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2010 Sixth Advanced International Conference on Telecommunications

VD4: Vehicular Density-dependent Data

Delivery Model in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks

Avijit Gupta1, Vineet Chaudhary2, Vivek Kumar3, Bharat Nishad4, Shashikala Tapaswi5
ABV-Indian Institute of Information Technology & Management Gwalior, INDIA

Abstract— In this paper, we present the VD4 model for effective have different mobility patterns and are generally confined
delivery of data packets in vehicular ad hoc networks. The to road maps, which make location estimation much easier
major challenges in such networks are disconnections, high as compared to MANETs. Therefore, the protocols suitable
mobility and resource poor environment. For providing data for MANETs may not necessarily be suited for VANETs
delivery under such constraints we adopt the method of carry
and can be optimized to provide better results. The network
and forward in which a vehicle transfers its data to another
connection in VANETs is generally achieved by Road Side
vehicle if it is moving towards the destination. For optimizing
performance in such situations, we can make a probabilistic Units (RSUs) that can either act as router for vehicles to
estimation as to which path the packet should follow when there access the network or just as buffer points(or data island)
are multiple options available. One such estimation can be between vehicles [11]. While the first option is costly, the
based on road density and the average packet delay on the second option is prone to excessive delay as the destination
selected road. The paper focuses on the development of such a vehicle might never pass the RSU. In such a situation,
model that can act as a solution to reduce the packet delivery communication between RSUs can be accomplished to
delay and improve the data delivery ratio.
provide connectivity to the destination vehicle, which is
again, expensive. In a resource poor environment, the
Keywords-Vehicular Ad hoc Networks; Road Side Unit; routing
vehicles cannot always rely upon RSUs especially if they
protocol; carry and forward; vehicular density
are placed very far away. For removing the reliability of
I. INTRODUCTION vehicular data transfer on RSUs, we can use the carry and
A Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is a forward [12] method in which a packet between RSUs can
communication technology that creates network between be carried by vehicles themselves. A similar approach was
vehicles [1] or roadside gateways to allow information followed in [13], where data is poured by a data center
exchange between users. The importance of vehicular ad along the nodes and they are delivered not only to the
hoc networks is increasing day by day and it is estimated vehicles on these nodes but also to the vehicles on the
that they will play a key role in providing transportation in intersecting nodes when they move across the intersection.
the near future. Its major application lies in providing safety, This type of broadcast is expensive and data is transmitted
comfort, and critical information to drivers on road. Due to to nodes which might not be on the path of the destination at
the increasing concern in this field, many research works are all.
targeted towards more and more optimization in this area. II. STATE OF THE ART
Vehicular Ad hoc Networks are useful in scenarios where Many researches have been done on vehicle
a driver wants information, even when he is miles from the communication. Some papers have discussed on mobility
destination. As an example, if he wants to view the traffic modeling and optimization of (MAC) issues have been
pattern of roads to his destination so as to choose the path deliberated upon [4][5]. Many researchers have focused
with minimum congestion, he can request for the same even upon development and routing protocols [6][7].
when he is far from the destination. In such applications, the Transportation safety has been discussed in [8][9] where
user can tolerate some delay. Such a service is difficult to be inter vehicle communication is achieved with static network
provided if the cost is high or the infrastructure is damaged. nodes. For comfort and entertainment, real time video
VANETs differ considerably from Mobile Ad hoc Networks streaming between vehicles has been studied in reference
(MANETs) because the nodes in VANETs are much faster, [10].

978-0-7695-4021-4/10 $26.00 © 2010 IEEE 285

DOI 10.1109/AICT.2010.80
Multi hop data delivery in VANETs is challenging vehicles. Vehicles and RSUs also contain the information
primarily because of high mobility and sparse situations that about paths that might be statically stored as scaled maps.
might be prevalent in areas where the service is required. As The RSU maintains the information of vehicles such as the
the number of nodes on any road might vary from time to speed, direction etc. that passed it and also an estimate of
time, it is extremely difficult to find end to end connectivity total number of vehicles present on each path at a given
for sparsely connected network. In such situations the point in time. This information is periodically updated so
moving vehicles might be used as data carriers. that the evaluation of the optimal path may be done with the
Furthermore, the data packets may be transferred from latest information. The vehicles are assumed to move with
vehicle to vehicle whenever a vehicle moving towards the uniform speed on a path.
destination reaches in the vicinity of a vehicle which was
originally carrying the packet. Thus, through relays and
carry and forward, the packet can be transferred even when The Vehicular Density-dependent Data Delivery Model is
no end to end connectivity is present between the source and based upon routing data packets based on the calculation of
destination. the successor path which is the path of minimum delay from
This paper deals with effective data delivery in the set of paths present on the intersection. For any path to
VANETs. We suggest a model to effectively route the achieve minimum delay, it must be such that the vehicles
request for the service to the destination and receive the can (i) maximize wireless transmissions so that the time
reply within a tolerable delay time. Any packet might be spent by the packet carried by the vehicle is minimized (ii)
carried by vehicles to the destination via multiple paths. But the average speed of vehicle movement on the path (the
for effective and efficient data delivery, we need to consider average of speed of all the vehicles on the path) must be
the path in which the data transmission delay is tolerable. high so as to reduce the packet delay.
Therefore, at every intersection, the data packet can be At any time, any path at an intersection can be divided
transferred to the RSU present there which can be into two parts. In the first part, the transmission of data
transferred to a vehicle which moves along the optimal road packets can be done wirelessly and hence quickly and the
chosen according to maximum vehicular densities and other in which the vehicle has to carry the data packet itself.
minimum delay. Since it is difficult to predict the configuration of VANET
The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section III after a period of time, therefore that path which gives the
describes the assumptions that need to be made to represent largest distance that can accomplished via wireless
the VD4 model. Section IV describes how to model data transmission from the source RSU will be the best present
delivery delay based on the VD4 model. Section V path for transmission because it will be a path of minimum
describes the VD4 algorithm for vehicular ad hoc networks. delay. Consider two RSUs at i and j. Suppose k is a point in
The evaluation of the model is done in Section VI; Section between i and j from where the vehicle has to carry the
VII concludes the paper. packet manually as there are no vehicles in front of it to
transfer the packet to. The basic equation for calculating the
III. ASSUMPTIONS delay for each path at an intersection between two RSUs, i
and j can be written as:
This section states the various assumptions that need to
be made to adequately represent the VD4 model. We
assume that for being a part of the VANET, the vehicles are (1)
sufficiently equipped with wireless transmitters which can
transmit in a short range (100 m-200 m) for transmitting
data packet whenever a vehicle reaches the vicinity of the where:
original data packet carrying vehicle or to the RSU. Every α = Fraction of the path length where data packet can be
roadside intersection is equipped with a RSU, which is
transmitted via wireless transmission ( )
capable of storing data packets sent by vehicles as and when
required. The information necessary for the proper routing is β = Wireless Transmission delay per unit distance
included by the source in the packet at the time of lij = The length of the path between the RSUs at i and j
transmission. Each vehicle and RSU knows its present vij = The average speed vehicles on the path from RSUs at i
location using GPS. This is already available in advanced and j

δ = Constant used for adjusting delay in case wireless Di: The expected packet delivery delay from Ii to the
transmission takes place. destination if the packet carrier at Ii uses road rij to
ρij = Vehicular density at the path between the RSUs at i deliver the packet.
and j Pij: The probability that the packet is forwarded through
The above equation is similar to the delay equation road rij at Ii.
obtained for the VADD Model [6], difference being that in N(j): The set of neighboring intersections of Ij
the aforementioned model, the data transmitted between two
intersection points is either completely wirelessly or
completely carried by vehicles. This might not be true when In this section, we introduce the VD4 algorithm for
intersection points are far from each other or the vehicles optimal routing of the data packets to the destination.
are distributed irregularly in the path. Therefore the path is Each time a vehicle passes a RSU, the following
divided into two parts, the first being the part where data information is provided to it: (i) The time of arrival of the
can be transmitted wirelessly and quickly. The fraction of vehicle (as a timestamp) (ii) The speed of the vehicle (iii)
such path is represented by α. In the remaining fraction (1- The direction of movement (iv) Data packets (in case it
α) of the path, the vehicle must carry the packet. carries them). The data packets that are received carry a
Representing delay in this manner leads to more accuracy. unique sequence number which is checked for duplicity at
This can be effectively depicted by Figure 1. the RSU. If the packet is already present at the RSU, it is
dropped otherwise it is forwarded to the farthest in range
vehicle on the most optimal path as has been calculated by
the delay model. Consider a situation in which a packet is
carried by a vehicle from RSUi through the most optimal
path to RSUj. The transmission of packet by RSUi
continues till an acknowledgement is received or the
timeout is reached. Once the forwarded packet reaches
RSUj at the other intersection point, the acknowledgement
packet is sent using VANET itself to RSUi, which stops
transmitting packets from then on and deletes it from its
memory. Duplicated packets are ignored by RSUj using the
sequence number of the received packet. Following this
Figure 1 – Depiction of how packet is carried partially by a approach, the packet is transmitted till the destination node
vehicle and partially wirelessly transmitted is reached. The basic algorithm can be summarized as
After the RSU at the intersection knows the delays of
every individual path, it has to choose which path it should Notations:
use to forward the packet. The application of Dijkstra’s Ii : The Intersection under consideration.
Algorithm is not feasible since information at each RSU is Ri : The transmission range of roadside unit(RSU) at Ii.
dynamic. The most optimal path at a particular time might Vi : The vehicle under consideration.
not remain the same for a long duration of time. Therefore, Pi : The packet carried by Vi.
computation of the complete path is not feasible. Di : The direction towards which vehicle Vi is heading.
As a solution to this problem we use the stochastic model Dj : The destination direction of packet Pi.
of VADD Model [6]. The expected delay according to the Vj : The vehicle farthest in direction Dj such that its
VADD model for the packet from intersection point Im to In distance from RSU at Ii <= Ri.
can be written as: N[] : The outgoing roads at Ii.
1. For each vehicle Vi that reaches RSUi, do :
2. if vehicle entry already exists then
update speed, direction and timestamp for Vi.

make new entry for speed, direction and time of from that RSU to the source RSU via vehicle travelling in
arrival for Vi. that direction. Once the acknowledgement packet reaches
end if the source RSU, the packet transmission stops and packet is
3. If Vi is carrying any packet, Pi then deleted from the memory of RSU. This continues till the
If Pi is a packet with ACK mark, then packet is received by the destination.
delete Pi from memory of RSU at Ii.
else if Di is equal to Dj then
Transmit Pi from RSUi back to Vi.
Mark Pi as SENT. In this section, we evaluate the performance of the VD4
protocol. We compare the performance of VD4 with several
protocols like Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)[15], the
Vj = SELECT(Dj , Ri). epidemic routing protocol [16] , Greedy Perimeter Stateless
►Select Vehicle to carry the packet Routing (GPSR) [16] and Hybrid – Vehicle Assisted Data
Give Pi to Vj Delivery (H-VADD) [6]. We use the simulation
Mark Pi as SENT. environment provided by NCTUns 6.0, which is widely
end if used to simulate VANETs. The following are the
parameters used during the simulation:
end if
4. Leave the intersection Ii.
Simulation Area 10000m X 8000m
►Procedure to select the vehicle which will further carry No of vehicles 180
the data packet. Number of Intersections 5-50
Procedure SELECT( Di , Ri) CBR rate .1 – 1 packet per second
1. j := 0, D = INF, p := 0 Vehicle Velocity 40km/hr - 60 km/hr
2. while j <= n(N) do Communication Range 200m
Data packet size 1 KB
dij =

A snapshot of a limited section of the simulation area is

calculate shown in Figure 2.

if D >= Dij then

D = Dij
p =j
end if
3. Select farthest vehicle on Road N(p) whose
distance from Ii <= Ri.
4. return the selected vehicle.

The basic approach of the algorithm is to develop a data

delivery model such that packets can be delivered from
source to the destination using the intermediate RSUs. Once
a car reaches a RSU, the packets it carries is checked. If the
packet is an acknowledgement packet, then the packet is
Figure 2 –
A snapshot of a partial area of the simulation
deleted from the memory of RSU. In case it is not present in
environment provided by NCTUns
the memory of RSU, it is incorporated in the memory and
transmitted to the farthest vehicle travelling towards the ITS Cars are randomly placed on the paths to depict an
destination. The optimal successor path is selected using the environment. The vehicles move in simulation
delay equations stated above. The packets are delivered to environments with a speed of 40km/hr – 60km/hr, which
all vehicles moving towards the destination on the same may vary according to restrictions on a particular path.
path until one of the packets is delivered to the RSU at next Various simulation environments are generated with varying
hop. When this happens, an acknowledgement packet is sent number of intersection points to effectively simulate packet

delays with the number of intersection points. Also for a Next, the packet delivery delay is plotted against the
fixed number of intersection points, the distances between number of intersection points keeping the Euclidian distance
the source and destination are varied to get various delays between the source and destination as same. The results are
associated with various distances. To evaluate the summarized in the Figure 4. As is evident, the packet
performance on different data transmission density, we vary delivery delay increases with the number of intersection
the data sending rate (CBR rate) from 0.1 to 1 packet per points because a fixed number of vehicles are divided into a
second. The performance of the protocols is measured by large number of paths thus reducing the number of vehicles
the packet delivery delay and data delivery ratio. on each path, which leads to reduced path density. H-VADD
gives more delay than VD4 protocol because the probability
of choosing a non optimal path increases with each
intersection point. Since intersection points become more,
A. Packet Delivery Delay
data delivery delay is increased.
In this section, we compare the data delivery delay for
moving vehicles to fixed sites using VD-4 and H-VADD.
In the first simulation, the packet delivery delay is plotted
against the Euclidian distance between the source and
destination keeping the number of intersections constant.
The plot is shown in the Figure 3.

Figure 4 – Plot of Packet Delivery delay versus

Number of Intersections

B. The Data Delivery Ratio

In this section we discuss the performance of VD4
protocol as compared to DSR, GPSR, Epidemic routing and
H-VADD protocol. The graph shown in the Figure 5 depicts
Figure 3 – Packet delivery delay versus enclidian distance the relationship between the data rate and data delivery ratio
keeping number of intersection points constant for the above mentioned protocols. This was obtained as a
result of VD4 simulation with 180 nodes.
As can be very easily inferred, the packet delivery delay
increases with the increasing Euclidian distance between
source and destination. This is because once the Euclidian
distance is increased, the paths leading to the destination
must be increased in length to connect the source and
destination. Thus, on an average the length of path between
two intersection points increases. Since VADD considers
that the data packet between two intersection points is
transmitted entirely wirelessly or carried by a vehicle, the
result obtained can be further optimized. This is done by the
VD4 model, which considers the delay to be a sum of
wireless transmission delay and carry delay at the same

Figure 5 – Plot of Data Delivery Ratio versus Data

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As a future work, implementation using real vehicular Ad

hoc network is required to evaluate the protocol in real
world application.

Finally, we would like to acknowledge the technical and
financial support provided to by ABV-Indian Institute of
Information Technology and Management Gwalior.

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