American University of Sharjah College of Engineering

Civil Engineering Program

Instructor: Arshi Faridi
E-mail: Course: CVE 202 Experiment #: 1

Deformed and Plain Billet-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement
To determine the tensile properties of deformed and plain steel bars for concrete reinforcement according to ASTM A-615.

Structural engineers need to know the strength and deformation characteristics of the material used in construction when making calculations to assess the load carrying capacity of the structural elements. For steel, this information can be measured in the tensile test. The results obtained in tensile testing are of considerable importance to engineers and designers. In many instances, a metal component does not have to fracture to be deemed to have failed in service; plastic deformation and buckling is failure and, in consequence, it is vital to know the level of stress at which plastic yielding begins. Some metals, principally steels, possess a pronounced yield point, but most show a smooth transition from elastic to plastic deformation behavior. In the tensile test, the specimen is pulled in a testing machine until it fractures. During the test, the force and elongation of the sample are recorded. These tests provide information on the stress and strain characteristics of the steel. In addition, the tests also provide useful information on the material stiffness and ductility. Ductility is defined as the ability of a material to deform plastically before fracturing. The available carbon content greatly influence the ductile property of steel. Modulus of elasticity is the ratio of stress to corresponding strain below the proportional limit. Proportional limit is the greatest stress, which a material is capable of sustaining without any deviation from proportionality of stress to strain (Hooke’s law). Stress-strain diagram is a diagram in which corresponding values of stress and strain are plotted against each other. Tensile strength is the maximum tensile stress, which a material is capable of sustaining. Tensile strength is calculated from the maximum load during a tension test carried to rupture and the original cross-sectional area of the specimen. Yield strength, YS is the engineering stress at which by convention, it is considered that plastic elongation of the material has commenced. This stress may be specified in terms of (a) a specified deviation from a linear stress-strain relationship, (b) a specified total extension attained, or (c) maximum or minimum engineering stresses measured during discontinuous yielding. See Fig. 1.

Center punch or a marker Test Sample All mechanical tests shall be conducted in accordance with Test Methods and Definitions A 370 including Annex A9. The unit stress determination shall be based on the nominal bar area. Testing Procedure: 1. Tensile properties (strength and elongation) Bending properties (180 degrees) Weight variations Finish According to the ASTM A615. Grade 60 (420).The ASTM A615 covers the determination of the following properties of steel: • • • • • Deformation measurements (height and spacing). Measure the bar length in mm (the bar should have minimum length of 300mm). 2. 3. . 2. Tensile testing machine. Vernier. Weigh the steel sample in gm. Tension test specimens shall be the full section of the bar as rolled. Fig. and Grade 75 (520). 1: Stress-Strain diagram for determination of yield strength Equipment: 1. Grade 40 (300). deformed steel bars used for concrete reinforcement are manufactured basically in three grades.

ASTM A370-97 3. Complete the attached data sheet and calculations. 4.3. 7. tensile strength and percentage elongation. Determine the compliance of the steel bar with the ASTM A615 requirements. Obtain the yield and ultimate loads (Py and Pu). at which an increase in strain occurs without an increase in stress. The tensile requirements (strength and elongation) of deformed steel bars. Table 1: Tensile properties Reporting: Calculate the specimens yield strength. 5. References: 1. “Testing of Materials” by Vernon John. Apply the tensile load to the bar and plot the load extension curve. Determine yield point by recognizing the first stress in a material. ASTM A615-96 2. 1992 . as stated by the ASTM A615. Measure the final bar length after failure by fitting the ends of the fractured specimen together carefully and measuring the final distance of the 200 mm gage. less than the maximum obtainable stress. 6. Fit the bar in the tension machine at 200 mm gage distance. shall conform to the requirements for tensile properties prescribed in Table 1.

Calculated Diameter (mm): -Gage/Testing Length (mm): .00785 4 Ultimate strength (Fu) = .Percentage elongation Specimen 2 Specimen 3 Where: Cross sectional area (A) = Yield strength (Fy) = Py A Pu A Weight πD 2 = Lengthx0.Yield Stress (MPa): .Yield Load Py (kN): .Tensile Strength (MPa): .DATA/CALCULATIONS SHEET Sample Identification:___________________________________ Sample Source: _______________________________________ Tested By: ____________________________ Date: ______________________ Specimen 1 -Bar Size -Weight (gm): -Total Length (mm): .Cross Sectional Area (mm2): .Final gage length (mm): .Ultimate Load Pu (kN): .

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