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A Study on

THE BRAND PREFERENCE FOR CASUAL/SPORT APPAREL AMONG THE YOUTH IN THE CITY OF VADODARA.

Research conducted by: Kingshuk Dutta Roll no: 8 T.Y BBA Marketing Division Faculty of Commerce Maharaja Sayajirao University Baroda

What makes India·s youth worth studying is evident; one of the world·s hottest economies, more than a billion people, roughly half of them between the ages of 15 and 29 years, and rising purchasing power. It is a demographic gold mine for marketers and a case-studyin-progress of democratic capitalism.µ
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Source: Business World, November 2008

Certificate

This is to certify that Kingshuk Dutta, a student of the BBA Programme, Maharaja Sayajirao University (Faculty of Commerce) has undertaken a research project for the partial fulfillment of his Third Year BBA in Marketing Management. I certify that he has undertaken Research Project on ³Brand preference for Casual/Sport Apparel among the youth in the city of Vadodara´ I have found him to be dedicated towards the research and has prepared an informative and knowledgeable study paper under my supervision. I wish him a bright and prosperous future ahead.

(Mr. Kalpesh Shah) Asst Programme Director BBA Programme Faculty of Commerce MSU- Vadodara

Their Constant presence kept me all the more motivated and eager to learn more and absorb the experience in order to make myself a better individual. Programme Coordinator at MSU BBA to give me an occasion to conduct a research on my own and get an invaluable firsthand experience of how to go about with a research project. I would like to express my gratitude to Mr. He was also the key source of guidance without which I wouldn¶t have been able to relate my learnings to what I have studied theoretically in BBA. Kalpesh Shah. Kalpesh Shah has helped me in every possible way to prepare this research project and was a constant supply of motivation and knowledge with regards to the subject matter. I have encountered many people who have helped and guided me all the way. It would be dereliction of duty if I do not extend my sincerest thanks to my colleagues and the people who have responded to my questionnaires with an infinite amount of patience. the Asst. These people deserve a special mention and my project report will be incomplete without acknowledging them. Mr.Acknowledgement It is the duty of the researcher to acquire maximum knowledge and to inculcate the necessary skills along with the completion of the Project Research in order to be more knowledgeable about the research being undertaken. Since the commencement of my project research. Contents .

Brand Preference .

Gaining and maintaining consumer preference is a battle that is never really won. Definitions of brand preference are as follows:y y Selective demand for a company's brand rather than a product. These are the four or five up market brands the consumer will consider when making a purchase. the degree to which the consumers prefer one brand over another The percentage of people who claim that a particular brand is their first choice. Brand preference is the Selective demand for a company's brand rather than a product. It takes time. With a great story and a large enough investment.´ Attaining and sustaining preference is an important step on the road to gaining brand loyalty. If all things are equal. but a habit. The brands potential can only be fulfilled by continually reinforcing its perceived quality. the best defense is to make us more relevant to consumers than the competition. The ability to generate more revenue. most consumers have a group of brands that comprise their preference set. often by building its reputation as a longestablished and trusted name in the industry. Excellence then is not an act. however. the degree to which consumers prefer one brand over another. Basic communications model for development of brand preference . Pricing.People begin to develop preferences at a very early age. Aristotle professed. and brands move up. while awareness alone will not sustain preference. down and even off that scale with and without a vigilante brand management strategy. In an attempt to build brand preference advertising. and then to move up the set¶s hierarchy to become the brand consumers prefer the most ± their up market brand. it will improve the brand¶s potential for building and maintaining preference. The same branding activities that drive awareness also drive preference. And. promotional deals and product availability all have tremendous impact on the position of our brand in the consumer¶s preference set. If the advertising is successful. When building preference. gain greater market share and beat off the competition is the reward given by consumer towards a particular brand. the goal is to first get on the consumer¶s preference sets. and constant revaluation to build brand preference. the advertising must persuade a target audience to consider the advantages of a brand. ³We are what we repeatedly do. Within any product category. up market identity and relevance to the consumer. awareness can be attained rather quickly. the target customer will choose the particular brand over other brands in any category. Preference is a scale.

earth tones. sounds. As presented by Shultz and Barnes. Since we all have different experiences. etc. . 1999). billboards. we continually screen out (perceptual screen) or ignore content that has little or no relevance to us. makes every person different´ (Strategic Brand Communications Campaigns. television. ³This node and connection process. filter. On a daily basis. mail. we are exposed to messages (sender/medium) via our radio. and word-of-mouth. shapes. relaxing. this supports a theory that the consumer. medium. owns the brand. rich aroma. connections. receiver. Although these messages are pervasive. and relationships.To better understand the process of brand preference. Internet. are decoded and stored in our memory (filter/screen). and feedback. etc. An example could be all the associations you might have with the word Starbucks² including coffee. let's first look at a basic communications model. sofa. The five components of this model are sender. not the organization. A successful convergence between sender and receiver will result in some type of response to a brand's compelling message (feedback). or a basis for a relationship. All messages are coded patterns and sensations ± colours. called spreading activation. odours. Those messages deemed recognizable.Stored Stored experiences in our long-term memory are connected through a series of nodes and networks.

the brand can charge a higher price. and run more efficient marketing programmes (e. command more loyalty.Consumer prefer particular brand because they find it easier to interpret what benefits brand offers feel more confident of it and get more satisfaction from using it and get more satisfaction from using it. Because of such consumer preference.g. Brand Preference choice criteria .The brand preference therefore commands a higher asset value. it can spend more retailer incentive and it cost less to launch brand extension) .

Splendor. verbally and in other ways? Concrete brand name such as Scorpio. Fiberglass. Such as Xerox.How easily particular brand are recalled? How easily are they recognized? Is this true at both purchase and consumption? Meaningful:-To what extent particular brand prefer in corresponding category? Does it suggest something about a product ingredient or the type of person who might use the brand? Likeability:-How aesthetically appealing do customer finds the brand element? Is it inherently likeable visually. And last three elements are known as ³defensive´ because it preserved in the face of different opportunity or different brands available in market. Transferable: Can the brand element be used to introduce in new product in the same or different categories? To what extent does the brand add to brand equity across geographical boundaries and market segments? Adaptable:-How adaptable and updatable is the brand element? E. y Memorable: .g. Lifebuoy.How legally protectable is the brand element? How comparatively protectable? Can it easily be copied? It is important that names that becomes synonymous with product categories.There are six criteria choose brand preference. The first three element categorized as ³Brand building´ in terms of how brand preference can be built up. y y y y y Strategies for building consumer brand preference . Maruti 800 etc. the largest selling soap brand all over world. Protectable: .

bonding is a process. building preference and loyalty are a bit stickier. So the effective marketer. This means that virtually everyone who promotes and markets to them should be concerned with how consumers develop their likes and dislikes. The next two steps i. The vast majority of times. Unlike a single seduction or conquest. lovers. like the successful suitor. there is also rivalry between producers and marketers in very different industries. Usually the ultimate objective is to build a durable relationship between a specific brand and a particular customer group. A few good moves can win the day. While direct competitors strive to outdo one another to winning greater brand preference and loyalty. Six modes for building brand preference . positive preferences for their brand. sound game plan. even their unplanned and unanticipated purchases are strongly influenced by pre-existing tastes and preferences. if successful. but of courtship between suitor and beloved. or consumer and brand. Virtually every advertiser competes with every other to rise above the clamor and gain the attention and interest of the buying public and the consumers. so that they can instill strong. marketing and promotion constitute a battle for the minds of consumers. and finally. familiarity. favorable. Very rarely do they make completely spontaneous impulse purchases.e. then preference. to create a strong bond between brand and buyer! Whether it is between parent and child. Consumer buyers almost always approach the marketplace with a well established set of tastes and preferences. friends.The branding objective: A marketer's main objective goes beyond a single sale to one customer. not so much of war among rivals. promoting very different kinds of goods and services. but too many bad ones along the way will lead to rejection and failure. In a very real sense. needs a good. a loyalty that excludes relationships with rival suitors. Advertising and promotion provide the introduction and familiarity. the courtship process includes identifiable phases such as introduction.

Consumer tastes and preferences for a product or brand might be built through one or more of six distinct modes: y Need association: the product or brand is linked to one need through repeated association. Behavior modification: Consumers are conditioned to buy the brand by manipulating cues and rewards. and social role playing and meeting the expectations of others. Need association . social influence. Subconscious motivation: Suggestive symbols are used to excite consumers' subconscious motives. Need association and mood association are most closely linked to what is commonly called ``classical conditioning'. Subconscious motivation is derived mainly from the work of Freud and his disciples while behavior modification has its roots primarily in the behaviorist learning theories of Skinner and his followers. Consumers do not develop a preference for M&Ms candy in the same way as they develop a preference for Maytag washing machines. y y y y y These six modes are derived from the leading theories and perspectives on human learning that have evolved in the fields of psychology and social psychology. Model emulation: Idealized social lifestyle models are presented for consumers to emulate. Cognitive processing: Perceptual and cognitive barriers are penetrated to create favorable attitudes. Mood association: the mood is attached to the product or brand through repeated association.Perhaps the first and most important question to ask is ``How will my prospective consumers develop their preferences for my brand?'' If we know the answer to that question. They do not prefer a BMW over other makes of cars for the same reason that they prefer Budweiser over other brands of beer. model emulation finds its foundation in social psychology and sociology. then we can help them build the kind of preference that will ensure greater patronage and loyalty. The cognitive processing mode leans heavily on the information processing models so thoroughly presented and studied by cognitive psychological theorists. specifically in theories of the socialization process. Finally.

simultaneously and repeatedly. but it says very little about how effectively the brand will satisfy the need. very brief messages delivered on a saturation schedule. few advertisers depended exclusively on this mode. Nor were they concerned about wear-out. When need association is used in contemporary advertising. Those exposed to such conditioning eventually learn to associate the brand with the need. but of course it does very little else. Today. frequently purchased goods are initially introduced. This simple brand preference-building mode was (and still is) effective for creating brand name awareness. Mood association . The essence of this simple brand preference-building mechanism is merely to present the product or brand name and a particular need. the advertisers and promoters of consumer goods seldom depend very heavily on this simple brand preferencebuilding mode. Slogans and jingles receive less attention and they tend to be changed much more frequently. Yet some marketers manage to make need association work for them throughout the life cycle of the product. itself. Constant repetition is the key. since consistent repetition was important. its main objective is usually to build brand recognition when new brands of small ticket. elaborate messages in favor of many. Thousands of brief name/need pairings may cause the brand name to come to mind every time the need arises for the consumer. Advertisers who adopted this strategy abandoned the use of long.American advertisers quickly adopted need association when the work on classical conditioning by the Russian physiologist Pavlov was first publicized in the USA during the 1920s. Consequently. simply by including a reference to the need right in the logo or the brand name.

soft drinks. A single pairing or even a few such pairings of the brand with the mood would not be sufficient to cause the audience to associate the feeling with the brand. Slogans that strongly suggest a certain feeling are supplemented by advertising messages that convey the same basic mood. distinctly different moods or with one type of feeling in one message and a different type in another. The objective of mood association is to imbue the product or brand with a positive aura. mood association requires the brand name to be associated with a particular form of pleasant hedonic state leisure. Subconscious motivation . or some such condition. at the convenience store. No small wonder that their hands reach out for that particular brand. Nor does this preference-building mode work without consistency. Imparting pleasant moods and feelings to a product or brand requires more than just a few words. or greeting cards as well as for some brands of consumer services. and it remains a popular consumer preference building technique today. mood association continues to be a popular method for building consumer preference for many brands of small-ticket. It takes many such presentations. The mechanism is basically the same close association as the result of repeated. rather than another. It would not prove effective if the brand was paired with several. or wherever the product is sold they will experience a pleasant. candy. in a bar or restaurant. frequently-purchased consumable goods beer. If this kind of conditioning is effective. recreation. relaxation.Associating a mood with a need quickly followed on the heels of need association. Today. each time consumers are exposed to the brand in the marketplace on the supermarket shelf. simple messages. enjoyable feeling. achievement. simultaneous presentation. But rather than associating the goods or services with the needs they are to satisfy. It cannot be done with hundreds or thousands of very brief. companionship. But it does imply consistency and repetition.

they could express them symbolically through the purchase and consumption of goods and services. Freudian psychoanalytic theory captured the attention and interest of many in the advertising community. Behavior modification . preference-building through subconscious motivation was viewed as applicable to large. even if they were disposed to do so. if not most of the consumer drives and motives that underlie preferences reside in the id. Unlike need association and mood association that are both confined to promotion of small-ticket consumable goods. This complex scheme required the advertising message to accomplish two things: first. and could not possibly express their true motives.and small-ticket items alike. So the grills. the reactions of skeptics ranged from amusement to outrage. Thus consumers would not consciously know exactly why they entertained a given preference. ``Motivation research'' was required to discover subconscious desires. deep within the subconscious mind. Second. They adopted the view that many. indeed. the appropriate words and symbols had to be included to excite hidden drives and desires. and the only way to build consumer preferences was to stimulate subconscious drives. just as the hand movements of a woman kneading dough in a television commercial formed some rather provocative shapes and curves. Since consumers were prohibited from expressing their innermost urges and desires directly. Meanwhile. the product or service was offered as a surrogate for the actions that were inhibited by the consumer's super ego.During the 1950s and early 1960s. fenders and hoods of automobiles took on shapes and dimensions that the uninformed often regarded as peculiar.

they may not buy it. and find it very tasty and satisfying (reinforcement). y Cue The cues should be as distinctive as possible. The reward (or possibly the punishment) that results for the consumer provides the reinforcement. Such marketing stimuli as advertisements. buy and eat the snack (response). In this behaviorist model. The consumer may not respond on cue when there is no drive whatsoever. If they are not. The four main elements of a behavior modification program are: y Drive The stronger the drive. Each time it happens. positive reward the stronger the better. the more likely they will be to do so. signs. the probability of purchase will increase until the individual has developed a strong brand preference. consumers might generalize them to other responses. If so. the probability that this person will buy the same thing on a subsequent. Cognitive processing . the more quickly and completely the conditioning will be. If the price is too high or the purchase or use is too difficult. In simple terms. y Response The easier it is for consumers to respond. behavior modification through instrumental conditioning first caught the attention of marketers and advertisers in the 1950s. or packages constitute the cues. a hungry (drive) consumer may notice a package (cue) of snack food at the check-out counter. y Reinforcement The reinforcement should be a strong. they are likely to learn not to buy or use the product or brand. The responses that are to be conditioned by marketers consist mainly of purchase and/or consumption.Springing from the work of the psychologist Skinner. such as purchasing another brand. If they are punished. Basic consumer needs such as hunger or thirst typically comprise the drives with which marketers work. learning is defined as: the increase in the probability of response (purchase) on cue as the result of previous reinforcement. logos. similar occasion will increase.

Selective application: Rather than applying the information that was recalled. only part of what has been retained may be remembered later. rather than paying attention to the message. rather than being retained in memory. the consumer may ignore the recollection and act differently. The messages may use devices such as novelty. so only part of the audience will be exposed to any message.The more important the purchase is to the consumer. the more likely the buyer's preferences will result from cognitive processing. and perhaps no information will be recalled. some of the elements will be ignored. Selective recollection: At best. Selective attention: Despite exposure to a message. The grammar and vocabulary of the messages are designed for easy perception and comprehension. strong communications barriers: y Selective exposure: Consumers choose the media to which they are exposed. This brand preference-building mode is most likely to apply to conscious choices where the buyer is highly involved in the purchase decision process. some consumers will merely ignore it. To penetrate these communications barriers. Knowledge and beliefs are created by informative messages. humor. with sufficient frequency to provide repeated exposure. But such advertising or promotion has to overcome several. some will be distorted. Selective perception: Even when paying attention. or even satire in an attempt to gain the audience's attention. and some will be added. Model emulation . Selective retention: Some or all of the information that is perceived will be lost almost immediately. advertisers use media that will reach their target audience. These attitudes are composed of two main parts: y y The consumer's knowledge or beliefs about the product Their positive or negative evaluations of it. y y y y y Only a small part of the information actually gets through intact. Those who market large-ticket consumer products such as cars or appliances and those who provide and sell important services such as medical care or higher education use advertising and promotion to create positive attitudes toward their products or brands.

and many would probably take issue with it. In effect. desirable and undesirable. Choose your weapons . we learned the vast majority of our behavior by emulating others when we were very young children. famous athletes. To be effective. model emulation. This mode of building consumer brand preference has been used very heavily for a long time by those who market and promote consumer goods and services. Given the increasing number of choices available in the marketplace. Virtually every ``slice-of-life'' advertisement implicitly depends on the audience's ability and willingness to emulate the model presented in the ads. including speech. it becomes increasingly difficult to find suitable models that most potential buyers are willing to emulate. Your first impulse (and probably the most effective approach) would be to look around at others who were familiar with the situation and simply do what they do put another way. or other prominent personalities also depend on the consumers' tendency to emulate such famous models. as well as what is good and bad. We are all more aware of cognitive learning thinking and studying than any other kind. Even as adults we still depend very heavily on this kind of learning. Model emulation is attractive to consumers because it is a simple. especially when we are thrust into an unfamiliar situation or role. In fact. When consumers emulate models the only choice they have to make is which models to emulate. and everyday behavior. gestures. right and wrong. easy way to make a choice. most of the consumers in the market have to be willing to emulate the models that marketers present. this method of choosing among alternatives is very economical and efficient. But as the buying public becomes more and more diverse. Yet most people would probably be surprised at that statement. Many advertisements that include celebrities.People learn far more by emulating models than in any other way. movie or television stars. the buyer is letting someone else study the product or service alternatives and do the evaluation for them. Yet this method for creating consumer preference has become increasingly ineffective.

highly repetitive. popular to prestige pricing y Distribution: Outlets providing sales support and/or demonstration. sexuality-related y Pricing: Moderate to expensive goods. routinely used y Pricing: Relatively small ticket y Distribution: Easily available. Need association y Product: Frequently purchased. conventional outlets y Promotion: Affect-laden. routinely used y Pricing: Relatively small ticket. The choice depends partly on the nature of the branded product or service itself. very easily identified and available y Promotion: Short. conventional outlets y Promotion: Short-message. typically to create awareness Mood association y Product: Frequently purchased. easily available. and the extant or ``given'' aspects of the marketing mix.Each of the six consumer preference-building methods outlined here requires a particular kind of product. The strategy selection guidelines contained in Table I provide an outline of the requirements and prohibitions for selecting a given strategy based on the product or service characteristics. vivid media. highly consistent. competitively priced y Distribution: Extensive. often premium priced y Distribution: Selective. compatible outlet ambiance y Promotion: Visual and pictorial. substantial message content y Life cycle: Late introduction through late maturity Model emulation y Product: Often socially visible. durable goods y Pricing: Typically large-ticket goods. cue-laden messages y Life cycle: From introduction through late maturity or decline Cognitive processing y Product: Complex. promotion. socially visible. repetitive y Life cycle: both introduction and retention at maturity Subconscious motivation y Product: Highly symbolic. viscerally rewarding impulse goods y Pricing: Relatively small-ticket for small unit sizes y Distribution: Very extensive. sometimes symbolic goods . and distribution. with suggestive symbols y Life cycle: from introduction through early maturity Behavior modification y Product: Frequently purchased. trial y Promotion: Selective media. pricing. saturation. highly repetitive y Life cycle: Early stages.

it calls for a deliberate choice of strategy followed by intelligent implementation and patient. the characteristics of the target market. successful development of brand preference rarely results by chance. with celebrity or audience-similar models Life cycle: from introduction through early maturity Finally.y y y y Pricing: Medium-ticket goods. persistent execution. The Making of µYouth¶ Brands . depending on production and price Promotion: Demonstrational. popular to prestige pricing Distribution: Selective to extensive. the company's experience and expertise. and executive preference should influence the selection of a strategy for building consumer brand preference. Rather. In an increasingly frenetic marketplace.

rather they follow the segment diligently. The underlying factor making Generation Y an ever attractive demographic is its growing purchasing power. The proliferation of the foreign television channels like MTV and other movie channels have exposed the Indian youth to the western style of living and thought in a big way. they position their products or services.´ Across various industries. The emergence of English as a common language and the importance attached to it in the Indian society have also been found to yield rich dividends not only in the context of the careers of the Indian youth but also it has indirectly made a marketer¶s task of successfully targeting this segment a lot easier. The trend is being fuelled by higher disposable incomes resulting from more generous allowances and teens opting to work part-time during schooling. less reliance on parents to make purchases. they have so far made very little attempt to reach out to the rural youth. About 450 million individuals in India are estimated to be below 20 years of age. Successful marketers incorporate specific elements in their product mix. Though various brands in India are increasingly focusing on the urban youth by designing their product and strategy mix attuned to their lifestyles and attitudes. it has been found that successful marketers do not predict any fashion or trend while targeting the youth. They identify the opinion leaders. communication and branding strategies such that they effectively target both the µCoconuts¶ and the µCappuccinos¶ sub-segments of the Indian youth [Exhibit I] or else relevantly appeal to either one of them. identify with them and make an effective attempt to understand what excites them. . 105 million in the age group of 15-19 are already in their early years of discretionary consumption. and heightened media awareness. Accordingly. It is these Generation Xers who are contributing heavily to the rapid change in the Indian economy and are fast becoming the darling of India Inc.India is a predominantly young nation when compared to countries like the USA and the UK with 55% of its population falling in the youth bracket.

Coke and mouth fresheners like Chlor Mint and Mint o Fresh featuring rural settings and rural youth in some of their campaigns. The youthcentric marketers need to radically rethink about strategies to effectively explore the potential offered by the youth at the bottom of the economic pyramid as that can prove to be an ideal source for their long-term sustainability. Though the Tier 4 of the economic pyramid doesn¶t allow the marketers to pursue margins but they hold enough zing for the marketers in terms of volume and capital efficiency. it¶s quite unlikely that the youth will listen to them. The brands need to create buying power. The youth market is the hottest proposition for the Indian marketers and so they need to make that connection with the segment through relevant communication strategies. There have been success stories in the Indian market where a brand has been at the forefront to understand the needs and wants of the youth. make a more sincere effort of understanding and identifying with the youth.Though there have been instances of µyouth¶ brands like Pepsi. shape aspirations. They have offered innovative solutions and designed relevant and appealing branding strategies in their language and then there have been brands that have continued with their decade old style of working and simply trying to transplant strategies that have worked in other countries. They need to redesign their product/service mix along with their branding strategies such that they make themselves equally relevant to both the urban as well as the rural youth. overall. improve access and tailor local solutions if they are sincerely interested in seeking greater profits. The Indian Youth and the Fashion Brands . Unless India Inc. such efforts have lacked consistency.

Apparel and fashion industry in India is in its growth stage. To the consumer. Value includes styling. what schemes do consumer prefer for what kind of brands. both as a global base and as a domestic market. which media do they prefer to know about the brand. with rapid growth in disposable incomes. Today¶s global apparel environment is tougher than ever for brands. and the emergence of the kind of trendconscious consumers that India has not seen in the past. durability. consistency. low. There are many reasons for the emergence of this challenging climate. the development of modern urban lifestyles. More and more budget is allocated to these activities in order to the lure the consumers. Brand names when linked with lifestyle. Today¶s shoppers are more intelligent. product. They are increasingly fashion and brand conscious and select labels which define who they are or who they want to be. the price range of the fashion products. Brands build customer loyalty by delivering excellent value no matter the price point-high. self-expression. it is very essential to study how consumers make their choices in Apparel & Fashion category where there are several brands in the consideration set of a consumer. Using consumer sales promotion to differentiate one s offer has become an order of the day in matured urban markets.Consumers are evolving entities. who prefers the branded apparel and fashion products. The financial risk being high consumers do switch from one brand to another due to sales promotion offers and personal comfort zone. Indian consumer markets are changing fast. and consistent fit. discerning & tuned to their individual preference. y A proliferation of brands . and confidence in performance. In such a scenario.´ Shopper¶s Stop Ltd India represents an economic opportunity on a massive scale. Hence it would of interest to a marketer to learn about the consumer preferences with respect to sales promotion offer. The biggest challenge for all the brands is to create loyal consumer who love them. and related schemes. quality fabrics. These are the questions which consumer considers while choosing a brand. and aspirations epitomize intangibles that are desirable to the consumer. or medium. Their aspirations & expectations are continuously changing. a brand name represents familiarity.

The understanding of consumer¶s desires. The market of fashion products is highly competitive market whose main characteristics is the similar positioning of a large number of brands and. . behavior.y y y y y y y Fierce competition from retailers acting as brands Smarter consumers The consolidation of department stores Mass retailers redefining themselves Luxury designers creating for mass The demand for luxury goods The growth of the discount sector All of this adds up to one stark fact: those brands that break through the noise and communicate their message to the consumer directly and clearly ± in a way that means something to them. meaning necessities are being weighed against apparel. and of purchase process of fashion products is extremely important to design products collections as well as to placement of these products in market. Rising costs of living around the world cause consumers to stretch their incomes more thinly. in this respect the brand s image developed by marketing communications can influence the adoption process of the products. Fashion must have value and purpose and truly resonate to the consumer. Strong brands with consistent powerful messages can create loyalty and a sense of worth that transcends the burden of choice.

including visual merchandizing. the marketing stimuli. The brand may benefit from a greater reputation and higher proximity to its buyers if the design of each collection takes in consideration the following aspects: y In order to keep or develop the value of the symbolic speech of the products. Qualitative research It is necessary to assess the strength as well as understand nature of the brand¶s equity relative to competitive brands. The image is a mental representation of the brand or product attributes and benefit. and developed through the image of fashion transmitted by each seasonal collection and by all activities of marketing communication. cultural and economic). with the product design. rather than those of the idealized people who in the past have appeared in advertisements and commercials. The overall effect of fashion product branding depends on the integration of all the components of the marketing communication plan. the brands image management should be focused in one particular style.This process. The harmony of this complex process must consider such aspects as the brand awareness and the brand image. Recognizing this. a side with the intention to influence the purchase decisions must transmit similar messages in all communication support. In fashion products. y y The adoption process of fashion products reflects the great influence of the image of fashion that it transmits as well as its inherent identification potential (social. It is a multi dimensional phenomenon that depends on the perception of those attributes and benefits. both determined by the characteristics of consumers perception. This system reinforces the need to develop of the brands image considering the implications over the brand identity and awareness of what confirms the importance of fashion products branding. Assessing the strength of brand equity according . besides its basic functions ± to protect the body. All these three elements have an impact over the adoption process and a similar final goal: to influence the purchase option of fashion products through the satisfaction of a certain fashion image demand. The consumer buys or uses fashion products of different types and styles. An effective fashion image developed through the seasonal collections. and to track it over time. allows the brand to achieve image coherence and to capitalize on it in the market by building global brand. both mental representation and its perception are built in a continuous way. consumer searches for fashions that more nearly fit his/her own needs and wants.

rational. or combination of them. Brand awareness 3. and unique brand associations with customers. experiences. for example Ruf & Tuf jeans were introduced as youthful and sturdy brand. sequential series from bottom to top: . Brand associations 5. and act with respect to the brand. Brand Equity model ± Aaker Model ± Professor David Aaker views brand equity as a set of five categories of brand assets and liabilities to a brand that add to or subtract from the value provided by a product or service to a firm and/or to that firm¶s customers. Brand according to the American Marketing Association is Ä A name. Branding thus is a means to distinguish one product from another and these differences may be functional. strong. feelings. or design. Customer based brand equity can be defined as the differential effect that brand knowledge has on the consumer response to the marketing of that brand. feel. term. brands must create. images. In particular. Brand equity is an important intangible asset that has psychological and financial value to the firm. sign. Brand knowledge consists of all the thoughts. and so on that become associated with the brand. Brand preference and Brand users. profitability that the brand commands for the firm. Brand loyalty 2. Brand resonance model: The brand resonance model also views brand building as an ascending. intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors . Positive customer based brand equity is when consumer react more favorably to a product. favorable. This value may be reflected in how consumers think. beliefs. symbol.to Richard Elliot & Larry Percy can be done by finding Brand awareness & salience. Other proprietary assets such as patents. or tangible ± related to product performance of the brand. trademarks. as well as the prices. Perceived quality 4. and channel relationships. market share. Brand equity is added value endowed to products and services. These categories of brand assets are: 1.

Brand salience depends upon awareness. Brands that are preferred are likely to enjoy greater equity than those that are not. users of competitive brands. Brand performance relates to how the product or service meets customers functional needs. but reflects the relative strength of that awareness in relation to the target market¶s awareness of other brands in the category. like brand salience. Brand judgments focus on customers own personal opinions and evaluations. those that can be identified represents recognition brand awareness. including the ways in the brand attempts to meet customers¶ psychological or social needs. Brand feelings are customers emotional responses & reactions with respect to the brand. one is able to profile various user segments. with rapid growth in disposable incomes.Brand Salience relates to how often and easily the brand is evoked under various purchase or consumption situations. can be an indicator of the strength of brand equity. Brand resonance refers to the nature of the relationship that customers have with the brand and the extent to which customers feel that they are ³in sync´ with the brand. Brand awareness reflects the extent to which people can either remember or recognize a brand. the development of modern urban lifestyles. Brand preference. Consumer Markets ± KPMG report Indian consumer markets are changing fast. Based upon this. they are recalled based only upon a category cue. Indian consumers are becoming increasingly . When people think about brands in a product category. Brand users or category understanding is one of the primary function of quantitative research and specifically users of a brand vs. Brand imagery deals with the extrinsic properties of the product or service. If someone is shown a list of brand names or pictures of packages. This relationship will be reflected in the relative relationship between what is known as Ätop-of-mind awareness and all the other brands in the category of which someone is aware. Preference for a niche brand may be high in its market segment. those come to mind represent recall brand awareness. but relatively low in the market as a whole.

000.sophisticated and knowledgeable about products. earning between INR45. According to recent data from India¶s Marketing White book by Business world India has around 208 million households. Of these only a little over six million are affluent ± that is. federal India also has a highly uneven pattern of wealth. The market is also highly regional. A patchwork of cultures and languages. India has more people living in poverty than any other country. India¶s consumer markets are unique. 000 and INR215. Gujarat and Maharashtra are around five times the level in Bihar. 000. Average state incomes in Punjab. Another 75 million households are in the category of well off immediately below the affluent. but increasingly brands have to be associated with value. Literacy rates are lower than in most Asian competitors and income is less well distributed across the whole population than in most Asian competitors. Environment for the apparel and retail sector in India AT Kearney Report . Foreign brands remain very powerful in India. Its population is less urbanized than almost every other comparable economy. especially in clothing and personal care products. Uttar Pradesh and Orissa are officially destitute. media channels that allow companies to communicate with consumers are growing in diversity and reach. Jharkhand. Some urban areas continue to be richer on average. for example. with household income in excess of INR215. while large rural areas of Bihar.

the Tata group¶s Trent. at a CAGR of 10%. India¶s retail market opportunity is unchallenged. Marks & Spencer and Neiman Marcus. At 511 billion $ in 2008. hungry to enter this market. But challenges have emerged that could potentially slow the pace of growth for new global entrants ± stifling regulations. is expected to grow at Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 40% from 20 Billion $ in 2007 to 107 billion $ by 2013. which must operate through franchise or cash & carry wholesale format. single brand retailer can own a 51% majority stake in joint venture with a local partner. Season business such as Reliance & Aditya Birla are locking at the upstream value chain (farms. Consumer¶s spending has risen sharply as the youth population (more than 33% of the country is below the age of 15) has been a significant increase in its disposable income. Earlier entrants. As the retail industry in India matures.India continues to be among the most attractive countries for global retailers. numerous retailers including the SPAR group. In addition. RPG enterprises. . Tesco and Carrefour. as a democratic country with a high growth rates. For example. Accordingly. Global retailers. In the past couple of years. companies are pursuing new business models. Consequently. its retail market is larger than ever and drawing both global and local retailers. Bharti will own retail shop under the Wal-Mart franchise and Wal Mart will operate logistic. Tesco and Kroger will feel additional pressure as the situation grows more competitive. Local hypermarket retailers are moving aggressively to get ahead of further loosening of foreign investment regulation. India¶s overall retail sector is expected to rise to 833 Billion $ by 2013 and to 1. Reliance restructured and is now pursuing joint venture opportunities with international retailers such as Office Depot.3 trillion $ by 2018. soaring real estate costs and fiercely competitive domestic retailer groups. In the past 4 years alone consumers spending rose an impressive 75%. procurement and storage activities. have plans for a blitz across the country. Marks & Spencer and Nautica have entered the market.According to the 2008 AT Kearney Global Retail Development Index . Organized retail which still accounts for less than 5% of the market. logistics and storage) to better their positions once they begin competing directly with the likes of Wal-Mart. shopping mall projects are running resource constraints that are delaying completions and destructing many retailer entries strategies. continue to frustrate by restrictive government regulation. including Wal-Mart and Metro. Carrefour. Under India¶s current laws which the government relaxed somewhat in 2006. Such relaxed regulation does not extend to multi brand retailer such as Wal-Mart. Taking their cue from success of hypermarket in china local retailer such as Pantaloon. K Raheja Corporation and Reliance have all taken an early lead due to ambitious expansion plans. Wal-Mart recently joined forces with Indian telecom giant Bharti enterprises.

so its scores 100 points in the metric scale. y For example. population growth and CAGR of GDP per capita. growth prospects and consumer affluence. This is causing concern over the pace of change and could be another speed bump on the road to India¶s 1.2 billion consumers. y y y The retail apparel index is comprised of market indicators 55% and growth indicators 45%. The Global Retail Apparel Index 2008 Rank Country Absolute market size 45 % 74 % 57 % 29 % 22 % 21 % 21 % 22 % 52 % 31 % Growth prospects 33 % 22 % 37 % 37 % 47 % 54 % 44 % 25 % 22 % 42 % Consumer affluence 42 % 36 % 31 % 59 % 44 % 34 % 39 % 57 % 39 % 28 % Score 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Brazil China India Turkey Chile Romania Argentina Thailand Russia UAE 48 47 47 46 46 45 41 40 39 38 AT Kearney Retail Apparel Index analysis evaluates more than 30 apparel markets to identify the top 10 countries in terms of market size. The real estate costs are prohibitive and the cost to acquire to train and retain workers has increased as more lucrative work opportunities emerged. compound annual growth rate (CAGR) in clothing imports and clothing sales per capita.The industry is also beginning to consolidate with Aditya Birla acquiring Trinethra Super retail. Market indicators include total clothing sales and imports. total and youth population & clothing sales per capita. Although the workforce continues grow rapidly (with more women and farmers entering). so it scores 81. Still. a country is assigned points based on its value on the metric against the largest sample. the Wadhawan Group acquiring small regional retailers.4 points (76 divided by 93. China has the largest total sales at $ 93. large retail outlets hold a strong appeal for customers even though they place India¶s 4 million to 6 million momand-pop shops at risk. and Actis investing in the supermarket chain Nilgiris.5 times 100) . Growth indicators include total clothing sales. Brazil has $ 76 Billion in total clothing sales.5 billion. it cannot keep up with the growth across all the business sectors in India. Within each metric.

Van Heusen and Esprit are capturing a strong following among Indian consumer. Mean Annual disposable income is growing at more than 6% CAGR. apparel will be among the highest growth categories. Its principal formats include pantaloon. This has led to a thriving private label apparel market for ready-to-wear clothes and more competition. Customers tend to be loyal to a specific retailer ± Shopper¶s Stop. India¶s apparel market is highly fragmented. Still. Westside & Pantaloon ± instead of any particular apparel brand. with a CAGR of between 12 to 15%. brands as Benetton. Local firms such as Future Group are having sales of $ 845 million. Projected to reach $ 37 billion for 2008.Apparel is India¶s second largest retail category (behind food & grocery). Shopper s Stop has 5 million sq feet of retail across 88 stores in 12 cities. Discounter Koutons has opened nearly 1000 stores in the past few years. including end of season sales. which means sales promotion tactics are important. It has more than 5 million sq feet of retail space in roughly 450 stores across 40 cities. a mass market family store modeled after GAP and Old Navy. Louis Phillipe. with new concepts and brands being launched almost every month. In 2008. There is a flurry of activity across all price points. The rapid growth is supported by the burgeoning Indian middle class. Other factors supporting these brisk growth rates include y y y y More apparel focused shopping malls Continued penetration of credit cards Organized apparel retailing in tier 2 and tier 3 cities The popularity of ready-to-wear clothing and western fashion for women. a hypermarket chain. A key challenge for apparel retailer in India is to induce customer to purchase quickly. consumer spending is expected to increase 8% per year. representing 10% of retail market. The top 7 competitors represent less than 10% of total market. Understanding buying pattern of consumers in India . However. Madura Garment joined Peter England People. The group plan 6 million square feet of retail space by 2011. festival promotion and special events. a departmental store chain & Big Bazaar. organized retail will represent roughly 10% of the total market.

There is an easier acceptance of luxury and an increased willingness to experiment with mainstream fashion. Discretionary spending has seen a 16% rise for the urban upper and middle classes and the number of high income households has grown by 20% year on year since 1995-96. Finally. The self-employed segment of the population has replaced the employed salaried segment as the mainstream market. drop in interest rates and easy availability of finance have changed mindsets. as there is a greater focus on looking and feeling good (apparel as well as fitness).000 crores (USD 375 billion) of which. The 4 major organized retail sectors are: y y y y Food & Grocery Clothing Consumer Durables Books & Music In 2008-09. and cars) has shifted to becoming redefined as consumer revenue expenditure. retail sales constitute about 61% (USD 230 billion). especially mobile phones and two and four-wheelers. There is an increasing shift from price consideration to design and quality. This results in an increased tendency towards disposability and casting out -from apparel to cars to mobile phones to consumer durables. 40% of primary wage earners in the top 2-3 social classes in towns with a population of 1 million or more are self employed professionals and businessmen. in addition to consumer durables and loan credit purchases.690. Total Retail Sales Pie of 2009 .According to Ernst & Young report4 Indian consumers lifestyle and profile is also evolving rapidly. private consumption expenditure in India amounted to Rs 1. India has one of the youngest populations in the world with 54% of the population below the age of 25. Capital expenditure (jewellery. At the same time. the new Indian consumer is not beguiled by retailed products which are high on price but commensurately low on value or functionality. This has driven growth in consumption of productivity goods. homes. credit friendliness.

In such a scenario. However. Consumer Preference for apparel brands . The sector is defined by low gross margins. supermarkets and hard discount chains.Food & Grocery (USD154 billion) contributes about 41% of private consumption expenditure and about 77% of total retail sales. this segment is largely controlled by the unorganized small outlet sector -penetration of organized retail is about 1% in this segment. Clothing is the second largest segment in terms of retail sales. but there is a tremendous growth potential in the organized sector in the form of hypermarkets. This is one of the primary reasons for India s low organized retail penetration rate. pricing and network will be the key to success.

more than twice than average of Brazil. half of McKinsey survey respondent said that their husband had a major influence on which stores they frequented a proportion far higher than Brazil (3%). nearly 70% of its shopper s always go to stores with their family. For starters. India is unusual in that the market for men s apparel is larger than women s market. In addition to household income the class code incorporate the levels of education and occupation. high-end or global consumers are those in socioeconomic class (SEC A). As in many markets. A graph showing the brand preference of BRIC . where traditional Indian apparel still dominates. But India s men also have an important role indeed. China and Russia view shopping as the best way to spent time with family. But the countries lower per capita income levels means overall spending on apparels is significantly lower. nearly 40% of mass-market Indian shoppers McKinsey5 surveyed said that their most important shopping occasions revolved around special events such as weddings and annual religious festivals a figure dramatically higher than the one for shoppers in the other emerging markets McKinsey studied. and the habit of Indian shopper present intriguing challenges for multinationals eyeing the market. Mass market apparel retailer must therefore find formats and merchandising approaches that will attract shopper s seeking apparel not only for special occasion but also appealing to entire family. regions and city sizes. income segments. What s more. The preference for family oriented shopping is consistent across age groups.India devotes roughly the same share of their income to apparel as do Chinese and Brazilian. According to McKinsey5 survey young Indian aged 18 24 years strongly trust brands from their own country but also believe that foreign brands are of higher quality than local brand. to a greater extent than else were shopping is a family activity in India. and struggling consumers are represented by SECs D and E. rather than using only income bands to define category of consumers. Furthermore. and 74% . we use the socioeconomic class code established by the Market Research Society of India. China (8%) and Russia (18%). In India. mass-market consumers are those in SECs B and C. in India women are the primary decision makers in apparel purchases for the entire family.

SWOT Analysis of Indian Apparel Industry .

increase in number of malls OPPORTUNITIES y y Increasing demand for luxury brands from the middle class Research and new product development can help the companies to move across the value chain WEAKNESSES y y Predominance of unorganized sector Technological obsolescence in the supply chain THREATS y y y Increased competition in the domestic markets Cheaper imports Changing Government¶s policy on FDI Various Distribution Channels .STRENGTHS y y y y Increasing disposable incomes of the people Brand conscious customers Availability of cheap finance Growing domestic market.

Madura Garments Arvind Brands. Organization sells it to the distributor. 2. Lower realizations from this channel. which in turn sell them through large retail space y MBO¶s are located in prime locations of the various cities and towns ensuring maximum reach y MBO¶s are chain of shopping malls having a presence in more than one location y Realization from this channel is lower than those earned by selling to the retailers. Multi-Brands Outlets or Shopping Malls y Organization sells apparels to multi-brand outlets. who in turn sells to the retailers or MBO¶s. Creation of a middle agency between the organization and the end-user. Discount Stores For selling apparels at lower prices to attract larger volumes. Greater reach of the distribution channel. y y y 4. y y y 5. Owned Stores / Exclusive Brand Outlets Advantages y direct medium of selling apparel y High realization for the garment sold y End-user feedback and knowledge of their preferences Disadvantages y requires greater advertising expenditure± y greater fixed costs y Some of the Players following this channel Provogue. Realization from this channel is low. Low realization from this channel as garments are old-fashioned or sold at low prices for gaining big volumes. as MBO¶s keep higher margins because their costs are higher y Some of the major players in this channel of distribution: Shopper¶s Stop Pantaloon Retail Westside (Trent) Globus Pyramid Retail Reliance Retail 3. y y y y Distributors This channel involves two middle agencies between the seller and the end-user. Industry Snapshot . Used for selling apparels with minor defects or for selling slow moving stocks.1. Raymonds. Zodiac Clothing. and Century Textiles. Retailers Company sells garment to Traders or Commission Agents.

 Wills Sport: range of Relaxed Wear  ITC launched its brand µ ohn Players in December 2002±With this brand the company offers a complete wardrobe of Casuals. Party. . Work wear and Denims. Some of the premium international brands like the Gucci Group. and Shopper¶s Stop etc to set up their brands in India. in July 2000. Some important upcoming potential players of this market are: ‡The $600 million Dubai-based The Landmark Group which entered the Indian market in 1999. with its chain of premium 'Lifestyle Store¶the group aims to provide a stiff competition to the retail majors like Pantaloon. Max hypermarket  Landmark group currently in discussions with French hypermarket operator Carrefour to roll out the brand in India  The leading UK fashion retailer -New Look. Hyderabad.Offering to the premium consumer with: Wills Classic: range of Formal Wear launched in 2002. Pune. provides the consumers a distinct product offering  Wills Club life: range of Evening Wear & designer accessories launched in 2003. are in talks with major retailers like the Pantaloon.AT Kearney report suggests that the Indian retail market has the largest growth potential in comparison to the international retail market and is expected to grow to 4 to 5 per cent a year in volume and 13 per cent in value. Shopper¶s Stop  The Group has its presence in 5 cities-Chennai. Kolkata and Ahmedabad. Lifestyle. has signed a new Middle East regional franchise agreement with the Landmark Group  Also the Group intends to invest heavily in the fast growing Retail Market by opening outlets in Delhi. Home centers. Bangalore. Westside. Mumbai and Gurgaon through 10 lifestyle stores  Also planning to bring concept stores to India including Max Retail. Fendi. ITC¶s Lifestyle retailing business division established a chain of exclusive specialty stores. The brand is available across the country through a nation-wide network of exclusive stores and multibrand outlets.

Shopper¶s Stop 3. Calvin Klein. Arvind Brands Ltd 7. Globus Stores Pvt. Reliance retail Ltd 11. The Murjani Group with its Joint Venture with Marvin Traub focuses on bringing international brands to the Indian retail market. TATA ±Trent 4. Pantaloon Retail (India) Limited 2. Wills Lifestyle (Lifestyle Retailing Business Division.  The Group has already formed exclusive distribution agreements with the brands like Gucci. Murjani Group 13. The Major players in the Indian Apparel industry are: 1. Landmark Group . Pyramid Retail Ltd 6.  The Murjani Group launched Tommy Hilfiger in India in 2004. Jimmy Choo. FCUK.  Future strategy of the group for the Indian markets would be to create multi-brand retail platform. Madura Garment 10. ITC) 12. The Raymond Group 9. Ltd 5. Provogue (India) Ltd 8. TUMI and Build-A-Bear.

Analysis of the Primary Data collected .

0 Percent 67.Occupation of Respondent Cumulative Frequency student service business Total 61 20 9 90 Percent 67.0 100.2 10.8 22.0 .2 10.0 100.0 100.8 90.0 Valid Percent 67.8 22.

1 100.0 Valid Percent 48.9 100.0 .0 Percent 48.9 51.1 100.9 51.Gender of Respondents Cumulative Frequency male female Total 44 46 90 Percent 48.

2 100.2 32.0 .8 100.2 77.2 30.2 100.0 45.0 45.0 Valid Percent 2.2 30.6 22.6 22.0 Percent 2.Age of Respondent Age categories Cumulative Frequency 10-15 16-20 21-25 25 and above Total 2 27 41 20 90 Percent 2.

3 11.0 .2 63.0 Valid Percent 3.Annual income of the Respondents Cumulative Frequency Valid <2 lakhs 2-4 lakhs >4 lakhs dependent Total 3 10 20 57 90 Percent 3.4 36.3 100.3 100.3 14.1 22.1 22.0 Percent 3.3 11.7 100.2 63.

3 23.7 100.0 Valid Percent 63.0 21 once in 6 months once a year 12 57 only on special occasions .3 23.3 100.3 76.3 13.3 100.3 13. Frequency of shopping visits Cumulative Frequency of Purchase once in 6 months once a year only on special occasions Total Frequency 57 12 21 90 Percent 63.Q1.0 Percent 63.

6 100. Preference of stores Cumulative Frequency lifestyle stores boutique/standalone stores Total 67 23 90 Percent 74.4 25.0 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 lifestyle stores Boutique/standalone stores 67 23 .0 Valid Percent 74.4 25.Q2.0 Percent 74.6 100.4 100.

2 100.7 41.7 77.0 Percent 36.Q3.1 22.2 100.8 100.0 20 33 Multi brand private label 27 Neither of the two .7 41.0 Valid Percent 36. If people choose Lifestyle stores Cumulative Frequency Valid multi brand family store private label store Neither of the 2 Total 33 37 20 90 Percent 36.1 22.

0 100.3 Valid Percent 40.0 53. The amount of purchase of the respondents Cumulative Frequency Valid exactly what you had planned more than what you had planned much more than what you had planned Total 90 100.Q4.0 6 6.0 93.7 6.0 53.3 Percent 40.7 100.0 36 48 Percent 40.3 60 50 40 36 30 20 10 6 0 exactly the amount planned more than planned much more than planned 48 .

7 64.0 Percent 36.0 Valid Percent 36.7 27.1 100.0 Product range and variety 8 10 33 8 convenience in shopping 6 rebates and discounts 25 visual display multiple brand under 1 roof ambience in store .9 11.7 8.1 8.4 71.1 80.9 100.Q.1 8.7 8.8 6.7 27.9 100.5 Factors by which customers get attracted Cumulative Frequency Valid product range and variety multiple brands under 1 roof ambience in the store convenience in shopping rebates and discounts visual display Total 33 25 6 8 10 8 90 Percent 36.8 6.9 11.0 91.

0 31.6 100.4 64.1 4.1 4.4 50.4 95.0 Valid Percent 14.0 Percent 14. Frequency of consumers being attracted by window display Cumulative Frequency Valid very frequently frequently rarely never Total 13 45 28 4 90 Percent 14.0 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 very frequently frequently rarely never 13 4 28 45 .0 31.4 50.Q6.4 100.4 100.

Q7.

Frequency of consumer being attracted by outside sales promotion Cumulative Frequency Valid very frequently frequently rarely never Total 6 31 49 4 90 Percent 6.7 34.4 54.4 4.4 100.0 Valid Percent 6.7 34.4 54.4 4.4 100.0 Percent 6.7 41.1 95.6 100.0

never

rarely

frequently

very frequently

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Q8.

Importance of Multiple brands Cumulative Frequency Valid least important somewhat important moderately important important most important Total 1 6 30 32 21 90 Percent 1.1 6.7 33.3 35.6 23.3 100.0 Valid Percent 1.1 6.7 33.3 35.6 23.3 100.0 Percent 1.1 7.8 41.1 76.7 100.0

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 least important somewhat important moderately important important most important 6 21 32 30

Q9.

Importance of variety Cumulative Frequency Valid least important somewhat important moderately important important most important Total 1 3 20 26 40 90 Percent 1.1 3.3 22.2 28.9 44.4 100.0 Valid Percent 1.1 3.3 22.2 28.9 44.4 100.0 Percent 1.1 4.4 26.7 55.6 100.0

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 least important 3 somewhat important moderately important important most important 20 26 40

0 Valid Percent 4.4 11.1 18.4 11.9 65.0 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 4 0 least important somewhat important moderately important important most important 10 17 59 . Importance of quality Cumulative Frequency Valid least important moderately important important most important Total 4 10 17 59 90 Percent 4.6 100.1 18.6 34.6 100.Q10.0 Percent 4.9 65.4 100.4 15.

2 33.1 22.0 35 30 25 20 15 10 8 5 0 1 least important somewhat important moderately important important most important 20 30 31 .3 34. Importance of store ambience Cumulative Frequency Valid least important somewhat important moderately important important most important Total 1 20 30 31 8 90 Percent 1.2 33.0 Percent 1.4 8.7 91.3 56.9 100.9 100.1 22.Q11.4 8.1 23.3 34.1 100.0 Valid Percent 1.

Q12.7 17.1 46.6 82.3 31.3 31.7 17.2 100.4 35.0 Valid Percent 1.0 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 least important 3 somewhat important moderately important important most important 16 28 42 .8 100.0 Percent 1.8 100. Importance of staff behavior Cumulative Frequency Valid least important somewhat important moderately important important most important Total 1 3 28 42 16 90 Percent 1.1 3.1 46.1 4.1 3.

Importance of in-store promotion Cumulative Frequency Valid least important somewhat important moderately important important most important Total 4 12 30 34 10 90 Percent 4.4 17.1 88.8 11.0 Valid Percent 4.0 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 least important somewhat important moderately important important most important 4 12 10 30 34 .8 51.1 100.8 11.0 Percent 4.3 33.1 100.3 37.3 33.3 37.Q13.9 100.4 13.4 13.

6 27.7 72.2 100.8 100.6 8.0 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 least important somewhat important moderately important important most important 5 11 8 21 45 .2 45.6 27.Q14.0 Percent 5.2 45.6 8. Importance of deals and offers Cumulative Frequency Valid least important somewhat important moderately important important most important Total 5 8 11 41 25 90 Percent 5.6 14.0 Valid Percent 5.8 100.9 12.9 12.4 26.

3 100.3 20.9 23.8 38.0 37.9 23.0 Percent 3.0 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 least important somewhat important moderately important important most important 3 15 16 21 35 .Q15.3 100.7 100.8 76.8 38.3 16.7 17.7 17.0 Valid Percent 3. Importance of convenience Cumulative Frequency Valid least important somewhat important moderately important important most important Total 3 15 16 35 21 90 Percent 3.3 16.

6 30.1 4.4 24.0 58.1 100.4 28.1 4.9 41. Importance of affordability Cumulative Frequency Valid least important somewhat important moderately important important most important Total 1 4 22 26 37 90 Percent 1.0 Valid Percent 1.4 28.4 24.9 41.Q16.9 100.0 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 least important somewhat important moderately important important most important 4 22 26 37 .0 Percent 1.1 5.1 100.

8 21.0 Percent 61.1 17.0 19 yes 16 55 no indifferent .1 17. Are customers attracted towards benefits and privileges Cumulative Frequency Valid yes no indifferent Total 55 16 19 90 Percent 61.1 100.1 100.Q17.0 Valid Percent 61.9 100.8 21.1 78.

Q18.6 100. Customers perception of celebrity endorsement Frequency Valid yes no Total 31 59 90 Percent 34.6 100.4 100.0 Valid Percent 34.0 31 yes no 59 .4 65.0 Cumulative Percent 34.4 65.

1 51.1 51.8 100.1 27.1 27.2 100.0 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 46 25 19 mostly rarely never . Is the purchase based on celebrity ad recall? Cumulative Frequency Valid mostly rarely never Total 19 46 25 90 Percent 21.1 72.0 Percent 21.Q19.8 100.0 Valid Percent 21.

Ranking of the features .Q20.

4 100.1 55.3 44.6 100.0 yes 33% maybe 56% no 11% .3 11.3 11.1 55.Q21.0 Cumulative Percent 33.6 100. Are customers willing to pay more money for a particular brand? Frequency Valid yes no maybe Total 30 10 50 90 Percent 33.0 Valid Percent 33.

Q22. Ranking of the Casual Apparel . Ranking of the Sports Apparel Q23.