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You are on page 1of 45

1. Type of gears

2. Terminologies or nomenclatures

3. Gear train

4. Types of Gear Train

FRICTION WHEELS

GEAR

It is a circular wheel

having teeth's on its

peripheries shown in

diagram used to

transmit the rotary

motion.

TYPE OF GEARS

1. Spurs (external / internal

threaded)

2. Gear Sector

3. Gear Rack

4. Internal Gear

5. Bevel Gear

6. Helical (external / internal

threaded)

7. Herringbone Gear

8. Worm Gears

TYPES OF GEARS

1. SPUR GEARS

•A spur gear is a wheel or cylinder with teeth cut

parallel with the axis of rotation.

•Spur gears are the simplest and most widely used

type of gear for transmitting motion between shafts

that are parallel to each other.

GEAR AND PINION

The larger of the two is referred to as the

gear, while the smaller one is called the

pinion.

Either could be a driver and the other the

driven member.

SPUR GEAR (TERMS)

Pitch Circle - The pitch circle of a spur gear is an

imaginary circle passing through the points at which

the teeth of the meshing gears contact each other.

It is located about midway in the tooth's depth.

is the diameter of the pitch circle.

represents the number of teeth per inch of pitch

diameter and thus gives some indication of the size of

the gear teeth.

SPUR GEAR (TERMS)

from the center of one tooth to the center of the next

consecutive tooth measured on the pitch circle.

It may also be defined as the distance between two

corresponding points on adjacent teeth measured

along the pitch circle.

tooth that projects above or outside of the pitch circle.

tooth space that is cut below the pitch circle and is

equal to the addendum plus the clearance.

SPUR GEAR (TERMS)

Outside Diameter - The outside diameter of a spur gear

is equal to the pitch diameter plus two times the

addendum.

that there will be a small space, or clearance, between the

top of the tooth (the outside diameter) and the bottom of

the tooth space (the root circle) of the meshing gear.

The clearance is the difference between the whole depth

and the working depth.

from the top of a tooth to the bottom.

It is equal to the addendum plus the dedendum.

The dedendum includes the clearance.

SPUR GEAR (TERMS)

Working Depth - The working depth is the distance

to which a tooth extends into the tooth space of the

meshing gear.

It is equal to twice the addendum.

in Mesh - The center-to-center distance is the

measurement from the center of one gear to the

center of a meshing gear.

It is equal to one-half of the pitch diameter of one

gear plus one-half of the pitch diameter of the

meshing gear.

SPUR GEAR (TERMS)

Form of the Spur Gear Tooth –

The common form of gear tooth is known as the involute

form.

curve on the sides of a gear tooth.

is the angle between the tangent to the pitch circles and

the perpendicular line through the point of contact of the

two meshing gears. A standard pressure angle is 14 1/20

proportion to its length than the involute tooth.

SPUR GEAR (TERMS)

Form of the Spur Gear Tooth –

The common form of gear tooth is known as the involute

form.

curve on the sides of a gear tooth.

is the angle between the tangent to the pitch circles and

the perpendicular line through the point of contact of the

two meshing gears. A standard pressure angle is 14 1/20

proportion to its length than the involute tooth.

SPUR GEAR (TERMS)

Chordal Thickness of a Gear Tooth - The chordal

thickness of a gear tooth is the distance in a straight

line (chord) from one side of a tooth to the other side

at points where the pitch circle passes through the

tooth

corrected addendum of a gear tooth is the distance

from the top of a tooth to the chord across the tooth

at the pitch circle

SPUR GEAR (TERMS)

ABBREVIATIONS USED IN SPUR GEAR

A=Addendum

A + F = Dedendum

CD = Center Distance

DP= Diametral pitch

CP = Circular pitch

F = Clearance

N = Number of teeth

N0 = Number of teeth in gear

Np= Number of teeth in pinion

OD = Outside diameter

PD= Pitch diameter

T = Thickness of tooth

W = Whole depth of tooth

2. GEAR SECTOR –

A gear sector is a wheel that has teeth

on a part of its periphery only.

It is used to transmit power in an

intermittent manner.

3. GEAR RACK –

A gear rack is a flat surface on

which teeth h.ave been cut.

Rectangular stock is commonly

used, but square and round stock

may be used, as on the side of a

shaft.

It is used to change rotary motion to

reciprocating motion.

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS USED FOR SPUR

GEARS ARE IDENTICAL FOR GEAR RACKS

clearance, and pressure angle.

imaginary line, which passes through the teeth,

separating the addendum from the dedendum.

It corresponds to the pitch circle of a gear.

is the distance from the center of one tooth to the

center of the next tooth.

It corresponds to the circular pitch of a gear.

4. INTERNAL GEAR

An internal gear is one in which teeth are cut on

the inner surface of a ring, instead of being cut on

the outside of a wheel.

inside diameter of an internal gear is the size of

the hole to be bored before the teeth are cut.

It is equal to the pitch diameter minus two

addendums.

5. BEVEL GEARS

A bevel gear is one in which the teeth are cut so that

they radiate from the apex of a cone and lie on the

conical surface.

Bevel gears are used to transmit motion from one

shaft to another shaft at an angle to the first.

The terms used for spur gears have the same

mean.ing for bevel gears.

However, some additional terms are peculiar to

bevel gears

5. BEVEL GEARS TERMS

Vertex Distance of a Bevel Gear - The vertex

distance of a bevel gear is equal to the altitude of the

pitch cone.

of a bevel gear is the angle at which the gear blank is

held while cutting the teeth on a milling machine.

Bevel gears are also cut on special and machines.

angle is the angle between the conical surface of the

pitch cone and the center line.

5. BEVEL GEARS TERMS

Face Angle of a Bevel Gear - The face angle is the

angle to which the gear blank is machined before

cutting the teeth.

mating bevel gears having the same number of teeth

and pitch cone angles of 45°.

6. HELICAL GEARS

A helical gear is one with teeth cut on a cylinder and

at an angle with the axis of rotation of the gear body.

Helical gears are used to transmit motion from one

shaft to another shaft, which is parallel with it, as

with spur gears, or to another shaft, which is not

parallel with it,

Usually designed to run in an oil bath, as in an

automobile transmission.

6. HELICAL GEARS TERMS

the angle at which the teeth of a helical gear are

slanted across the face of the gear.

Lead of a Helical Gear - The lead of a helical gear

is the distance that the gear, if thought of as a

multiple thread, would advance in one complete

revolution of the gear.

7. HERRINGBONE GEARS

Originally, a herringbone gear consisted of two helical

gears of equal size but of opposite hand joined

together.

Today, most herringbone gears are produced as a

single unit on special machines which cut the teeth in

two directions at one time.

ADVANTAGES OF HERRINGBONE GEARS

The sliding action of helical gear teeth exerts

pressure of one gear toward the other, which must be

compensated for the use of thrust bearings. The

thrust is equalized when herringbone gears are used.

Herringbone gears have a greater bearing surface

than other gears of like size,' which gives them

exceptional tooth strength and heavy load carrying

capacity.

They are more satisfactory than other gears where a

large ratio between gears is necessary.

They stand up under continuous high speed

operation better than other gears.

8. WORM & WORM GEARS

A warm gear is wheel having teeth cut angular

with axis of rotation and radially in the gear

face.

A worm is a cylinder with teeth resembling

those of an acme thread.

The worm is mounted on a shaft, which is

perpendicular to the shaft of the worm gear.

Worm gears are used for· heavy-duty work

where a large ratio of speed is required.

They are used extensively in speed reducers.

8. WORM GEARS

TERMS USED IN WORM GEARING

TERMS USED IN WORM GEARING THAT ARE

NOT USED FOR OTHER TYPES OF GEARS

The terms throat, throat radius, and throat diameter

are important in worm gearing.

worm is the distance between the center of one tooth

and the center of an adjacent tooth, measured

perpendicular to the teeth.

is the concave surface of the gear tooth.

TERMS USED IN WORM GEARING THAT ARE

NOT USED FOR OTHER TYPES OF GEARS

radius of a worm gear is the radius of the concave

surface of the throat.

diameter of a worm gear is the diameter of the gear,

measured at the center of the throat.

worm gear is the angle to which the face of the gear

is cut.

GEAR RATIO AND SIZE

The gear ratio of a pair of meshing gears expresses a

relationship between the numbers of teeth each gear

contains.

It is usually written as a fraction or ratio reduced to

its lowest terms- for example: 3: 1, 5: 2, 22: 1, and the

like.

The size of a gear is given in terms of its pitch

diameter.

The ratio of pitch diameters of a pair of meshing

gears is the same as the gear ratio.

SPEED RATIO

The speed ratio of a pair of meshing gears expresses the

relationship between the rpm of each gear.

It is usually expressed as a fraction or ratio reduced to its

lowest terms.

Speed ratio is the inverse of gear ratio.-that is, a speed

ratio of 1:4 will be produced by two meshing gears with a

gear or size ratio of 4: 1.

The smaller of the two gears will always rotate at a higher

rpm than the larger gear.

Speed ratios and gear ratios can be calculated from the

number of teeth in each meshing gear.

For example, the gear ratio of a pair of gears with 24 and

48 teeth is found as follows:

48/24= 2/1=2: 1 gear ratio

Note that the smaller number usually is used as the

denominator when calculating gear ratios.

TWO TYPES OF GEAR TRAINS.

1. Simple Gear Train

2. The Compound Gear Train.

Simple Gear Train

A simple gear train consists of two or more gears

mounted on separate shafts.

COMPOUND GEAR TRAIN

A compound gear train is a series of gears with two of the

intermediate gears mounted on the same shaft and

rotating at the same speed.

A compound gear train requires at least four gears.

A driver and a driven gear at each end of the train, with

two intermediate gears mounted on the same shaft.

Compound gearing permits a greater range of gear ratio

combinations within a limited space than is possible for

simple gear trains.

TYPES OF GEAR TRAIN

Sun and planet gear train

Differential gear train

BACKLASH

Backlash is a clearance or lost motion in a mechanism

caused by gaps between the parts.

Reasons for the presence of backlash include allowing

for lubrication, manufacturing errors, deflection under

load, and thermal expansion.

Some backlash must be allowed to prevent jamming.

There are three basic ways to reduce or eliminate

backlash: precision gears, modified gears, and special

designs that use components other than gears.

RACK AND PINION

PINION

WORM GEAR

DIFFERENTIAL GEAR TRAIN

DIFFERENTIAL GEAR TRAIN

Planetary gear train ( sun and planet gear train)

TYPES OF GEAR TRAIN

2. Compound gear train

3. Sun and planet gear train

4. Differential gear train

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