6.7K views

Uploaded by geek3112

- Heat Exchanger Lab Report
- 27156908-CONCENTRIC-TUBE-HEAT-EXCHANGER.doc
- Lab Heat Exchanger
- Heat Exchanger Lab Report
- Free and Forced Convection Lab Report
- Drag Force in Flow Over a Body
- Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger
- Refrigeration
- Force convection experiment
- GREEN SAND PREPARATION (Manufacturing Lab /Foundry)
- LAB REPORT-Gas Absorption
- Lab Report Bl2
- Gas Absorption Lab Report
- Heat Exchanger Lab Report Shell and Tube
- Heat Exchanger
- Shell and Tube Experiment
- Profile Measurement
- Flat plate boundary.docx
- Membrane Separation
- INVESTIGATION ON ENZYME ACTIVITY AND KINETICS

You are on page 1of 19

different temperature gradient. In order to control and indicate the

te mperatures of T H i n , T H o u t , T H m i d , T C m i d , T C i n , and T C o u t as well as the hot

and cold water flow rate, we used the concentric tube heat exchanger

which was aided with ther mo meters an d flow rate meters. The e xperi ment

is separated into two parts; Part A and Part B. Part A is conducted with

varying temperatures at constant flo w rate whereas Part B is conducted

with varying flow rates at constant te mperature. In Part A, counter flow is

more efficient than parallel flow. For parallel flow, the average efficiency

is 32.33%, whereas the o verall heat transfer coefficient, U, is 0.6962

W /m 2 K a t 40°C, 1.0885 W /m 2 K a t 50°C, and 1.0098 W /m 2 K at 60°C. For

counter flow, the average efficiency is 36.88%, whereas the overall heat

transfer coefficient, U, is 1.2144 W /m 2 K at 40°C, 1.0885 W /m 2 K at 50°C,

and 1.0429 W /m 2 K at 60 °C. In part B, counter flow is also more efficient

than parallel flow. For parallel flow, the average efficiency is 33.41%,

whereas the overall heat transfer coefficient, U, is 0.8101 W /m 2 K at 2000

c m 3 / min, 1.1139 W /m 2 K at 3000 cm 3 / min, and 1.0818 W /m 2 K at 4000

c m 3 / min. For counter flow, the average efficiency is 34.42%, whereas the

overall heat transfer coefficient, U, is 0.9572 W /m 2 K at 2000 cm 3 / min,

1.1139 W /m 2 K at 3000 cm 3 / min, and 1. 0818 W /m 2 K at 4000 cm 3 / min. The

experi ment is co mpleted and successf ully conducted.

c

INTRODUCTION

The heat exchange process bet ween t he fluids that are at distinct

te mperatures with a separation of solid wall occurs in many engineering

applications. Heat exchanger is a device used to imple ment this exchange

process. A fe w applications may include space heati ng and air-

conditioning, waste heat recovery and che mical processing.

flow arrange ment accordance and con struction type. The heat exchanger

applied in this experiment is the si mplest one, with the hot as well as the

cold fluids move in the sa me or opposi te directions in a concentric tube

construction. In the parallel flow arrange ment, both hold and cold fluids

enter at the sa me end, flo w in the sa me direction, and leave at the same

end. In the counter flow arrange ment, t he fluids enter at different ends,

flow in different directions, and leave at different ends. The two

configurations are differentiated by an idealisation that controls the fluid

motion over the tubes as being unmi xe d or mixed.

The heats were transferred bet ween t wo fluids via convention mode,

which refers to the hot fluid to the wall and also by conduction which

occur within the wall itself and back to the convection process fro m wall to

the cold fluid.

h

AIMS / OBJECTIVES

principles of concentric flow heat exchanger under parallel as well as

counter flow conditions, to demonstrate the effect of heat water inlet

te mperature variation on the performa nce characteri stics of a concentric

tube heat exchanger, to demonstrate the effect of flow rate variation on

the performance of a concentric tube heat exchanger and also to

deter mine the mo st efficient of concen tric tube heat e xchanger whether it

is the parallel flow or counter-current flow.

THEORY

conductive-convective types of heat exchanger. Parallel flow is defined as

when both fluids enter the concentric tube heat exchanger fro m the sa me

sides and flow through the sa me directions whereas the counter flow is

defined as when both fluids enter from the opposite sides and flow

through the opposite directions. It is co mmonly claimed that the counter

flow is more efficient than the parallel flow.

any distance 2 along the tubes bet wee n the hot and cold fluids is given by

þ

where

TH : hot fluid temperature

TC : cold fluid temperature

U : the overall heat transfer coefficient based on either the

inside or outside area of the tube.

changes along the tube. Therefore, in order to calculate the heat transfer

between the t wo fluids, equation (1) should be integrated between the

inlet and outlet conditions, giving that

and it can be given as

difference (LMTD) and is valid for both flow conditions. The derivation

shown above is made according to two significant assumptions: first, the

fluid specific heats do not vary with te mperature and second, the heat

convection heat transfer coefficients are constant throughout the

exchanger. The second assu mptions a re influenced by entrance effects,

fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity changes.

The heat loss from the hot fluid flowing in the inner tube can be

deter mined from

(

qH = H Cp H (T H i n ± T H o u t ) ......... ........... ..........(4)

where

Cp H = hot water specific heat

THin = hot fluid temperature at entrance

T H ou t = hot fluid temperature at e xit

Si milarly, the heat gained by the cold fluid flowing in the space between

the inner and outer pipes can be calculated fro m

where

Cp C = cold water specific heat

TCin = cold fluid temperature at entrance

T C ou t = cold fluid temperature at e xit

insulating material to the surrounding air, abide the outer surface of the

concentric tube is insulated. Thus, the efficiency can be obtained from

= q C ................... ...........(6)

qH

'

The effectiveness of a heat exchanger is defined as

Maximum Possible Heat Transf er

The value of the actual heat transfer may be obtained f rom calculating

the energy lost by the hot f luid f rom equation (4) or the energy gained by the

cold f luid f rom equation (5). Since the energy gained by the cold f luid is lost

through the insulating material to the surrounding air, it is pref erable to

substitute the value of energy lost by the hot f luid as the actual heat transf er in

equation (7).

In order to determine the maximum possible heat transf er for the heat

exchanger, one of the f luids is logically required to undergo a temperature

change which represents the maximum temperature diff erence present in the

heat exchanger, which is the diff erence in the temperatures for the hot and cold

f luids entering the heat exchanger. Likewise, the f luid is the one having the

minimum value of Cp. Thus, the ma xi mu m possible heat transfer then can

be expressed as

The minimu m fluid may be either the hot or cold fluid, depending on the

mass flo w rates and specific heats, and so the efficiency , is

q max

K

APPARATUS

- W ater tank

- Thermo meters

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

4. The hot water flo w rate is set at 3000 cm 3 / min and the cold water flow

rate at 2000 cm 3 / min.

6. The syste m is let stable until T H i n is 40°C and the values of the

te mperature at T H o u t , T H m i d , T C m i d , T C i n , and T C ou t are taken.

60°C.

±

Part B: Constant te mperature, varies flow rates

3. The hot and cold water flow rates ar e set at 2000 cm 3 / min.

and T C ou t are taken.

5. Step 3 and 4 are repeated by varying the hot water flo w rate to 3000

c m 3 / min and 4000 cm 3 / min.

RESULTS

3 3

( cm /m i n) ( cm /m i n)

Exchanger TH in TH mid TH out TC in TC mid TC out

40 39 38 29 30 31

Parallel 50 48 45 29 30 36 3000 2000

Flow 60 56 53 29 33 39

40 39 37 29 30 32

Counter 50 48 45 29 31 36 3000 2000

Flow 60 57 53 29 33 40

Part B: Constant te mperature, varies flow rates

( cm 3 /m i n) ( cm 3 /m i n)

Exchanger TH in TH mid TH out TC in TC mid TC out

54 51 27 31 36 2000

Parallel 60 56 52 27 32 38 3000 2000

Flow 57 54 27 33 39 4000

55 50 27 30 37 2000

Counter 60 56 52 27 31 38 3000 2000

Flow 58 54 27 32 39 4000

SAMPLE CALCULATIONS

Take that the density of saturated wat er, ȡ = 988 kg/ ù , the specific heat

capacity of hot and cold water as Cp H @ 6 0 ° C = 4.185 kJ/kg. K and Cp C @ 2 9 ° C

= 4.179 kJ/kg. K respectively and the heat transmission area, A = 0.067

ù .

H = H ȡ C = C ȡ

_

= 0.1375 kJ/s.K

= 1.4472 W

Ma xi mu m heat transferred, q m a x =
(T H i n ± T C i n )

= 0.1375 kJ/s.K (333 ± 302) K

= 4.2625 W

Efficiency, = qH x 100 %

q max

= 1.4472 W x 100%

= 4.2625 W

= 33.95 %

ln (¨T i n / ¨T o u t )

(333-302)K ± (326-312)K

ln ((333-302)K/(326-312)K)

= 21.39 K

c

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, U = q

A x ¨T l m

= 1.4448 W

0.067 m 2 x 21.39 K

= 1.0098 W /m 2 K

(W ) (%) (W /m 2 K)

40 0.4128 1.5125 27.29 0.6962

Parallel Flow 50 1.0327 2.8875 35.76 32.33 1.0885

60 1.4472 4.2625 33.95 1.0098

40 0.6192 1.5125 40.94 1.2144

Counter Flow 50 1.0327 2.8875 35.76 36.88 1.0885

60 1.4471 4.2625 33.95 1.0429

cc

Part B: Constant te mperature, varies flow rates

988 kg/ù , the specific heat capacity of hot and cold water as CpH @ 6 0 ° C =

4.185 kJ/kg. K and CpC @ 2 7 ° C = 4.179 kJ/kg. K respectively and the hea t

trans mission area, A = 0.067 ù .

H = H ȡ C = C ȡ

= 0.1375 kJ/s.K

q H = H Cp H (T H i n ± T H o u t )

= 1.6547 W

Ma xi mu m heat transferred, q m a x =
(T H i n ± T C i n )

= 0.1375 kJ/s. K (333 ± 300) K

= 4.5375 W

ch

Efficiency, = qH x 100 %

q max

= 1.6547 W x 100%

4.5375 W

= 36.47 %

ln (¨T i n / ¨T o u t )

(333-300)K ± (327-312)K

ln ((333-300)K/(327-312)K)

= 22.83 K

A x ¨T l m

= 1.6547 W

0.067 m 2 x 22.83 K

= 1.0818 W /m 2 K

Exchanger Rate (%) (W /m 2 K)

(cm 3 /m in)

2000 1.2392 4.5375 27.31 0.8101

Parallel 3000 1.6539 4.5375 36.45 33.41 1.139

Flow 4000 1.6547 4.5375 36.47 1.0818

2000 1.3769 4.5373 30.34 0.9572

Counter 3000 1.6539 4.5375 36.45 34.42 1.1139

Flow 4000 1.6547 4.5375 36.47 1.0818

cþ

SAMPLE ERROR CALCULATIONS

Parallel flow :

100

= 100% ± 32.33 %

100 %

= 0.6767%

Counter Flow :

100

= 100% ± 34.42 %

100 %

= 0.6558%

c(

DISCUSSION

experi ment; to de mon strate the workin g principles of concentric flow heat

exchanger under parallel as well as counter flow conditions, to

de monstrate the effect of heat water inlet temperature variation on the

performan ce characteristics of a co ncentric tube heat exchanger, to

de monstrate the effect of flo w rate variation on the perfor mance of a

concentric tube heat exchanger and the most important part of the

objectives is to determine the most ef ficient flow of concentric tube heat

exchanger whether it is the parallel flow or counter-current flow.

objectives. The heat e xchanger itself is co mbined with ther mo meters and

flow rate meters. Thus, the control of t he hot fluids temperatures and both

hot and cold fluids flow rates are made easier. W e can observe the values

of T H i n , T H o u t , T H m i d , T C m i d , T C i n , and T C ou t . This e xperiment is conducted

with two parts of separated conditions, which are by varying the flow rates

at constant te mperature and by varying the te mperatures at constant flow

rate.

60°C at 3000 cm 3 / min of the hot fluids flow rate and 2000 cm 3 / min for th e

cold fluids flow rate. The efficiency of parallel flow calculated is 32.33%

and values of the overall heat transfer coefficients are 0.6962 W /m 2 K at

40°C¸ 1.0885 W /m 2 K at 50° C and 1.0098 W /m 2 K at 60° C. In contrary, the

calculated results for counter flow is 36.88 % of efficiency and the overall

c'

heat transfer coefficients are 1.2144 W /m 2 K at 40°C, 1.0885 W /m 2 K a t

50°C and 1.0429 W /m 2 K at 60°C.

fluid flow rates. However, the cold fluid flow rate is maintained constant at

2000 c m 3 / min for both parallel and counter flow. The calculated efficiency

for parallel flow is 33.41% whereas th e overall heat transfer coefficient is

0.8101 W /m 2 K at 2000 cm 3 / min of hot fluid flow rates, 0.9572 W /m 2 K at

3000 cm 3 / min and 1.0818 W /m 2 K at 4000 cm 3 / min. For counter flow, the

efficiency is 34.42% mean while the heat transfer coefficients are 0.9572

W /m 2 K at 2000 cm 3 / min, 1.1139 W /m 2 K at 3000 cm 3 / min and 1.0818

W /m 2 K a t 4000 cm 3 / min.

Notice that for both e xperi ments in part A and Part B, the counter

flow produce greater efficiency than parallel flow. This result follows the

theoretical conclusion where counter flow heat exchanger is more efficient

than parallel flow. Ho wever, there are a lot of errors and mistakes that

may have affected the results obtained. The very co mmon error occurs

during conducting the experiments are careless way of reading the

ther mo meters when taking the te mp eratures of fluids. The eye of an

observer must be parallel to the thermo meter meniscus to avoid parallax

error. Another mistake that may have been co mmitted is not pressing the

enter button after setting the tempe ratures. This has caused a minor

problem when the te mperature always manipulate even after setting it to

the desired temperature. Besides that, the flow rates always change

easily during the experi ments. Moreo ver, the reading of T H in fro m the

typical laboratory thermo meter is mere ly different from the reading on the

digital thermo meter.

cK

CONCLUSION

parallel flow, the average efficiency is 32.33%, whereas the overall heat

transfer coefficient, U, is 0.6962 W /m 2 K at 40°C, 1.0885 W /m 2 K at 50°C,

and 1.0098 W /m 2 K at 60 °C. For counte r flow, the average efficiency is

36.88%, whereas the overall heat transfer coefficient, U, is 1.2144 W /m 2 K

at 40°C, 1.0885 W /m 2 K at 50°C, and 1. 0429 W /m 2 K at 60 °C.

In part B, counter flow is also more efficient than parallel flow. For

parallel flow, the average efficiency is 33.41%, whereas the overall heat

transfer coefficient, U, is 0.8101 W /m 2 K at 2000 cm 3 / min, 1.1139 W /m 2 K

at 3000 cm 3 / min, and 1.0818 W /m 2 K at 4000 cm 3 / min. For counter flow,

the average efficiency is 34.42%, wher eas the overall heat transfer

coefficient, U, is 0.9572 W /m 2 K at 200 0 cm 3 / min, 1.1139 W /m 2 K at 3000

c m 3 / min, and 1.0818 W /m 2 K at 4000 cm 3 / min.

RECOMMENDATIONS

considered when conducting this experiment so that better results can be

obtained with fewer errors.

c±

First and foremost, the eye of an obser ver must be parallel to the

meniscus when reading the te mperatures. This is to assure that no

parallax error is commit ted.

order to get average values. Thus, comparisons can be made and the

results are more convincing and precise.

monitored thoroughly during the experiment so that they re main constant.

This is to avoid such erroneous results or else, the objectives of the

experi ment may not be achieved succe ssfully.

avoided and they should be assured to work properly. In addition, any

direct contact with the water or the instru ments should as well be avoided

as this experi ment involves hot fluids which can cause burn to skin.

c

REFERENCES

W iley & sons (Asia) Pte Ltd

2. Saunders, E. A. (1988). Heat Exchang es: Selection, Design and

Construction. New York: Long man Scientific and Technical.

APPENDICES

c_

- Heat Exchanger Lab ReportUploaded byJohnConor
- 27156908-CONCENTRIC-TUBE-HEAT-EXCHANGER.docUploaded bymuiz_jojo
- Lab Heat ExchangerUploaded byBaiti Atiqah
- Heat Exchanger Lab ReportUploaded byRam Krishna Singh
- Free and Forced Convection Lab ReportUploaded byMoWatts17
- Drag Force in Flow Over a BodyUploaded byHazril Lifebooks
- Concentric Tube Heat ExchangerUploaded bygoncaass
- RefrigerationUploaded bysayabudakcomey
- Force convection experimentUploaded byseharis7
- GREEN SAND PREPARATION (Manufacturing Lab /Foundry)Uploaded byFakhrur Razi
- LAB REPORT-Gas AbsorptionUploaded bymizizasbonkure90
- Lab Report Bl2Uploaded byAhmad Hafizuddin
- Gas Absorption Lab ReportUploaded byMuhammad Nasrul
- Heat Exchanger Lab Report Shell and TubeUploaded byM Abdur Rehman
- Heat ExchangerUploaded byFarisRazzak
- Shell and Tube ExperimentUploaded byAtikah Abu Bakar
- Profile MeasurementUploaded bynajieyuya
- Flat plate boundary.docxUploaded byHaikal Zulkifli
- Membrane SeparationUploaded bySharing Caring
- INVESTIGATION ON ENZYME ACTIVITY AND KINETICSUploaded byMuhammad Arshad
- Lab Report of Heat ExchangerUploaded bySalam Albaradie
- L9-Tubular Flow ReactorUploaded byCik Tiem Ngagiman
- CONCENTRIC TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER LAB REPORTUploaded byizham hakimi
- CPE533 Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Full Lab ReportUploaded byFazsroul
- Air CndtoningUploaded bysusanooabc
- Tray Dryer ExperimentUploaded bygeek3112
- Basic Water Properties 2 ExperimentUploaded bygeek3112
- Report Tray DryerUploaded bySharing Caring
- HEAT EXCHANGERUploaded bywandee2393

- Osbourne Reynolds Apparatus ExperimentUploaded bygeek3112
- WAN COMEL 2Uploaded bygeek3112
- Tray Dryer ExperimentUploaded bygeek3112
- Properties of Gas and Liquid ExperimentUploaded bygeek3112
- DO ExperimentUploaded bygeek3112
- Identifying an Unknown Weak Acids ExperimentUploaded bygeek3112
- Basic Water Properties 2 ExperimentUploaded bygeek3112

- An Overview of Combined Cycle Power Plant _ EEPUploaded byrereilham
- m18_l27-trickling_filter-contd.pdfUploaded byQais Alsafasfeh
- Expulsion Fuse Links for Use in High Voltage (Liston Fusible)Uploaded byLeon Ortega
- Silk Exports from Pakistan & ChinaUploaded byArslanmayo
- guia rapida L7.pdfUploaded byjuan
- Chad Cameroon PipelineUploaded byskhhml
- 0900766 b 801223 d 1Uploaded byGindiMan
- Motor StarterUploaded byShukor Az
- Presentation on Vocational Training at NSPCL,BHILAIUploaded bySanKhan
- DIN 4024Uploaded byMuhammad Hassan
- 2N700Uploaded byDiego Javier Ramirez Perez
- 74S02N.pdfUploaded byOsman Koçak
- Just Say No to Big Brother's Smart Meters: The Latest in Bio-Hazard Technology by Orlean KoehleUploaded byVen Geancia
- Vector NDB 125-250 2008-01Uploaded byAlchemist_JVC
- R06_41SIUploaded byBryan Vertuodaso
- Measurement and Numerical Prediction of Residual Stresses in Steel Welds subject to Heat TreatmentUploaded bysusanweb
- Dual DegreeUploaded bykhananu
- Fuel Volume 87 Issue 13-14 2008 [Doi 10.1016%2Fj.fuel.2008.03.025] Freshteh Raoof; Majid Taghizadeh; Ali Eliassi; Fereydoon Yaripou -- Effects of Temperature and Feed Composition on Catalytic DehydratUploaded byTamoor Tariq
- 01 - Boiler Performance & DesignUploaded byBhargav Chaudhari
- Chemical BondingUploaded bypumeananda
- pages (5)Uploaded bymetasoniko2014
- 2854 Jan 07Uploaded byExamStuff
- Week 1-1 IntroductionUploaded byJenny Go
- Progress-Energy-Carolinas-Inc-Meter-Related-Optional-Programs-Rider/MROPUploaded byGenability
- IEEE Color Books OverviewUploaded bybanjan0230
- exp1-newUploaded bysabitavabi
- 2nd unit Answers.pptxUploaded byAki Avlon
- Cartex-DN-EN-14.05.2009Uploaded bykeyur1109
- Molten Salt PumpUploaded byMuhamed Badawi
- Case Study on Adani Group ShivUploaded bymitshua