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Screws 0

Contents

2 Screws 1

II.2.Screws 1

2 Screws

II.2.Screws 2

thread.

thread.

II.2.Screws 3

in Fig. 2.2, and it is basically the same for both Unified (inch series) and ISO

The lead denoted by l is the distance the nut moves parallel to the screw

axis when the nut is given one turn (distance a threaded section moves axially

in one revolution).

A screw with two or more threads cut beside each other is called multiple-

threaded screw.

The lead is equal to twice the pitch for a double-threaded screw, and to

• The pitch p, lead l, and lead angle λ are represented in Fig. 2.3.

Figure 2.3(a) shows a single thread right hand screw and Fig. 2.3(b) shows

In Fig. 2.4 D (d) is the basic major diameter of internal (external) thread,

II.2.Screws 4

√

• H = 0.5 3 p.

Metric threads are specified by the letter M preceding the nominal major

For example:

• M 14× 2

Screw size in the Unified system is designated by the size number for

major diameter (inches), the number of treads per inch, and the thread form

5”

• − 18 UNF

8

5”

is the the outside (major) diameter where the double tick marks mean

8

inches, and 18 threads per inch.

II.2.Screws 5

bly drawings.

drawing.

II.2.Screws 6

Power screws are used to convert rotary motion to linear motion of the

These screws are used to lift weights (screw-type jacks) or exert large

The power screws can also be used to obtain precise positioning of the

axial movement.

diameter dm , the pitch p, and the helix angle λ is considered in Fig. 2.8.

Consider that a single thread of the screw is unrolled for exactly one turn.

The edge of the thread is the hypotenuse of a right triangle and the height

is the lead.

The base of the right triangle is the circumference of the pitch diameter

The screw is loaded by an axial compressive force F , Figs. 2.8 and 2.9.

II.2.Screws 7

The force diagram for lifting the load is shown in Fig. 2.9(a), (the force

Pr is positive).

The force diagram for lowering the load is shown in Fig. 2.9(b), (the force

Pl is negative).

Ff = µ N,

X

Fx = Pr − N sin λ − µ N cos λ = 0, (2.1)

X

Fy = F + µ N sin λ − N cos λ = 0. (2.2)

Similarly, for lowering the load one may write the equations

X

Fx = −Pl − N sin λ + µ N cos λ = 0, (2.3)

X

Fy = F − µ N sin λ − N cos λ = 0. (2.4)

F (sin λ + µ cos λ)

Pr = , (2.5)

cos λ − µ sin λ

II.2.Screws 8

F (µ cos λ − sin λ)

Pl = . (2.6)

cos λ + µ sin λ

tan λ = l/πdm ,

F [(l π dm ) + µ]

Pr = , (2.7)

1 − (µ l π dm )

F [µ − (l π dm )]

Pl = . (2.8)

1 + (µ l π dm )

The moment required to overcome the thread friction and to raise the load

is

!

dm F dm l + π µ dm

M r = Pr = . (2.9)

2 2 π dm − µ l

The moment required to lower the load (and to overcome a part of the fric-

tion) is

!

F dm π µ dm − l

Ml = . (2.10)

2 π dm + µ l

• When the lead, l, is large or the friction, µ, is low the load will lower itself.

In this case the screw will spin without any external effort, and the moment

II.2.Screws 9

locking.

π µ dm > l.

yields

The moment, M0 , required only to raise the load when the friction is zero,

F l

M0 = . (2.12)

2π

M0 F l

e= = . (2.13)

Mr 2 π Mr

For square threads the normal thread load, F , is parallel to the axis of the

II.2.Screws 10

For Acme threads, Figs 2.6, or other threads, the normal thread load is

inclined to the axis due to the thread angle 2α and the lead angle λ.

The screw threads in normal and axial plane are shown in Fig. 2.10(a).

Fig. 2.6, and the thread angle measured in normal plane, αn in Fig. 2.10(a),

is

s s

tan αn = = cos λ = tan α cos λ,

H H cos λ

or

The screw thread forces in normal plane are represented in Fig. 2.10(b).

The force diagram for lifting the load is shown in Fig. 2.10(b).

X

Fx = Pr − N cos αn sin λ − µ N cos λ = 0, (2.15)

X

Fy = −F + N cos αn cos λ − µ N sin λ = 0. (2.16)

Pr = F =F . (2.17)

cos λ cos αn − µ sin λ cos αn − µ tan λ

II.2.Screws 11

The moment required to overcome the thread friction and to raise the load

is

!

dm F dm µ + tan λ cos αn

M r = Pr = . (2.18)

2 2 cos αn − µ tan λ

tan λ = l π dm ,

!

F dm µ π dm + l cos αn

Mr = . (2.19)

2 π dm cos αn − µ l

Similarly, the moment required to lower the load and to overcome a part of

the friction is

!

F dm µ π dm − l cos αn

Ml = . (2.20)

2 π dm cos αn + µ l

For power screws the square thread ( αn = 0) is more efficient than the Acme

thread.

• The Acme thread adds an additional friction due to the wedging action.

collar may be used between the rotating and stationary links to carry the

II.2.Screws 12

F µc dc

Mc = , (2.21)

2

II.2.Screws 13

The angle θ made by R with the normal to the thread is the angle of

Ff

tan θ = µ = .

N

The unwrapped thread of the screw shown in Fig. 2.12(b) is for lifting

the load.

F = R cos(λ + θ),

The moment of R about the vertical axis of the screw is R rm sin(λ + θ).

M = R rm sin(λ + θ).

II.2.Screws 14

In a similar way is obtained the moment required to lower the load by un-

II.2.Screws 15

A double square-thread power screw, Fig. 2.15, has the major diameter

Find:

a) the lead, the pitch (mean) diameter and the minor diameter;

II.2.Screws 16

Solution

dr = d − p = 40 − 6 = 34 mm,

dm = d − p/2 = 40 − 3 = 37 mm.

The lead is

l = 2 p = 2 (6) = 12 mm.

b) The moment required to raise the load is, Eqs. (2.18) and (2.21)

!

F dm l + πµdm F µc dc

Mr = +

2 πdm − µl 2

−3

3

8 (103 ) (0.1) (45) (10−3 )

" #

8 (10 ) (37) (10 ) 12 + 0.08(37)π

= +

2 37π − 0.08 (12) 2

= 45.344 N m.

c) The moment required to lower the load is, Eqs. (2.10) and (2.21)

!

F dm πµdm − l F µc dc

Ml = +

2 πdm + µl 2

−3

3

8 (103 ) (0.1) (45) (10−3 )

" #

8 (10 ) (37) (10 ) 0.08(37)π − 12

= +

2 37π + 0.08 (12) 2

= 14.589 N m.

II.2.Screws 17

Fl 8 (103 ) (12)(10−3 )

e= = = 0.336.

2πMr 2(45.344)π

II.2.Screws 18

Fig. 2.16.

A plain thrust collar is used. The mean diameter of the collar is dc = 3 in.

Determine:

a) the screw pitch, lead, thread depth, mean pitch diameter, and helix

angle;

b) the starting torque for raising and for lowering the load;

II.2.Screws 19

Solution

1 5 3 1 5 3 7

d [in.] 4 16 8 2 8 4 8

1 1 14 1 12 1 34 2 2 12 3

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

p [in.] 16 14 12 10 8 6 6 5 5 4 4 4 3 2

For the major diameter d = 2 in. the preferred screw pitch is p = 0.25 in.

l 0.5

λ = tan−1 = tan−1 = 4.851◦ .

πdm 1.875π

4 4 4 4

µs = µ = (0.12) = 0.16 and µsc = µc = (0.09) = 0.12.

3 3 3 3

II.2.Screws 20

where α = 14.5◦ is from Fig. 2.7. The moment for lifting the load is

!

F dm µs πdm + l cos αn F µcs dc

Mrs = + =

2 πdm cos αn − µs l 2

0.16π(1.875) + 0.5 cos 14.450◦

!

2000(1.875) 2000(0.12)(3)

◦

+

2 π(1.875) cos 14.450 − (0.16)(0.5) 2

= 835.626 lb in.

Similarly, the moment required to lower the load and to overcome a part of

the friction is

!

F dm µs πdm − l cos αn F µcs dc

Mls = + =

2 πdm cos αn + µs l 2

0.16π(1.875) − 0.5 cos 14.450◦

!

2000(1.875) 2000(0.12)(3)

+

2 π(1.875) cos 14.450◦ + (0.16)(0.5) 2

= 508.562 lb in.

!

F dm µπdm + l cos αn F µc dc

Mr = + =

2 πdm cos αn − µl 2

0.12π(1.875) + 0.5 cos 14.450◦

!

2000(1.875) 2000(0.09)(3)

◦

+

2 π(1.875) cos 14.450 − (0.12)(0.5) 2

= 665.667 lb in.

With both friction coefficients zero, the moment to raise the load is

!

F dm l cos αn Fl 2000(0.5)

M0 = = = = 159.155 lb in.

2 πdm cos αn 2π 2π

II.2.Screws 21

Fl M0 159.155

e= = = = 23.909 %.

2πMr Mr 665.667

cos αn − µ tan λ

e= ,

cos αn + µ cot λ

function of λ is plotted in the Fig. 2.17 where αn = tan−1 (tan 14.5◦ cos λ)

II.2.Screws 22

An external force Fe acts on the the joint and tends to separate the two

parts apart.

The free-body diagram of a portion of this joint without the external load

In this figure the nut has been initially tightened to a preload force Fi .

The initial bolt axial load Fb0 and the clamping force between the two

plates Fc0 are both equal to the preload force Fi : Fb0 = Fc0 = Fi .

The free-body diagram of the portion with the external load Fe is shown

in Fig. 2.13(c).

The separating force Fe must be equal to the sum of the increased bolt

II.2.Screws 23

The bolt and the clamped members elongate the same amount

∆Fb ∆Fc

δ= = , (2.25)

kb kc

where kb and kc are the spring constants for the bolt and clamped parts,

respectively.

Fe

δ= . (2.26)

k b + kc

kb

Fb = Fi + ∆Fb = Fi + Fe , (2.27)

kb + kc

kc

Fc = Fi − ∆Fc = Fi − Fe . (2.28)

kb + kc

kb

C= . (2.29)

kb + kc

Fb = Fi + C Fe , (2.30)

Fc = Fi − (1 − C) Fe . (2.31)

F l

δ= ,

AE

II.2.Screws 24

F AE

k= = ,

δ l

where A is the cross sectional area, and E is the modulus of elasticity, and l

is the length.

II.2.Screws 25

Bolt Stiffness

The minor diameter (root diameter), dr is used for the threaded section

of the bolt, and the major diameter (crest diameter), d is used for the un-

1 1 1

= + .

kb kthread kshank

For a bolt with a shank having a constant major diameter the spring constant

is [4]

! !

1 4 lse lte 4 ls + 0.4d lt + 0.4dr

= + = + , (2.32)

kb πE d2 d2r πE d2 d2r

where ls is the length of the unthreaded section and lt is the length of the

The effective length of the unthreaded and threaded sections are lse and

lte , respectively.

Shigley and Mischke [15] proposed the following expressions for the stiff-

As E π d2 E

ks = = , (2.33)

ls 4ls

II.2.Screws 26

At E

kt = . (2.34)

lt

per inch;

for M thread profiles with the major diameter d and the pitch p in millimeters.

The tensile strength area is also given in Table 2.1 and Table 2.2, [4].

As At E

kb = . (2.37)

As lt + At ls

II.2.Screws 27

The parts may represent “springs” in series, as shown in Fig. 2.14, and

1 1 1 1

= + + .... + + ...

kc k 1 k2 ki

Shigley and Mischke [15] proposed the following expression for the joint stiff-

ness

0.577 π Ei d

ki = ! (2.38)

0.577 li + 0.5 d

2 ln 5

0.577 li + 2.5 d

analysis

ki = Ei d A eB d/li

, (2.39)

II.2.Screws 28

II.2.Screws 29

Bolt Preload

Fi = K At Sp , (2.40)

where At is the tensile stress area of the thread and Sp is the proof strength

The proof strength of steel bolts is given in Table 2.3 and Table 2.4 for

The constant K is 0.75 for reused connections and 0.90 for permanent

connections.

II.2.Screws 30

Fb Fi Fe

σb = = +C , (2.41)

At At At

where At is the tensile stress. The limiting value for the bolt stress, σb ,

A safety factor nb is introduced for the bolt stress and Eq. (2.41) becomes

Fi Fmax nb

Sp = +C , (2.42)

At At

Sp At − Fi

nbf = , (2.43)

C Fmax,b

The safety factor against separation of the parts of the joint is obtained

Fi

ns = , (2.44)

Fmax (1 − C)

II.2.Screws 31

Example 2.3.

The bolt has the axial length l = 50 mm and the threaded portion of the

bolt is l/2.

The cast iron parts have the same axial length l/2.

Determine:

II.2.Screws 32

Solution

a) The lengths of the threaded section and unthreaded section of the bolt

kt = = = 7.8485 × 108 N/m.

lte 0.0298

ks = = = 1.04034 × 109 N/m.

lse 0.0306

II.2.Screws 33

kb = = = 4.47357 × 108 N/m.

kt + k s 7.8485 × 108 + 1.04034 × 109

b) Shigley and Mischke [15] proposed the following expression for the

kc = ! = !

0.577 l + 0.5 d 0.577 (0.05) + 0.5 (0.014)

2 ln 5 2 ln 5

0.577 l + 2.5 d 0.577 (0.05) + 2.5 (0.014)

9

= 1.22925 × 10 N/m.

c) Wileman et al. [19] proposed the expression for the stiffness of the

clamped parts, Eq. (2.39), with the numerical constants A = 0.77871 and

II.2.Screws 34

Example 2.4.

The bolt and nut are made of steel (modulus of elasticity Eb = 30 Mpsi

for steel).

One part is made of steel and the other part is made of cast iron (modulus

The thread major diameter is d = 5/8 in., the root (minor) diameter is

dr = 0.5135 in.

There are 11 threads per inch, hence the pitch is p = 1/11 in.

The assembly and the bolt have the axial length l = 1.5 in.

Determine:

II.2.Screws 35

Solution

a) The lengths of the threaded section and unthreaded section of the bolt

2

5 1

2

At = 0.7854 (d − 0.9743 p) = 0.7854 − 0.9743 = 0.226 in.2

8 11

k s kt 2.271 (9.040)

kb = = = 5.205 Mlb/in.

k s + kt 2.271 + 9.040

b) The axial length of the cast iron clamped part and steel clamped part

are l1 = l2 = l/2 = 0.75 in. Using Eq. (2.38) the stiffness of the cast iron

clamped part is

k1 = ! = " #

0.577 l1 + 0.5 d 0.577 (0.75) + 0.5 (5/8)

2 ln 5 2 ln 5

0.577 l1 + 2.5 d 0.577 (0.75) + 2.5 (5/8)

= 10.882 Mlb/in.

II.2.Screws 36

k2 = ! = " #

0.577 l2 + 0.5 d 0.577 (0.75) + 0.5 (5/8)

2 ln 5 2 ln 5

0.577 l2 + 2.5 d 0.577 (0.75) + 2.5 (5/8)

= 27.206 Mlb/in.

k1 k2 10.882 (27.206)

kc = = = 7.773 Mlb/in.

k1 + k2 10.882 + 27.206

c) Using Eq. (2.39) the stiffness of the cast iron clamped part is (A =

= 9.759 Mlb/in.

and the stiffness of the steel clamped part is (A = 0.78715 and B = 0.62873

for steel)

= 24.923 Mlb/in.

k1 k2 9.759 (24.923)

kc = = = 7.013 Mlb/in.

k1 + k2 9.759 + 24.923

II.2.Screws 37

Example 2.5.

A bolt made from cold-drawn steel with the stiffness kb is used to clamp

6 000 lb.

b) If the preload is 6 500 lb find the minimum force in the plates for

fluctuating load.

II.2.Screws 38

Solution

kc 5

Fi = Fc + F e = 0 + 6 000 = 5 000 lb.

kb + kc 1+5

kc 5

Fc = Fi − F e = 6 500 − 6 000 = 1 500 lb.

kb + kc 1+5

II.2.Screws 39

Example 2.6.

A bolt and nut assembly is used to join two parts made of cast iron.

The bolt has the thread major diameter d = 10 mm, the pitch p =

The clamped plates have a stiffness kc six times the bolt stiffness kb .

The assembly and the bolt have the axial length an the cast iron parts

Determine the maximum load for bolt and joint failure assuming a reused

II.2.Screws 40

Solution

kb kb 1

C= = = .

kb + kc kb + 6 kb 7

From Table 2.3 for 4.8 grade the proof strength is Sp = 310 MPa.

Fmax,b = = = 15 729.7 N.

nf C 2 (1/7)

Equation (2.44) gives the maximum external load applied to joint before

separation

Fi 13 482.6

Fmax = = = 7 864.84 N.

nf (1 − C) 2 [1 − (1/7)]

II.2.Screws 41

Example 2.7.

members.

Assume that the bolts may be reused when the joint is taken apart.

II.2.Screws 42

Solution

From Table 2.2 for d = 1 in. and n = 8 the tensile strength area is

At = 0.606 in.2

Sp At − Fi

nf = , (2.45)

C (Fmax,b /N )

or

C nf Fmax,b 0.5 (2) (60)

N= = = 4.659.

Sp At − Fi (85) (0.606) − 38.632

Five bolts are selected and using Eq. (2.45) with N = 5 the safety factor

is

Sp At − Fi (85) (0.606) − 38.632

nf c = = = 2.146,

C (Fmax,b /N ) 0.5 (60/5)

which is greater than the required safety factor of 2 and therefore five

II.2.Screws 43

a) Select appropriate metric screws of class 5.8 for the block attachment.

II.2.Screws 44

Solution

a) The load of 10 kN is applied equally by each screw and the bolt load

is axial tension.

4 (5) = 20 kN.

For static loading of a ductile material the stress equation can is σ = P/A.

and

nb F

Sp = (2.46)

At

For class 5.8, a proof strength of Sp = 380 MPa is selected from Table 2.3.

nb F 20 000

At = = = 52.631 × 10−6 m2 = 52.631 mm2 .

Sp 380 × 106

From Table 2.1 an appropriate standard size is M 10×1.5 (At = 58.0 mm2 ).

Marshek give an estimated tightening moment for standard screw threads [5]

II.2.Screws 45

II.2.Screws 46

References

1999.

[2] A. Bedford, and W. Fowler, Statics, Addison Wesley, Menlo Park, 1999.

[3] A. Ertas, J.C. Jones, The Engineering Design Process, John Wiley &

Design, 3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2000.

Diego, 2001.

II.2.Screws 47

II.2.Screws 48

2001.

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