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Feasibility study

International Exposure for Scotland’s Theatre and Dance Artists

RES020 August 2007

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Prepared by Richard Gerald Associates Ltd (RGA) for the Scottish Arts Council. The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of the Scottish Arts Council.

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ISBN 13: 978 1 85119 156 7 ISBN 10: 1 85119 156 9

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS RGA would like to thank the Scottish Arts Council for commissioning this study along with all organisations and individuals that participated in the research. 5 .

6 6.1 7. 7. 4. 2.2 3.1 5.3 8.3 6. 6.4 6.3 3.6 5.Contents CONTENTS PAGE 8 10 11 1.5 5. 3.1 4.7 6.1 6.1 3.7 6. 8. 3.5 6. 5.1 8.2 7.3 5.5 4.2 5.8 7.4 5.4 3.2 4.3 5.2 LIST OF TABLES REPORTING CONVENTIONS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Introduction Summary of Conclusions Recommendations for Improvements Indicative Costs Next Steps INTRODUCTION Project Background Scope Approach STRATEGIC CONTEXT Introduction Scottish Arts Council British Council and Scottish Arts Council Joint Strategy The Scottish Executive Scottish Enterprise EventScotland Summary of Key Findings RECENT AND CURRENT INITIATIVES Introduction Scotland’s Theatre Gateway 2004-2005 British Council Showcase Scotland Live Imaginate Edinburgh International Festival and Fringe Outward Missions Conclusions STAKEHOLDER CONSULTATIONS Introduction Key Themes Barriers to the Development of International Work WORKING RELATIONSHIPS Theatre and Dance’s Artists Community Survey Producers and Promoters Survey 20 22 29 37 41 6 .2 6.

1 9.6 11.6 11.10 9.9 9.7 12.2 11. 12.3 11.1 12.5 11.3 9.Contents 9.5 10. 11.4 11.4 9. 10.4 HALLMARKS OF SUCCESS Introduction Historic Developments of the Strategy International Strategies Strategic Engagement with Scotland Tactical Approaches Implementation Resource Allocation Recorded Impacts and Measurements Future Developments Vital Lessons Learned Conclusions RESPONSE TO THE RESEARCH FINDINGS Introduction Current Status in the Strategic Context Definition Within the Cultural Sector Quality of Product Sharing and Collaborating Conclusions CONCLUSIONS Strategic Context Recent and Current Initiatives Key Stakeholder Consultations Theatre and Dance Artistic Community Survey Producers and Promoters Survey Hallmarks of Success Response to the Research Findings SUGGESTED IMPROVEMENTS AND DEVELOPMENTS Introduction Summary of Activity Recommended Improvements and Development Indicative Costs APPENDICES APPENDIX ONE: STRATEGIC CONTEXT APPENDIX TWO: ARTISTIC COMMUNITY SURVEY TABLES APPENDIX THREE: PRODUCERS AND PROMOTERS SURVEY TABLES BIBLIOGRAPHY PAGE 48 53 56 60 73 94 115 128 7 .3 12.7 9.3 10.6 9.11 10.2 12.5 9. 9.1 11.1 10.2 9.4 10.2 10.8 9.

List of Tables and Figures 1.1. Sales and Marketing Support Received from External Agencies for Developing International Networks and Sales in Scotland Personal Rating of Achievements in Terms of Developing International Networks Personal Rating of Achievements in Terms of Developing International Sales and Marketing Support to Assist Developing International Networks and Relationships in the Future Support to Assist Developing International Sales and Marketing in the Future Artforms that Respondents Work In Those That Import International Work to their Own Country or as Part of a Larger Tour Markets with the Strongest Networks or Developed Sales Interest in Attracting Work from a Foreign Country Those That Have Imported Work From Scotland in the Past Five Years Page 41 54 64 70 84 83 83 83 85 85 86 87 87 90 90 90 95 96 96 96 97 97 99 100 100 101 101 101 102 102 103 103 105 106 106 107 111 8 .3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Title Priority Markets for International Hallmarks of Success Countries Suggested Improvements and Developments Consolidated Budget Status of Scottish Arts Council and British Council Joint Strategy Action Points Number of Organisations with Employees Engaged with International Showcasing or Exposure Type of Employment for International Showcasing or Exposure Number of Organisations with Employees Responsible for Developing International Sales Type of Employment for Developing International Sales Partnerships with Other Organisations Partner Organisations Importance of Networks and Relationships with International Partners Barriers to Fully Engaging with International Networks Possibility of Barriers Changing in the Future The importance of Selling Work Internationally Barriers to Developing International Sales Possibility of Barriers Changing in the Future Rating International Networking Initiatives Those That Have Visited International Showcases Rating International Showcasing Initiatives Those That Have Visited International Sales Programmes Rating the International Sales Programmes Markets with the Strongest Networks Markets with the Strongest Sales Interest to Develop New Markets Resources Allocated for Developing International Networks Resources Allocated for Developing International Sales and Markets Average Spend on Developing International Networks.2 12.3 12. LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES Number 9.

List of Tables and Figures 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Relating the Experience of Importing Work from Scotland Barriers That Prevent Respondents from Importing Work from Scotland Level of Interest in the Work of Scottish-based Organisations that are Developing International Networks and Markets Method of Sourcing International Work Attendance at International Arts Markets or Events Relating the Experience of Attending International Arts Markets Support That Would Help to Develop International Networks and Relationships in Scotland 112 112 112 114 114 115 117 9 .1.

REPORTING CONVENTIONS Abbreviation APAM APAP CINARS DFAIT FST IETM IFACCA SMART objectives Organisation Australian Performing Arts Market Association of Performing Arts Presenters French acronym for International Exchange for the Performing Arts Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. timed 10 . Canada Federation of Scottish Theatres International Network for Contemporary Performing Arts International Federation of Arts Councils and Cultural Agencies Specific. measurable. attributed. reasonable. Reporting Conventions 2.2.

1.1 The British Council and Scottish Arts Council Joint Strategy 2005 – 2008 aims to satisfy cultural. the Scottish Arts Council sought to review opportunities for improvement in the international promotion of Scotland-based theatre and dance artists. consultations with international promoters seeking to engage artists from overseas.Showcase activities carried out/organised by. 3.2. Scotland Live programme The British Council Showcase: Edinburgh showcase . consultations with those already engaged with international markets and those wishing to do so.2 11 . Initiatives for developing theatre and dance internationally sit broadly in line with the Scottish Executive’s International Strategy. the methodology for this study has included a review of policy and evaluation reports relating to previous initiatives.2 3.4. to identify any existing examples/national approaches of good practice in other areas/countries. To include: .1 3. Introduction 3. 3. In October 2006.Any other relevant organisations/events . 3. in the UK and internationally).1 INTRODUCTION The Scottish Arts Council is one of the main channels of funding for arts in Scotland.1. These include building strong ties of economic.2. political and cultural benefit to Scotland.2 SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS Strategic Context 3.1. The Federation of Scottish Theatre (FST).International Initiatives such as the Adelaide Fringe to investigate existing working relationships that individual Scotland-based theatre and dance companies have with other countries. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3. and a review of initiatives undertaken by other countries to promote their artists abroad. A feasibility study was therefore commissioned with the following objectives: to assess the recent and current initiatives which promote Scotland-based performing arts internationally (in Scotland. reinforcing and forging new links across Europe and the development of cooperative links. promoting Scotland’s policy interests. economic and political agendas whilst the other key policy makers tend to use culture as a mechanism for achieving economic exporting and political aims. to recommend improvements that will enhance good practice of international promotion and to provide estimates of likely costs of these improvements. The Scottish Arts Council is funded by the Scottish Executive and is responsible for the distribution of National Lottery funding for the arts in Scotland.Previous activity of the Scottish Theatre Gateway Project (STGP) .3 In order to address the above objectives.

International Festival. to be a valuable tool for the development of international markets. The research findings indicated that some collective marketing across a range of venues could be just as effective. the timing of the initiative and the exclusion of dance and children’s theatre.4 An examination of the recent and current initiatives which promote.2. Delegates and participants were very positive about the initiative and are supportive of its continued development providing a more rigorous selection procedure for showcase participants is devised. performing arts organisations based in Scotland was undertaken.6 12 . 3. However.4. or joint delivery of some of the recommendations. In doing so. with a preference for one dedicated venue. On the whole. Scotland Live could perhaps open up a wider debate in Scotland about international practices. Furthermore.2. Introduction 3. Scottish-based theatre and dance organisations are supportive of the concept of showcasing Scottish work during the Edinburgh festivals. Dance Base and the Traverse. established a strong set of objectives. as long as companies have appropriate resources to restage work. all of which were achieved or exceeded. anecdotally. transparency of the selection criteria.2. there may be opportunities to highlight other events outside August where promoters and producers would be encouraged to attend – this might be based around Imaginate.2. 3. on an international basis. The project did not include measurements of the outcomes. a review of the following initiatives was undertaken: Scotland’s Theatre Gateway project British Council showcase Scotland Live Imaginate Edinburgh International Festival Edinburgh Fringe and other outward missions The Gateway project (2004) was a venue at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe dedicated to showing Scotland-based work. Participants were positive about the production environment and the concept as a whole but felt that more resources had been required for audience development. an inward mission for producers and promoters held across Scotland in March 2006. Scotland Live.3 At present the stakeholder policies that propose to develop the Scottish touring network could be further synergised. Recent and Current Initiatives 3.7 Scottish companies could perhaps benefit from a more co-ordinated approach to marketing and communications during the Edinburgh festivals to capitalise on the work of the Fringe. participants have raised concerns about the selection procedure.2. Imaginate has developed an impressive inward mission programme as part of the Children’s Festival and there are opportunities to develop stronger relationships with producers and promoters from Northern Europe and North America with minimal extra investment. It is believed that there could be opportunities for effective collaboration.5 3. The British Council Showcase is considered.

2. through a coordinated approach to communication. opening up their work to new markets and generating sales has been successful. or would require further support to develop work that would be seen as exceptional in an international context. that is opportunities emerge through chance encounters. taking advantage of the showcasing opportunities described above. Promoting only the most exceptional companies or individuals is seen as essential and respondents discussed at length the need to develop a way of assessing whether companies were “export-ready”.2. 3. writers and artists. Some organisations adopt a broad approach 1 Tramway is the venue and New Moves International Ltd is the production company who produces the National Review of Live Art). They have created work that is relevant and credible in the international cultural arena and worked hard to ensure that their work is seen by potential buyers and collaborators.2. but respondents still felt that the sector often fails to take full advantage of the opportunities presented by the wide range of work on offer. Tramway (New Moves and National Review of Live Art1) or the National Companies (Scottish Ballet. organisations have a strong desire to work internationally but often neglect the development of international markets because responsibility falls to one individual dealing with a wide range of other aspects of the business.2.8 A total of twenty two in-depth consultations were conducted with stakeholders. relationships and opportunities so that artists can assess if their work is of an international standard. These organisations operate in the international arena. particularly during the Edinburgh International Festival. For the purpose of this report “stakeholders” were defined as organisations who have participated in previous showcases (Scotland Theatre Gateway. Scottish Opera. 3. 3. choreographers.2.11 Quality control issues were particularly important to the group above. marketing and building relationships with potential buyers. the process is often reactive.13 Networking and nurturing creative relationships appears to be one of the most effective ways of achieving international objectives. British Council Showcase or Scotland Live) Furthermore we included organisations who have funded. As a result. For companies developing such international networks.9 3.10 Nevertheless. six organisations were identified through the course of the research that have taken a very different approach and see internationalism as a central feature of the growth and development of their company.12 In order to generate exceptional work.4. collaborate internationally and draw on a wide range of cultures to create their work.2. 3. This approach is championed by the Scottish Arts Council in their Corporate Plan 2006-2007. to undertake international projects or collaborations. This is not an exhaustive list but provides a flavour of how connections could be developed year-round. Introduction Scotland Live. Scottish Chamber Orchestra and National Theatre for Scotland). Overall. Stakeholder Consultations 3. This approach is seen as fundamental to producing work influenced by international directors. Royal Scottish National Orchestra. or received funding. practitioners must be encouraged to think about outward international exploration of other work. 13 .

Dundee Rep and Pitlochry Festival Theatre being the notable exceptions). as “dense. Introduction to international markets by attending conferences.2. seminars. Additional funding to overcome the costs involved in re-staging work is seen as a priority by the majority of stakeholders. If productions receive critical acclaim it is easier to revive work for international touring. There are few companies that operate within the repertoire system (the National Theatre.2. 3. 3. common in many European countries.15 The producing approach in Scotland (for adult theatre) is regarded as a barrier. 3.19 There are concerns about a lack of information about the international buying market. other resources and identification of international opportunities as well as practical assistance and advice on issues such as work permits. text-based work”. Contact data from international purchasers has not been collected at showcases and there is little understanding of buying history or the success of previous funding 14 . The Australian Performing Arts Market (APAM) in Adelaide. internationally. For the majority of Scottish companies. companies producing work for children have been able to operate in this manner and keep work in repertoire. They reported that companies with a more visual or cross-artform approach have found it easier to work internationally. showcase events and building up contacts and relationships so that producers and promoters are confident about the company.16 This has been apparent for some companies working abroad.2. 3. advocates the development of a company that performs a range of productions that can then stay in repertoire and be revived.18 There do not appear to be opportunities or mechanisms for coordinating international development activity for organisations already exporting or considering exporting. 3. However. the size and resources of their company enables them to engage a parallel cast that can continue with a production whilst touring takes place.14 Respondents were particularly positive about engaging with the Informal European Theatre Movement (IETM) a networking group designed for people operating in the international arena. which is the French acronym for International Exchange for the Performing Arts in Canada.2. this has been difficult to achieve. positive mentions were given to the International Congress in Montreal and APAM in Adelaide.2. Australia and New Zealand) rather than face the additional barrier of translation. were also mentioned. Respondents feel that there is a lack of information. The repertoire system.17 Consultees also believe that Scottish adult theatre is sometimes perceived. as well as a number of European festivals. Children’s theatre which by its very nature is not heavily text-based also appears to work well for international markets. the quality of the work being produced and the response from audiences.4. allowing projects to evolve through a “partnership” approach. The Association of Performing Arts Presenters (APAP) and CINARS. With regard to children’s theatre. operating within a challenging funding environment. its artistic philosophy. Others are more specific and focus on the development of close creative relationships in one particular country so that collaborative activity can take place between performers or other members of the creative team. 3. A solution to this is perhaps to focus the export of Scottish adult theatre to English speaking countries (North America.2.

25 Any future strategies to develop international markets should be carefully aligned with the objectives of key policy makers.21 From a political perspective.2. particularly in Europe and North America. which may suggest anticipation for increased resources from Creative Scotland. 3.2. At present. artistic programmers and choreographers by means of an electronic survey. Producers and Promoters 3. Some companies are also reluctant to allow their work to be seen in this environment because of the technical challenges associated with many of the venues as well as the high levels of competition with other Scottish-based theatre and dance organisations.2. workshops and conferences.22 Qualitative research was conducted by means of an electronic survey to theatre and dance’s professional community to determine current levels of activity in the international arena. Introduction initiatives. as it recognised that the budget for Creative Scotland has yet to be allocated. Nevertheless.23 There appears to be little strategic focus on developing international markets amongst the artistic community. support. such as the British Council and Scottish Arts Council. Whilst some arts organisations in Scotland have developed activity in international markets. 3.4.2. outcomes and future developments. companies are cautious about the costs and the perceived benefits. Although Edinburgh continues to be seen as the most effective platform to present work to producers and promoters already visiting Scotland. 3. Assumptions such as these should be viewed speculatively at this stage.2.27 The respondents are active across all artforms and have developed strong networks worldwide. Many are unsure where their future priorities must lie in relation to this issue and are looking for a clear statement of direction from their stakeholders in this regard.20 The risks associated with performing at the Edinburgh festivals are perceived as high. international festival directors. The aim of the survey was to gain an understanding of the levels of satisfaction with previous initiatives and motivations to take part in them.24 Current development activity tends to be focused on networking at events. some partnerships have been successfully formed with organisations that provide relevant resources for international development.2. A number of respondents intend to develop an international strategy in the forthcoming year. 3.2. It is therefore difficult to adopt an “informed” approach to international development activity.2. Theatre and Dance Community 3. there is a perceived need for inward and outward showcasing missions. Despite the limited strategic approach. work tends to be generated reactively to new opportunities that are presented to them. there appears to be little correlation between the target markets of the artistic community and those of the public sector bodies. 15 . seminars. 3. 3.26 Qualitative research was conducted with producers and promoters. some organisations are concerned about the “cultural entitlement agenda”.

Hallmarks of Success 3. The most structured approach appears to be in Australia. Canada. Providing funds for companies to respond quickly to opportunities if promoters are interested and the performance has been received favourably.2. 3. It is likely that a number of opportunities are being missed in Scotland due to a lack of exposure of its theatre and dance products to those who are actively seeking them.34 Successful tactical approaches can be seen with Culture Ireland. the Republic of Ireland and Canada. and the opportunity to attend more inward missions. which has used the Edinburgh Festival Fringe as one of its showcasing events and thereby successfully marketed Irish performers in Edinburgh. Introduction 3.36 Impacts are measured in various ways. although they also seek exposure outside of these. countries reflect several different remits for developing an international strategy.2. The extent of formal evaluation is variable across the comparator set.2. acknowledges that their monitoring and evaluation of activity could be greatly improved. The public agency bodies that have developed close partnerships with the sector tend to have adopted a culturally-led approach. There is a perceived need to create opportunities for producers and promoters to view work in Scotland outside of the Edinburgh festivals.2. In Canada this has allowed organisations to take advantage of a wide range of business information and analytical tools. 3. Australia. 3.33 There is a great deal of strategic focus on the UK. in particular.31 A review of practices within the international arts sector was conducted in order to determine hallmarks of success for developing international cultural exposure. where the Australia Arts Council undertakes major short and long-term evaluation reports and has reporting formalities set up with partner organisations. although initiatives specifically targeted in Scotland tend to be tactical and often one-off.35 Many countries adopt a partnership approach to strategy implementation. 16 . rather than using international artistic activity to achieve political or economic aims. Canada also regards Edinburgh as an important platform for Canadian performers to be marketed internationally. 3.4. Target markets are often those countries with existing cultural ties or a common language.2. 3.28 National conferences are popular with producers and promoters. 3.2. these are regarded as the easiest markets to which to export. drawing on the resources of others and the expertise of the sector as a whole. For example.2. The countries reviewed were Germany. Scotland therefore needs to actively raise its profile amongst the international arts community.2.30 Future support for international development is required through financial assistance to producers and promoters.29 Scotland appears to have a good reputation for providing quality work and international opportunities are sourced both proactively and reactively.32 At a strategic level. a successful approach has been adopted by the Australian Arts Council which has allowed companies to respond quickly to market forces and opportunities.2. 3.

. The recommendations have been based upon the Scottish Arts Council and British Council joint strategy as a framework and in response to the specific research findings presented above.International development strategies of key policy makers (Scottish Executive.Concerns over the effectiveness of quality control.British Council/Scottish Arts Council Joint Strategy would benefit from some refining so that the action points are SMART (specific. several do not.3. Scottish Enterprise.those who require nurturing to develop exporting activity.Artistic organisations are not familiar with these evaluations and they are not used to inform future activity.Develop a quality monitoring system for artists seeking international exposure. Recommendations: . reasonable.Variable approaches by artists and arts organisations towards international development. attributed.Further develop SMART objectives for the British Council and Scottish Art Council Joint Strategy.3. .1 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVEMENTS Based on the research findings. . Introduction 3. .Discuss with the key policy makers the opportunities for coordination and assign responsibilities as appropriate. timed). .“Qualify” those organisations who are exporting or ready to export . British Council and Scottish Arts Council)are not co-ordinated.3 3. . . Recommendation: 17 .4. measurable.2 Strategic planning Findings: . 3. 3.Some initiatives currently evaluate their impacts. the following recommendations for improving the international development of Scottish-based theatre and dance have been made. This might include defining more clearly what both parties contributions might be to international forums or identifying the number and range of delegate visits to and from Scotland (both noted as action points).3.3 Research Research Findings: .

Artistic organisations seek opportunities to network within the international arena. Introduction .The profile of theatre and dance is often overshadowed within a cultural context by other artforms.Artistic organisations have a desire to promote work in Edinburgh during the festivals and at other times across Scotland. . Develop a “curated” showcase of work and a parallel debate and discussion programme that encourages artists to consider the implications of international work.Make effective use of the Edinburgh festivals as a showcase for Scottish work by developing a collective approach to marketing to producers. .Support Imaginate to attract North American and European delegates to the Children’s Festival.4 Advocacy Research Findings: . the International Federation of Arts Councils and Cultural Agencies and On The Move Network.4.Develop a bi-annual inward mission outside the Edinburgh festival period.Continue to support the British Council Showcase and British Dance Edition and work with organisations to maximise the benefits and opportunities associated with inclusion in the programme.Attend CINARS Montreal (November 2008) as a trade or booth delegate and research the possibilities of presenting a Scottish showcase there in 2010. Recommendations: . .6 Support and Funding Research Findings: 18 . promoters and other influencers. . following on from the Scotland Live pilot project. 3.There is a desire to raise the international profile of children’s theatre in Scotland.3.Utilise existing research findings provided by the International Network for Contemporary Performing Arts. 3. 3.Attend APAM (Australian Performing Arts Market) in February 2008 as a trade or booth delegate and research the possibilities of presenting a Scottish showcase there in 2010.3. themes and issues.3.5 Activity Research Findings: . . . Recommendation: .Raise the profile of theatre and dance as important components of international diplomacy. .

Information regarding cultural exporting activity and opportunities is fragmented and arts organisations want more support in this field. 4. Option B maintains all the activity associated with option A but augments this with development of the Scotland wide inward mission and outward missions to CINARS. 3. 1.502 Option C brings together all elements outlined in options A and B but the budget is further enhanced by the addition of the restaging budget. APAM and the development of the information point.4 3.5 3.1 3.4.Develop a central online information portal of cultural exporting activity and opportunities with associated communications (as an extension of the Scottish Arts Council’s newsletter and raising awareness of. supporting the delegate programme at Imaginate and the British Council showcase and British Dance Edition.1 19 . Discuss the findings internally Communicate the recommendations and benefits to potential funders Identify and engage with partner organisations Feedback to stakeholders 3. There is also the potential to progress some of the Edinburgh initiatives in time for the Edinburgh Festival 2007. The total cost for option A is £32.7 Information Research Findings: . 3.com).scottishartstouring. This budget includes the development of activity during the Edinburgh Festival.3 3. Introduction . NEXT STEPS In order to implement the recommended improvements. the following steps are suggested. Option A focuses spending on inward missions only and activity that is already attracting producers and promoters.4. The total cost for option C is £251. 2.502. or restructuring. B and C.Resources are limited for restaging and reviving work.2 INDICATIVE COSTS We have presented the costings as three options A.5.4.3.4. Recommendation: . including administrative support to provide connectivity to Scottish-based artists wanting to export.4 3. Recommendation: .4.Develop a fund for restaging work either at international showcases or to respond to producer-led demand. the content of www. 3. The total cost for option B is £131.500.

performing arts organisations based in Scotland.1 PROJECT BACKGROUND Between 2004 and 2006 a number of showcases and networking initiatives took place to further enhance the international profile and exposure of Scotland-based theatre and dance artists. on an international basis. (For the purpose of this study.2 The Scottish Arts Council has appointed Richard Gerald Associates Ltd (RGA) to undertake a feasibility study to recommend ways in which the international profile of Scotland’s theatre and dance can be improved. however at present. In addition. There are. have also presented the work of Scottish-based theatre and dance artists to international producers and promoters during the Edinburgh festival season. Theatre Workshop and Dance Base.2. international basis has been defined as within Scotland. a five-day showcase was developed in March 2006 by the Federation of Scottish Theatre to promote the work of companies across Scotland.4. For example.1 APPROACH In preparing the feasibility study.1. INTRODUCTION 4. no plans to continue with any of these showcases and the Scottish Arts Council has sought to review opportunities for improvement in this arena. Task the activities 6. Introduction 5.3. enabled international promoters to experience examples of Scottish-based theatre work during the Edinburgh Festivals. review and refine the recommendations 4. Opportunities have also been recognised by a number of performing arts companies to promote Scottish-based theatre and dance artists outside the Edinburgh festivals.1 4.1. the consultants have undertaken the following tasks: Assessed recent and current initiatives which promote.1 4. Reviewed international strategic policy.2 4. Showcases such as Scotland’s Theatre Gateway (STG) and the bi-annual presentation of international work at the British Council Showcase. and explored how this can best be improved. Investigated existing working relationships between individual theatre and dance companies based in Scotland and other countries.3 4. 20 . (some of which were funded by the Scottish Arts Council). SCOPE The aim of the research is to provide a solid body of evidence to develop an effective strategic approach to increasing the exposure of Scotland’s theatre and dance artists and organisations internationally. Implement the recommendations 7. a range of organisations such as the Traverse. 4. Monitor. 4. in the UK and internationally).

telephone interviews and an electronic survey. 21 . Based on the research findings.4. what they might want from Scotland in the future. where else they go. what motivated them to attend. Introduction Consulted with theatre and dance’s artistic communities to identify what support can be provided to help them develop relationships with companies based in Scotland. This was conducted with face to face interviews. Recommended improvements for increasing the international exposure of theatre and dance artists in Scotland and their likely costs. Identified existing hallmarks of success in others areas/countries. worked with the client group and other stakeholders to develop an overall concept for the project. Consulted with international producers and promoters to determine their current satisfaction with sales initiatives.

2006 Scotland’s Strategy for Stronger Engagement with China (2006) Scottish Executive. 2006 Scotland’s Major Events Strategy 2003-2015: Competing on an International Stage Event Scotland. 5. 2004 Scottish Executive and Scottish Enterprise. The purpose of this Section is to inform the strategic operating environment for Scotlandbased theatre and dance organisations.5.1 5.1. 2003 22 . A more detailed review of the documents consulted can be found in Appendix One. 2006 A Smart. 2006 Scottish Arts Council . 2006 Scotland’s Strategy for Stronger Engagement with the USA (2006) Scottish Executive. The documents reviewed were: Scottish Arts Council Corporate Plan 2006-2007 – International Department Scottish Arts Council. Strategic Context 5. 2006 Draft (Scotland) Culture Bill Guidance Document. 2004 International Strategy Scottish Executive.Six Month Review against 2006/07 Scottish Arts Council Business Plan – International Entries Scottish Arts Council. Successful Scotland: Strategic Direction to Enterprise Networks and Enterprise Strategy for Scotland.1 STRATEGIC CONTEXT INTRODUCTION This Section provides a summary of the key themes with the most relevance to this Study drawn from the strategic context in which the Scottish Arts Council operates. 2007 Scottish Arts Council Theatre Touring Strategy (Draft 2006) British Council and Scottish Arts Council Joint Strategy British Council and Scottish Arts Council. 2006 Scottish Executive. 2004 Scottish Tourism: The Next Decade – A Tourism Framework for Change Scottish Executive.

5.2. the following points have been extracted for their relevance to this study: 5.2 To support and develop creativity through programmes. producing organisations.2. and to promote Scottish playwrights at home and abroad.2. Strategic Context 5.1 5. Map Scottish international arts activity to identify opportunities. To support artists to develop their practice in an international context and invest in strategic international exchanges and showcase opportunities to promote Scottish arts abroad. Support Playwrights Studio to develop play writing. act as brokers between playwrights and producers.2. Create opportunities for Scottish artists to meet and collaborate with artists overseas. This was augmented in 2006 by the Scottish Arts Council with an inward mission of promoters.4 23 . Scottish Arts Council .an outcome of this study.3 5. facilities and workspaces which allow artists to develop innovative and ambitious practice and enable them to fully exploit their potential. 5. Enable Scottish-based theatre to tour international festivals. Research and collaborate on the development of cultural events overseas which promote Scotland. The following points have been actioned: Work with Dance Base to ensure highly visible Scottish dance presence during the Edinburgh Festival Fringe.2 SCOTTISH ARTS COUNCIL . Encourage mutual international activity and professional development. Research international dance showcases including British Dance Edition and assist with the development of marketing/promotion material to ensure Scottish artists have a presence over and above inclusion in the showcase programmes. Mapping international opportunities is currently a lesser priority than the training needs of Scotland-based organisations and practical advice for the sector. Investigate demand and practicality of holding a Scottish Theatre Showcase at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe .Six Month Review against 2006/07 Scottish Arts Council Business Plan – International Entries Corporate objectives relevant to this study are as follows: Aim 2: To support artists in Scotland to fulfill their creative and business potential The objectives that follow on from this aim.

1.3 5.2.5. encourage cultural and international exchange and support international drama. To provide a means of information exchange accessible to all parts of the touring sector. 24 . visual arts. e.g. craft. Their collaborative working includes a joint Head of International Arts post and together. To support a wider range of international drama available to the public. Creating “access to music workshops” is used as an example of how to achieve the broad outcome to engage with young people. The following examples have been extracted from the guidance document. dance and drama etc” and providing “access to dance and drama activities” to improve health and well-being. National collaborative projects in partnership i. 2006 5. These include aims to encourage collaborative working and emphasises the importance of gaining a strategic fit between the key policy makers.4.3.4.e. the two organisations developed a joint strategy. This research finding has been addressed in the strategic planning recommendation in Section 3.5 Included in the Theatre Touring Strategy. Strategic Context Scottish Arts Council Theatre Touring Strategy 5. To encourage cultural exchange.4 THE SCOTTISH EXECUTIVE Draft (Scotland) Culture Bill Guidance Document. Generic examples of entitlements specific to theatre and dance include “access to activities involving.1 Within the framework of this document. 5. the International Arts Strategy has areas of inter-related development. Scottish Arts Council and British Council Scotland working with VisitScotland and the Scottish Executive Undertaking research into the impact and effectiveness of international working 5.1 BRITISH COUNCIL AND SCOTTISH ARTS COUNCIL JOINT STRATEGY 2005-2008 The British Council and Scottish Arts Council Joint Strategy work in partnership “to establish Scotland as an internationally recognised centre of excellence for arts and artsrelated education and community work across all arts sectors and creative industries”. 5. To achieve their joint vision. including international collaboration. the Scottish Arts Council has set several action points which aim to support information exchange within the touring sector.2 This indicates that the Scottish Executive uses the theatre and dance sector to support their health and well-being aims. several references are made directly to the theatre and dance sector.

4.4.4 Whilst these aims specifically relate to theatre and dance. part of Europe and connected to the Global economy. A Smart.5.7 This document is organised into three themes. Scotland’s strategy for stronger engagement with the USA (2006) 5. Increased involvement in global markets: taking Scottish knowledge to the world and bringing the world’s knowledge to Scotland. Successful Scotland: Strategic Direction to Enterprise Networks and Enterprise Strategy for Scotland (2004) 5.4.8 The proposed initiative to expand international exposure of Scotland’s dance and theatre appears to have applications to this strategy with regard to the Global Connections targets. the Scottish Executive recognise the value of the arts sector for achieving their strategic goals with the USA. study and work in Scotland.6 Similar to their China strategy. which include aims to: Attract increased US tourism to Scotland Strengthen exchanges of best practice with US counterparts 5. 5. one of which focuses on international economic benefits: Global connections .Strategic Context Scotland’s strategy for stronger engagement with China (2006) 5. More people choosing to live. 25 .5 The strategy identifies key objectives which the Executive will be working towards along with stakeholders over the next five years. Connecting to the rest of the world. Scotland to be a globally attractive location.4.3 The document presents a ten-point plan outlining what Scotland needs to achieve from its engagement with China by 2010 and includes aims to: Attract increased Chinese tourism to Scotland Raise the profile and understanding of Scotland in China 5.4.4.world class locations. further consultations with the Scottish Executive established that the arts sector is used to achieve bilateral international partnerships with China.

9 The Scottish Executive’s International Strategy was launched in October 2004 and last modified in 2006. there is a commitment to focus on the following: Building strong ties of economic. It consists of a series of targets to set out how the tourism sector can achieve its goal of 50% growth in tourism revenues by 2015 in a sustainable manner. 5.Strategic Context Scottish Executive International Strategy. 26 . political and cultural benefit to Scotland. These include: The Tourism Innovation Group (TiG) will foster collaborative working between tourism operators. and within the scope of the Executive’s devolved responsibilities. political and cultural benefit to Scotland. and with a thriving and dynamic economy and. including in particular the Global Connections Strategy and European Strategy. the enterprise agencies and VisitScotland to spot emerging trends of visitor needs and progress the product and sectoral development to meet them. Scottish Tourism: The Next Decade – A Tourism Framework for Change 5.4.5. 2004 5. and in the context of promoting Scotland’s policy interests. groups of tourism businesses and trade associations such as ASVA will work with local authorities. This may include the development and delivery of product and destination development plans. promoting Scotland’s policy interests with overseas institutions and administrations – this includes developing cooperative links and ongoing engagement that help to inform best practice in Scotland and to raise awareness of Scottish policy perspectives. to be accomplished by: adding value to the UK Government’s efforts by reinforcing and forging new links across Europe and beyond. To bring effective influence to bear on the UK Government. The International Strategy has two goals: To position Scotland internationally as a leading small nation. 5. other countries. regions and institutions on international policy issues affecting Scotland.12 International dance and theatre initiatives fit primarily with the commitments to: build strong ties of economic. encouraging them to use innovation tools to come up with creative ideas. TiG. The paper updates and develops themes of the External Relations Policy paper agreed by the Scottish Executive in 2002 and refers to existing strategies where appropriate.10 To achieve the goals of this strategy. 5.13 The Scottish Executive’s Tourism Strategy covers the period 2006-2015 and was published in March 2006. attractive to potential overseas partners and visitors. to encourage and support Scotland’s contribution to international development.4. to reinforce and forge new links across Europe and develop cooperative links and ongoing engagement that can help inform best practice in Scotland.11 Promoting Scotland’s policy interests.4.4.4.

5.6.6 5. The result will be an increased propensity to return and recommend Scotland as a great destination. These networks will develop and market. sailing.1 EVENTSCOTLAND EventScotland’s activity is determined by “Scotland’s Major Events Strategy 2003-2015: Competing on an International Stage.” The strategy sets out key action and priority areas which relate to this project: Building Scotland’s international image by maximising the benefits of existing successes and “icon” events including the Edinburgh Festivals and the Open Golf. whisky. new products which anticipate and exceed visitor demands and as a result increase the number of visitors to Scotland. EventScotland will contribute to this target by attracting and marketing major events which meet changing visitor demands. 5. angling. local authorities. country sports. Tourism businesses. Tourism businesses will work with local authorities and culture. nature-based tourism.4.1 SCOTTISH ENTERPRISE Scottish Enterprise’s role in supporting the development of the industry is driven by the Scottish Executive’s economic development strategy – “A Smart Successful Scotland” (see Section 5. 5. Scottish Enterprise proposes to do this through partnership working with other public sector organisations and through direct support for industry initiatives. 5. history and events segment of the market. notably the Tourism Innovation Group and Pride and Passion. culture and heritage organisations.com will use effective marketing techniques to increase the number of visitors who come to Scotland.14 The rationale behind Scottish Executive support for high-profile events is that they can be used to generate significant income through the creation of additional tourist throughputs and the showcasing of Scotland as an attractive place to live and work. cultural tourism and ancestral tourism. VisitScotland and visitscotland.5.2 These initiatives present indirect opportunities for theatre and dance organisations to be supported by Scottish Enterprise through other initiatives. Scottish Enterprise tourism support focuses on several initiatives that bear particular relevance to this project: Product development for niche markets.4.5. Currently these include: horseracing.Strategic Context Culture and heritage organisations will also develop new activities and experiences in response to emerging markets.5 5.4) and the Scottish Executive’s ambition to increase visitor spend in Scotland by 50% by 2015. forestry. 5. with VisitScotland support. heritage and sport organisations to set up local product development networks for the heritage. 27 . Destinations – investing in the infrastructure and product development within Scotland’s key tourism destinations.

economic and political agendas whilst the other agencies tend to use culture as a mechanism for achieving economic and/or political aims. 5. regional and grassroots levels.7. This lack of strategic alignment can confuse the operating environment for Scotland-based theatre and dance organisations.7 5. Events which Scotland can “own”. 28 . Events which are sustainable and which are accessible to a wide range of communities and groups.1 SUMMARY OF KEY FINDINGS There is little collaboration or consistency between the cultural and international strategies of key policy makers. Events which can secure favourable broadcast and print media coverage in key tourism/investment markets. Events of an international. The Scottish Arts Council and British Council have developed strategies that aim to satisfy cultural. develop and (on occasion) export. Events capable of generating new and/or complementary initiatives within the same sector at national. Events which offer commercial and showcase opportunities for Scottish businesses. nurture.Strategic Context Events which showcase Scottish culture and sport. prestige and leading status.5.

This Section reviews evalutation reports presented to funders (Scottish Arts Council and UK Trade and Investment .2.4 29 . in a modified form.1 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this section is to examine the recent and current initiatives which have promoted. health and safety issues arose and the theatre was closed. Theatre Babel (Macbeth) and an exhibition of photography by Douglas McBride.6.1 6. in the UK and internationally). The programme was developed for the Gateway Theatre. The project only operated during 2004 and although plans were advanced for the project to go ahead in 2005. in 2005.000 in 2004 and £45. Recent and Current Initiatives 6. As part of the application for public sector funding the following objectives were established for STG (the objectives considered most relevant to this project are presented in italics i. and international work): To establish an identifiable home for Scottish theatre within the Edinburgh Festivals.2. home to Queen Margaret University College’s School of Drama and Creative Industries. 6. This was part of a total operating expenditure per year of £129.6.124. adjacent to the Gateway. These initiatives may be simple inward and outward missions where companies or individuals are exploring or cultivating potential contacts.1 SCOTLAND’S THEATRE GATEWAY 2004 – 2005 Scotland’s Theatre Gateway (STG) was performed in 2004 and. (For the purpose of this study. STG was created to provide a showcase for the best of Scottish professional theatre companies to be seen within the context of the Edinburgh Festival Fringe. or programmes where companies have staged or restaged work in order to showcase to potential producers and promoters. To offer slots to companies without the usual financial constraints.2. The companies programmed for 2004 were Catherine Wheels (Martha). The companies programmed for 2005 either cancelled or transferred to other Fringe venues.2 6. Theatre Cryptic (Each…And Every Inch). 6. There were also open readings by the Playwrights Studio in the studio.” international basis” has been defined as within Scotland. theatre and dance organisations based in Scotland.2. promoters and practitioners. those focussing on theatre and dance producers.UKTI) and summarises the meetings with the organisers and consultations with organisations who have taken part in the initiatives.500 in 2005. To undertake audience development activity for the companies. and a debate on the role of the National Theatre for Scotland. such as George Square Theatre. on an international basis. To offer marketing and press support to companies.3 6.e. RECENT AND CURRENT INITIATIVES 6. The project received funding from the Scottish Arts Council of £45.2 6.

Companies felt this had been underresourced and in the future they would need to build in a more significant contribution from their own marketing resources. with companies working with exceptionally tight get-in and get-out times.874. As a result.674 tickets were sold against a budget of 14.000 worth of coverage was established. as a result ticket sales income for participating companies was reduced by £30. To develop customer relations both for the companies and Scotland’s theatre Gateway. companies are often constrained and may deliberately produce sets that can be accommodated in that environment.6 6. Work is often programmed back to back. These constraints do not necessarily produce the best work. The Gateway Theatre had a dedicated technical team with experience of working in the venue.8 6. this difference is not explained in the accompanying narrative and is substantial given the duration of the STG project.040. To secure the support of the Federation of Scottish Theatre.5 A review of the 2004 End of Festival report revealed that the reporting format and analysis did not relate directly to the objectives outlined above. as they would do with any other venue on the Fringe. nor were there any measurable targets established for each objective. 6.2. Ticket sales targets were established in 2004. It should also be noted that the Edinburgh Festival Fringe Office assisted in this process by feeding appropriate producers to the venue. 30 . The initiative failed to achieve its ticket sales target.2.2.2. The lack of revenue through ticket sales was compounded by a significant increase in the staff costs attributed to the project. and these were reported against.2.10 The companies that participated in the initiative have offered the following insights: Not all Fringe venues around Edinburgh offer facilities and time-slots that are suitable for companies. Staff costs exceeded the budget by £18. Media coverage generated was substantial. Producer and promoter visits were organised but contact lists or detailed reporting on numbers or outcomes were not provided. Edinburgh Festival Fringe and the British Council. 6. It was felt that this contributed to enhanced production values and a better experience for the companies. To develop touring opportunities internationally for Scottish Companies theatre showcased by Scotland’s Theatre Gateway.7 6.9 6. scouts and producers visiting for both the Fringe and International Festival. the equivalent of £200.2. There was some concern about the level of marketing and audience development support provided by STG. The Gateway provided Scottish companies with a place to showcase work in the very best environment and at the right time. Recent and Current Initiatives To attract the attention of promoters. A total of 5.375.6.

5 31 . This however could perhaps be achieved across a range of venues. a network of UK theatre professionals.4 6. The aim of the showcase is to present new and innovative work from the UK to markets such as Western Europe. New Zealand and the Far East. although in some cases work will be included without being previewed. The British Council does not contribute to re-staging costs. In some cases British Council overseas offices will provide some financial assistance but very often promoters cover all travel and accommodation costs themselves. with places limited to 250.2 6. The call for submissions comes via the British Council offices overseas and there is no further marketing to this group.3. developed new audiences.000. Recent and Current Initiatives On the whole contributors were positive about their experience in 2004 and found it difficult to judge the initiative negatively. What would be essential is a marketing and communication campaign that packaged the work as Scottish. In 2005 there were 28 productions in the programme.3. The Showcase is programmed by the British Council’s Performing Arts Department in consultation with its Drama and Dance Advisory Group. 6. The overall cost of producing each showcase is approximately £70. but approximately £18. It would seem that many contributors would continue to be supportive of a dedicated programme of activity that showcased Scottish work as long as the quality of the technical support and programming policy was of a similar standard to that of the Gateway.3 6. There is no historical data collected on the profile or purchasing behaviour of promoters who attend. of which four companies were from Scotland. North America. A joining fee of £130 is charged to cover administration and purchase of tickets. promoted it to the appropriate producers and promoters and then supported companies to nurture and develop the opportunities that arose.3.000 per showcase is made available to assist companies who are deemed to be essential to the the programme. although it should be noted that there was only one years programming and no opportunity to refine the initiative in the second year. 6. although we are aware of one organisation that transferred to another venue and was not satisfied with the outcome). There is no formal application procedure for this funding.3 6. as opposed to under-developed markets. 200 organisations apply for the Showcase and following a submission. Australia. On average there are 500 applications from promoters to join the showcase. For such an initiative to be sustainable in the long run it is essential that resources are sufficiently planned and allocated. excluding any of the additional staff costs incurred by the British Council in London or overseas.3. On average. rather than just one.6. (There was no detailed evaluation of activity in 2005.1 BRITISH COUNCIL SHOWCASE The British Council Edinburgh Showcase has been operating biennially since 1997 in the third week of the Edinburgh Festival. This showcase is considered by the British Council to be an effective tool for marketing to developed markets. the advisory group aim to see all work.3.

8 6.7 6. The following aims were established by the FST: To invite Scottish performing arts companies from the small to mid-scale to showcase their work and meet international promoters with a view to touring that work. other Scottish performing arts companies and international promoters through social and seminar events. 110 weeks of overseas touring had been generated. Dundee City of Discovery and the British Council. Companies producing new work find it difficult to provide a piece of work in April for inclusion in a Showcase in August. To invite international promoters (approximately 20 – 25) in theatre and dance to participate in this event.3. the Federation of Scottish Theatre (FST) piloted a showcase of Scottish performing arts companies.3. Furthermore. Recent and Current Initiatives 6. However we have not been in a position to interrogate this data. particularly the regional multi-venues international visits and seminars. It is estimated by the British Council that approximately 60% of work has toured or developed international collaborations as a results of the showcase. To enable effective networking between showcase participants. Andrews.6 There is little formal evaluation of the initiative.4.2 32 . The British Council stated that by the end of the Showcase in 2003. Perth.6.1 SCOTLAND LIVE In March 2006. Stirling. This situation is confusing and contributes to concerns about the transparency of decision-making. Dance and children’s theatre is not programmed and this is regarded as unfortunate by some participants. although there are clearly some resources available for those companies considered essential to the programme. Despite the absence of evidence/an evaluation. Using Dundee as a base. Dundee.4 6. The pilot was supported by UK Trade and Investment. the British Council Showcase continues to be seen as one of the most effective routes for companies to show their work and there is a perceived status attached to inclusion. Pitlochry and Glasgow and to visit a range of Scotland’s best-known theatres. 6. FST invited 25 international theatre and festival promoters to see a variety of work across Scotland. 6. It should also be noted that the Showcase predominately programmes drama or physical theatre. bringing in an income of over £1 million to the UK theatre industry. There was a total operating budget of £20.4. there is no formal funding for attending the showcase or restaging work.3. Organisations have to find the additional resources and feel confident that the platform will provide them with a return on their investment. To build on the modelling projects developed by UKTI in 2004. St.000. To take visiting promoters to see work in local venues in Edinburgh. Participants also identified practical barriers to participation.

4. The research indicates that there may be opportunities to raise the profile of Scotland Live throughout the year and during other Showcase activity.5 6. Producers and promoters who visit Imaginate are not necessarily just buying children’s work and there are clearly opportunities to raise awareness of other available products. 6.4. formerly Edinburgh International Children’s Festival. As the Festival evolved. such as Imaginate during the Children’s Festival (see Section 6.3 The FST also set a number of target outcomes. Recent and Current Initiatives 6.4 FST conducted a detailed evaluation of the pilot and received very positive feedback from all those involved.4. 33 . It should be noted that the British Council. Citizens Theatre. Target: achieving at least one production touring internationally within 18 months of the project. Imaginate was created to undertake a far broader remit than simply programming the annual festival. FST adopted an inclusive policy for work and in the future would like to consider some selection process or curatorial role that allowed it to promote work of a high quality that is attractive to exporters.6. hospitality and organisation during the pilot. Dundee Rep and the National Theatre for Scotland.4). As the reputation of the organisation has grown. Scotland has been very supportive of the initiative. although funding from UKTI is unlikely because alternative funding streams for such an initiative would be difficult to source.4.5 6.1 IMAGINATE Imaginate. 6. Outcome: the National Theatre for Scotland is to attend the Dublin Festival and Scottish Dance Theatre is progressing work in Armenia.4. with actual achievements presented: Target: welcoming a minimum of 15 international delegates from at least eight countries – they received a total of 40 expressions of interest from promoters and were able to invite 25. In the future FST would like to stage a similar event bi-annually. travel and food while in Scotland. Target: generating at least 5 expressions of interest in productions within 3 months of the project. These are summarised below. started in 1990 and attracted about 10 international promoters interested in the programme. in particular regarding the pre-planning. encouraging organisations to consider if they are export-ready and possibly a wider debate surrounding internationalism and the current themes being explored by international promoters. Scottish Dance Theatre. They recognise that it can make a valuable contribution to discussions about international working.5. However the most notable feedback related to the selection criteria for inclusion in the showcase.7 6. Outcome: this was achieved with positive contacts for Catherine Wheels. It should be noted that a financial contribution was made by each delegate towards inward travel to Scotland and that the FST covered accommodation. Outcome: delegates came from a total of 13 different countries.6 6.

but this totals approximately 12 delegates per year. Imaginate would particularly like to attract more producers and festival directors from Europe and North America and from education authorities. There may therefore be additional opportunities for them to see other work or meet other Scottish artists during their visit. with between 5 and 20 coming from Europe and North America. Recent and Current Initiatives and the quality of the work developed.6. The research suggests that this is common across all initiatives.1 EDINBURGH INTERNATIONAL FESTIVAL AND FRINGE During the Edinburgh International Festival and Edinburgh Festival Fringe.3 6. Over the years Imaginate has been able to provide some assistance to delegates that they particularly want to attract. 6. The majority are from the UK and Ireland. Imaginate may consider addressing the issue in 2007.5.2 In 2006 120 promoters attended the festival as part of the official “Imaginate” delegation. However. although the organisation is aware that a further 50 producers came in 2006 as “unofficial delegates”. promoters and festival directors are programming across a range of genres or for multi-artform facilities. a number of other international networking and marketing activities take place: The International Promoter/Producer Liaison Officer at the Fringe acts as a central point of contact for promoters visiting Edinburgh and buying work (it is acknowledged that this activity does not solely focus on work created in Scotland).5 6. they do not currently have promoter or producer profiles that can provide potential companies with buying history or an indication of what they may be interested in buying. These factors are likely to limit it’s effectiveness in promoting Scotlandbased theatre and dance organisations.4 6. Promoters and producers are invited to attend the festival and to participate in a number of events designed to encourage networking.5. 6. 6. Imaginate has attracted an increasing number of producers and promoters. In 2005 the Fringe accredited 250 promoters and producers and provided informal networking opportunities for this group. Promoters and producers are selected to attend by Imaginate and pay for their own travel and accommodation costs as well as tickets to productions. Although Imaginate starts the process of selection and communication in January.5.6. It should be noted that numerous producers. for an event in May.2 34 . sector development and the gathering of general information. nor is there any generic marketing of Scotland as a creative force.6.6 6.5. In these cases the organisation may be in a position to contribute towards travel and accommodation costs. Imaginate limits the number of delegates to guarantee that performances are not dominated by adults. No financial assistance is offered to any of the promoters who visit Edinburgh. there is no central facility or official venue used by the promoters and no profiling event designed to highlight the creative talent in Scotland or the companies performing during August. On average each delegate pays £140 to attend.

the timing of the initiative and the exclusion of dance and children’s theatre from the programme. 6.3 Scotland Live: This was established with a strong set of SMART objectives and all were achieved or exceeded. although it is a tactic that has been adopted by other countries.8 6.6.1 OUTWARD MISSIONS British Dance Edition (BDE) aims to showcase the best of British dance for UK and international promoters. In February 2006 it took place in Leeds. many of the performances are also open to the public to provide an appropriate and realistic performance environment. can prevent some companies from participating. 6. Recent and Current Initiatives 6.8. hosted by Yorkshire Dance. Participants are supportive of the concept of showcasing Scottish work during the Festival. there are concerns about the basis and transparency of selection. 35 . Participants were positive about the production environment but felt that marketing and audience development activity was under resourced. Collective marketing across a range of venues may be as effective as a single venue approach. This event is considered important when raising awareness and profile for Scotland-based dance companies. The Scottish Arts Council produced the ‘Dance in Scotland Companies and Choreographers’ book in partnership with the British Council to raise the profile of Scotland-based performers at the event.2 6. Funding availability. However.8. It is a biennial event hosted by one of the national dance agencies and curated by the host agency’s Artistic Director. as long as companies have appropriate resources to restage work. 6. Exploratory work is underway regarding the possibility of developing showcases of Scottish-based work in Australia (APAM).2 The British Council Showcase: This is considered a valuable tool to effectively promote a company to developed international markets. Two solo artists and two companies from Scotland were selected for the 2006 BDE programme and received some Scottish Arts Council funding to enable them to perform. All attending the event received a copy. Although the event is aimed at programmers and promoters. The research did not unfold any formal feedback regarding the success of this approach.7 6. The project attracted a significant amount of media coverage but there was a significant shortfall in ticket sales and an overspend in staff costs.7.7.8.1 SUMMARY OF KEY FINDINGS The Gateway Project: There were no measurable targets for the Gateway project. USA (APAP) and Canada (CINARS). particularly for the restaging of productions.

marketing and buyer information. working in partnership with Imaginate.5 It is believed that Scottish companies would benefit from a more co-ordinated approach to marketing and communications during the Edinburgh festival period in August.8. and as part of Edinburgh International Festival. 6. The British Council is supportive of the initiative and believes that it could open up a wider debate in Scotland about international working. 6.4 Imaginate: Imaginate attracts a significant number of producers during the Edinburgh Children’s Festival and the scheme is over-subscribed. This would maximise the opportunities arising form work at Fringe. not just during the Edinburgh festivals. This is not an exhaustive list but merely provides a flavour of how connections could be developed via co-ordinated approaches to communication. Recent and Current Initiatives Delegates were positive about the planning and organisation of the programme and welcomed the opportunity to see Scottish-based work in a variety of locations.8. 6. particularly through venues such as Dance Base and the Traverse Theatre. Producers are buying across genres and there may be opportunities for other initiatives and organisations to benefit from the Imaginate scheme. Tramway (with New Moves and National Review of Live Art) and the work of the National Companies. Scotland Live. Delegates were critical of the quality of some of the work presented and organisers have acknowledged that there should be a defined selection criteria so that producers see work that is of exceptional quality and relevant to their interests. There would appear to be an opportunity for targeted growth from European and North American producers with some investment in accommodation and travel costs.6.6 36 .8. There may also be opportunities to extend showcasing opportunities outside of the August period.

None of the organisations have set measurable objectives in this regard. These organisations are active in the international arena. 7.1 7. using a combination of face to face and telephone interviews. but this is as far as the strategic thinking and planning is taken.2 7. STAKEHOLDER CONSULTATIONS 7. Scotland Gateway. opening up their work to new markets and generating sales.2. 22 in-depth consultations were completed.3 37 . This position is seen as fundamental to the production of work influenced by international directors. These companies have been successful at developing international networks. British Dance Edition or Imaginate Children’s’ Festival.7. collaborate internationally and draw on a wide range of cultures to create their work. Strategic Objectives – on the whole organisations state that they have a desire to work internationally. In total. 7.2 7. Stakeholder Consultations 7. British Council Showcase or Scotland Live) or had received funding to undertake international projects or collaborations. The role is often combined with a whole range of other tasks.3 7.1. Achieving the objectives – very often relationships and opportunities are developed through chance encounters and opportunities rather than by adopting a more proactive approach.1 KEY THEMES International development drivers . They may therefore be regarded as the Scottish-based theatre and dance organisations who are most engaged in international development. The findings of the consultation process have been organised into key themes in order to inform overall conclusions.1.2. very often this is the chief executive or administrative director.1. choreographers. Six organisations were identified that have taken a very different approach regarding internationalism as central to their growth and development.2. provided to the consultee in advance of the interview. writers and artists. They have created work that is relevant and credible in the international cultural arena and worked hard to ensure that it is seen by potential buyers and collaborators.responsibility for developing international exporting or networking falls to one or two people within an organisation.1 INTRODUCTION The stakeholder consultation list was drawn from organisations that had either participated in previous showcase initiatives (Scotland Theatre Gateway. often through the British Council Showcase. Some companies felt that as a result this area is neglected or it is approached in a reactive rather than strategic manner.2 7. All consultations were conducted using a discussion guide.

particularly during the Edinburgh International Festival. Other organisations aim to develop creative relationships with one particular country so that collaborative activity can take place between performers or other members of the creative team.2. Respondents were particularly positive about engaging with the Informal European Theatre Movement (IETM). practitioners must be encouraged to explore international work. seminars. the work being produced and the response from audiences. but respondents still felt that very often the sector does not take full advantage of the wide range of work on offer. Networking and nurturing creative relationships – this appears to be one of the most effective ways of achieving international objectives. and this should be provided to encourage their international development.2. its artistic philosophy. This is clearly championed by the Scottish Arts Council in their corporate plan (2006-2007). 7. the Association of Performing Arts Presenters (APAP) in New York and CINARS in Canada were also cited. The Australian Performing Arts Market (APAM) in Adelaide. The Scottish Arts Council has recognised this and is funding Catalyst – a dance management agency based at Dance Base that will fulfil a nurturing and promoting role for dance artists. showcase events and building up contacts and relationships so that producers and promoters are confident about the company. It may include attending conferences.4 Quality of the work – this is an area discussed extensively by respondents. There may also be organisations that require nurturing and support. relationships and opportunities in order to compare international standards and keep up to date with trends in other countries. Children’s Theatre consultees reported positively on the International Congress in Montreal and APAM in Adelaide.8 38 .7 7.7. a networking group designed for organisations operating in the international arena.6 7. as well as a number of European festivals.4) and the FST has acknowledged that stronger selection criteria or a curatorial approach should be developed the future. The issue of quality was the only negative feedback generated from the Scotland Live project (see Section 6. It is also an approach that reflects current European Union objectives for culture and as such could be a positive step towards the securing of additional funding.5 7.2. rather than a one-way cultural transaction. resulting in true partnership projects that are beneficial to all involved. which is directing funding to projects that allow countries to collaborate on projects and generate benefits for both parties.2. This is particularly important for the British Council. Consultees believed that to help them generate exceptional work. Stakeholder Consultations 7.2. There is a strong feeling that any initiative must identify the organisations with the capacity to generate work of an exceptional standard on the international stage and who are therefore ready to export.

including in Europe and further afield.3 7. Imaginate has built up an impressive programme of activity for producers and promoters who are visiting Edinburgh. As a consequence re-staging costs can be prohibitive and the financial implications of touring prohibitive for any international producer. This view is.7. For the majority of Scottish companies this has been almost impossible to achieve. These have been successfully touring since 1998. it can make a significant contribution to the promotion of Scotland-based theatre and dance. This is similar to the Edinburgh International Festival whose reputation guarantees that promoters visiting are willing to pay for the opportunity.3. and Pitlochry Festival Theatre being notable exceptions). In many cases respondents producing work for adults selected English speaking countries as the most likely route to developing international touring (North America. rather than heavy text-based work to transcend language barriers and appeal on a number of different levels. paying to see work and receiving no contribution to either travel or accommodation costs.6 39 . There were some indications that the current reputation of children’s theatre is not deserved and that in fact. It should be noted that companies producing work for children have been able to operate in this manner and keep work in repertoire e. common in many European countries. The British Council is currently targeting young people aged 18 – 35 and does not fund projects aimed at younger age groups.1 BARRIERS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL WORK Historical approach to producing drama– within the drama sector there are few companies that operate within the repertoire system (the National Theatre for Scotland. If productions receive critical acclaim then it is easier to revive work for touring.3. however.3. “Martha” and “Lifeboat” (Catherine Wheels). in the past children’s theatre was regarded by the sector as being of less artistic value than work for adults. Dance easier to restage but buyers find UK-based work uninviting – although dance can often be easier than theatre to restage.2 7.3. The very nature of the international audience often requires companies to produce highly visual. but it may be one of the reasons that Scottish-based children’s work has enjoyed comparative international success. Scottish theatre perceived as dense and text based– consultees stressed that this is a perception.4 7.5 7. It is an advantage with large-scale companies if they can engage a parallel cast that can continue with a production if touring is a possibility. Australia and New Zealand) rather than face the additional barrier of translation. However. good children’s work is now recognised by the majority of the sector as being artistically strong.3. 7.Although work produced for children has enjoyed success on the international touring circuit there is a feeling that this work is possibly not as valuable in promoting Scotland abroad. The consultees indicated a low perceived value of children’s work which is perhaps reflected in the fact that children’s theatre has not been included in the British Council Showcase (see Section 6. and not substantiated by any hard evidence.3.g. advocates the development of a company that works towards performing a range of productions that can then stay in repertoire and be revived. given appropriate quality control. Dundee Rep.3 7. Theatre for children may be slightly off the radar .3). In contrast. questionable. The repertoire system. The characteristics of Children’s theatre may mean that it is particularly suited to this approach. Stakeholder Consultations 7.

3. international opportunities and the provision of practical assistance on areas such as work permits or travel visas. Organisations would find it useful to refer to information and resources that could summarise market conditions. but there is a real desire for assistance at the initial information-gathering stage so they can make informed decisions about whether to participate and therefore allocate their resources more effectively. Knowledge of the buying market – organisations are unsure about who wants what.11 Cultural Entitlements– in the event of cultural entitlements being introduced in Scotland. develop contacts and explore opportunities are limited. This makes it difficult to develop international activity in an “informed” manner. where and how to make international sales or collaborations work for them.Edinburgh’s Fringe is well regarded as an opportunity to present work to producers and promoters already visiting Scotland.7 Funding – the resources and time to research markets. Our review of current initiatives (see Section 6) revealed that this information is not currently collected from producers or promoters.9 7. 7.3. Connectivity – there does not appear to be any opportunity or mechanism for connecting or communicating existing activity with organisations already exporting or considering exporting. 7. highlight future opportunities or report on other organisations’ international experiences.3.3. Although contact data is usually available. Respondents acknowledge that once an opportunity has emerged they then have to nurture and build contacts.10 The risks associated with performing at Edinburgh Fringe . Some companies are also reluctant to allow their work to be seen in this environment because of the technical challenges associated with many of the venues and the high levels of competition at this time.8 7. Stakeholder Consultations some respondents felt that producers were moving away from work developed by repertoire dance companies in preference for choreographer-led productions.7. but consultees are cautious about the costs and the potential benefits of presenting work.3. there is limited information about buying behaviour or the success of previously funded initiatives. communication will be required between the key policy-makers and theatre and dance organisations to ensure that those effected understand the implications and opportunities related. Respondents feel that there is a lack of co-ordination relating to information. There is further concern that some buyers find UK-based work inhibiting because it is not considered interesting enough in comparison to other work on offer. 7. 40 .

RGA website and RGA newsletter. RSAMD. the survey generated 48 responses.1 THEATRE AND DANCE’S ARTIST COMMUNITY SURVEY Introduction 8. respondent organisations employ 38 full time employees.2 On average. Glasgow Grows Audiences. the majority highlighted this as a “very important” element of their international work. A broad range of Scotland-based organisations were mentioned. The aim of the survey was to determine current levels of activity in the international arena. the support received for this activity. discussed in Section 7.1. including public sector bodies. followed by the Scottish Arts Council. the key barriers identified are financial constraints followed by lack of contacts and limited knowledge of the most appropriate markets. The majority of these job roles combine international sales development with other activities. Macrobert Arts Centre.1.3 The vast majority of respondents work with partner organisations to develop their international activity. citing reasons such as restricted on-going support.1.5 41 .8. Staff Engagement with International Showcasing – often achieved through combined roles 8.1. This is consistent with the stakeholder responses. outcomes achieved and future developments.1. A database of contacts was provided by the Scottish Arts Council and includes all Scottish Arts Council funded organisations as well as organisations that have previously applied for funding. For those that have not fully developed international networks and relationships. Again this is consistent with the approaches of the stakeholder organisations (see Section 7). Dance Base E-bulletin. The following Section presents the key findings and Appendix Two provides a full breakdown of the responses in table format. The most frequently mentioned partner organisations were the British Council for providing funds for international touring. Almost half of these organisations have full time positions that focus on international showcasing or exposure.4 The importance of developing networks and relationships with international partners is recognised by the respondents. The survey was also posted on the Scottish Arts Council website. Partnerships with Other Organisations – British Council has the highest engagement 8. 8. A small majority of respondents do not foresee these barriers changing in the future. theatres and festivals. Working Relationships 8. The Arches and YDance to consolidate resources. Several mentions were also given to the Byre Theatre. Dance Base. Developing International Networks and Relationships – regarded as ‘very important’ but barriers need to be overcome 8. WORKING RELATIONSHIPS 8.1 Quantitative research has been conducted by means of an electronic survey to the Scottish-based professional theatre and dance community. In total. Expectations for these barriers to change in the future were fairly mixed.

This does not necessarily imply the allocation of more funding (although this is clearly an issue for some organisations).10 Respondents have undertaken international initiatives globally. These findings indicate that support is required to encourage theatre and dance organisations to challenge the barriers that prevent them from developing international networks and relationships.1. However.1. producing “tourable” product. a number of respondents stated intentions to develop a strategy in the forthcoming year. 8. Instead. expanding funds and developing an international focus over time. these experiences are regarded as successful. South America and the British Council showcase in Edinburgh. A number of respondents appear to work proactively by forging links with international promoters and attending international arts markets. Working Relationships poor financial returns and the drawbacks of producing text-based work that is difficult to tour.11 There is reasonable engagement with international showcases. barriers that have prevented respondents from fully developing international sales are financial constraints followed by lack of contacts and limited knowledge of the most appropriate markets. although there is no formal assessment of the value of these programmes. However.8 Most organisations do not have a coherent strategy for developing international networks. conferences etc. Similar to engaging with international networks. there is a strong requirement for a more effective approach to market intelligence and information across the sector. Almost half of respondents foresee these barriers changing due to a continued strategic focus on international sales and gaining experience in this field over the long-term. although it was not established whether or not organisations and individuals had clearly defined what they wanted to gain from the experience before they arrived. seminars.1. respondents’ experiences met their expectations.1. Again. 42 .8. Overall. possibly with anticipation of improved resources through Creative Scotland. Current strategic activity is generally conducted through networking at events.1. with particular focus on North America. workshops. The process is ad-hoc and somewhat fragmented.9 8. almost half the respondents foresee these barriers being challenged if artists and organisations can build networks and strong partnerships. International Showcases and Sales Exchange Programmes – overall limited engagement 8.6 Over a third of respondents regard selling their work internationally as “very important” whilst just under a third regard it as “not important”. This could be addressed with the aim of establishing measurements to value the outcomes of participating in international initiatives. Overall. just over half of the respondents have previously visited an international showcase. a small minority cannot see a way towards removing these barriers. There also appears to be heavy reliance on generating contacts through partner organisations and also by working independently with other countries. Priority of International Sales – split views 8.1. International Strategies – there are no defined strategies 8.7 8. they tend to work reactively by responding to invitations and contacts that are presented to them.

Greece and The Netherlands).18 The resources allocated to developing international networks and international sales are predominately research trips followed by “strategic planning or coordination”.8.1. Czech Republic.1.13 The markets where respondents have the strongest networks are the UK (outside Scotland). 8. despite being a priority market for the Scottish Executive.12 There is minimal engagement with international sales exchange programmes.17 The vast majority of respondents would like to develop activity into new markets.1. 43 .14 Within these markets. Republic of Ireland. Germany. Interestingly. only three respondents have visited one in the past. Germany. South Africa Asia – Japan. China did not appear as a key market. 8.1. Developing Into New Markets – willingness to develop hindered by lack of resources 8. however the benefits of international showcases and sales exchange programmes should therefore be monitored and fed back to potential attendees. Australia and Europe were the most frequently mentioned markets.15 Not surprisingly. Working Relationships 8. The USA. followed by Europe. India. it is concluded that planning and coordination is therefore more tactical than strategic in nature. Again. New Zealand 8.1. the most popular countries in Europe are geographically close to Scotland and have well-established cultural relationships with the UK. Canada was mentioned slightly more than the USA within the context of North America. not all of the Scottish Executive’s priority markets featured in the key international sales markets.19 The average expenditure on the development of international networks or developing international sales and marketing is minimal. Israel Australasia – Australia. Argentina Africa – Rwanda.1.16 The countries where the respondents have the strongest sales are the UK (predominantly England) followed by Europe (Italy. This may be a reflection of the extent to which respondent organisations feel ready to export their product.1. Sri Lanka.1. The latter response is somewhat inconsistent with the previous finding that the majority of respondents do not have an international strategy for developing sales and networks. the most frequently mentioned countries were: UK – England Europe – The Netherlands. 8. Italy and the Republic of Ireland North America – USA and Canada South America – Brazil. Networks and Sales with Other Countries – UK and Europe are the strongest markets 8. 8. This finding can suggest some degree of opportunism amongst respondents who are seizing international opportunities as they arise.

8. Working Relationships The responses were split amongst the respondents who either spend between £1,000 and £5,000 per year, or nothing at all. Whilst developing international networks and sales might be regarded as important, this is not reflected in the allocation of resources. 8.1.20 Almost a third of respondents have received external support for developing international sales and networks in Scotland. This has mostly been through funding from the British Council or Scottish Arts Council. 8.1.21 The majority of respondents regarded themselves as “fair” at achieving developments in their international networks. This is normally a long-term process and most respondents are continually exploring opportunities to develop their international networking, albeit mostly on a reactive basis. 8.1.22 With regard to developing international sales and marketing, there were split views amongst respondents regarding their achievements. Overall, respondents were split between regarding their achievements as “fair” or “poor”, or felt it was “not a priority”. There is clearly less engagement with developing international sales and marketing than there is with developing international networks. Support for Future Development – requirement for inward and outward missions 8.1.23 The most desired area of support for helping organisations to develop international networks and relationships were: Opportunities for potential partners to visit Scotland for a research tour Opportunities to visit other countries to explore opportunities 8.1.24 The most desired area of support for helping organisations to develop international sales and marketing were: Financial Support Web-based resource of Scottish organisations in which they could be listed 8.1.25 There is clearly a requirement for inward and outward missions to support organisations to develop international sales and networks. To support international sales and marketing, respondents expressed a requirement for web-based resources that organisations can be listed in. This is already provided by the Scottish Arts Council (www.scottishartstouring.com); however this finding could indicate a requirement to better promote the web service or to revise its content or structure. Summary of Key Findings 8.1.26 There appears to be little strategic focus on developing international markets amongst the artistic community. Whilst arts organisations in Scotland have developed into international markets, work tends to be generated reactively rather than at a strategic level. Despite the limited strategic approach, partnerships have been successfully formed with organisations that provide relevant resources for international development, such as the British Council and Scottish Arts Council. 8.1.27 Current strategic activity tends to focus on networking at events, seminars, workshops and conferences.

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8. Working Relationships However, there is a perceived need for inward and outward missions to form part of an international strategy. A number of respondents stated intentions to develop a strategy in the forthcoming year, possibly with the anticipation of improved resources through Creative Scotland. 8.1.28 Any future strategies to develop international markets should be carefully aligned with the objectives of key policy makers. At present, there appears to be little correlation between the target markets of the artists’ community and those of the public sector bodies.

8.2 8.2.1

PRODUCERS AND PROMOTERS SURVEY Quantitative research was conducted with producers and promoters, international festival directors, artistic programmers and choreographers by means of an electronic survey. The aim of the survey was to gain an understanding of levels of satisfaction with previous initiatives and motivations to take part in them. The survey explored in which markets the respondents are (and have been) active and what they would require to purchase Scottish-produced work in the future. For the purpose of this survey, a database of contacts was collated from the following sources: Scottish Arts Council British Council Oversees Representatives Edinburgh Festival Fringe Society Federation of Scottish Theatre Imaginate Performing Arts Yearbook for Europe 2006 Music, Opera, Dance and Drama in Asia, the Pacific and North America Directory 2006 RGA contacts The survey generated 82 responses through a snowball sample. The following section provides a summary of the key findings and detailed tables of the findings are presented in Appendix Three. Profile – respondents active across artforms

8.2.2

8.2.3

The majority of the respondents are based in Scotland and predominately work in theatre followed by festivals, dance and music. They work across artforms but with a strong emphasis on the performing arts. Over three quarters of respondents import international work to their own country or as part of a larger tour. Of those that do not, reasons cited tend to be due to international importing being outwith their remit.

8.2.4

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8. Working Relationships

Networks with Other Countries – Europe, UK, Australasia and North America are the strongest markets; Scotland needs to raise its profile 8.2.5 The countries where respondents have the strongest networks are: Europe (France, The Netherlands, Republic of Ireland, Spain, Scandinavian countries, Germany) UK (England) North America (USA and Canada) Australasia (Australia) 8.2.6 The majority of respondents are interested in attracting work from other countries. A broad range of countries across the world were mentioned, although the most frequently mentioned were the USA, UK, Japan, India and France. Motivations for attracting work from other countries tend to reflect desires to share experiences, exchange work practices and view high quality work of international standards. In the past five years, almost half the respondents that are based outside Scotland have imported work from Scotland. The experiences were generally deemed as satisfactory and met the respondents’ expectations. Of those that have not imported work from Scotland, the main barriers appear to be financial constraints and lack of exposure. Almost half of respondents are “not aware of what is available in Scotland”. This indicates that Scotland has a good reputation but needs to raise its profile as a country to export with. Encouragingly the vast majority would be interested to learn more about the work of Scottish based organisations that are developing international networks and markets. There are a great number of countries that recognise cultural links with Scotland; this could be positive in stimulating authentic and organic relationships. Procurement – international work is sourced proactively and reactively 8.2.9 International work is normally sourced through a combination of proactive and reactive projects.

8.2.7

8.2.8

8.2.10 The fact that almost half of respondents indicated or stated that they are not aware of what is available in Scotland suggests that opportunities are being missed in Scotland due to a lack of exposure of its theatre and dance products to the producers and promoters that are proactively seeking new markets. International Arts Markets – well attended 8.2.11 The majority of respondents have attended an international arts market. The most frequently mentioned were APAM, Edinburgh Festivals, British Council Showcase in Edinburgh,APAP, IETM and CINARS, although a range of other arts markets across the world were listed. Past experiences were rated highly and this emphasises the value of attending national conferences for producers and promoters.

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47 .15 Scotland appears to have a good reputation for providing quality work and international opportunities are sourced both proactively and reactively.14 National conferences are popular with producers and promoters. 8.2.8. 8. likely that a number of opportunities are being missed in Scotland due to a lack of exposure of its theatre and dance products to the producers and promoters that are proactively seeking new markets. There is clearly a desire to view work in Scotland outwith the Edinburgh festivals. This was followed by “opportunities to view work in Scotland outside of the Edinburgh Festivals” and “opportunities to view work in Scotland as part of a research tour”.2. and particularly in Europe. although they also seek exposure outside of these formats.4). Scotland therefore needs to raise its profile amongst the international arts community as a country from which to export.2.2. There is a perceived need to create opportunities for producers and promoters to view work in Scotland outside of the Edinburgh festivals and to better coordinate market information and opportunities in order to inform activity. It is.2. Working Relationships Future International Development – financial support is required 8. which perhaps presents opportunities to expose theatre and dance work based at a range of locations throughout Scotland.13 The respondents are active across artforms and have developed strong networks across the world. Summary of Key Findings 8. echoing the format of the Scotland Live project (see Section 6. 8.16 Future support for international development is required through financial assistance and inward missions. UK and North America.12 Financial support would be required by most respondents to develop networks and relationships in Scotland. however.

2. Hallmarks of Success 9. 9.3 9. although still in early days. HALLMARKS OF SUCCESS 9. This collaborative approach has also been adopted in Canada. the Canada Council for the Arts and the Department of Canadian Heritage. The Arts Council of Ireland developed its strategy approximately three years ago.1. there is no associated implementation plan.2. International focus on cultural work in Australia has been present for a long time and the Australia Arts Council was set up approximately 40 years ago with the primary aim of supporting arts development.3 Overall. although in Canada the links to diplomacy and the value that the arts brings to that process are significant. This model is particularly interesting for Scotland given the interface between the Scottish Arts Council and the British Council.2. Culture Ireland Canada . 9. there does not appear to be one country that provides a model for successfully implementing each criterion of the framework.1 HISTORIC DEVELOPMENTS OF THE STRATEGY International strategies for the above organisations have been in place for a varied amount of time and have been developed under different agendas.2 9. Culture Ireland.2.2 9. The models which show greater hallmarks of success tend to be those that have been developed with an aim to support the cultural sector rather than to further political or economic objectives.Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada (DFAIT).1 INTRODUCTION A review of successful working practices in other countries was conducted in order to determine hallmarks of success for developing international cultural exposure.2 9. the main focus is to encourage various agencies to work effectively together. rather certain countries display strengths in different areas. They have developed around a collaborative agenda to support the sector.2. 9. The “hallmarks of success” were reviewed in countries that were identified through the course of the research as examples of good practice in international development.4 48 . with international working being the joint responsibility of the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada (DFAIT).9. was set up in 2005 and although it has an international strategy. The countries reviewed were: Germany – German Cultural Institution Australia – Australia Arts Council Republic of Ireland – Arts Council of Ireland.1 9. which works in partnership with other organisations. They believe very strongly that the arts provide a positive and neutral environment that can then enhance and support economic opportunities. All have programmes in place to support international working. Activity was reviewed against a framework that was agreed with the client group. The combined approach of the Arts Council of Ireland and Culture Ireland appears to be successful.2.

3. Hallmarks of Success Some ten years ago the Australia Arts Council had a major restructure that resulted in the new international division and the development of strong community partnerships. 9.1 INTERNATIONAL STRATEGIES There is not universal approach to developing international strategy. 9.2 Asia v 9. which is largely due to objectives to expand into emerging markets such as China.5 The German Cultural Institute has a management strategy which is broken down into separate arts departments and a set of domestic objectives have been agreed for each department.5 49 . The following Table presents an overview of the priority countries outlined in the strategies of comparator countries or organisations. Organisations that have taken a politically and/or economically-driven approach to their strategy have encountered barriers where their cultural agenda clashes with their government’s political or economic agenda. Table 9.3: Priority Markets for International Hallmarks of Success Countries Hallmarks of Mainland UK North America Australasia Success Europe Australia Council for the Arts Arts Council Ireland Culture Ireland German Cultural Institute Canada Source: RGA v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v 9. this model is an example of a strategy that has been developed around the needs of the sector rather than being imposed externally. which. This is followed by Asia. resulting in frustration for both sides.3.3 shows.3.4 9. Similar to Ireland.9. it is felt.3 As Table 9. Target markets for organisations that have taken a sector-led approach tend to be based on countries with existing cultural ties and a common language. 9. do not often reflect the desires of the sector. The international development objectives are quite general and do not relate directly to theatre and dance. These are regarded as the easiest markets to export with.3 9. the markets that receive the most strategic attention are the UK and mainland Europe. with some countries focussing strategically on specific countries and others taking a more tactical approach to opportunities in markets throughout the world. They are also developed around economic and political agendas.3.3.2.

although this has been financially supported by DFAIT. On the other hand. Similar to this approach.5. is more influenced by government exporting priorities. the German Cultural Institute. Hallmarks of Success 9. 9. 9.5. Canada has for many years considered the Edinburgh Festival as a major platform for Canadian artists to showcase their work. 9.4 9.4.4 9. This organisation has struggled to gain influence in the political arena and due to a lack of resources is frustrated by unmet demand for theatre and dance internationally. its partner organisations and companies and individuals involved in the sector.4. As a result. whether it is political. These countries have enjoyed great success under their remit to support the sector and raise cultural awareness internationally. Existing levels of activity with Scotland tend to be tactical and often are one-off or infrequent initiatives. This ability to respond to short-term deadlines makes the sector flexible and much more responsive to market changes.3.4.1 STRATEGIC ENGAGEMENT WITH SCOTLAND There is no current engagement with Scotland at a strategic level in any country. Alternatively.5 9. alongside inward missions and CINARS.1 IMPLEMENTATION The approaches to implementing the strategies vary and largely reflect the agenda of the strategy.3 9.9. which is the equivalent of the UK’s Arts Councils and British Council combined. To apply for this fund. Collaborative marketing activity to producers has also happened for many years and came as a direct response from the sector.2 9. economic or cultural. The Irish model has seen Culture Ireland using the Edinburgh Fringe Festival as one of its showcasing events and the Arts Council Ireland successfully marketing Irish work at the Edinburgh Festivals. the Australia Arts Council implements a short term response fund programme called ‘Playing the World’ which guarantees a six week response to companies that have been invited to tour.4.2 50 .3 9. they work closely with Culture Ireland and the British Council and the sector has a large influence on the direction of the Arts Council Ireland. which has an economic and political role to fulfil. The Arts Council Ireland also attends conference and events to network.1 TACTICAL APPROACHES Tactical approaches are largely reactive to opportunities that are presented to the organisations. the Australia Arts Council’s approach is sector-led through the Australia Arts Council. companies have to present their marketing strategy to the Australia Arts Council and propose to tour to at least three international venues. The approach in Ireland has been primarily cultural and involves a collaborative approach between the Arts Council Ireland.

3 million. the biggest change in the past few years has been setting up Culture Ireland and the partners have adapted their priorities in collaboration.6 9.1 FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS The Arts Council Ireland’s approach is to constantly review the policies in their strategy in response to the ever-changing arts sector. for performers that are invited abroad to tour.8 million.8 9. during which they awarded a total of two million Canadian dollars (£864.7 9. They are therefore relying heavily on their partner organisations working abroad to support them. therefore capitalising on industry expertise.200).9.1 RECORDED IMPACTS AND MEASUREMENTS There are no universal measurements for recording impacts.6.6. the number of contacts made at networking events.8. Hallmarks of Success 9. 9. Long term measures consider the value of the leads that were generated and the financial outcomes (e. Slightly less than this. The model of working in partnership will continue to grow. In Canada DFAIT provides support to the cultural sector through its grant programme and its business development programme. Europe and North America.g.2 million for international work. which should be plugged straight into the industry. The Australia Arts Council undertakes major evaluation reports during and after each project. Furthermore. DFAIT does not anticipate a reduction in funds but could not confirm funding for the next planning cycle at this stage. with their involvement with APAM). (£88. The majority of organisations record short-term or “internal” measures such as PR and media coverage. stakeholder involvement and PR and media coverage.7. This involves short term measures such as the quality of the organisation of the event. The presenters that visit are told in advance that the Council has funds to allow some performers to tour internationally. in the next three years the German Cultural Institution is loosing 25% of their staff in the headquarters due to management changes. 9.2 9. The only organisations that appear to take a structured approach to measuring impacts are the Australia Arts Council. the number and value of leads generated etc. In the next few years this model will be expanded with more funding for partner organisations and using the knowledge of the practitioners.3 9.1 RESOURCE ALLOCATION The Culture Ireland budget is the equivalent of £2. 51 . In terms of international policy. Their main funding comes from the Foreign Ministry with additional funding coming from a project-by-project basis. The German Cultural Institution has a very small department for theatre and dance constituting four people. There is also an allocation for APAM.6. which is relatively small considering the size of the country and freight costs required to tour to their target markets in Asia. Arts Council Ireland has a budget of approximately £1. the Australia Arts Council budget is £1. Additionally. It is coming to the end of a five year planning cycle.556) to organisations who either wanted to tour internationally or who wanted to attract international buyers to see Canadian work.

3 Successful tactical approaches can be seen with Culture Ireland.9. Canada also regards Edinburgh as an important platform for Canadian performers to be marketed internationally. 9. 52 . It is clear that the strongest results are obtained from those who have acknowledged that a discreet fund for international activity is essential and have formed effective partnerships to help to deliver the strategy 9. 9. Canada.9. 9. when the cost of travelling increased.10. The public agency bodies that have developed close partnerships with the sector tend to have adopted a culturally-led approach.10.10. 9.10 SUMMARY OF KEY FINDINGS 9. the most successful appear to have been those who capitalise on the strength of the field they are operating in and are able to respond to the changing needs of the cultural sector as a result. in particular. these are regarded as the easiest markets to which to export. Providing funds for short turnarounds to perform internationally has been a successful approach for the Australia Arts Council and has allowed companies to respond quickly to market forces and opportunities.2 There is a great deal of strategic focus on the UK. In Canada this has allowed organisations to take advantage of a wide range of business information and tools. Amongst the organisations reviewed for this study.. The main trends that they anticipate will threaten the implementation of their strategy are terrorist threats. economically or culturally driven. countries reflect different remits for developing an international strategy.2 The Australian exporting arts sector was massively hit by the effects of 9/11. This is normally politically.8.1 At a strategic level. where the Australia Arts Council undertakes major short and long-term evaluation reports and has reporting formalities set up with partner organisations. which has used the Edinburgh Festival Fringe as one of its showcasing events and has successfully marketed Irish performers in Edinburgh.10.9 9. Hallmarks of Success 9.10.1 VITAL LESSONS LEARNED Overall. rather than using international artistic activity to achieve political or economic aims. it is important to determine the agenda of an international development strategy before setting out its aims and objectives. The most structured approach appears to be in Australia. although no specific projects were identified. drawing on the resources of other organisations and the expertise of the sector as a whole. acknowledges that their monitoring and evaluation of activity could be greatly improved upon. 9. The extent of formal evaluation is variable across the comparator set.10.4 Most countries adopt a partnership approach to strategy implementation.5 Impacts are measured in various ways. although initiatives specifically targeted in Scotland tend to be tactical and often one-off programmes.6 Future developments tend to focus on developing the existing level of activity. 9. Target markets are often countries with existing cultural ties or a common language.

3 DEFINITION WITHIN THE CULTURAL SECTOR 10. It was suggested that a definition for theatre and dance should be based around quality and economic measures.2. otherwise there will be little opportunity to market their products internationally. Creative Scotland is regarded as an opportunity to impact on the definition and measurements for theatre and dance artists and organisations. The touring fund has been provided for only five national companies and the money is not expected to trickle down through the arts infrastructure to smaller companies who are already exporting or have the potential to export. RGA and the Scottish Arts Council.1. 10.10. Response to the Research Findings 10.3. it is felt that this approach hasn’t considered cultural exporting in enough depth. 53 . RESPONSE TO THE RESEARCH FINIDNGS 10. However. Whilst the Scottish Executive has allocated a £350. This should be addressed in order for artists and organisations to prepare their response. Support from the Scottish Executive has historically been through tactical initiatives and their priority markets do not necessarily reflect those of the theatre and dance organisations. it was also noted that there should be opportunities to measure softer impacts with artists engaged in international working.1 INTRODUCTION 10. 10. which also includes music.1 The consensus was that theatre and dance artists and organisations do not receive enough strategic support to enhance their international exposure. There is therefore an essential requirement for the non-national companies to be provided with a direct funding allocation.000 fund for the national companies. a workshop was held to discuss the key findings to date and to assist in refining the thinking on possible improvements to the international support of Scotland-based theatre and dance organisations.1 Defining theatre and dance separately within the national. However. Federation of Scottish Theatre Dance Base.2 The following section details the key emerging themes raised at the workshop. 10. within the cultural sector there needs to be clarification of how theatre and dance should be defined and also how they should be measured.2 CURRENT STATUS IN THE STRATEGIC CONTEXT 10. The Scottish Executive’s definition of ‘creative industries’ is focussed on more commercial industries such as design and new media. However.2 There is a lack of clarity as to the implication of cultural entitlements. it is acknowledged that this may take considerable time and should not constrain progress. In attendance were representatives from the British Council Scotland. strategic context was not regarded as being necessary as they should be regarded homogenously as “performing arts”. The workshop was facilitated by RGA and hosted by the Scottish Arts Council.1. This emphasises the lack of authority that theatre and dance artists have within the creative industry.1 Further to the research presented.2. 10.

3 The state of readiness to export must be considered alongside the quality of work issue.3 It was also recognised that there is an opportunity to capitalise on the British Council’s showcase. 10. would present a cohesive message to potential buyers. Building on an example from the Arts Council Ireland. A more collaborative approach within the sector may accelerate the process. to ensure continuous improvement. particularly during the early “information gathering” stages. 10. conferences and seminars is a fundamental.5 SHARING AND COLLABORATING 10. detailing the best of Scotland-based work. strategic approach to gaining international exposure. however.4 QUALITY OF PRODUCT 10. 54 . The Scottish Arts Council will continue to develop the quality framework by working closely with the arts organisations that it supports.4. 10. Artists tend to self-assess but this method does not guarantee work that is an acceptable standard for international exposure. be recognised that not all organisations aim to export work.5.1 It was agreed that networking at events. The consultees would support the reintroduction of a similar initiative. This could take the form of a website or electronic newsletter. 10. Despite this desire it was noted that assessing the quality of work is a challenge to this sector. held every two years at the Edinburgh Fringe Festival.1 It was agreed that the quality of work promoted internationally must be of an appropriate standard. Response to the Research Findings 10.10. The proposed discussions around quality in the sector will also aim to address the quality issue.2 Raising the quality of work to an international standard requires some degree of nurturing artists and organisations before they are able to export. There is a wide range of activities already taking place that provide artists with opportunities in this area and organisations need to take full advantage of them. 10.4 Overall. Organisations would benefit from being aware of their state of readiness to export and then assisted to enhance that readiness if required.5. where they would like to export. However.2 Workshop participants felt that a central portal of information would be beneficial to artists and organisations seeking to know which companies are ready to export. it was felt that some collaborative marketing each year. 10. past experiences of touring and useful contacts etc.4.5. This may include international visits to see work (as developed by the FST and supported proactively by the Scottish Arts Council).5. A method of determining quality is therefore required to increase the credibility of theatre and dance artists internationally and to attract potential producers. it was acknowledged that networking can be time-consuming and nurturing creative relationships is a slow process. A quality framework has recently been devised by the Scottish Arts Council and will act as a clear set of expectations for performance. Scotland Live was regarded as a success by the participants and stakeholders that were involved. where there are national and international opportunities. It should.4.

These areas must be clarified to ensure that practitioners fully understand the strategic environment they are working in. initiatives within Scotland like the British Council Showcase and Scotland Live. However. 10.6.3 The Scottish Executive has not explored the level of support required for cultural organisations in depth and theatre and dance organisations struggle to be taken seriously as cultural enterprises.6. Response to the Research Findings however there would need to be rigorous measures regarding quality control so that buyers were confident of the quality of such a programme (see Section 10. 10.6.6 SUMMARY OF KEY FINDINGS 10.10.5 Based on previous experiences. 10.6. It was suggested that this could be programmed in the year that the British Council Showcase was not programmed in Edinburgh.4 Artists working in the theatre and dance artforms should be measured to assess their readiness and suitability for international exporting. there is also a lack of coordination amongst the artists and organisations that are exporting internationally. there is a lack of coordination amongst the key policy makers (Scottish Arts Council.4).1 At a strategic level.2 At a practical level. British Council. are valued. 10. This reinforces the need to apply a method for determining and controlling quality. There is a requirement to raise the profile of theatre and dance within a Scottish cultural context. 55 . there is still a desire to collaborate with marketing and communication activity during the Edinburgh festival thereby to maximise the opportunity to sell to producers already visiting Scotland.6. Providing a central information point with up to date news about cultural exporting activity would encourage a more coordinated approach for the theatre and dance sector within the international field. 10. Scottish Executive and Scottish Enterprise) and confusion about where theatre and dance sits within the creative industries and the likely impact of the cultural entitlements.

2.2 Initiatives for developing international theatre and dance sit broadly in line with the Scottish Executive’s International Strategy: building strong ties of economic.2. Delegates and participants were very positive about the initiative and are supportive of its continued development if a more rigorous selection procedure for showcase participants is devised. There do not appear to be opportunities or mechanisms for connecting international development activity or for organisations already exporting or considering exporting.2 RECENT AND CURRENT INITIATIVES 11. CONCLUSIONS 11. 11. Scotland Live.1 Scotland Live was well managed and established a strong set of SMART objectives which were achieved or exceeded. Dance Base and the Traverse.1.1. Imaginate has built up a solid reputation and has the potential to expand and attract new producers and promotes who are buying across a range of artforms. 11. promoting Scotland’s policy interests.3 Indirect opportunities for the international development of theatre and dance through Scottish Enterprise and EventScotland are present for initiatives that engage with the cultural tourism agendas of these organisations.11.1 Connecting artists and providing a way of short-circuiting time consuming research into their audiences and international opportunities would be a real benefit.2. 56 . an issue that should be raised internally between the British Council Scotland and British Council London.2 A dedicated venue for Scotland-based companies (echoing the Gateway 2004 project) was well supported by participants in the research but it is felt that similar outcomes could be achieved by collectively marketing Scotland-based organisations across a range of venues in Edinburgh (similar to the approach in Ireland and Canada). Conclusions 11. reinforcing and forging new links across Europe and the development of cooperative links. including work produced by Imaginate.3 The British Council Showcase is seen as an important platform for raising the profile of Scotland-based companies and such organisations should be supported by the British Council and Scottish Arts Council to participate in this initiative. This would provide opportunities to market other events outside of August to promoters and producers.1 The Scottish Arts Council and British Council have developed a joint strategy that aims to satisfy cultural.1. economic and political agendas whilst the other key policy makers tend to use culture as a mechanism for achieving economic exporting and political aims. 11. This would capitalise on the work of the Edinburgh Festival Fringe. 11. 11. the selection process is believed to be somewhat ‘Londoncentric’.1 STRATEGIC CONTEXT 11.3 KEY STAKEHOLDER CONSULTATIONS 11. Similarly. Edinburgh International Festival. Tramway (with New Moves and National Review of Live Art) and the National Companies. 11. political and cultural benefit to Scotland. However.3.

11. 11. 11. partnerships have been successfully formed with organisations that provide relevant resources for international development. other resources and international opportunities as well as more practical assistance and advice on issues such as work permits.3 Any future strategies to develop international markets should be carefully aligned with the objectives of key policy makers.11.5.1 There appears to be little strategic focus on developing international markets amongst the artistic community. However.2 Current development activity tends to be focused on networking at events.4. 11.1 Scotland appears to have a good reputation for providing quality work and international opportunities are sourced both proactively and reactively. however. such as the British Council and Scottish Arts Council. Whilst arts organisations in Scotland have developed activity in international markets. At present. It is. likely that a number of opportunities are being missed in Scotland due to a lack of exposure of its theatre and dance products to those who are proactively seeking new markets. seminars. 11. or to attend more inward missions.4.2 Future support for international development is required through financial assistance to producers and promoters and the opportunity to attend more inward missions.5 PRODUCERS AND PROMOTERS SURVEY 11.2 Allocating separate resources for restaging work and taking advantage of opportunities presented in Edinburgh. It is recognised that the budget for Creative Scotland has not yet been set and such assumptions should be viewed as speculation at this stage. A number of respondents intend to develop an international strategy in the forthcoming year.3.5. Scotland therefore needs to actively raise its profile amongst the international arts community. 11. There is a perceived need to create opportunities for producers and promoters to view work in Scotland outside of the Edinburgh festivals. workshops and conferences. would send a strong signal to the sector that policy makers value the contribution the sector can make to diplomacy abroad. work tends to be generated reactively to new opportunities that are presented to them.4 THEATRE AND DANCE ARTIST COMMUNITY SURVEY 11. there appears to be little correlation between the target markets of the artistic community and those of the public sector bodies who have identified markets in their international strategies. this may suggest that respondents anticipate increased resources from Creative Scotland.4. Conclusions Respondents feel that there is a lack of co-ordination for providing information. there is a perceived need for more inward and outward showcasing missions. Despite the limited strategic approach. 57 .

which has used the Edinburgh Festival Fringe as one of its showcasing events and has successfully marketed Irish performers in Edinburgh. Target markets are often countries with existing cultural ties or a common language.6. 11. where the Australia Arts Council undertakes major short and long-term evaluation reports and has reporting formalities set up with partner organisations. rather than using international artistic activity to achieve political or economic aims. although initiatives specifically targeted in Scotland tend to be tactical and often one-off programmes.6. countries reflect different remits for developing an international strategy.7. At a practical level. Providing a central information point with up to date news (such as a development of www.3 Successful tactical approaches can be seen with Culture Ireland. 58 .6. these are regarded as the easiest markets to which to export. In Canada this has allowed organisations to take advantage of a wide range of business information and tools. 11. in particular. DFAIT Canada also regards the Edinburgh festivals as an important platform for Canadian performers to be marketed internationally. drawing on the resources of other organisations and the expertise of the sector as a whole.7 RESPONSE TO THE RESEARCH FINDINGS 11.6 Future developments tend to focus on developing the existing level of activity.1 At a strategic level.6. 11.7.com) about cultural exporting activity would encourage a more coordinated approach for the theatre and dance sector within the international field. 11. The public agency bodies that have developed close partnerships with the sector tend to have adopted a culturally-led approach. although the research did not identify any specific initiatives for achieving this. 11. Canada. acknowledges that their monitoring and evaluation of activity could be greatly improved upon. The most structured approach appears to be in Australia. 11.scottishartstouring.2 The Scottish Executive has not explored the level of support required for cultural organisations in depth and theatre and dance organisations struggle to be taken seriously as cultural enterprises. There is a requirement to raise the profile of theatre and dance within a Scottish cultural context. there is a lack of coordination amongst the key policy makers and confusion about where theatre and dance sits within the creative industries and the likely impact of the cultural entitlements.11.1 At a strategic level. Conclusions 11. The extent of formal evaluation is variable across the comparator set.6.4 Most countries adopt a partnership approach to strategy implementation. 11. Providing funds for short turnaround performances internationally has been a successful approach for the Australia Arts Council and has allowed companies to respond quickly to market forces and opportunities.2 There is a great deal of strategic focus on the UK. there is also a lack of coordination amongst the artists and organisations that are exporting internationally.6 HALLMARKS OF SUCCESS 11.6.5 Impacts are measured in various ways.

This reinforces the need to apply a method for determining quality. 59 .7. Conclusions 11. 11. initiatives within Scotland like the British Council Showcase and Scotland Live are valued.11.3 There is a requirement for theatre and dance to be defined homogenously as performing arts within the cultural sector.7. there is still a desire to collaborate with marketing and communicate activity during the Edinburgh festivals and maximise the opportunity to sell to producers already visiting Scotland. Artists working in these artforms should be measured to assess their readiness and suitability for international exporting.4 Based on previous experiences. However.

12.Develop a bi-annual inward mission outside the Edinburgh festival period. learn more about what they are interested in and to facilitate them meeting appropriate contacts. including the political value of cultural diplomacy. There may also be other themes and issues that can be explored with a debate programme.1 INTRODUCTION 12.1 The following table provides some indication of the types of activity proposed.Continue to support the British Council Showcase and British Dance Edition and work with organisations to maximise the benefits and opportunities associated with inclusion in the programme.3 Scotland Showcase. as well as some of the challenges. The various activity has been outlined below in more detail. Suggested Improvements and Developments 12. 12. and provided estimates of indicative costs. This Section therefore uses the joint action plan headings as a framework for the recommendations for improvements. how to approach international marketing and maybe more practical matters.2 SUMMARY OF ACTIVITY 12.2.4 Established Showcases. SUGGESTED IMPROVEMENTS AND DEVELOPMENTS 12.Make effective use of the Edinburgh festivals as a showcase for Scotland-based work by developing a collective approach to marketing to producers. how it impacts on artistic vision. Relationships with buyers should be established and nurtured to encourage a return to Edinburgh or reciprocal visits for Scotland-based artists.2. This could take the form of an International Hub where producers and promoters can arrive in Edinburgh and be quickly orientated and directed to Scotland-based work. following on from the Scotland Live pilot project. 12. ensuring that the quality of pieces shown is exceptional and companies that are ready to export are identified. informative. 60 . At the same time engage the artistic community in Scotland to debate and discuss the opportunities associated with international working.2. These are well established programmes with significant resources and an excellent reputation so encouraging and supporting Scotland-based companies to attend is a simple way of benefiting.12. This could involve a “curated” showcase of work.2.1.2 Edinburgh International Promoters Hub . Pre-arrival producers will have access to material produced collectively by Scotland-based companies wanting to work internationally and during the course of the Festival other social and networking events will be co-ordinated to welcome producers. 12.1 This section brings together the findings from the research and the workshop session to make recommendations regarding improvements that will enhance practice in international promotion. exciting and stimulating. promoters and other influencers.2. 12. A joint strategy for this activity already exists between the Scottish Arts Council and British Council and it would seem appropriate to continue progressing the strategic aims and action plan that have already been devised.5 Similarly Imaginates’ delegate programme for producers has grown gradually and is well liked by those that attend. It will exist to make the process of coming and importing Scotland-based work easy.

12.Attend APAM (Australian Performing Arts Market) in February 2008 as a trade or booth delegate and research the possibilities of presenting a Scottish showcase there in 2010.2.2. 61 . Delegates would be visiting with a collaborative display of marketing material designed to communicate what is available from Scotland and to present a unified and collective voice for those companies.7 Similarly by attending CINARS Montreal (November 2008) as a trade or booth delegate and research the possibilities of presenting a Scottish showcase there in 2010.12. 12.6 Outward Mission . Suggested Improvements and Developments Fairly modest levels of support to subsidise North American producers may have significant benefits and there are also opportunities for this showcase to link with the Scotland Showcase and the work during Edinburgh so that connections between the three activities are maximised. We have anticipated 6 delegates attending including those responsible for co-ordinating the Edinburgh Promotes Hub.

12. those who require nurturing and those for whom international working is not a priority To agree the most marketable organisations To agree route to nurture those not yet ready Utilise existing international business gateway exporting audits Network approach via Scottish Arts Council and funding programmes Time for organisations to compete as part of request for international touring funds or inclusion in showcase programmes Cost Improvement Objective How Who 62 .3 RECOMMENDED IMPROVEMENTS AND DEVELOPMENTS Table 12. Suggested Improvements and Developments 12. Agree shared objectives Revise the plan in the light of this report Who Scottish Arts Council and British Council – Senior Executives Cost Time for coordination and meetings at a high level B) Develop SMART objectives for the British Council and Scottish Arts Council Joint Strategy To develop measurable outcomes Promote good practice for international promotion Scottish Arts Council and British Council Time for planning sessions and communication with key stakeholders C) Clarify those organisations who are export-ready.2: Suggested Improvements and Development Improvement Strategic Planning A) Coordinate the strategies of key policy makers Objective To agree the most suitable target markets for theatre and dance To benefit from synergies between policies How Meeting key policy makers – Scottish Executive/Scottish Enterprise/British Council and Scottish Arts Council.

Scottish Arts Council and FST Time to lobby core stakeholders 63 . Suggested Improvements and Developments D) Develop a quality monitoring system for artists seeking international exposure To ensure that Scotlandbased work being exposed internationally is of a high quality Selection panel of informed and respected individuals. Media reviews and audience feedback Development of Scotland Live initiative via FST £3. Scottish Arts Council and FST Minimal and linked to the development of an information hub (see “Information” recommendations) Advocacy F) Raise the profile of theatre and dance as an important element of international diplomacy Diplomacy should be central to all new initiatives Partnership between British Council.250 Research E) Utilise existing research resources provided by IETM.12. IFACCA and On The Move Network To ensure that the sector is fully aware of the context they are operating within To influence policy makers and lever funding Web –based: linking to existing websites Partnership between British Council.

developing showcase opportunities (FST) and supporting international buyers (Fringe) Cost £12. promoters and other influential partners Objective To increase exposure to Scotlandbased work during the Edinburgh festivals To raise awareness of Scotlandbased work within the international buying community To make the buying process easy and enjoyable To support organisations already attracting buyers How Create a central “hub” for activity Facilitate and organise networking opportunities Provide buyers with a friendly and hospitable environment Provide point of contact and support Who Partnership between existing organisations’ operating venues (Dance Base.12. Assembly etc). Suggested Improvements and Developments Improvement Activity G) Make effective use of the Edinburgh Festival as a showcase for Scotland-based work by developing a collective approach to marketing Scotland-based work to producers.500 64 . Traverse.

12. themes and issues that influence work Objective To increase exposure to Scotlandbased work out-with the Edinburgh Festivals To encourage debate about international working practices To gather buyer intelligence To attract more buyers to Scotland To raise awareness of other showcasing opportunities outside the Edinburgh festival period How Develop a selection panel for submissions Develop a debate programme and workshops on internationalism and international practice Who FST Scotland Live Project Manager Cost £51. Develop a “curated” showcase of work and a parallel symposium programme that encourages artists to consider the implications of international work. Suggested Improvements and Developments Improvement H) Develop a bi-annual inward mission outside the Edinburgh Festival following on from the pilot project Scotland Live.500 (50 promoters) or £42.100 (30 promoters) 65 .

500 To gather buyer intelligence To raise awareness of other showcasing opportunities outside the Edinburgh festival period Improvement Objective How Who Cost 66 . Suggested Improvements and Developments Improvement I) Continue to support the British Council Showcase and British Dance Edition and work with organisations to maximise the benefits and opportunities associated with inclusion in the programme Objective To increase exposure to Scotland-based work during the Edinburgh festivals To reinforce joint working To gather buyer intelligence To raise awareness of other showcasing opportunities outside the Edinburgh festival period How Promote call for submissions Support the Artistic Director of the British Dance Edition to attend performances by Scotland-based dance artists Ensure selected Scotland-based companies are supported Active participation in all promotional activity during the programme Who Scottish Arts Council Dance Department Cost £10.12.000 J) Support Imaginate to attract North American and European delegates to children’s festival To increase exposure to Scotland-based work To raise the profile of children’s theatre and its role in public diplomacy Promote the launch of a limited number of funded places to highly targeted individuals from North America Imaginate with Scottish Arts Council funding £2.

12. Suggested Improvements and Developments K) Attend APAM (Australian Performing Arts Market) Feb 2008 as trade/booth delegate To collectively raise awareness of Scotlandbased work To gather buyer intelligence To build networks and contacts To raise awareness of other showcasing opportunities in Scotland at other times of the year To consider the value of showcase opportunities at APAM in 2010 Call for response to submissions to trade Partnership between Scottish Arts Council. British Council Scotland and FST plus previous attendees from Scotland £14.744 (6 delegates in total) 67 .

British Council Scotland and FST plus previous attendees from Scotland Cost £11. Suggested Improvements and Developments Improvement L) Attend CINARS Montreal Nov 2008 as trade/booth delegate Objective To collectively raise awareness of Scotlandbased work To gather buyer intelligence To build networks and contacts To raise awareness of other showcasing opportunities in Scotland at other times of the year To consider the value of showcase opportunities at APAM in 2010 How Call for response to submissions to trade and application Who Partnership between Scottish Arts Council.258 68 .12.

000 Objective How Who Cost Improvement Objective How Who Cost 69 . Scottish Enterprise.000 Meeting key policy makers: Scottish Executive.12. Suggested Improvements and Developments Improvement Support and Funding M) Develop a fund for restaging work either at international showcases or to respond to producer demand To offer opportunities for companies to take work to the market To respond to market demands To utilise existing showcase opportunities outside of Scotland Information N) Develop a central information portal of cultural exporting activity and opportunities through a central website and associated communications (newsletter) To enhance coordination amongst practitioners and organisations To increase knowledge of the buying market Develop a brief for micro-site linked to existing organisations Independent post attached to Touring Agency or extension of Scotland Live administrative support (ScottishTour. British Council and Scottish Arts Council Scottish Arts Council £120.com) £19.

12.000 (included in previous recomme ndation) 70 . ecommunication and inward and outward missions Independent post attached to Touring Agency or extension of Scotland Live administrative support £19. Suggested Improvements and Developments O) Communicate such information to those operating or seeking to operate in an international context To build feedback into information gathering To encourage co-operation between the sector To gather buyer information Utilise microsite.

It is also possible to consider progressing in a staged approach building upon each activity year on year: 12. 12. For international showcases scheduled for 2008 no published figures are available so we have anticipated a small increase. if any staging needs to be rebuilt.4.502 12.4.7 It should also be noted that depending on the outcome of visits to CINARS and APAM further funding resources may be required to progress showcasing work at these events in 2010. Travel and accommodation costs have been calculated using 2007 prices.4. There is also the potential to progress some of the Edinburgh initiatives in time for the Edinburgh Festival 2007.4. 12. This will include the number and availability of cast members or dancers. Costs will also vary according to the length of the tour and the producing company's capacity to generate income from the production.4. 12.2 The restaging budget is more difficult to cost because there are numerous variables that will influence the budget.5 Option B maintains all the activity associated with option A but augments this with development of the Scotland wide inward mission and outward missions to CINARS. venue hire for rehearsal or technical requirements.000 depending on the variables noted above.APAM and the development of the info point. Suggested Improvements and Developments 12. This budget includes the development of activity during the Edinburgh Festival. The total cost for option C is £251.000 for each year.4. total costs could vary from £15. although a contingency has been included to cover any unexpected increase in travel or accommodation costs. We have not costed for these at this stage. Again this will be dependent on the number of productions that have the capacity to tour internationally in any given year.4.6 Option C brings together all elements outlined in options A and B but the budget is further enhanced by the addition of the restaging budget.000 . supporting the delegate programme at Imaginate and the British Council showcase and Dance Edition.1 The costs have been based on further discussions with organisations consulted during the study. It would be anticipated that the re-staging fund would not cover all re-staging costs and that the companies would be expected to make additional contributions from their own or other funding sources. For a mid-scale production to be restaged. The indicative figures have been calculated based on historical data from previous initiatives or published charges for international showcases.4 Option A focuses spending on inward missions only and activity that is already attracting producers and promoters.£40.12. 71 . As a consequence of this we have suggested an indicative figure of £120.4 INDICATIVE COSTS 12.500. The total cost for option B is £131.502 12.3 We have presented the costings as three options. The total cost for option A is £32.

000 £251.502 72 .000 £20.000 £51. Suggested Improvements and Developments Table 12.258 £19.500 £120.744 £11.12.3: Consolidated Budget Initiative Cost Edinburgh Hub Restaging Scotland Live Imaginate APAM CINARS Info Point British Council/British Dance Edition Total Source: RGA Research £12.500 £2.500 £14.

As part of the strategic review. 73 . 2004 Scottish Executive and Scottish Enterprise. 2004 Scottish Tourism: The Next Decade – A Tourism Framework for Change Scottish Executive. The closer the alignment between the objectives of the project aims and these aims. 2006 Scottish Executive. Furthermore. 2006 Scotland’s Strategy for Stronger Engagement with the USA (2006) Scottish Executive. It should be noted that with the forthcoming elections and Creative Scotland due to be launched.Appendix One: Strategic Context APPENDIX ONE: STRATEGIC CONTEXT INTRODUCTION The purpose of this Section is to examine the project within the context of the aims and objectives of key stakeholders. the Scottish Arts Council decided to prioritise its corporate aim to provide support for artists. 2006 Draft (Scotland) Culture Bill Guidance Document. 2006 Scotland’s Strategy for Stronger Engagement with China (2006) Scottish Executive. 2007 Scottish Arts Council Theatre Touring Strategy (Draft 2006) British Council and Scottish Arts Council Joint Strategy British Council and Scottish Arts Council. Flexible Funding and Flexible Funding (Project). rather than the Scottish Arts Council. these policies and priorities are likely to change. which they are continuing to implement. 2004 International Strategy Scottish Executive. 2003 SCOTTISH ARTS COUNCIL The Scottish Arts Council has undertaken an overall strategic review which has involved changes in its relationships with the arts sector. Successful Scotland: Strategic Direction to Enterprise Networks and Enterprise Strategy for Scotland. the higher potential there is for support at a strategic level. 2006 A Smart. 2006 Scotland’s Major Events Strategy 2003-2015: Competing on an International Stage Event Scotland. from April 2007 organisations can be funded in a number of new ways including: Foundation. The documents reviewed were: Scottish Arts Council Corporate Plan 2007-2009 – International Department Scottish Arts Council. from April 2007 the five national companies will become the responsibility of the Scottish Executive. As a result. The strategic context analysis has been prepared through a review of published strategies and a series of consultations with key stakeholders.

Legislation will be required to establish the new body and this has been forthcoming with the recent draft of the Culture Bill. This initiative started in October 2006 and it is too early to comment on the effectiveness of this approach Support for Traverse Theatre to provide development opportunities for playwrights. Quebec. Further changes will take place with the development of Creative Scotland. and networking activity that builds on cultural understanding and potential creative links. The Traverse has found this a particularly fruitful way of developing and nurturing contacts. Scottish Arts Council Corporate Plan 2007-2009 – International Department The Scottish Arts Council has developed a corporate business plan that articulates three central aims: Aim 1: To Support artists in Scotland to fulfill their creative and Business potential Aim 2: To increase participation in the arts Aim 3: To place the arts.Appendix One: Strategic Context The Coterminous Board was appointed by ministers to manage the transition between now and Creative Scotland as well as to deal with the dissolution of Scottish Arts Council and Scottish Screen. appointment of a joint board for Scottish Screen and the Scottish Arts Council and joint Chair. Germany and Australia. inward and outward missions for promoters and producers. There are particular objectives related to Aim 2 that are relevant to this study and these have also been recognised as part of the Scottish Arts Council business plan (20062007). We have also assessed the six month review and highlighted relevant action points. Japan. This organization will be responsible for developing talent and excellence in all branches of the arts. providing opportunities to undertake rehearsed reading of work rather than full-scale productions. This will result in four new commissions and the continued development of links in Portugal. producing organisations. From this there are two initiatives supported by the Scottish Arts Council: Support for Dance Base and an independent dance management programme that in turn supports project funded companies and independent choreographers. and the creative and screen industries. There are a number of aims for these initiatives but it is hoped that by working with companies who have the potential to work internationally their skills. Therefore the outcomes of this study must resonate within the changing environment for both the Scottish Arts Council and those funded by them. facilities and workspaces which allow artists to develop innovative and ambitious practice and enable them to fully exploit their potential. The majority of international activity falls into three areas of activity: showcasing events either in Scotland or outside. To support and develop creativity through programmes. culture and creativity at the heart of learning. and associated costs. 74 . confidence and networks will be strengthened to explore the possibility.

Enable Scotland-based theatre to tour international festivals. The following points have been actioned: Work with Dance Base to ensure highly visible Scottish dance presence during the Edinburgh Festival Fringe. developing facilities that are of a high standard and effective audience development) it could build confidence. This could eventually lead to more confidence to explore touring outside of Scotland. Encourage mutual international activity and professional development. either into the UK or beyond. Map Scotland-based international arts activity to identify opportunities. This was augmented in 2006 by the Scottish Arts Council with an inward mission of promoters. creativity. and to promote Scotland-based playwrights at home and abroad. positive audience feedback and media coverage that can be articulated to potential buyers elsewhere. this has now evolved to become inclusion on the APAP 2008 programme following an exploratory visit in January 2007. Create opportunities for Scotland-based artists to meet and collaborate with artists overseas.an outcome of this study. 75 . Support Playwrights Studio to develop play writing. Investigate demand and practicality of holding a Scottish Theatre Showcase at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe . As highlighted in the Strategy. Respondents commented that if the domestic market for touring was strengthened (which could be achieved through a strong support network. Scottish Arts Council Theatre Touring Strategy It is important to consider the aims of the Touring Strategy and how they relate to the outcomes of this study.Appendix One: Strategic Context To support artists to develop their practice in an international context and invest in strategic international exchanges and showcase opportunities to promote Scottish arts abroad. act as brokers between playwrights and producers. This target has evolved as the mapping exercise is not as high a priority in comparison to training needs around future country priorities and practical advice for the sector. Research and collaborate on the development of cultural events overseas which promote Scotland. However. Research international dance showcases including British Dance Edition and assist with the development of marketing/promotion material to ensure Scotland-based artists have a presence over and above inclusion in the showcase programmes. availability of quality touring work. respondents draw strong links between the strength of the touring programme in Scotland and the ability of the sector to generate work that is able to tour internationally.

To facilitate forums and meetings. To encourage producers and promoters to work with Cultural Co-ordinators.To encourage promoters to programme non-Scottish work that appears at the Edinburgh Fringe To support a range of high quality touring product.e. To encourage cultural exchange. To support and develop regional promoters’ networks. To support the development of creative producers. dance and/or international work. To support existing and encourage new relationships between promoters and producers. To encourage best practice and enhance knowledge and skills. To encourage best practice and enhance knowledge and skills in technical. which will encourage promoter/producer communication. This is followed by four key aims and we have highlighted those most relevant to this study i. Aim 3: To support promoters and venues To support venues/promoters to programme additional drama. to increase skills and expertise and offer better value for money. To increase the availability of international high quality commissioned street theatre. including international collaboration. To support promoters/venues to enhance their programming knowledge. front of house and box office provision. Aim 4: To encourage a larger number and broader range of people to attend and participate in touring theatre. (All of these actions delivered in conjunction with the Scottish Arts Council Audience Development Department) To support better practice and enhance skills in data collection and analysis. venues and funders and through this complicated interface communication between producer and the audience) To provide a means of information exchange accessible to all parts of the touring sector. 76 . . aims that relate to theatre. To develop and support initiatives that encourage best marketing planning and practice and encourage resource sharing. in partnership with sector organisations. presenters. To undertake pilot projects the evaluative results of which will feed into the programming fund and the touring and production fund. To ensure that the productions Scottish Arts Council supports meet public demand. To support a wider range of international drama available to the public. Aim 2: To support producers (companies and artists) To support the development of a broad range of high quality work. To support producers to deliver a high quality audience experience in small venues.Appendix One: Strategic Context The overall aim of the Scottish Arts Council Theatre Touring Strategy is to ensure that high quality theatre of all types is available to as large a number and as broad a range of people across Scotland as possible. To support and develop initiatives that encourage resource sharing and mentoring. Aim 1: To improve communication between all areas of the sector (every combination of producers. stage management.

To develop new and existing audiences. After the success of working collaboratively on a number of international arts projects. BRITISH COUNCIL AND SCOTTISH ARTS COUNCIL JOINT STRATEGY The British Council Scotland is based in Edinburgh. the arts in education. the British Council and the Scottish Arts Council established a joint Head of International Arts post and developed a joint strategy that would cover the period 2005 – 2008. There is a clear synergy between the two and a shared vision “to establish Scotland as an internationally recognised centre of excellence for arts and arts-related education and community work across all arts sectors and creative industries”.Appendix One: Strategic Context To contribute to research into audience development needs. They work with partner organisations in Scotland. including international collaboration and support attendance by Scotland-based artists and programmers at international showcases/conferences (via professional development fund). 6. 5. An action plan has been developed as part of the touring strategy and three key actions are relevant to this study. 3.e. out with the Fringe. 2. To develop and sustain networks and relationships in all art sectors with international and cultural partners based in Scotland and overseas. the UK and internationally to connect Scotland and the world through the arts. To provide communities across Scotland with greater access to high quality international arts. To enable Scotland-based artists. Both partners have also clarified how the aims and outcomes of the joint strategy fit with the aims of each organization. There is also a perceived need to facilitate meetings between promoters/venues and non-Scottish companies appearing at the Fringe. in order to provide the public with access to international work there is a need to encourage promoters to programme non-Scottish work that appears at the Edinburgh Fringe. To develop international sales and markets as a significant part of the arts economy in Scotland. Finally. To achieve this vision. the establishment of a Touring Exchange which will provide an information exchange facility between all parts of the sector (2006/07). This is intended to enhance knowledge and expertise of programmers and of international practice by artists. Firstly. 4. business and tourism. to encourage cultural exchange. 77 . To promote internationally the value of our unique Scottish cultural traditions and the diversity of community cultures within Scotland through contemporary art. whilst increasing international collaborative work. Secondly. promoters and organisations to have an international perspective and context to work within. as part of and alongside the UK and other international players. the International Arts Strategy has seven key aims: 1. and as a vital part of the quality of life. education and governance. To achieve recognition for the arts as a valuable and necessary part of the promotion of Scotland i.

e. with sufficient research and development. where appropriate.e. Scottish Arts Council and British Council Scotland working with VisitScotland the Scottish Executive Undertaking research into the impact and effectiveness of international working For the purpose of the study we have also reviewed progress against the agreed action plan.Appendix One: Strategic Context There are no identified target countries but long-term plans. for organisations in each artform National collaborative projects in partnership i. However. Scottish Arts Council and British Council Scotland taking the lead on presentations in showcases that aim to tap into new markets and raise artists’ profiles Supporting Scotland-based artists and organisations that have developed quality projects as a result of research Building in the capacity for international research and working within Core Funding Agreements. These are: Projects developed at a strategic artform level i. will enable the British Council and the Scottish Arts Council to develop appropriate activities with their partners. 78 . The post holder is currently on maternity leave and responsibility for the delivery of the strategy has passed to the International department at the Scottish Arts Council. It should be noted that the implementation of certain points have been dependent on additional funding. five areas of inter-related development that require strategic support have been identified. furthermore the continued allocation of staff time.

key art managers overseas. practical considerations. assessing impact and long term artistic and business benefits (merging British Council scorecard and Scottish Arts Council Targets) Undertake a mapping exercise and establish a system for sharing international project information Review how international activity is promoted and perceived in Scotland and UK-Wide With key partners. events etc. such as network contacts. Undertake an annual review of the strategy and development needs and ensure international visions continues to relate and link into British Council strategy 2010 and Scottish Arts Council strategic review Continue to develop a clear relationship with Visiting arts to enable capacity building with regard to bringing overseas activity to Scottish audiences and mutuality principles Identify clusters of activity overseas and related projects in Scotland and seek to maximize impact through a strategic approach with partners. selling and commissioning of new work. Research Develop a shared British council and Scottish Arts Council evaluation and monitoring system for capturing useful practical information for research and reporting purposes. Support and initiate delegation visits to and from Scotland annually Facilitate regular meetings between British Council artform teams. Work closely with British Council and Scottish Arts Council communications departments with regard to contact with MSPs. public and targeted receptions. financial details. showcases. undertake research into international working and creative and economic impacts (direct and indirect) in terms of cultural tourism. and look at other international team models. and continue to develop lines of communication and information-sharing Take an active role in contributing to international forums eg SIF. IFACCA Establish regular contact with consulates and overseas offices Oversee current projects under development and commitments in 2005/06 Status Completed Completed Completed 2007/08 Completed 2007/08 2007/08 2007/08 2007/08 Completed evaluation 20007/08 2007/08 2007/08 Advocacy On going On going 2007/08 On going Completed Activity 79 . audience numbers and type. statistics.Appendix One: Strategic Context Table 1: Status of Scottish Arts Council and British Council Joint Strategy Action Points Development Area Action Identify new sources of funding for international working Strategic Planning Seek to influence the Scottish Executive policy and plans for the promoting of Scotland in priority countries Undertake a plotting exercise on major events in the future (Burns 2009) Work in collaboration with Scottish Arts council Officers on a showcase policy Identify key action plans for international activity for each arts sector (ie festivals. Scottish Arts council artform heads and key organisations. advocacy work) and review annually Review international staff structure and consultation routes and potential integration of elements of the British Council Scotland and Scottish Arts Council resources ad mechanisms. the media. fairs. relevant cultural aspects and sensitivities.

Appendix One: Strategic Context Oversee projects developed. Scottish Executive and consulates with regard to keeping up to date on current visa requirements etc. initiated. On going On going 2007/08 2007/08 Completed 2007/08 On going 2007/08 On going On going 80 .2008 Aim to take a full and active role in developing. organisations. to international contacts and potential partners. implemented or supported under the international strategy 2006 . media. for working overseas Establish key information sheets to promote a clear image of British Council and Scottish Arts Council working Establish regular information exchange with all key partners Develop mechanisms for the distribution of catalogues etc. British Council and Scottish Arts Council colleagues Establish a clear enquiry route combining British Council and Scottish Arts council expertise for providing information Continue to work with APAP. partnering and leading in the development of commissioning regional and global arts products by 2006 as part of the British Council Strategy 2010 Support and Funding Develop clearly defined funding mechanisms for independent international projects Research and develop training initiatives for international working Information Revisit and revise information services to make best use of resources and ensure effective communication to artists.

Appendix One: Strategic Context THE SCOTTISH EXECUTIVE Draft (Scotland) Culture Bill Guidance Document. Generic examples of entitlements specific to theatre and dance include “access to activities involving. craft. The key principles of the documents are: Cultural planning should – Include planning for the improvement of cultural services Include planning the ways in which culture can achieve better policy outcomes for local authorities across a range of functions Aim to build more attractive communities and improve the lives of local citizens Link the development of cultural entitlements to strategic objectives and outcomes Cultural entitlements should be – Available. Creating “access to music workshops” is used as an example of how to achieve the broad outcome to engage with young people. visual arts. Principally. and to provide guidance about putting these into practice. 81 . With regard to skills exchange. dance and drama etc” and providing “access to dance and drama activities” to improve health and well-being. An informal discussion was held with a member of the International Projects Team to gage their level of commitment to theatre and dance and extent of international activity.g. using a Quality Assurance Framework Within this framework. taking into account the local authority’s priorities and objectives Designed to take account the needs and aspirations of all members of the local community Developed. It should be noted that within this document the term ‘cultural entitlement’ refers to the specific ‘cultural services’ that local authorities are statutorily obliged to provide. However. as published. showcasing is achieved through their various international projects and development is targeted through skills exchange. 2006 The guidance document is an initial consultation draft aimed to describe the new duties which local authorities will need to undertake to have regard. in each local authority area in Scotland Developed as part of the cultural planning process. publicised and provided in consultation with the relevant people Monitored and evaluated to assure quality improvement Monitoring – Local authorities will assess and monitor their performance in planning and delivering cultural provision Local authorities will submit information to Scottish Ministers. the Team works with all artforms although there is no specific agenda to focus their cultural work on international showcasing or exposure. The following examples have been extracted from the guidance document. several references are made directly to the theatre and dance sector. e. Their strategic objectives do not directly relate to culture or showcasing and development. in a broader sense.

This involved a member of Scottish Executive’s International Projects Division visiting Malawi to form stronger links with theatre and dance performers and to arrange for Malawian performers to visit and perform at RSAMD alongside Scotland-based performers. This reflects their standard approach to culture-related initiatives e. Often. historic or cultural links with Scotland have motivated Scottish Executive to form bilateral initiatives with other towns. although there are also some modern-day links. 2. and a third strategy is due to be published for Germany in 2007. A recent example was a RSAMD initiative with Malawi to promote theatre and dance. During the visit. cities or countries. 7. The strategy identifies five of China’s regions which take into consideration both economic factors and existing links with Scotland. Raise understanding of Chinese language and culture in Scotland Increase student flows between Scotland and China Expand the awarding of Scottish qualifications in China Attract skilled Chinese to experience living and working in Scotland Strengthen bilateral science skills Attract increased Chinese tourism to Scotland Increase trade between Scotland and China 82 . one-off events that can lead to longer-term partnerships. The growing economic importance of China has led to bilateral engagement between itself and Scotland. The initiative has been regarded as a success but not on a sustainable level. the USA and China. 5.g. 3. China’s rapid economic growth is reshaping the global economy with important implications for Scotland and other advanced economies. An examination of the USA and China strategies and a summary can be found in the following sections. 6. Scottish Executive explore worldwide opportunities on an individual basis. Scotland’s strategy for stronger engagement with China (2006) This strategy sets out the Scottish Executive’s objectives that will guide their engagement with China to 2010. Out with these priority markets. The motivation for this initiative stems from the historic routes between the UK and Malawi through Dr Livingston. the Malawian performers wrote a play which was also performed by both countries. short-term. a Scottish play was written by Scottish performers and then performed by both Scottish and Malawian performers. These are: Beijing Guangdong Hong Kong Shandong Shanghai The document presents a ten-point plan outlining what Scotland needs to achieve from its engagement with China by 2010: 1. 4.Appendix One: Strategic Context Scottish Executive has specific strategies for their priority countries. Likewise. These objectives are for Scotland as a whole and the role of the government is to lead and create the environment in which the broad range of Sino-Scottish relations can develop.

C. translating Scottish tourism-related websites into Mandarin and through VisitScotland hosting visits from Chinese tour operators and travel journalists to raise the profile of Scotland as a travel destination in China. The Scottish Executive’s activity in the USA has been regionally prioritised. cultural and scientific importance of the USA and the growing importance for Scotland to develop bilateral engagement to drive its future prosperity. Scotland’s strategy for stronger engagement with the USA (2006) This strategy seeks to strengthen Scotland’s engagement with the USA over the next five years and complements the broader bilateral agenda being advanced by the United Kingdom Government. The Scottish Executive.Appendix One: Strategic Context 8. although focussing activity on these states does not preclude activity in other regions as opportunities arise. This should be supported by VisitScotland and VisitBritain’s contribution through wider efforts to promote Scotland in China. and research in China by Scottish Dance Theatre and Dundee Rep. along with its agencies.C. the Scottish Arts Council supports Scotlandbased artists to collaborate with Chinese artists and support projects both for and by Scotland’s ethnic Chinese community. the Sino-Scottish links continue to develop. On the cultural side of the tourism initiatives. Further steps will be taken to prepare Scotland’s tourism industry for the influx of Chinese visitors through various initiatives. The Scottish Affairs Office inside the British Embassy in Washington D. Expand connections between businesses in Scotland and China 9. political. activities relevant to this project have developed through initiatives in partnership with the Scottish Arts Council. encouraging Chinese interpretation at visitor attractions. With regard to theatre and dance. Specific to this project. Work with China to address environmental challenges 10. The Scottish Executive has taken strong steps towards developing bilateral initiatives with China. Recent funded activities have included: an arts management placement programme for visiting arts managers from China. The strategic objectives respond to the continued economic. objective 6 has a target set to ‘attract as least 30. the Scottish Executive has funded programmes that are run through the expertise of the Arts Council.000 Chinese visitors per annum to Scotland by 2010. a two day conference at the Traverse Theatre on ‘working with new plays from mainland China’ (co-funded by the British Council). Raise the profile and understanding of Scotland in China Each of these objectives is underpinned by a specific target or indicator to measure their progress by 2010. the priority states are: 83 . In addition to Washington D. however there is no specific priority to culture or specifically for theatre and dance. Despite this. In order to achieve this the Scottish Executive has prioritised stronger marketing of Scotland as a tourism destination in target areas of China. as detailed under the targets for objective 10. will play a central role in implementing aspects of the strategy in the USA. In these cases. a project to compose and arrange a repertoire combining Scottish and Chinese music. a Sino-Scottish poetry exchange and residency programme. generating revenue of £11 million per annum’. non-departmental bodies and other public sector institutions in Scotland has undertaken a range of activity in relation to China. For example.

Support for these artforms therefore depends on the objectives of the Scottish Executive’s partner organisations to drive such initiatives. 84 . a key example of Scottish artists being supported on an international platform is the performances by Scotland-based artists at the annual Southby-South West music festival in Texas. 7. Further general initiatives are also likely to attract US and other tourists to Scotland. Within the cultural sector there is little focus on dance and theatre with the US market. VisitScotland’s efforts are supported by the more general activities of the Executive and its partners. such as the ‘Year of Homecoming’ in 2009 and the Scotland’s International Image campaign promoting Scotland as a place to live. 4. with particular emphasis on Tartan Day. with important collaborations between Scottish and US cultural organisations. This is anecdotally regarded as the most important international stage to showcase musical talent. The 2006 programme saw the most extensive range of events to date. These include financial support through initiatives such as the Route Development Fund. 2. 3. into Tartan Week. 6. 5. for the introduction of direct flights between Edinburgh and Newark.Appendix One: Strategic Context California Georgia Illinois Massachusetts New York North Carolina Texas The strategy identifies seven key objectives which the Executive will be working towards along with stakeholders over the next five years: 1. Raise the profile and understanding of Scotland in the USA Expand connections between businesses in Scotland and the USA Increase student flows between Scotland and the USA Strengthen bilateral science links Attract increased US tourism to Scotland Attract US Fresh Talent to experience living and working in Scotland Strengthen exchanges of best practice with US counterparts VisitScotland is leading Scottish efforts to attract more US visitors and spends over £1 million annually on its US marketing. A number of US-Scottish links are already in existence. Since its inception Tartan Day in the US has developed into a week-long celebration of Scottish heritage. Beyond these initiatives. Scottish Ministers have supported a diverse range of activity in the USA. With regard to tourism and culture.

Global connections . Scotland will: Have an ambitious and confident population Be committed to lifelong learning Be excited by and focussed on innovation Embed sustainable development principles in all it does. Of a range of other public sector bodies playing their full and active part.Appendix One: Strategic Context A Smart. Successful Scotland. universities. study and work in Scotland The proposed initiative to expand international exposure of Scotland’s dance and drama appears to have applications to this strategy with regard to the Global Connections targets. Its overriding vision is of: “a nation working together to achieve a smart. It is underpinned by the Framework for Economic Development in Scotland (FEDS). part of Europe and connected to the Global economy. with specific outcomes noted. Of business organisations. Successful Scotland” through Local Economic Forums and their own delivery of services. Successful Scotland: Strategic Direction to Enterprise Networks and Enterprise Strategy for Scotland (2004) This document is to be adopted by Scottish Enterprise and the Scottish Executive to drive enterprise development in Scotland. 85 .” Of local authorities continuing their support for “A Smart. The third theme is directly relevant to this project and is explored in detailed below. “A Smart.” "A Smart. Global Connections Increased involvement in global markets: taking Scottish knowledge to the world and bringing the world’s knowledge to Scotland. FEDS sets out a vision for Scotland where the quality of life for all people is raised through increasing the economic opportunities for all on a socially and environmentally sustainable basis.innovative companies growing in scale Skills and Learning . Successful Scotland” aims to contribute to growth and productivity by focusing on aspects of FEDS which are key to enterprise. created in 2000 and updated as part of the framework for Smart Successful Scotland.world class locations. Scotland to be a globally attractive location Connecting to the rest of the world More people choosing to live. individual organisations. colleges and trade unions being guided by and being essential contributors to “A Smart. successful Scotland.developing skills to make best use of our human capital and to prepare for tomorrow’s labour market. Successful Scotland" is organised into three themes: Growing businesses .

Scottish Tourism: The Next Decade – A Tourism Framework for Change The Scottish Executive’s Tourism Strategy covers the period 2006-2015 and was published in March 2006.Appendix One: Strategic Context Scottish Executive International Strategy. political and cultural benefit to Scotland Promoting Scotland’s policy interests. and within the scope of the Executive’s devolved responsibilities. to be accomplished by working: Through the UK. To achieve these goals. the Scottish Executive will establish a Tourism Research Network. The International Strategy has two goals: To position Scotland internationally as a leading small nation. academics and VisitScotland to ensure that 86 . including in particular the Global Connections Strategy and European Strategy. By 2006. tourists. It consists of a series of targets to set out how the tourism sector can achieve its goal of 50% growth in tourism revenues by 2015 in a sustainable manner: 1. culture and heritage organisations. by promoting Scotland’s policy interests with overseas institutions and administrations – this includes developing cooperative links and ongoing engagement that help to inform best practice in Scotland and to raise awareness of Scottish policy perspectives International dance and theatre initiatives fit primarily with three of the above commitments: the building strong ties of economic. The paper updates and develops themes of the External Relations Policy paper agreed by the Scottish Executive in 2002 and refers to existing strategies where appropriate. by continuing engagement with the UK Government on external issues in order to maintain a culture of automatic recognition and understanding of Scottish interests. and in the context of promoting Scotland’s policy interests. attractive to potential overseas partners and visitors. regions and institutions on international policy issues affecting Scotland. To bring effective influence to bear on the UK Government. and with a thriving and dynamic economy and. business and major events to Scotland Building strong ties of economic. to encourage and support Scotland’s contribution to international development. local authorities. the Enterprise Agencies. political and cultural benefit to Scotland. reinforcing and forging new links across Europe and the development of cooperative links and ongoing engagement that can help inform best practice in Scotland. 2004 The Scottish Executive’s International Strategy was launched in October 2004 and last modified in 2006. there is a commitment to focus on the following: Enhancing the profile of Scotland by: Supporting and exporting Scotland’s business connections Attracting fresh talent. and by adding value to the UK Government’s efforts by reinforcing and forging new links across Europe and beyond Directly. involving the industry. other countries.

000 friends by 2010. and Retention – of staff within businesses and within the industry as a whole. 3. history and events segment of the market. The Tourism Innovation Group (TiG) will foster collaborative working between tourism operators. To help managers and business owners.2 billion of direct investment in affordable housing over three years. culture and heritage organisation and local authority will collect feedback from their own customers to help them “know their visitor” – who they are. Every tourism business.Appendix One: Strategic Context appropriate research takes place. The result will be an increased propensity to return and recommend Scotland as a great destination. This may include the development and delivery of product and destination development plans. a shared equity home ownership scheme and a massive investment programme to address infrastructure shortages. 87 . why they have come and what they want out of their trip – and use this to inform their business strategies. 7. 2. TiG. People 1st will work with government and education to ensure industry has the opportunity to get the skills the industry needs. Culture and heritage organisations will also develop new activities and experiences in response to emerging markets. is disseminated appropriately and meaningfully to all stakeholders and is used to drive innovation and product enhancement. encouraging them to use innovation tools to come up with creative ideas. 10. 9. resulting in over 3. Our aspiration is that this will result in year-on-year improvement in staff satisfaction (working towards 80% by 2015) and customer satisfaction (working towards 90% by 2015). By 2007 every tourism business – including those operated by the public and voluntary sectors – will be on at least the first rung of the e-technology ladder and will continue beyond 2007 to work their way up that ladder. 8. 5. The Scottish Executive and VisitScotland will study how best to develop a national box office which will provide online booking of performances and prompt parallel online purchase of linked products such as travel tickets. This will include £1. groups of tourism businesses and trade associations such as ASVA will work with local authorities. especially customer service and staff skills. Pride and Passion will increase the number of “friends” each year. These networks will develop and market. The Scottish Executive will help provide affordable homes in places where they are needed most. develop and extend schemes for more sectors and ensure that the QA scheme criteria are constantly reviewed to reflect changing and rising consumer expectations. with each friend making a commitment to improving the visitor experience and to passing on the quality message to others. with VisitScotland support. These are: Management and leadership Workforce skills. the enterprise agencies and VisitScotland to spot emerging trends of visitor needs and progress the product and sectoral development to meet them. 6. Tourism businesses will work with local authorities and culture. VisitScotland will increase the proportion of businesses in their Accommodation Quality Assurance (QA) schemes to 90% by the end of 2008. 4. leading to year-on-year improvement in productivity. heritage and sport organisations to set up local product development networks for the heritage. new products which anticipate and exceed visitor demands and as a result increase the number of visitors to Scotland. People 1st will develop a training action plan which will focus on three areas identified in the research and at the skills summit as crucial to the competitiveness of Scottish tourism. EventScotland will contribute to this target by attracting and marketing major events which meet changing visitor demands.

12. which involves developing relationships with other countries. The Cultural Strategy and Delivery Unit at Scottish Executive were consulted to explore their commitment to developing international networks. 88 . The Scottish Executive’s main focus is on Tartan Week. Historic Scotland and the National Parks. Tourism businesses. building on the Tourism Environment Forum. Last year they supported a Scottish Youth Theatre and a Traverse event. The rationale behind Scottish Executive support is that such high-profile events can be used to generate significant income through the creation of additional tourist throughputs and the showcasing of Scotland as an attractive place to live and work. local authorities. Germany is one of Scotland’s main trading partners. The International Division promotes public diplomacy. 13. The Scottish Executive will publish a National Transport Strategy in 2006 which will consider all modes of travel and the needs of everyone using transport. the enterprise networks. Tourism businesses and VisitScotland will increase the membership of the Green Tourism Business Scheme each year. The International Projects Division also works in partnership with VisitScotland and Scottish Development International. A sustainable tourism partnership will be set up from March 2006. These include the Year of Highland Culture in 2007 and the Year of Homecoming in 2009. In total. In a wider. as previously detailed in this Section. which will begin by 2006. to promote sustainable tourism throughout Scotland.Appendix One: Strategic Context 11. Consideration of our future transport infrastructure needs will be addressed by the Strategic Projects Review. At present. Our aspiration is to have all QA tourism businesses – including those operated by the public and voluntary sectors – to at least entry level by 2015. cultural sense. Rather than focussing on international showcasing or exposure. focus tends to be on tourism and trade rather than for the benefit of specific artforms. so that by 2010 30% of all businesses who participate in the VisitScotland QA scheme are also at GTBS entry level or above.com will use effective marketing techniques to increase the number of visitors who come to Scotland. The Scottish Executive will also undertake specific research into the travel behaviour of visitors to Scotland and will consider any actions arising from this research which will improve the visitor experience. the Scottish Executive uses culture as a vector for promoting other products or initiatives. China is the focus of a UK-wide initiative to drive partnerships. VisitScotland and visitscotland. The impact of their involvement is measured by media hits. This will involve private industry partners. Scottish Executive policy to date has been to support year-long programmes of activity based on themes that can be adopted and built upon by cultural organisations. although a much greater number of people are involved with exporting indirectly. China and Germany. 14. culture and heritage organisations. their target markets are USA. as well as organisations such as VisitScotland. local authorities. Scottish Natural Heritage. sales. including visitors. markets and promotions. The following points describe the rationale for selecting these target markets: The USA contains a large Scottish diaspora. the Scottish Executive has approximately fifty employees that deal directly with international exporting across various departments.

These are actively supported by the British Council Scotland. There is perceived requirement to create better communication and cooperation amongst the cultural organisations. which have been funded by the Scottish Executive. the Scottish Executive look for sustainable initiatives and historic links are often beneficial. Czech Republic. in particular. working relationships between French and Scottish organisations. however there is a lack of involvement from dance organisations. Scottish Executive is forming direct relationships with the national companies. When selecting projects to support. The obvious role for the Scottish Executive is providing funding. Similarly. Their main challenge is the lack of resources and their main challenge is to get the most out of their limited funds. the Scottish Executive aim to initiate joint meetings with the national companies and form regular meetings at the British Council Scotland with the Scottish Executive in attendance. Scottish Enterprise proposes to do this through partnership working with other public sector organisations and through direct support for industry 89 .4. In terms of future plans. At the end of 2007. India. Poland. It is anticipated that the better relationships that are being forged with the National Theatre and Scottish Ballet will help to achieve more effective coordination. who also regard these as an effective way of increasing international exposure. The Scottish Executive runs a programme of cultural events in Brussels through its Belgium office.000 per year touring fund for the national companies.4) and the Scottish Executive’s ambition to increase visitor spend in Scotland by 50% by 2015. has seen as a great opportunity to re-establish international work. Belgium has also developed into a target market due to the strong cultural connections that already exist. such as funding projects for the Entente Cordial in 2004. have produces long-term. if an initiative is relatively inexpensive and sustainable. Generally. the Scottish Executive work reactively rather than developing individual strategies. which Scottish Ballet.Appendix One: Strategic Context For the remaining countries. the Scottish Executive is more likely to support it. which in turn is mostly allocated through the Scottish Arts Council. although these tend to focus on music and literature which are less costly to programme. These have been rationalised as target markets through existing cultural links with Scotland. Historic cultural links between Scotland and France have provided an impetus for developing bilateral projects between French and Scottish organisations. One-off projects. This is to encourage better coordination amongst the cultural organisations in Scotland. such as the Scandinavian countries with routes from Shetland and The Hebrides. Norway and Sweden have been identified as markets to develop relationships with although the Scottish Executive is at early stages with these projects. Estonia. some of which were from the dance and drama sector. The initiatives that tend to be most cost-effective and sustainable are artistic exchange schemes. They have established a £350. SCOTTISH ENTERPRISE Scottish Enterprise’s role in supporting the development of the industry is driven by the Scottish Executive’s economic development strategy – “A Smart Successful Scotland” (see Section 5. Being a government organisation they always have a political element to adhere to and they sometimes get pushed into a different direction from their strategy due to differing ministerial agendas.

nature-based tourism. such as Pride and Passion. sailing. cultural tourism and ancestral tourism.Appendix One: Strategic Context initiatives. Co-ordinating existing activity and exploring opportunities to enhance events being taken forward by public and private sector partners. forestry. communications and transport links that allow tourism businesses to compete internationally. angling. Events which Scotland can “own”. to strengthen sporting and cultural environments and to attract visitors to areas of Scotland with spare accommodation capacity. Building a centre of knowledge and expertise on securing.” EventScotland’s activity is determined by “Scotland’s Major Events Strategy 2003-2015: Competing on an International Stage. whisky.” The strategy sets out four key action areas: Building Scotland’s international image by maximising the benefits of existing successes and “icon” events including the Edinburgh Festivals and the Open Golf. The Strategy sets out the priority areas for EventScotland: Events which highlight and capitalise on the unique visual appeal and landscape of Scotland. Skills – developing the skills that the industry needs to deliver a quality service. They propose to achieve this through partnership working with other public sector organisations and through direct support for industry initiatives. Destinations – investing in the infrastructure and product development within Scotland’s key tourism destinations. Events which showcase Scottish culture and sport. Recruitment and retention – helping attract the best people for the industry. Scottish Enterprise focuses on developing the tourism sector with the primary aim of increasing visitor spend in Scotland. develop and (on occasion) export Events which require little or no infrastructure additions. promoting and delivering events to secure Scotland’s reputation as a premier events destination by 2015. EVENTSCOTLAND EventScotland’s vision is “to become one of the world’s foremost events destinations by 2015. Developing a portfolio of sporting and cultural events to underpin Scottish tourism and Scottish brand messages. This presents indirect opportunities for dance and drama organisations to be supported by Scottish Enterprise through other initiatives. country sports. Transport – helping develop the facilities. Scottish Enterprise tourism support focuses upon the following initiatives: Innovation – encouraging the development of new and better experiences for visitors. nurture. Product development for niche markets. particularly outside traditional high season. or which tie to planned infrastructure development 90 . notably the Tourism Innovation Group and Pride and Passion. Currently these include: horseracing.

Appendix One: Strategic Context Events which underpin the priorities of the Scottish Executive and other public sector agencies involved in major event organisation Events which have an intrinsic appeal to Scots Events which highlight and promote the unique appeal and proposition of individual locations (city. Funding is generally offered for one year but up to three years support may be given in exceptional circumstances. identify and bid for major events or help create new annual or bi-annual events. EventScotland funding cannot be used to substitute core budget funds and must be shown to add value to an event. There are no formal bidding rounds for this fund and no restrictions in terms of type or location of event – each bid is assessed as a single entity. town or rural) Events which focus on quiet times of the year Events which offer a direct economic return on investment through tourism. The objectives of the Regional Events Programme are to develop a portfolio of events that will: Generate economic benefits for specific regions of Scotland Attract visitors to a region from other parts of the country Inspire and involve local communities Enhance the profile and appeal of the host region The programme focuses on events that have: The confirmed financial support of appropriate local agencies Local passion and leadership A viable budget and realistic planning The opportunity to build legacy and sustainability 91 . The International Events Programme is designed to attract events that will generate significant economic activity and/or international media profile for Scotland. prestige and leading status Events capable of generating new and/or complementary initiatives within the same sector at national. The Programme may also support existing events with the potential to grow. regional and grassroots levels. EventScotland supports events through two separate funding programmes. Events which are available. Glasgow and Edinburgh are excluded from this programme on the basis that many International Events will be based there. for example by funding international marketing activity. The Regional Events Programme is designed to complement the International Programme by showcasing specific towns and regions across the country and attracting visitors from outside the region hosting the event. Events of an international. promotion of Scottish business or other means. Events which stimulate a sense of pride in the local population Events which are sustainable and which are accessible to a wide range of communities and groups. achievable and affordable. Events which can secure favourable broadcast and print media coverage in key tourism/investment markets. Events which offer commercial and showcase opportunities for Scottish businesses.

etc Measurable outcomes The total funding for the Regional Events Programme is £500. showcasing is achieved through their various international projects and development is targeted through skills exchange. Funding awards are made from one year only although applicants can apply to three Regional Events Programme rounds in total. strategic approach to funding and supporting international work. with a third strategy due to be published for Germany in 2007. It is clear that the Scottish Executive’s primary role in this area is the provision of funding and there is strong reliance on the Scottish Arts Council and British Council to manage and deliver the majority of initiatives. The British Council has not identified specific target countries but has created long-term plans which. However. the USA and China. EventScotland have no specific priorities to dance and drama and have not identified any priority countries to develop relationships with.000 and £25. and networking activity that builds on cultural understanding and potential creative links. with sufficient research and development. There are clearly opportunities to synergise the outcomes from this study and the action points proposed as part of the Scottish Arts Council Draft Touring Strategy.000 per annum. will enable them to develop appropriate activities with their partners. The British Council has a focused. the Scottish Executive has specific strategies for its priority countries. media profile.000 and again the funding must be shown to add value. Initiatives for developing international dance and theatre sit broadly in line with the Scottish Executive’s commitments outlined in the International Strategy: building strong ties of economic. However. distributed through two competitive funding rounds.Appendix One: Strategic Context The capacity to develop and grow in terms of spectator and participant numbers. However. in a broader sense. political and cultural benefit to Scotland. This approach is mirrored by the sector and does not appear to be an inappropriate way to proceed. With regard to skills exchange. SUMMARY OF KEY FINDINGS The Scottish Arts Council Corporate Plan 2007-2009 is clear about what should be achieved within the international arena. Their aims involve developing and sustaining networks and relationships with international partners across all sectors as well as developing international sales and markets within Scotland’s arts economy. there is no unifying force amongst the strategic stakeholders that consolidates activity. communicates the range of activity taking place and reflects back the opportunities to the sector. inward and outward missions for promoters and producers. The Scottish Executive’s strategic objectives do not directly relate to culture or showcasing and development. promoting Scotland’s policy 92 . The majority of international activity falls into three areas of activity: showcasing events either in Scotland or outside. one of their aims is to showcase Scotland’s culture through events which present opportunities for dance and drama organisations to use them as a hook for international exposure. Applicants can apply for between £2.

one of the organisation’s strategic aims is to showcase Scotland’s culture through events. such as Pride and Passion.Appendix One: Strategic Context interests. The Scottish Arts Council and British Council have developed strategies that aim to satisfy cultural. economic and political agendas whilst the other agencies tend to use culture as a mechanism for achieving economic and/or political aims. Scottish Enterprise focuses on developing the tourism sector with the primary aim of increasing visitor spend in Scotland. reinforcing and forging new links across Europe and the development of cooperative links. 93 . This can present opportunities for theatre and dance organisations to use events as a “hook” to leverage international exposure. However. There are therefore indirect opportunities for theatre and dance organisations to be supported by Scottish Enterprise through other initiatives. although they need to be engaged with the cultural tourism agenda. EventScotland has no specific priorities in relation to theatre and dance and has not identified any priority countries to develop relationships with. This lack of strategic alignment can confuse the operating environment for Scotland-based theatre and dance organisations. There is little collaboration or consistency between the cultural and international strategies of key policy makers. The strategy proposes to achieve this through partnership working with other public sector organisations and through direct support for industry initiatives.

Number of organisations with employees responsible for developing international sales N=43 Positions that focus on international showcasing % or exposure No Yes 5. Number of organisations with employees engaged with international showcasing or exposure N=45 Positions that focus on international showcasing % or exposure No Yes 3. Type of employment for developing international sales N=21 Type of job role Combined with other activities Full time (paid employment) Other Part time (paid employment) Part time (volunteer) 67% 33% % 52% 24% 24% 10% 10% 94 .Appendix Two: Strategic Context APPENDIX TWO: ARTISTIC COMMUNITY SURVEY TABLES DANCE AND DRAMA PROFESSIONAL COMMUNITY SURVEY TABLES 2. Type of employment for international showcasing or exposure N=28 Type of job role Combined with other activities Full time (paid employment) Other Part time (volunteer) Part time (paid employment) Full time (volunteer) 53% 47% % 57% 25% 14% 11% 4% 4% Other: “Very sporadic engagement with international showcasing and exposure due to other demands” “A member of the team has put together a website dedicated to dance in Glasgow” “All our senior staff work on freelance contracts” 4.

The Team from New Year Shared issues relating to national provision of arts activities for children and young people To develop a joint application to tour their work Commitment to our work on intercultural dialogue For joint projects and use of their venues 95 .Appendix Two: Strategic Context Other: “Sporadic engagement with developing international sales which is mainly the producer’s role” “Very peripheral duties” “No clear target on international work” 6. Partnerships with other organisations N=42 Organisations that work in partnership Yes No 7. Partner Organisations N=31 Organisation British Council Scottish Arts Council Scottish Ballet Tramway Byre Theatre Dance Base Glasgow Grows Audiences Macrobert Theatre RSAMD The Arches Ydance ACE Arts and Business Aurora Nova Catherine Wheels Cumbernauld Theatre Dance House Dundee Rep Theatre Dynamo. To bring international work e. Montreal European Federation of Arts & Heritage Festival City Theatres Trust % 86% 14% Number of mentions 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Reason for partnership Funds for international touring To help advertise within their membership in return for the occasional use of their offices and resources Joint training initiatives and sharing best practice in the provision of youth theatre.g.

Brasil Scottish Dance Theatre Scottish International Film Festival Tron Unison Trade Union Visiting Arts Wee Stories 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 To create dance performances and competitions for an annual festival Two month residency in 2005 as co-producers of a short dance film Anti-racism work 96 .Appendix Two: Strategic Context Festival International of Video Danca Buenos Aires Organisation FST Glasgow City Council Glasgow University Horsecross Imaginate ITC Lung Ha's Theatre Company 1 Number of mentions 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 To co-produce a theatre piece Reason for partnership To work with the students at workshops and events to increase their exposure To use their contacts and role as developing the sector as a key resource To co-produce work from time to time and raise the profile of the company's work. working with a wide variety of arts practitioners To work with Frantic Assembly targeting 14 years+ Shared issues relating to national provision of arts activities for children and young people Shared issues relating to national provision of arts activities for children and young people Shared issues relating to national provision of arts activities for children and young people National Theatre for Scotland NYCOS 1 1 NYOS 1 NYPBOS Perth Theatre Perthshire Visual Arts Forum Pitlochry Festival Theatre Plymouth Theatres Pure Media UK Rio Centro Choreografico.

Barriers to fully engaging with international networks N=32 Barrier Financial constraints Lack of contacts Limited knowledge of the most appropriate markets Lack of appropriate skills Other strategic priorities Other Past experience of exporting Quality of products in relation to international standards % 47% 27% 21% 6% % 88% 63% 56% 22% 22% 22% 13% 6% Other barriers: “Language” “Language skills limitation” “No international context for Scottish dance. few projects.Appendix Two: Strategic Context 8. No platforms for presenting work to international programmers” “Lack of staff time (financial resource issue)” “Lack of opportunity to meet with international promoters” “Small organisation. Importance of networks and relationships with international partners N=34 Level of importance Very important Quite important Not very important Not at all important 9. Possibility of barriers changing in the future N=25 Barriers changing in the future No Yes % 52% 48% 97 . text-based work. focus on rural Scottish touring” “Lack of staff to focus on this area” 10. time constraints.

other companies are more interested in and so more likely to aim for foreign touring than us.” “Hopefully. This is due in part to the fact that as a choreographer I have worked a great deal in Europe and have knowledge of several European languages.” “We do mainly text based work . or get the funding but it would only take a concerted effort and a concern for this position for it to change. we have more chance of being invited to make work at international venues.” “Our financial situation is unlikely to change in near future so staffing resource will not increase. project-funded and mostly voluntarily run company . As our track record gets stronger.this could be done through special show cases and or funds available to invite promoters here plus seminars as to who can be contacted and what for. we have more chance of working with international partners. as viable work at this time. international touring requires money and time that we .” “The reputation of our company is growing. If we can establish a firmer administrative base with salaried rather than temporary positions.” 98 . approaching managers. We have already been invited to one theatre festival in Ukraine.” “(There is) no interest in the Scottish dance scene.” “With experience of trying and failing we should remove some barriers.” “Hope”” “As we have built our partnership on common cross-international interests our contact base is widening so linking up internationally will get better. we just need to accept responsibility for putting more energy into this and giving it a higher priority.” “We have been discussing this in our creative team and we agree that the work and opportunities are out there.” “Promoters from abroad. I feel really isolated in terms of getting help to make the right contacts. we will be in a much better position to develop contacts and promote the company's work abroad. with a tour-able piece of theatre.as a small. Financial support and advice is always welcome. the company's focus is elsewhere and our programming aims to fulfil the needs of the rural Scottish audience and not an international one.not ideal for international touring. especially Europe need to be encouraged to see Scottish work .” “Our company does not see overseas opportunities.Appendix Two: Strategic Context Reason for barriers changing in the future: “International touring is really only possible with the support of the British Council which is very London-centric. programmers and venues personally.” “Barriers will change as our organization has actively gone out into the European market. which we couldn't raise sufficient funds for.don't have.

Appendix Two: Strategic Context “If the investment available to organisations like us is increased. If the Scottish Arts Council/Creative Scotland - British Council shared priorities become more focused on the practicalities of helping us get our work seen (costly) and taken abroad (even more costly). We need showcasing opportunities outwith the Edinburgh Festivals (like the FST Scotland Live event). We're making international quality theatre throughout the year, but we're not funded enough to dedicate resources to quality DVD/publicity materials, or to bring people to see the work.” “The barriers to applying for funding here to engage with international opportunities seem to be breaking down. I am slowly becoming aware of more international opportunities.” “There is a keen view to allow School of Drama students experience the same range of European experiences as those in the School of Music. In the forthcoming years, it will be a priority for these students to perform their third year projects at European venues, such as the ITS Festival in Amsterdam. Money to fund this will come from fundraising from trusts that would welcome applications in areas where it would expand a student’s knowledge and practice through exchange and foreign travel.” “Increased funding in April 2007 will allow us to focus more on international aspects.” “As the companies grows in funding and experience.” “The home market for our work (large-scale outdoor/street theatre) is extremely limited. Consequently ongoing support is restricted. There is a much larger market for our work overseas where we have now established a reputation and are seen as a serious ‘player’. In essence one could say that in pure market terms our work is better suited for ‘export’. However we still need creation money for projects that will enable us to make work for these markets. We are negotiating with overseas partners to this end but the more we do this the less we will be able to perform at home.” “As result of Advancement Funding, the Company has been able to recruit staff with which to move forward all areas of the company - areas of work which were being underserved and over-stretched in the past. Advancement Funding also allowed those staff members to strategically examine how we can move those areas of work forward-these include international touring. We hope that the company will be able to maintain this staffing level in the long term.” “Improving the networking” “Macrobert production of the Happy Prince for tour of North America proved very difficult due to lack of experience on our part. We had to use an agent who turned out not to be trustworthy.” “We have agreed at strategic level to prioritise international touring.” “We are building networks and building the reputation of our organisation internationally so more people are talking to us about possible collaborations.” “The basis of the problem is financial; having the ability to respond to invitations with a short-lead in timescale; knowledge of possible funders etc”

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Appendix Two: Strategic Context “I would hope that with the introduction of the Culture Bill, Scotland will look more to its image overseas, and promote the performing arts as a way to project a modern Scotland, showcasing the best of Scottish talent in the field.” “International work seems to be becoming more of a priority as funders wake up to the regard with which some Scottish drama is held abroad and the benefits this has for the sector. NTS might also have a positive impact. On the negative side, the position of touring companies who have been best placed to work internationally in the past, is being significantly eroded and their general capability to operate effectively compromised. The focus now is on building based organisations that have a much less dynamic track record in this field.”
11. The importance of selling work internationally N=26 Level of importance Very important Not very important Quite important Not at all important 12. Barriers to developing international sales N=22 Barrier Financial constraints Lack of contacts Limited knowledge of the most appropriate markets Lack of appropriate skills Other strategic priorities Other Quality of products in relation to international standards Past experience of exporting

% 39% 31% 19% 12%

% 82% 68% 59% 27% 23% 23% 5% 5%

Other barriers: “Limited language skill” “As before to come of the market you must develop or become ‘a name’. Finding a way in is problematic as circles are often closed unless the work is really pushed by an organisation or individual.” “Lack of time” “Lack of administrative infrastructure and production support” “Lack of staff to focus on this area”

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Appendix Two: Strategic Context

13. Possibility of 90barriers changing in the future N=23 Barriers changing in the future No Yes

% 52% 48%

Reason for barriers changing in the future: “These barriers will change when Scotland wakes up to the fact of how good its artists are and begins promoting them and developing networks as well as buying in International work.” “(There is) no interest in Scottish dance scene.” “The experience of trying and failing will remove barriers.” “Not very important to date as we have been focusing on the first year of operation at Perth Concert Hall and on growing and diversifying our audiences at Perth Theatre. However, looking to the future we would like to develop our international profile.” “Unless companies such as us have a little more financial stability it is impossible to employ anyone, even on a part time basis, to help with creating International contacts and selling the shows abroad. This would require commitment and time, outwith creating the work to best establish the venues/promoters that would be suited to future co-productions or venues. This is a job in itself and is best done by a professional producer/ administrator. Through my own experience, foreign companies and promoters, especially in Europe, expect to be going through a producer or agent and not always dealing with the artists directly. This is normal in places like France, Germany, Belgium, Canada and the USA” “As the company grows in funding and experience” “As result of Advancement Funding, the Company has been able to recruit staff with which to move forward all areas of the company - areas of work which were being underserved and over-stretched in the past. Advancement Funding also allowed those staff members to strategically examine how we can move those areas of work forward - these include international touring. We hope that the company will be able to maintain this staffing level in the long term.” “Improving networking” “We have altered our strategic priorities to include this area.” “I am always hopeful that as our international reputation grows the process will become easier.” “Not unless more funding is available to take work out of Scotland.” “Lung Ha's Theatre Company's main aim is to provide opportunities for adults with learning disabilities to become actively involved in the performing arts. Due to the size of
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touring internationally is very challenging.” “Our general manager Amanda Chinn concentrates on this area. We are attending APAP in New York in January 2007”.Appendix Two: Strategic Context the performing company. We are good networkers at Horsecross and make sure that we attend seminars. We succeeded in receiving an invitation to Ukraine through contacts I made when I visited a theatre festival there.” “To link with other internationally focused organisations who have a wider contact base. working in those countries first independently and then establishing contacts while being there and through establishing friendships. Just networking at various performance events in the UK.” “We have adopted a sharing. all contacts were established already through these organisations. conferences. In the last few years we've taken work to Japan. Greece. Also through Tramway and at workshops in Europe.” “Contacted the British Council” “When we worked internationally. All has been through contacts we've developed on an individual basis as the support infrastructure for an organisation like ours is pretty weak.” “We haven't made many. Italy. 102 . Iran. we were working as part of other organisations. the company is always open to new possibilities and challenges. we found that there were insufficient funds available from this source. Company Chordelia doesn't currently have the infrastructure to invest in this but we do have the appropriate work. However. Mexico. subscribe to magazines and get out there to see work and meet people. We have found it difficult in Scotland as there are not so many places bringing over international producers .” “Only through limited experience of contact with other theatre companies abroad. Therefore. England.” “We're at an early stage and will be looking for assistance from Creative Scotland and British Council to help us develop the touring we've done. Edinburgh and Ukraine. Holland.except perhaps at the Fringe. exchange approach and work through artists own individual networks.” “No strategy as such . To develop a very strong international web based resource. such as Inbetween Time festival in Bristol.” Background on the international strategies adopted for developing international networks: “I haven't attempted it though I would like to take work to Europe. Like New Moves' International and the British Council.” “We have done very little work on this.most of my contacts came from meeting people.” “Strategy is probably a bit grand for it. The Local Enterprise Company agreed to fund half the cost of the visit. After correspondence with the British Council in London.

this part of a strategy of seeking potential coproducers/funders. We also cultivated a relationship with a newly formed international producing consortium and a leading overseas theatre company .” “I have put a production forward for inclusion in the British Council showcase at the Edinburgh Festival this year (2007).” “Affiliate in international associations.” Background on the initiatives that have been implemented: “An international network for the arts and social change in Latin America. are in the process of developing joint projects with groups in Western Australia. the development of new projects in different countries.our Arts Programme Manager has recently convened a consortium of other like minded venues in order to facilitate some international touring in Scotland. as often in our case.” “This is a 'to be developed' area for us. rely far too heavily (from our perspective and theirs) on the British Council. We then created work and invited these people along. they remain the key strategic partner.” “No definite strategy . Often it is artistically led by creative relationships with international collaborators. Until such time as international touring becomes cheaper or companies are allocated more resources to achieve it.” “It is currently being developed.identifying key buyers/decision makers and going out to meet them. However. In the past we made a wide call for help across our existing networks. the USA and Canada.” “Our international contacts tend to be to be for the purposes of bringing international work to Macrobert.rather being approached by a foreign promoter after seeing our work or networking with other promoters at the Edinburgh Festival .Appendix Two: Strategic Context “Initially it was focused on extensive research . rather than touring work to more than one country. and collated contacts through word of mouth and personal referral.all international work has been random in response to invitations and contacts made via the website.” “Not always a coherent strategy . More conventionally it would involve contacting international promoters far in advance of new productions and persuading them to either co-produce the show or at least come and see it with a view to booking it on tour. a European network of community dance.” 103 .” “We have no clear strategy for international network development at this time.” “We are at a very early stage and at present are working through existing festivals of children's theatre and international dance conferences.” “It is very difficult to summarise here. These can lead to touring opportunities or. like everybody else. a national network for arts and social change in Chile a proposal for a North South hemisphere Artists Network. We.

We have commissioned artists like David Lang from New York and curated concerts with artists like Mitsuko Uchida in our classical music strand. Our lunchtime classical concerts include players from around the world.Appendix Two: Strategic Context “We have initiated a music strand called Home and Away that puts world musicians on stage with Scottish contemporary and traditional musicians to explore cultural similarities and differences in music.” “We have taken presentations and workshop based sessions showcasing our CD-Rom dance resources to festivals and conferences in the USA.” “We’re at an early stage. taking a professional dance production ‘The Story of the Blues’ to the Baboro Festival in Galway in October 2006. We will also be looking to work with a partner theatre in Nova Scotia on a new musical 'Caledonia'. filming and screening in Vancouver Canada with British Council creative industry initiative and Vancouver dance centre. From this our artists have developed links and maintained contacts which have led to exhibition and exchange opportunities. Jean Cameron. We have also begun to work on the Children's Theatre Festivals network. We visited The Shaw Festival and Stratford Festival in Canada. Visits to APAP in January Trips to Europe to hook up with other acting Ensembles. with which we might forge links and exchanges of staff and productions. creating site-specific work and teaching in relation to our latest project "Droopy met Hal". Stratford is not relevant as it is too big. We have initiated a co-production with another overseas Festival for a site-specific creation and are currently talking to other overseas partners with regard to another new large-scale touring production.this was part of a "selling on" strategy with our international co-production.involving cast and crew from there (Detour 2 and Bohemios) performances.” “As mentioned before . USA Bluegrass fiddle player and his band.” “The Perthshire Visual Arts Forum invites up to 8 practicing visual artists each year to the conference in Perth in June.this project with Fabrik was the brain child of our part time producer. Canada. This might then lead to the possibility of future co- 104 . Our new media art programme includes many international artists work.” “We have over the past 12 years initiated a whole range of relationships with international artists and promoters in many different countries. Wolfstone and Mutenrohi from Galicia.” “We have subsequently sold work into overseas festivals where we have been the first Scottish (if not British) to perform there .teaching. as the key international comparators for PFT.” “We have looked at international comparator organisations as there are none in the UK. These have often begun with creative workshops around a shared area of interest (sometimes whilst on tour to that place with another show). we collaborated with the Tron and the Canadian company Necessary Angel on a production of Half Life 1st season. workshops and filming in Brasil involving cast from Rio (Capture the spirit) and most recently co-producing with Fabrik Potsdam which has included rehearsing. We try to develop education activity around this (funding permitting. Blazin’ Fiddles and Mike Cleveland. performances.) Examples include Pearls of the Tay residency with Trio Guru and his band and Perthshire musicians. workshops and filming in Buenos Aires. Hong Kong and Greece. performing for their opening gala. We are just about to commission French artist Claude Closky thanks to Esmee Fairbairn Funding at Perth Theatre.

personal visits to festivals etc which are also important. Italy.” “These have all been small scale initiatives.” “All the initiatives have been successful . but they have. Again it’s quite complicated. and.” “We have contacted the British Council to find out more about what they offer. Then there are the official delegations.” “We are still in fledgling form . separate to this.” Mixed/Neutral feedback from international networking initiatives: “The Shaw Festival was great . If you mean have the initiatives been successful then many have and many haven't. positive critical review and have broadened our horizons” “It was great to work within and be supported by the various infra-structures and to create within a supportive environment. Stratford wasn't.learning as we experience the process. The FST initiative was excellent and has led to other opportunities. This in itself is a very complex area which I'd be happy to tell you more about if you thought it useful.good audiences.” 14.lots to learn. This involves 10 artists from a range of countries (Brazil.it must be stressed that contacts have been very minimal at this time. Meetings with British Council Scotland haven't led to much to be honest. A key initiative for us is our associate artist system.” “All contacts made thus far have been satisfactory . and were more or less as expected.” “We have had a mixture of experiences.which has been useful to a degree.Appendix Two: Strategic Context production with artists who took part in the workshop or sometimes the venue it was held. I haven't been to APA yet. We've also participated in showcases particularly the British Council showcase in Edinburgh .” “I don't understand the question.” 105 . Rating international networking initiatives N=15 The initiatives: Met my expectations Exceeded my expectations Were below my expectations % 47% 27% 27% Positive feedback from international networking initiatives: “I thought that it would be impossible working in English and presenting the UK experience would make it impossible to convince artists to develop networks that survived. we have made enquiries about drama festivals across Europe for companies involved in disability arts. UK etc) in an ongoing and reasonably intense relationship with the company.

” “They're great for allowing a high number of promoters to see your work. Rating international showcasing initiatives N=15 The international showcases: Met my expectations Was below my expectations Exceeded my expectations % 57% 43% % 67% 20% 13% Positive feedback from international showcases: “It's amazing how much there is to learn and experience and great to experience everything in a concentrated form with the opportunity to discuss.” “Work can be very variable in terms of quality.” “As a result. the exposure built up tours for several years .allowing the productions to tour for longer than I had expected.Appendix Two: Strategic Context Negative feedback from international networking initiatives: “We experienced an unsuccessful approach to the British Council regarding our initiative in the Ukraine. Where they do not. companies can forge links which lead to collaborative work and exchanges.some have not come up to expectations and others have.” Mixed/Neutral feedback from international showcases: “I was not there as a representative of my company .” “Both at Monaco Video Dance Festival and Vancouver Film Festival I made useful contacts outwith the ‘official’ presentations. they can be focused on a narrow group of performers/practitioners who all know each other and do not easily accept new input.” 15. Those that have visited international showcases N=28 Previous visits to international showcases Yes No 16. We are still to hear regarding their showcase. But they can also be fairly soul destroying experiences with people walking out of work once they've decided they can't book etc.” “Tanzmesse in Dusseldorf two years ago .” 106 . We've had whole tours come out of some showcases and absolutely nothing out of others.didn't make as many contacts as would have liked.” “Haven’t got anywhere yet.” “Actually this varies hugely . plus they were good fun to attend and very useful to see what kind of work is being produced internationally.it was before I had one. Where they do.

Appendix Two: Strategic Context
17. Those that have visited international sales exchange programmes N=27 Previous visits to international sales exchanges No Yes

% 89% 11%

18. Rating the international sales exchange programmes N=2 The international showcases: Met my expectations Was below my expectations

% 50% 50%

Positive feedback from international sales exchange programmes: “Both events mentioned previously were also market places for dance and film. I was invited to ‘pitch’ a film idea at both events. This was great, as it puts you right in there in front of producers and co-producers.” Mixed/neutral feedback from international sales exchange programmes: “If you mean things like APAP in New York, they're more of a networking opportunity than realistic marketplace in our experience.”
19. Markets with the strongest networks N=24 Country UK (outside Scotland) Europe North America South America Australasia Africa Asia Other

% 75% 54% 25% 17% 13% 4% 4% 17%

Other: “Scotland” “None” “Republic of Ireland” “Very much Scotland-focused” Specific countries with the strongest networks: Outside the UK – England (10 mentions – London was specifically mentioned three times)

107

Appendix Two: Strategic Context Wales (one mention) Northern Ireland (one mention) Europe – The Netherlands (seven mentions) Germany (four mentions) Italy (four mentions) Republic of Ireland (four mentions) Spain (three mentions) Denmark (two mentions) Portugal (two mentions) France (two mentions) Sweden (two mentions) Poland (two mentions) Finland (one mention) Ukraine (one mention) Lithuania (one mention) Russia (one mention) Kosovo (one mention) North America – Canada (five mentions) USA (four mentions) South America – Brazil (three mentions) Argentina (two mentions) Chile (one mention) Peru (one mention) Columbia (one mention) Mexico (one mention) Africa – South Africa (one mention) Rwanda (one mention) Asia – India (one mention) Sri Lanka (one mention) Japan (one mention) Israel (one mention) Australasia – Australia (two mentions) New Zealand (one mention)

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Appendix Two: Strategic Context

20. Markets with the strongest sales N=22 Country UK (outside Scotland) Europe North America South America Australasia Asia Other

% 59% 41% 23% 14% 5% 5% 23%

Other: “Scotland” “We don’t tour much” “None” Specific countries with the strongest sales: Outside the UK – England (11 mentions – London was specifically mentioned twice) Northern Ireland (two mentions) Wales (one mention) Europe – Italy (four mentions) Republic of Ireland (three mentions) Czech Republic (two mentions) Germany (two mentions) Greece (two mentions) The Netherlands (two mentions) Portugal (one mention) France (one mention) Poland (one mention) Sweden (one mention) Spain (one mention) Bulgaria (one mention) Croatia (one mention) North America – USA (five mentions) Canada (three mentions) South America – Argentina (two mentions) Brazil (one mention) Mexico (one mention)

109

Appendix Two: Strategic Context Asia – Japan (one mention) Australasia – Australia (one mention) New Zealand (one mention) 21. Resources allocated for developing international networks N=26 Resource Research trips Strategic planning and coordination Financial None Marketing HR support Other % 65% 35% 31% 27% 23% 8% 8% Other: “Website” “Time” 110 . Interest to develop new markets N=2 Interest to develop new markets Yes No % 83% 17% New markets that respondents would like to develop: USA (six mentions) Australia (six mentions) Europe in general (four mentions) China (three mentions) Canada (three mentions) New Zealand (two mentions) France (two mentions) Republic of Ireland (two mentions) Germany (two mentions) Sweden (two mentions) Ukraine (one mention) Japan (one mention) 22.

£10. Support received from external agencies for developing international networks and sales in Scotland N=26 Support received from external agencies % No Yes 70% 31% External agents that provide support: Funding from British Council (five mentions) Scottish Arts Council (five mentions) Visiting Arts (one mention) Scottish Executive (one mention) NHS Scotland (one mention) Edinburgh International Festival (one mention) Scottish Enterprise Tayside (one mention) Networks from FST (one mention) Tramway (one mention) Edinburgh International Festival (one mention) Research and development from – New Moves International (one mention) Foreign language assistance from – British Council (one mention) 111 .000 Under £1.000 + 31% 31% 19% 12% 8% 25.000 £10.000 .£5.000 £5.000 . Resources allocated for developing international sales and markets N=19 Resource Research trips None Strategic planning and coordination Financial Marketing HR support % 42% 42% 37% 26% 26% 11% 24. sales and marketing N=26 Average spend % Nothing £1. Average spend on developing international networks.Appendix Two: Strategic Context 23.

We would like to be able to expand our international networking contacts. and lack of specific expertise in international sales is preventing us from doing so. presenting work at Festivals in Hong Kong and Ireland in the past year.” “Most of our work has been working in our own communities and therefore has left us with not much time.” 27.” “We have just begun to explore international opportunities.” 112 .” “Any international performances/networking has been great considering the size of both our funding and workloads of the company. energy or scope to push international work. Personal rating of achievements in terms of developing international networks N=8 Rating % Fair Good Poor 63% 25% 13% Reason: “Contacts exist but work is yet to be developed to the stage where our productions travel.” “Still learning as we encounter each project. Personal rating of achievements in terms of developing international sales and marketing N=7 Rating % Fair Poor Not a priority for us Good 29% 29% 29% 14% Reason: “We have done virtually no work in this area.Appendix Two: Strategic Context Developing exchanges from – British Council (one mention) 26.” “There is potential for YDance to sell our education dance CD ROMS outwith the UK but current workload in other areas.

” Additional comments: “I'm slightly concerned that it will look bad that Prime Productions isn't so interested in foreign touring/networks etc. ability to forward plan. would have to function within the SAC structures we already have to live by.” 29.” “The help of a producer.” “Exposing potential partners to our work.” “Showcase outwith the Edinburgh Festivals.Appendix Two: Strategic Context 28. focus or personnel 113 . but it simply doesn't fit with the nature. Support that would help to develop international sales and marketing in the future N=19 Type of support Financial support Web-based resource of Scottish organisations that you could be listed in Opportunities for potential partners to visit Scotland for a research tour Opportunities to attend international markets Opportunities to visit other countries to explore sales leads Paper-based resource of Scottish organisations that you could be listed in Dedicated person to assist you with introductions and information about potential partners before and during their visit to the Edinburgh Festivals Translational language services when meeting potential partners Dedicated venue for Scottish work during the Edinburgh Festivals Other % 90% 84% 79% 74% 68% 58% 47% 37% 26% 5% Other: “The help of a producer who presents your/other Scottish company. Support to assist developing international networks and relationships in the future N=25 Type of support Opportunities for potential partners to visit Scotland for a research tour Opportunities to visit other countries to explore opportunities Web-based resource of Scottish organisations that you could be listed in Financial support Opportunities to attend international markets Dedicated person to assist you with introductions and information about potential partners before and during their visit to the Edinburgh Festivals Paper-based resource of Scottish organisations that you could be listed in Translational language services when meeting potential partners Dedicated venue for Scottish work during the Edinburgh Festivals Other % 84% 84% 80% 80% 76% 56% 44% 36% 32% 16% Other: “Funding structure.

Personally I (not the 79 year old) as an individual do a fair amount of work abroad. and have a reasonable network of contacts that I have built up by informal networking and foreign work. run voluntarily and successfully by a 79 year-old enthusiast and clearly focused on rural Scotland. mostly for the British Council. which is very small.” 114 .Appendix Two: Strategic Context of the company.

Appendix Three Producers and Promoters Survey Tables APPENDIX THREE: PRODUCERS AND PROMOTERS SURVEY TABLES THEATRE AND DANCE PRODUCERS AND PROMOTERS SURVEY TABLES The country that respondents are based: Scotland (22 mentions) England (9 mentions) USA (6 mentions) Australia (5 mentions) The Netherlands (4 mentions) Italy (3 mentions) Serbia (3 mentions) New Zealand (3 mentions) Poland (3 mentions) Brazil (3 mentions) Canada (1 mention) Kosovo (1 mention) China (1 mention) Austria (1 mention) Belgium (1 mention) Romania (1 mention) Germany (1 mention) Israel (1 mention) Czech Republic (1 mention) India (1 mention) Republic of Ireland (1 mention) Finland (1 mention) South Korea (1 mention) Turkey (1 mention) 30. Artforms that respondents work in N=76 Artform Drama Festivals Dance Music Visual arts Crafts Literature Other % 62% 51% 50% 46% 17% 12% 12% 22% Other: Film and media (three mentions) Circus (three mentions) Youth Theatre (two mentions) Comedy (two mentions) Education (one mention) 115 .

Lebanon. Egypt. Those that import international work to their own country or as part of a larger tour N=77 Importing international work % Yes No 67% 33% Reasons for not importing: Not within their remit 10 Lack of funding 3 Not a priority 1 Lack of international contacts 1 Lack of expertise 1 32.Appendix Three Producers and Promoters Survey Tables Musical theatre (one mention) International cultural relations (one mention) Combined arts (one mention) Physical theatre (one mention) Puppetry (one mention) Opera (one mention) Performance (one mention) Children’s performances (one mention) Design (one mention) 31. Palestine. Iraq. Syria” “The Pacific” “Israel” “Tel-Aviv. Markets with the strongest networks or developed sales N=49 Market Europe UK (outside Scotland) Australasia North America Asia Africa South America Other % 80% 63% 51% 47% 33% 20% 18% 16% Other: “South East Europe” “Trinidad” “South Pacific” “Russia” “Middle East. Novia Scotia” 116 . Iran.

a scotsfest organised together with British Council in 1996 we imported Scottish drama. Interest in attracting work from a foreign country N=74 Interest in attracting foreign work Yes No % 65% 35% The countries that respondents would be interested in attracting work from: USA (7 mentions) UK (7 mentions) Japan (6 mentions) India (6 mentions) France (6 mentions) Spain (5 mentions) South America (5 mentions) Canada (5 mentions) Australia (4 mentions) Scotland (3 mentions) Germany (3 mentions) Belgium (3 mentions) Norway (3 mentions) Sweden (3 mentions) Finland (3 mentions) England (3 mentions) China (3 mentions) Eastern Europe (3 mentions) Czech Republic (2 mentions) South Africa (2 mentions) Denmark (2 mentions) Portugal (2 mentions) Republic of Ireland (2 mentions) Indonesia (2 mentions) Italy (2 mentions) The Netherlands (2 mentions) Iceland (1 mention) Faroe Islands (1 mention) Austria (1 mention) Caribbean (1 mention) South Korea (1 mention) Hong Kong (1 mention) New Zealand (1 mention) Motivations to import international work: “I work at Milan University and as part of.” 117 . Arches and NTS. Glasgow arches 2005. 2004.Appendix Three Producers and Promoters Survey Tables 33. Stations. I have been working in the other direction (Italy-Scotland) in recent years (Scambiare Glasgow 2003. 2006. and I Confess. music. Death and the City. art and cinema. for example.

Ingmar Bergman. etc. Peter Brook. what is more important is that the spirit of discovering new theatrical tendencies and research fields has been preserved. exploring and giving back up to the artists who are willing to make a challenge. programmers and theatre critics from all over the world. initiates. Odin Teatret and Eugenio Barba. the artistic outlines of which are still hazy. Paolo Magelli. out of which a new picture begins to take shape. Among the Festival main aim to present the most significant authors. Nicolas Stemann. promoters. Samuel Beckett. skills and functions -The Balkan and East Europe art scene is passing through a time of exciting social changes. Taormina Arte. Bread and Puppet Theatre. Tadeusz Kantor. Thomas Ostermeier. 1985. Showcase is addressed to a large contingent of international guests. Since it was conceived it supported different kinds of art concepts and various scale of artists. enlarges the borders of our cultural identity. Furthermore. where theatre in general is exploring the limits of human physical abilities. Richard Schechner. It provided insight into the most important trends in the contemporary Serbian theatre. The concept of Bitef theatre hasn’t changed until today. Miklos Jancso. and for that reason. BITEF enriches and encourages the production of new Serbian theatre scene. and expedites its communication with the outside world. on November 25th. developing that way a completely new Belgrade scene. Bitef theatre wants to show that theatre is not only an institution that follows a certain cultural model but an institution that creates culture. the SPECIAL PRIZE FOR 1999. Robert Wilson. when avant-garde research made its way into repertory theatres. by literally smuggling the art into the country. a Showcase program. -BITEF Theatre At the meeting of BITEF‘s Council. Bitef is the first international theatre festival awarded by Premio Europa. -A great number of artists were literally discovered by BITEF -BITEF has been awarded by PREMIO EUROPA PER IL TEATRO. BITEF has established. Susanne Linke. we can identify the history of BITEF as a history of contemporary theater During the forty years. a decade of post-modern theatrical expression. Jan Fabre. also for crossing over known boundaries. It is open for all kinds of new expressions. Théátre de Complicité. Among them are:Jerzy Grotowski.Appendix Three Producers and Promoters Survey Tables “BITEF festival -Bitef is the festival of new world theatre tendencies -It has continually followed and supported the latest theater trends -It has become one of five most important and biggest European festivals and secured itself an unmistakable place at the theater map of the world -It surpasses all political and cultural borders. Nigel Charnock. promotes links between the systems of culture and education and creates a map of professional contacts as well. promotes and attends to establish a diverse way of theatre thinking. La Mamma Theatre. Joseph Nadj. Living Theatre. -The number of artists who appeared on BITEF is impressive. Using festival as mode. including festival and theatre directors. Hansgünter Heyme. BITEF has kept its pace with a tumultuous evolution of performing arts: from the revolutionary Sixties to the Seventies. and all the way over the Nineties. BITEF’s non-traditional tradition has been preserved. La Fura dels Baus. Luca Ronkoni. Kama Ginkas. as well. through the Eighties. DV8. Simon McBurney. performances and phenomena of contemporary drama theatre/ performing arts. that brought us to the end of the 20th century and the second millennium. Roberto Ciulli. in 118 . One aspect of this process is the special importance attached to reform and the transition of our theatres. Pina Bausch. -BITEF Awards: Grand Prix Mira Trailovic – for the festival best performance Special Award – for the special contribution in theatre art Audience Award -Showcase Two years ago. even in the ten years of isolation in Ex Yugoslavia (199o2ooo). in 2005. -For all these years of devoted work on promoting intercultural influences in theatre. an official decision was brought for the initiation of founding the BITEF Theatre. BITEF Theatre was organized with small number of employees with unlimited number of disciplines. for the first time. 1989. Meredith Monk. Angelin Preljocaj. Joseph Chaikin. Tomaž Pandur. It was officially opened with a multimedia happening in March.

opportunities to export the Citizens Theatre Ltd work.” “To show to the Romanian audience. and performances there (very strong and based in improvisation work). Opportunities for development of joint artistic projects. International Experience Cultural exchange.” “Spread new forms of creativity. I’m very impressed.” “I did a workshop with Sotigui Kuiaté (from Africa.” “Strong in the field of early music.Appendix Three Producers and Promoters Survey Tables order to ensure the full recognition of contemporary theatre as a fundamental dimension for the development of Balkan theatres in an international European context.” “I do like to share experiences.” “Introducing the brand new avant-garde dance form to Polish audiences.” “To open cooperation with other countries and discover other chance of works.” “Yes.” “Our reason for existence is to bring in work from overseas. It’s really contact and present with the public. To provide benchmarks for performing companies based in the Highlands and Islands To build links that could lead to international opportunities for these companies. because of my interests in others kind of percussion.” “Exchange of work practices and performances with artists.” “Artistic links which match the ambitions/style of the Citizens' own work.” 119 ..” “The city for which I programme and quality of work. We work with percussion too. It is the only way to keep the work as a fresh and contemporary work.” “For the last twelve years.” “Yes it must be an act or a show that I can promote and tour throughout Australia.” “We work different styles in our group we put contemporary and African dance. actor work with Peter Brook).” “It is the raison d'etre of the festival.He showed videos from Africa. we have worked with Indigenous performers from around the world to bring them to the world.” “To offer the local promoters with whom we work the opportunity to see international work. BITEF festival was and is the part of this new picture. Young people meeting and sharing ideas & cultures. from Spain because I am Spanish and for the rest of the World because I love art from all over the World! They help me to understand my own culture better and to appreciate "multiculturalism!!” “Presenting as wide range of dance style as possible during Festival and other events.

” “Our audience like it. I believe there is a shared sense of Northern-ness which I am interested to see developed.” “To inspire further significant art form development among Scottish puppeteers.” “I direct a genre based festival so I am looking for the highest quality contemporary cabaret and music theatre particularly if is says something about the culture of the country it comes from.” “To broaden the audience's experience at Dundee Rep and strengthen our reputation as a theatre with an international outlook.” “Yes we are New Zealand’s largest International Arts Festival: 80% of work presented is from overseas.our criteria for programme acceptance is that it is either a new or existing work by a gay author. The quality and style is sought after by our inquisitive audiences. masculinity and gender identity. relevance or theme such as feminism.” “We are talking ‘globalisation’ these days Borders disappear we like to show our audiences that there is more than our own limited culture.” “Being the only Festival of its kind worldwide that focuses solely and exclusively on gay theatre .” 120 .” “As a person living in another country I am interested in learning about different culture.” “To offer new and fresh artistic insights for our audiences. As an artist. I am interested to create the idea of exchanging different culture and art.” “It's important that artists and audiences have the opportunity to see and engage with the ideas developing internationally. or the works have a gay character.Appendix Three Producers and Promoters Survey Tables “Adelaide audiences are always interested in international work.” “As an extra to the Dutch programmes. It is my pleasure to do work as a messenger between different cultures.” “Our company co-operate with schools in the matter of English language education. It is important to me to learn that we all are able to change and see something new all the time.” “The quality of the work.” “At this point I am interested to develop relations between the Nordic/Scandinavian Countries and Scotland.

Scotland Grey Coast Theatre. Tel Aviv Artscape New Writing Programme.Appendix Three Producers and Promoters Survey Tables 34. Scotland Mull Theatre. London Gloves Off Productions. Manchester Bailiwick Repertory Company. Los Angeles Piranha Productions. Scotland The Spiegel Tent Big Rory Comedians Edinburgh International Festival Edinburgh Fringe Festival Arches Theatre Hoax Productions Andi Neate Al Satchel Grampian Police Pipe Band Alie Cohen Shoogelnifty Assembly Theatre Lazzi Theatre The Actors Circle Ronny Almog. London Alex Kitay Productions. Chicago Splinter Group Productions . Manchester Post Script Theatre. Those that have imported work from Scotland in the past five years N=42 Interest in attracting foreign work No Yes % 52% 48% Companies that respondents have imported work from: Theatre Traverse Catherine Wheels Dundendance Company Jerry Sadowitz Des Clarke Rasa Dance Company. London Instant Irritant Productions. New York AJN Productions. Cape Town Roxyco Productions. Scotland Dannsa. Nova Scotia Theatre Babel Dundee Rep 121 .

” “We would like very much to be actually informed what is going on the contemporary theatre. education in theatre etc. I am at present engaged in a writing-research project in ceremony. this is necessary to me!” “To have more opportunities to know and more chance of new works.” 122 . I have been worked with so many artists from different countries and cultures. How the different come be together. this is about a necessary art in this time. Yes.” “I really liked this. I have been thinking too. I'd like to be able to bring the plays (currently in a developmental stage) to Scotland so it would be good to have more info about international networks. I feel this is so important to my work and develop of my way in arts. festivals activities.Appendix Three Producers and Promoters Survey Tables 35. Italy on precisely this subject. performing arts. in a pacific way. Barriers that prevent respondents from importing work from Scotland N=20 Barrier Financial constraints No connections with Scotland Not aware of what work is available in Scotland No opportunity to see work from Scotland Other countries offering more support Poor experience in the past Language barriers Lack of available staff Other strategic priorities Other % 67% 33% % 50% 45% 45% 35% 30% 10% 5% 5% 5% 15% Other: They are based in Scotland! 37. Relating the experience of importing work from Scotland N=18 Experience in relation to their own expectations Met my expectations Exceeded my expectations 36. Level of interest in the work of Scottish-based organisations that are developing international networks and markets N=38 Interest in learning more about Scottish-based % organisations Yes No 90% 11% Reason: “At the moment I am particularly interested (as a writer and promoter of intercultural events) in how contemporary drama (and film) can reflect the new European identities in the making.

SCottish Opera.” “Although already have direct links with most Scottish Companies including NTS. traditional and contemporary. EIF.” “We work very closely with Scotland and have strong links. promoters (festivals. I AM ALWAYS OPENNING TO NEW IDEAS. We produced a symposium of Indigenous playwrights from around the world in Edinburgh in August 2006. Grid Iron. particularly in the area of music theatre and contemporary cabaret.” “It is important for the festival organized by Lublin Dance Theatre to present wide range of styles. and in learning about Scottish talent.” “Provided that they fall within the criteria previously outlined.” “It could help me and my company in future work with Scottish company.” “The answer is clear. conceptions and ideas. The company must come to Adelaide at their own expense and own risk. We have partnered Scotland in a wide range of international initiatives over the past thirty years and find Scottish institutions extremely good to work with. Major Fringe venues.” “Yes.” “I am a regular visitor of the Edinburgh festival but I am not really aware of what is particularly Scottish. British artists belong to the most interesting and active in the world.” “We are already in touch with the artists that are of interest to us.” “yes.e.” 123 . etc.” “We would be very interested in learning more about opportunities in Scotland for Indigenous performance. artist management companies. I think that we could organize "exchanges" with dance companies such as Tabula Rasa going to do tour in Spain and a dance company from Spain (i.” “As a Scottish based organisation we are already very aware of those companies in our sector with a capability and desire to work internationally.” “IT WILL GOOD FOR MY WORK.” “Always open minded for new things. Children’s Festival.” “Although it must be clear that we are not in a position to buy or import work. venues in the field of classical music. the question is vague. information is readily available and the constituency is sophisticated and with high levels of experience and expertise. Metros) coming here to do a tour in the Highlands.Appendix Three Producers and Promoters Survey Tables “Would like to come together with organisations so that we can compare and share our international experiences.” “Early music ensembles and soloists.

” “I had a very short trip to Edinburgh last summer and it was very impressed. It would be wonderful to have a chance to know more about Scottish channel and develop the idea with my project in the future.Appendix Three Producers and Promoters Survey Tables “We are always interested in exploring new networks that bring international attractions to our theatre. Attendance at international arts markets or events N=66 Attendance at international arts markets or events Yes No % 74% 26% International arts markets and events attended by respondents: APAM (nine mentions) Edinburgh Festivals (eight mentions) British Council Showcase in Edinburgh (eight mentions) APAP (eight mentions) IETM (six mentions) CINARS (five mentions) Asian Arts Mart in Singapore (three mentions) Avignon Festival (two mentions) ISPA (two mentions) Tokyo Performing Arts Market (two mentions) Amsterdam Performing Arts Market (two mentions) International Children’s Festival in Scotland (two mentions) Balkan Performing Arts Market (one mention) 124 .” “So that we might be able to tap into this network with our own product.” “I am here in Scotland. Method of sourcing international work N=39 Method of sourcing international work Combination – work both proactively and reactively to source international work Proactively – I am actively sourcing international work Reactively – I respond to opportunities that are presented to me Other % 62% 21% 13% 5% Other: “Extensive overseas traveling” “Edinburgh Fringe Festival” 39.” 38.

C. Relating the experience of attending international arts markets N=46 Experience in relation to their own expectations Met my expectations Exceeded my expectations Was below my expectations Other % 65% 20% 9% 7% 125 .Appendix Three Producers and Promoters Survey Tables CID (one mention) Performing Arts Market Denmark (one mention) Very Special Arts Festival in Washington D. (one mention) Bienal de la Danse de Lyon (one mention) Montreal Comedy Festival (one mention) Kilkenny Festival (one mention) HBO Comedy Festival (one mention) Just for Laughs Festival (one mention) International Symposium on Curating New Media in Liverpool (one mention) Essen Festival (one mention) Dusseldorf Festival (one mention) Hanover Festival (one mention) CEEPAM (one mention) Shanghai Performing Arts Market (one mention) Montreal Performing Arts Market (one mention) Freiburger Kulturborse WOMEX Inthega (one mention) International Arts Managers Association of British Orchestra (one mention) IAMAFAFMICM in Cannes (one mention) Western Australia Indigenous Arts Showcase in Perth (one mention) EIF (one mention) PAMS (one mention) Venice Biennale (one mention) Istanbul Biennale (one mention) Guangghou Biennale (one mention) Zanzibar Biennale (one mention) Moscow Biennale (one mention) Tehran Biennale (one mention) International Shadow Theatre Festival in Germany (one mention) Germany International Puppetry Festival (one mention) Spain International Mime Festival (one mention) Dubin Theatre Festival (one mention) Dublin Fringe Festival (one mention) Kuopio Festival in Finland (one mention) Full Moon Festival in Finland (one mention) La Strada Festival in Austria (one mention) Vallodolid Festival in Spain (one mention) Aurillac Festival in France (one mention) Marseille Festival in France (one mention) 40.

” “Never been invited. representatives of our dance company attend such events.” “Varies from event to event.we are not a promoting agency.” “Mainly for financial reasons. He is a regular at the British Council's showcase in Edinburgh.” “I do not know of any.” 126 .” Reasons for not attending international arts markets: “Basically because we do no promotion work and engage individual artists on our lists.” “It's hard to make the time.” “Most of my projects are created and go through educational back ground with the idea of art and culture. So it is not like any competitive works. and has been to the X Trax one and APAP in NY.” “Predominantly the cost and also as the only work we present internationally is dance.Executive Producer goes.” “Didn't have enough time next to university studies.” “Limited time.” “Because they are not particularly relevant to our work . And it can be more collaborated works between international networking that I do organize mostly.” “Our director usually attends them as the representative of the company..” “Not my role ..Appendix Three Producers and Promoters Survey Tables Other: “Never attended a Scottish one” “Which international arts market? I’ve been to dozens.” “I have not been aware of any events of such type. I would possibly be interested in attending.

Appendix Three Producers and Promoters Survey Tables 41. 127 . Support that would help to develop international networks and relationships in Scotland N=57 Type of support % Financial support Opportunities to view in Scotland outside of the Edinburgh Festivals Opportunities to view work in Scotland during a research tour Web-based resource of Scottish organisations who work internationally Opportunities to view work at other international markets Dedicated person to assist with introductions and information pre-visit and then during your visit to the Edinburgh Festivals Paper-based resource of Scottish organisations who work internationally Dedicated venue of Scottish work during the Edinburgh Festivals Representatives from Scotland visiting you to explore opportunities Translational language services Other 65% 56% 53% 46% 46% 35% 30% 26% 25% 5% 23% Other: Improving the quality of work in Scotland to export. Providing a ‘promoters card’ allowing producers and promoters to see shows for free while visiting other countries. Introduce a producers’ breakfast similar to the Visiting Arts model as part of an extended international strategy. Provide more details in the Fringe brochure that will be useful for promoters.

scottish.artscouncil.pdf A Smart.ozco.pdf .gov.scottish-enterprise.pdf Draft Culture (Scotland) Bill http://www.Ireland Arts Partnerships Strategy http://www.pdf Findings Scottish Parliament.uk/Resource/Doc/145718/0038131.uk/Resource/Doc/160469/0043653.Bibliography BIBLIOGRAPHY Section Strategic Context Strategic Context Strategic Context Strategic Context Strategic Context Strategic Context Best Practice Best Practice Best Practice Best Practice Best Practice Web link/Contact Number Scotland’s strategy for stronger engagement with China.gov.ie/future/docs/PFAGoals_13Dec2005.html . The Creative Economy Workshop http://www.asialink.scotland.htm http://www.artslistings.gov.Australian Dance http://www.Scottish cultural entitlements 128 . 2006 http://www.uk/Topics/ArtsCulture/CulturalPolicy/workinggroup/workinggroup Findings .scotland.pdf Scotland’s strategy for stronger engagement with the USA.uk/Resource/Doc/151708/0040758.scotland.gov.britishcouncil.Asia Link Workshop http://www.edu.gov.uk/business/research/pdf_res_notes/rn00-67. Successful Scotland: Strategic direction to the Enterprise Networks and an enterprise strategy for Scotland http://www. 2006 http://www.Dance International Market Development Strategy (Australia) http://www.scotland.parliament.com – Arts listing for Ireland’s two Arts Councils http://www.ozco.au/boards/dance/dance_market_development .gov.pdf .au/files/4297/dimd_strategy.unimelb.scotland.uk/Resource/Doc/95406/0023096.com/publications/smart_successful_scotland_refresh.gov.pdf http://www.pdf Scottish Tourism: The Next Decade – A Tourism Framework for Change. 2006 http://www.org/scotland.au/arts/residencies/index.

129 .