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3.185 November 29, 1999, revised October 31, 2001, November 1, 2002, and November 5, 2003

This outlines the methodology for solving ﬂuid dynamics problems as presented in this class, from start to ﬁnish. (“W3 R” references are to the textbook for this class by Welty, Wicks, Wilson and Rorrer.) 1. Set up the problem (a) What is the question you are trying to answer? (b) Sketch the geometry (c) Choose the coordinate system, to determine which form of the NavierStokes equations will be the simplest to use (d) Label the coordinates of problem features 2. Choose the form of the NavierStokes equations, and simplify using assumptions (a) Is the ﬂuid Newtonian? i. The following ﬂuids are generally not Newtonian: A. liquid polymers, including liquid crystals (these may also be anisotropic) B. gels C. solidliquid mixtures with high solid fraction, such as semisolid metals and ceramic slurries ii. If Newtonian, use the stress given by: � � 2 τ = −µ �� + (�� )T − � · � u u uI . 3 iii. Is its viscosity constant? A. Viscosity is generally a function of temperature and composition, if both of these are both constant it’s a good bet viscosity is too. B. If constant, you can pull the viscosity µ out of shear stress derivatives in the momentum equation. (b) Is the ﬂuid compressible? i. Most liquids can be treated as incompressible for this class. ii. Gases can also be treated this way if the mach number (maximum velocity divided by the speed of sound) is below about 0.3 and pressure does not vary by more than about 5%. iii. If incompressible, Dρ = 0, so the continuity equation reduces to � · � = 0. u Dt iv. Is the density constant? A. For any single liquid, probably yes; for a multiphase liquid mixture (e.g. oil/water), probably no. B. If constant, you can take ρ out of derivatives in the continuity equation. 1

For pipe ﬂow. if Re<∼2000. (c) Is the ﬂow laminar? i. you will need to solve the timesmoothed NavierStokes equations with a turbu lence model to achieve closure on the Reynolds stresses (or else use a supercomputer to solve all of the velocity and pressure ﬂuctuations at all length scales down to the smallest eddies). the ﬂow is roughly unidirectional. (f) Can you neglect edge eﬀects?∗ i. 4. If the ﬂuid is also Newtonian with constant viscosity. (e) Is the ﬂow fullydeveloped?∗ i. it is steadystate. (d) Is the ﬂow timedependent or steadystate? i. Free ﬂows (boundary layers. use the ﬁlm thickness for L. etc. C. If steadystate. 704–705). giving an expression for the second derivative of pressure in that direction. ii. For a growing boundary layer. A. i. If fullydeveloped. Solve the resulting simpliﬁed equations by integration to give the pressure and velocity ﬁelds (a) To solve for the pressure distribution in fullydeveloped ﬂow. B. ambient noise. If so. it is timedependent. and the problem does not depend on what happens at the edges. use the noslip boundary condition. ii. ii. Determine the boundary conditions (a) If the boundary is a solid: i. Think about whether the velocity is changing at any given point in space in a ﬁxed frame of reference. For a freefalling liquid ﬁlm. the ﬂuid velocity equals the solid velocity (b) If the boundary is a free surface: u ˆ i. then you can make this assumption. You can also ignore velocity derivatives along the ﬂow direction. If laminar. the threshold is about 20. If the geometry is much wider than it is thick. ii. if not. ﬂow past a sphere. then you can make this assumption. you can ignore all time derivatives (NOT the substantial derivatives. just the partial derivatives with respect to time). use the NavierStokes equations as they are. and turbulent for Rex > 3 × 106 . Otherwise you must use the more general equations given in vector form below and substitute your constitutive equation for the shear stress.) are never fullydeveloped. you can use the components of the momentum equation given in the NavierStokes equations in W3 R Appendix E (pp. iii. etc. The boundary layer will be laminar until Rex = 105 . transitional for 105 < Rex < 3 × 106 .C. you can ignore lateral velocity derivatives (in the width direction). use distance from the leading edge x instead of L to give the local Reynolds number Rex . so you can ignore components of velocity not in that direction (if the transverse ﬂow drivers are uniform). jets.e. For conﬁned ﬂows. iii. the driving force for ﬂow is uniform across the width. it is sometimes helpful to diﬀerentiate the equation in the ﬂow direction. If so. use the diameter for L. 3. If turbulent. it will be laminar. if the entrance length is a small fraction of the overall length. The Reynolds number Re=ρuL/µ will largely determine this. and the question posed does not focus on what happens at the entrance. If these thresholds are exceeded then the ﬂuid may be transitional or fully turbulent depending on entrance conditions. the velocity normal to the surface � · n is equal to the rate of motion of the surface (zero for steadystate) 2 .

but that’s beyond 3. 9. the shear on that surface in the tangent directions is zero (or equal to the surface tension gradient. integrate the shear stress over that surface (a) Shear stress can be obtained from the velocity ﬁeld using the constitutive equation. ∗ These assumptions will give you incorrect velocity and pressure values in the entrance and edges respectively. The pressure equals the atmospheric pressure (plus the product of surface tension and mean curvature. the normal velocity to the plane is zero (if axisymmetric. so just multiply by area.185) (c) For a symmetry plane or axis of symmetry: i. but for purposes of calculating bulk ﬂow properties. but that’s beyond 3. (b) For many situations. the shear on that surface/axis τzr and τrz is zero 5. To calculate torque around an axis exerted on a surface.ii. such ﬂow rate or total shear drag force. use � � ˙ = M ρ� · ndA u ˆ S 7. To calculate volume ﬂow rate Q through a surface S (typically a cross section of the ﬂow). divide the ﬂow rate by cross section area 8. To calculate the average velocity. shear stress will be constant. The NavierStokes Equations in Vector Form The continuity equation (conservation of mass): Dρ + ρ� · � = 0 u Dt The motion equation (conservation of momentum): ρ D� u = −�p − � · τ + ρ� g Dt The same with Reynolds stresses: ρ D� u g = −�p − � · (τl + τt ) + ρ� Dt 3 . To calculate shear drag force on a surface. integrate the product of tangential shear stress and radius rτrθ over the surface. these errors should be very small.185) iii. use the integral � � Q= � · ndA u ˆ S ˙ To calculate mass ﬂow rate M through a surface S. Use the boundary conditions to determine the integration constants to derive an expression for the ﬂow velocity and pressure ﬁelds 6. the r and θvelocities are zero on the axis) ii.

τt = ρ�¯� � .where τt is the reynolds stress tensor. 704 705): mass : r−momentum : 1 ∂ 1 ∂uθ ∂uz (rur ) + + =0 r� ∂r r ∂θ ∂z � ∂ur uθ ∂ur u2 ∂ur ∂ur θ − ρ + ur + + uz = ∂t ∂r r ∂θ r ∂z � � � � ∂p ∂ 1 ∂ 1 ∂ 2 ur 2 ∂uθ ∂ 2 ur − +µ (rur ) + 2 − 2 + + Fr r ∂θ2 ∂z 2 ∂r ∂r r ∂r r ∂θ � � ∂uθ ∂uθ uθ ∂uθ ur uθ ∂uθ ρ + ur + + + uz = ∂t ∂r r ∂θ r ∂z � � � � 1 ∂p ∂ 1 ∂ 1 ∂ 2 uθ 2 ∂ur ∂ 2 uθ +µ (ruθ ) + 2 + 2 + + Fθ − r ∂θ2 r ∂θ ∂z 2 r ∂θ ∂r r ∂r � � ∂uz uθ ∂uz ∂uz ∂uz ρ + ur + + uz = ∂t ∂r r ∂θ ∂z � � � � ∂p ∂uz 1 ∂ 2 uz ∂ 2 uz 1 ∂ − +µ r + 2 + + Fz r ∂θ2 ∂z 2 ∂z r ∂r ∂r (1) (2) θ−momentum : (3) z−momentum : (4) For a nonNewtonian or compressible ﬂuid in cylindrical coordinates: mass : r−momentum : ∂ρ 1 ∂ 1 ∂ ∂ + (ρrur ) + (ρuθ ) + (ρuz ) = 0 ∂t r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z � � ∂ur uθ ∂ur u2 ∂ur ∂ur θ − ρ + ur + + uz = ∂t ∂r r ∂θ r ∂z � � ∂p 1 ∂ 1 ∂τrθ τθθ ∂τrz − − − (rτrr ) + + + Fr r ∂θ r ∂z ∂r r ∂r � � ∂uθ ∂uθ uθ ∂uθ ur uθ ∂uθ ρ + ur + + + uz = ∂t ∂r r ∂θ r ∂z � � 1 ∂p 1 ∂ 2 1 ∂τθθ ∂τθz − − (r τrθ ) + + + Fθ r ∂θ ∂z r ∂θ r2 ∂r � � ∂uz uθ ∂uz ∂uz ∂uz ρ + ur + + uz = ∂t ∂r r ∂θ ∂z � � ∂p 1 ∂ 1 ∂τθz ∂τzz − − (rτrz ) + + + Fz r ∂θ ∂z ∂z r ∂r (5) (6) θ−momentum : (7) z−momentum : (8) 4 . Cylindrical Coordinates For a Newtonian incompressible ﬂuid in cylindrical coordinates (W3 R pp. pp. see W3 R Appendix E. u� u The motion equation for an incompressible ﬂuid with constant viscosity: ρ D� u = −�p + µ�2 � + ρ� u g Dt For the NavierStokes equations in Cartesian and spherical coordinates. 704705.

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