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Problem 5.10

This problem is from “Advanced Fluid Mechanics Problems” by A.H. Shapiro and A.A. Sonin

PA PB = PA + Δp

area A2

(1) (2)

(a) (b)

ρ

ρ

jet: Vj , Aj

pump

The device connected between compartments A and B is a simpliﬁed version of a jet pump. A jet pump, or

ejector, is a simpliﬁed device which uses a small, very high-speed jet with relatively low volume ﬂow rate to

move ﬂuid at much larger volume ﬂow rates against a pressure diﬀerential Δp (see the ﬁgure).

The pump in the ﬁgure consists of a contoured inlet section leading to a pipe segment of constant area A2 .

A small, high velocity jet of speed Vj and area Aj injects ﬂuid, drawn from compartment A, at the entrance

plane (1) of the pipe segment. Between (1) and (2), the jet (the “primary” stream) and the secondary ﬂuid

ﬂow which is drawn in from compartment A via the contoured inlet section mix in a viscous, turbulent

fashion and eventually, at station (2), emerge as an essentially uniform-velocity stream.

We shall assume that the ﬂows are incompressible, that the ﬂow from compartment A to station (1) is

inviscid, and that, although viscous forces dominate the mixing process between (1) and (2), the shear force

exerted on the walls between those stations is small compared with Δ · A2 . The pump operates in steady

state.

(a) Derive an expression for Δp as a function of the total volume ﬂow rate Q from compartment A to

compartment B. The given quantities are Aj , A2 , ρ, and Vj . You may assume Aj « A2 to simplify

your expression.

(b) Sketch the relationship Δp vs. Q (the “pump curve”) for positive Δp and Q. Indicate the value of

Q when Δp = 0 (the “short-circuit” volume ﬂow rate). Show that for Aj « A2 , the latter is large

compared with the volume ﬂow rate Vj Aj of the jet.

(c) Sketch the pressure distribution along the line a–b for the case when Δp = 0 and for a case when

Δp > 0.

(d) Is your formulation in (a) valid when Q = 0, i.e. when the total ﬂow rate for A to B is zero? Explain.

What is the minimum value for Q which your formulation is valid?

c 2010, MIT

Linear Momentum A.H. Shapiro and A.A. Sonin 5.10

Solution:

n̂ v v · n̂ Area Pressure

(1) jet −êx vj êx −vj Aj P1

inﬂow −êx v1 êx −v1 (A2 − Aj ) P1

(2) outﬂow êx v2 êx v2 A2 PB

0 0 0

d VV 0

ρv dV + ρv(v − vc ) · n

ˆ dA = n dA +

−pˆ τ visc · n

ˆ dA + ρgVdV + Fext

dt V

CV CS CS CS V

CV

Substituting the values from the table into the above equation gives

ρvj êx (−vj )Aj + ρv1 êx (−v1 )(A2 − Aj ) + ρ(v2 êx )v2 A2

jet inﬂow outﬂow

1 V 1 1

VA 2 = P1 + ρv1 2

PA + ρv ⇒ P1 = PA − ρv1 2

V

2 2 2

1

ρv2 2 A2 − ρvj 2 Aj − ρv1 2 (A2 − Aj ) = (PA − PB )A2 − ρv1 2 A2

2

A2

⇒ ρv2 2 A2 − ρvj 2 Aj − ρv1 2 − Aj = (PA − PB )A2 = −ΔpA2 (5.10a)

2

∂ρ

dV + ρ(v − vc ) · n̂ dA = 0

∂t

CV CS

−vj Aj − v1 (A2 − Aj ) + v2 A2 = 0

v2 A2 − vj Aj

v1 =

A2 − Aj

2

Q2 Q − vj Aj A2

ΔpA2 = −ρ + ρvj 2 Aj + ρ − Aj

A2 A2 − A j 2

Q2 Aj (Q − vj Aj )2

Δp = −ρ 2 + ρvj 2 +ρ

A2 A2 2A2 2

1 Q2 Aj Qvj Aj Aj2

Δp = − ρ 2 + ρvj 2 −ρ 2 + ρvj 2

2 A2 A2 A2 2A2 2

c 2010, MIT

Linear Momentum A.H. Shapiro and A.A. Sonin 5.10

Δp

Q0 2 A (Q − v

A)2

0 = −ρ 2 + ρvj 2

j

+ρ

0 j j

Δp0

A2 A2 2A2 2

⇒ Q0 = 2vj 2 Aj A2

Aj

Δp0 = ρvj 2

A2 Q0 Q

c 2010, MIT

MIT OpenCourseWare

http://ocw.mit.edu

Fall 2013

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

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