You are on page 1of 44

Wireless for the

Mining Industry
Agenda

►Trends in Wireless Technology


►Success and Opportunities
►Improving plants efficiency
►Improving plants reliability
►Improving plants safety and
security
►Wireless Ecosystem
►Lessons Learnt /
Recommendations

2
Agenda

►Trends in Wireless Technology


►Success and Opportunities
►Improving plants efficiency
►Improving plants reliability
►Improving plants safety and
security
►Wireless Ecosystem
►Lessons Learnt /
Recommendations

3
Why Wireless?
• Lower cost (no wiring cost)
• Flexibility (no wire)
• Standards-compliant wireless devices major factor enabling
growth:
– Standard WLAN (IEEE 802.11)
– Wireless field I/Os (IEEE 802.11, ISA100.11 and WirelessHART)
• “Wireless adoption will become a milestone that will rival the
introduction of Fieldbus and the distributed control system (DCS)
in its importance.” ARC Advisory Group

4
Wireless Trends
Today
• Wireless has revolutionized
network connectivity in the IT
world and the consumer and
commercial markets

• Substantial growth will be


driven by Standardization,
investment and R&D

• Technology is now industrial


strength!

5
The Analogy …
Voice Voice & Data

6
The Enabling Infrastructure at the Plant …

7
Agenda

►Trends in Wireless Technology


►Success and Opportunities
►Improving plants efficiency
►Improving plants reliability
►Improving plants safety and
security
►Wireless Ecosystem
►Lessons Learnt /
Recommendations

8
Cement Rotary Kiln Temperature Readings

• The major risks to process operational performance


include:
– Low accuracy and reliability of the temperature
– No measurements can lead to increased energy costs
– Non scheduled maintenance can generate unexpected non
planned costs
– Unscheduled down time leading to loss of production.
– Inconsistent product quality due to out of spec kiln temperatures

9
Cement Rotary Kiln Temperature Readings
Previously
• Special electro-mechanical links are used to transmit
the signal
Issues:
• Requires ad-hoc designed electromechanical links to
transmit the signal
• Readings not reliable (dust, dirt, grease, etc)
• Links require constant maintenance
• Expensive
• Adding measurement points is expensive
• Bearing thermocouples are subject to wear due to
friction between the measuring point and the kilns
rotating surface, failures of the measurement system
can occur at any time.
10
Wireless Solution
• The wireless transmitter installed on the rotary kiln external surface
getting the reading from the thermocouple installed inside the kiln.
• A mechanical cover is mitigating the heat irradiation from the kiln surface
protecting the transmitter electronics from the high temperature.

11
Wireless Benefits

• Ensures accurate repeatable temperature measurement


contributing to maintain product quality.
• Reduces wastage due to out of spec product.
• Reduces kiln energy requirements hence reducing costs.
• Minimizes process down time due to maintenance, helps to
ensure maximum kiln throughput and production targets are
maintained.

12
Industry Challenges

Efficiency Reliability Safety/Security

Reduce Costs Reduce Downtime Eliminate Hazards


Improve Productivity Millions lost per year Locate Personnel
Ease of Installation due to unplanned during Emergency
production losses
Process optimization Cameras

13 Fundamental Pillars to Achieve Operational Excellence


Efficiency - Instrumentation
• Cost Avoidance (No Wiring)
– 50% of I/O is indication only
– Installation 50% of wired
• Typical cost for wired installs ($100-
300/ft)
– Project acceleration
• Improved process
control/monitoring
• Increased Instrumentation/
Temporary Measurements
• Mobile Equipment
– Rail cars, skids, trucks

• Examples
– Rotary Kiln temperature measurement

14
Efficiency Remote/Mobile Controllers
Benefits
DCS
Server • Connecting remote
Ethernet FTE Controllers/RTUS to the
control system
Wireless Gateway
– DCS controllers
– PLCs
– Flow computers
– Alarm Panels
• Connecting mobile
controllers/equipments
– Ships and docks
– Skids
– Trucks

Examples
• Refinery in California using
wireless for remote controllers

15
Efficiency - Mobile Operations & Commissioning
Mobile Operations
• Real-time data in the field for faster
decisions
– Process views, procedures, data
• Improve response to field data &
information
• Send a text-based communication to the
equipment operators
• Proven success:
– Mobile Stations at an open pit mining

Checkout and Commissioning


• Mobile access to project data
– Drawings, instrument databases, operating
procedures, real-time process graphics
• Reduce equipment & improve schedule
16
Industry Challenges

Efficiency Reliability Safety/Security

Reduce Costs Reduce Downtime Eliminate Hazards


Improve Productivity Millions lost per year Locate Personnel
Ease of Installation due to unplanned during Emergency
production losses
Process optimization Cameras

17 Fundamental Pillars to Achieve Operational Excellence


Leach Pad Monitoring

• Temperature sensors to monitor Pressure sensors to measure air


filtration system performance
• Severe technological challenges to monitor flow and pressures at
leach pads due to harsh and difficult physical and environmental
conditions present in the mining locations
• Occasional cable cut adversely effects operations.
• Poor quality signals due to electrical grounding around the leach
pads.
• Each leach pad must be moved every seven months. During the
process of reloading the ore, all equipment and instruments must
be relocated.
• Quick and easy replacement of the instrumentation vital to
keeping operations running smoothly and accurately.
• Instruments required changing approximately every three years.

18
Wireless Benefits
• Reduced system maintenance
• Improved system life expectancy and
reliability of monitoring devices
• Data collection that is vastly improved,
more timely and more accurate
• Freedom from the constraints and high
costs of a wired solution
• Flexible, open architect design that
permits easy network expansion
• The ability to react quicker according to
the results of improve data collection
“Wireless technology has given us a durable, dependable state-of-the-art
solution that can stand up to the harsh conditions of daily work in our mine
complexes. After years of being at the mercy of inadequate, unreliable, short-
duration technology, this solution has delivered a solid alternative that endures
and delivers--despite some of the toughest environmental conditions around.”

19
Reliability - Instrumentation
• Cost Avoidance (No Wiring)
– Instrument none instrumented
equipments
– Installation 50% of wired
• Typical cost for wired installs ($100-
300/ft)
– Project acceleration
• More reliable data
• Quicker update rates

Examples:
• Equipment Health Management
– Monitoring Vibration Monitoring
• Wireless Gauge Reader

20
Rotating Equipment Health Monitoring
Fast Implementation of Online
Vibration Monitoring
- Easy and cost-effective
deployment
– Less than four hours (With
wireless Infrastructure in place)
- Reduce plant downtime
- Intuitive and Integrated
– Deduce bearing defects,
misalignment, pump cavitation,
and impeller wear and translate
data into control system alarms

Example:
• Pumps and compressors
• Conveyor belts

21
Wireless Vibration Sensors
• Inputs
– Four analog ICP sensor inputs
(24bit):
• Accelerometers or Pressure
Sensors
– Four 4-20 ma sensors inputs
(16bit)
–Two tachometer inputs:
• Embedded processing
• Simultaneous measurements
• Up to 40 KHz
• NEMA 4X, IP67, CE, Atex Zone 2,
enclosure
• Battery or 10-30 VDC Powered
• WiFi 802.11b/g, 128 bit (WEP,
WPA, WPA2/PSK)

22
EHM Fault Detection Example
Motor Shaft
Misalignment
Static and
Unbalance
Dynamic Eccentricity
Runout

PUMP MOTOR COMBINATION

Impeller
Bearing

Cage
Roller Cavitation
Outer Race Blade pass
Inner Race Blade damage
Looseness Resonance

23
Wireless Gauge Reader

Wireless
Network

• Non-Intrusive optical, wireless gauge reader mounts to front of


existing gauge
• Installation takes minutes

24
Current Situation

Time consuming and infrequent


visual check and manual recording
of gauge measurements
25
Wireless Gauge Reader

• Device Radio: WiFi 802.11 b/g with


min. range of 1,000 feet line of sight
with integral antenna
• Interface with DCS: OPC Server
• Diagnostics: Wireless and device
• Accuracy: +/-2% accuracy or better
• Reliability: 95% wireless reliability.
Lost network connection or device
malfunction detected within 30
minutes

26
Reliability - Mobility

• Real-time access to
process and maintenance
data
• Reduce troubleshooting
period

• Examples:
– Automated Inspection &
Rounds
• Handhelds
– Collaboration Cameras
• Mobile Video/Audio

27
Mobile Collaboration

OneWireless
Network

•Video •Video
•Voice •Voice

Collaboration/Sharing
Telestration Images
Recorded Video
Mobile Device
Remote Expert/Team Member
Workplace Issue

* Mobile Video Collaboration: extends video throughout the enterprise


* Extends functionality of a customer’s video conferencing install base
* Brings the Problem to the Expert… NOT the other way around
28
Mobile Collaboration Specifications

Collaboration Camera
• One way video
• Two way audio
• Wireless 802.11b/g or Ethernet
• 10x optical zoom
• VGA screen with touch-interface for
drawing (“telestration”)
• Snapshot and video recording
• 2.5 hr battery life full streaming
• Industrial: 4” drop; IP54
• Macro/Beam illumination
• Non-incentive: Class1 Division 2
Groups ABCD

29
Boeing - Engine Installation Verification
• New Inspection Process - Two
Days to Two Hours !!
• Requirement
– Visual confirmation of engine
mounting process
• Previous Process
– Required sending pictures to
approval agency with average
wait 2 days for approval
• Mobile Collaboration Process
– Allowed inspector to view factory
floor live images and voice at his
desk, ask questions, get
clarifications and certify the jet in
2 hours to move to next stage.

30
Industry Challenges

Efficiency Reliability Safety/Security

Reduce Costs Reduce Downtime Eliminate Hazards


Improve Productivity Millions lost per year Locate Personnel
Ease of Installation due to unplanned during Emergency
production losses
Process optimization Cameras

31 Fundamental Pillars to Achieve Operational Excellence


Safety & Security
• Gas Detection/Environmental
Monitoring
– Perimeter Monitoring
– Gas Monitoring
– Pressure Relief Valve Monitoring

• Unmanned mining vehicles


• Industrial Security
– Mustering, personnel location
system
– Access Control
– Intrusion Detection
– Wireless Cameras

• Examples
– Smoke Detection
– CCTV systems

32
Miners Tracking Solution

• Forecast people tracking under mine based on


active RFID techniques
• Register person entering/leaving mine
• Central system to monitor various mines in real-
time

33
Agenda

►Trends in Wireless Technology


►Success and Opportunities
►Improving plants efficiency
►Improving plants reliability
►Improving plants safety and
security
►Wireless Ecosystem
►Lessons Learnt /
Recommendations

34
Wireless Ecosystem
• Mesh nodes
DCS
(routers/gateways) Server
• Mesh clients
Wi-Fi
– Wi-Fi Ethernet devices IEEE 802.11b/g Wireless Bridge
Wireless Sensor
Gateway (Modbus,
– Wired Ethernet devices HART, OPC)

– Wireless transmitters
• Standards Based
– 802.11a/b/g Mesh Mesh Network
IEEE 802.11a/g
– 802.11bg Wi-Fi
– 802.3
– ISA100.11a Wireless Field I/O
• Industrial Strength ISA100.11a
Wired Ethernet Devices
– Security
– Performance
– Redundancy/Reliability

35
Mesh/Wireless Clients
Wi-Fi Mesh Network
IEEE 802.11b/g IEEE 802.11a
Radio Back Haul Radio
Mobile
Station

EHM (vibration
Sensor)
IntelaTrac for Field I/O Radio
Operator/Maintenance
Rounds 802.15.4
WiFI
Serial
Interface
Transmitters
Collaboration
Camera Wireless •Pressure
Gauge Reader •Differential Pressure
•Temperature
Alarm •Corrosion
Flow Panels •HLAI (High Level
Computer Analog Input)
Video •Discrete Inputs
Cameras
•Discrete Outputs
•Valve Positioners

36
Wireless Mesh Network

• Self-forming, self healing wireless Wired


PCN
backbone
– High-availability with redundant paths
and quick path creation and recovery
– No ethernet cables between APs
• Flexible and scalable Gateway

– Can grow to cover your entire facility


• IP 65 / ATEX Zone 2/CI D2
• IEEE 802.11a/b/g wireless Ethernet Mesh Network
based IEEE 802.11a
• Gateway(s) to link to wired network

37
Wireless Field I/O
• Transmitters OneWireless
Modbus Client Server
– Level HART Client
– Pressure CDA (HW) Client (OPC Server)
Gateway
– Differential Pressure
– Temperature OPC Client
– Corrosion
– HLAI (High Level Analog Input) Mesh Network
IEEE 802.11a
• Battery Operated
• Class 1 Div 1
• Based on emerging ISA100.11a Field I/O
ISA100.11a
standard (IP based)
• Redundant Communication Paths
• Multi-Protocol support at gateway

38
OneWireless Wi-Fi Access
• Standards-based
– IEEE 802.11b/g (US)
• Security
– WEP Wi-Fi
IEEE 802.11b/g
– WPA
– IEEE 802.11i (WPA2)
Mesh Network
– IEEE 802.1x IEEE 802.11a

• Applications
– Mobile Station
– Wireless Cameras Wi-Fi Wi-Fi
IEEE 802.11b/g
– IntelaTrac PKS IEEE 802.11b/g

39
Wireless LAN
Mesh Network Security
• 128 bit Static key
• Provide your own or let first multinode generate
• AES-CCM based encryption
• All multinodes participating in the mesh must have the same
bridge SSID and encryption key

40
Industrial Strength
• Security • Performance
– WPA2, 128-bit AES-based, – 1-30 Second Updates
Device Authentication
– 4000 Transmitters/System
– Key Management
– Source authentication • Redundancy/Reliability
– Message Integrity – Redundant Path
– Resistance to denial-of- – Deterministic Mesh
service attacks Networking
– Replay protection – Flexible Channel
– Idaho National Labs (INL) Allocation
Tested
– Selectable Antennas
– 10 Year Sensor Battery
Life (Rain or Shine)

41
Wireless Field I/Os
Field I/O Security
• Static key
• 128 - bit AES based encryption
• Authentication Device (Microsoft Windows
Mobile PDA with IrDA port) gets key from key
server and transmits key to transmitter via
Infrared

42
Agenda

►Trends in Wireless Technology


►Success and Opportunities
►Improving plants efficiency
►Improving plants reliability
►Improving plants safety and
security
►Wireless Ecosystem
►Lessons Learnt /
Recommendations

43
Recommendations

• Avoid point to point wireless solution


• Whenever possible select a standard based wireless solution that
can be scaled easily
• RF site assessment / front end engineering design recommended
for site wide implementations
• Think big but start small!

44