.And the connection stick (with furled metric thread) are shed with the bamboo and therefore reaching interlocking connection. house building. drawings and production. transitional cane. The second pole is replaced by a cleat. System advantages are its price and its deliverability from stock.caps they can even be welded to other metal parts.This connection method uses the Induo-anchor in its usual state with bores and threads. Advantage of Induo is that any available knot connection. Concrete or artificial resin can be used for that. Double jambs: The roof and floor-loads are absorbed by different poles. Hereby damaged canes can be exchanged more easily. The Induo-anchor consists of a cast iron core with connection teeth on its sides. The rot endangered pole zone is reinforced. the production series (long or short shaft.system can be used with it A simple connection can be manufactured with a threaded bar and two counter nuts. . For compressive forces the maximum force is where the cane breaks if connected with a head plate. The connection is carried out via an adapter with right/left outer thread for the double sided sleeve connection.institution and special permission of the building department are required. Advantage is that the wall of the cane is not weakened by bores. Mero – knot construction If used with the Induo-anchor the cast iron core is drilled in the perpendicular axis with fitting diameter to connect the screw bolt. Pan-knot space truss Small bamboo canes (diameter up to 80mm) can transfer ca. There is no reinforcement of the pole base. That means more economic statistics. on the thread diameter.