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# GEARS

1. Type of gears
2. Terminologies or nomenclatures
3. Gear train
4. Types of Gear Train
FRICTION WHEELS
GEAR
It is a circular wheel
having teeth's on its
peripheries shown in
diagram used to
transmit the rotary
motion.
TYPE OF GEARS
1. Spurs (external / internal
2. Gear Sector
3. Gear Rack
4. Internal Gear
5. Bevel Gear
6. Helical (external / internal
7. Herringbone Gear
8. Worm Gears
TYPES OF GEARS

## SECTOR GEAR HERRINGBONE GEAR RACK & PINION

1. SPUR GEARS
•A spur gear is a wheel or cylinder with teeth cut
parallel with the axis of rotation.
•Spur gears are the simplest and most widely used
type of gear for transmitting motion between shafts
that are parallel to each other.
GEAR AND PINION

##  Two gears in mesh are called a pair of gears.

 The larger of the two is referred to as the
gear, while the smaller one is called the
pinion.
 Either could be a driver and the other the
driven member.
SPUR GEAR (TERMS)
 Pitch Circle - The pitch circle of a spur gear is an
imaginary circle passing through the points at which
the teeth of the meshing gears contact each other.
 It is located about midway in the tooth's depth.

##  Pitch Diameter - The pitch diameter of a spur gear

is the diameter of the pitch circle.

##  Diametral Pitch - The diametral pitch of a gear

represents the number of teeth per inch of pitch
diameter and thus gives some indication of the size of
the gear teeth.
SPUR GEAR (TERMS)

##  Circular Pitch - The circular pitch is the distance

from the center of one tooth to the center of the next
consecutive tooth measured on the pitch circle.
 It may also be defined as the distance between two
corresponding points on adjacent teeth measured
along the pitch circle.

tooth that projects above or outside of the pitch circle.

##  Dedendum - The dedendum is the portion of the

tooth space that is cut below the pitch circle and is
equal to the addendum plus the clearance.
SPUR GEAR (TERMS)
 Outside Diameter - The outside diameter of a spur gear
is equal to the pitch diameter plus two times the

##  Clearance of a Gear Tooth - Gear teeth are designed so

that there will be a small space, or clearance, between the
top of the tooth (the outside diameter) and the bottom of
the tooth space (the root circle) of the meshing gear.
 The clearance is the difference between the whole depth
and the working depth.

##  Whole Depth - The whole depth of a tooth is the distance

from the top of a tooth to the bottom.
 It is equal to the addendum plus the dedendum.
 The dedendum includes the clearance.
SPUR GEAR (TERMS)
 Working Depth - The working depth is the distance
to which a tooth extends into the tooth space of the
meshing gear.
 It is equal to twice the addendum.

##  Center-to-Center Distance between Two Gears

in Mesh - The center-to-center distance is the
measurement from the center of one gear to the
center of a meshing gear.
 It is equal to one-half of the pitch diameter of one
gear plus one-half of the pitch diameter of the
meshing gear.
SPUR GEAR (TERMS)
 Form of the Spur Gear Tooth –
 The common form of gear tooth is known as the involute
form.

##  Involute - The term involute refers to the shape of the

curve on the sides of a gear tooth.

##  Pressure Angle of Involute Gear - The pressure angle

is the angle between the tangent to the pitch circles and
the perpendicular line through the point of contact of the
two meshing gears. A standard pressure angle is 14 1/20

##  Stub Tooth - A stub tooth is one that is thicker in

proportion to its length than the involute tooth.
SPUR GEAR (TERMS)
 Form of the Spur Gear Tooth –
 The common form of gear tooth is known as the involute
form.

##  Involute - The term involute refers to the shape of the

curve on the sides of a gear tooth.

##  Pressure Angle of Involute Gear - The pressure angle

is the angle between the tangent to the pitch circles and
the perpendicular line through the point of contact of the
two meshing gears. A standard pressure angle is 14 1/20

##  Stub Tooth - A stub tooth is one that is thicker in

proportion to its length than the involute tooth.
SPUR GEAR (TERMS)
 Chordal Thickness of a Gear Tooth - The chordal
thickness of a gear tooth is the distance in a straight
line (chord) from one side of a tooth to the other side
at points where the pitch circle passes through the
tooth

##  Corrected Addendum of a Gear Tooth - The

corrected addendum of a gear tooth is the distance
from the top of a tooth to the chord across the tooth
at the pitch circle
SPUR GEAR (TERMS)
ABBREVIATIONS USED IN SPUR GEAR
 A + F = Dedendum
 CD = Center Distance
 DP= Diametral pitch
 CP = Circular pitch
 F = Clearance
 N = Number of teeth
 N0 = Number of teeth in gear
 Np= Number of teeth in pinion
 OD = Outside diameter
 PD= Pitch diameter
 T = Thickness of tooth
 W = Whole depth of tooth
2. GEAR SECTOR –
 A gear sector is a wheel that has teeth
on a part of its periphery only.
 It is used to transmit power in an
intermittent manner.

3. GEAR RACK –
 A gear rack is a flat surface on
which teeth h.ave been cut.
 Rectangular stock is commonly
used, but square and round stock
may be used, as on the side of a
shaft.
 It is used to change rotary motion to
reciprocating motion.
TERMS AND DEFINITIONS USED FOR SPUR
GEARS ARE IDENTICAL FOR GEAR RACKS

##  Diametral pitch, addendum, dedendum, whole depth,

clearance, and pressure angle.

##  Pitch Line of a Rack - The pitch line of a rack is an

imaginary line, which passes through the teeth,
separating the addendum from the dedendum.
 It corresponds to the pitch circle of a gear.

##  Linear Pitch of a Rack - The linear pitch of a rack

is the distance from the center of one tooth to the
center of the next tooth.
 It corresponds to the circular pitch of a gear.
4. INTERNAL GEAR
 An internal gear is one in which teeth are cut on
the inner surface of a ring, instead of being cut on
the outside of a wheel.

##  Inside Diameter of an Internal Gear - The

inside diameter of an internal gear is the size of
the hole to be bored before the teeth are cut.
 It is equal to the pitch diameter minus two
5. BEVEL GEARS
 A bevel gear is one in which the teeth are cut so that
they radiate from the apex of a cone and lie on the
conical surface.
 Bevel gears are used to transmit motion from one
shaft to another shaft at an angle to the first.
 The terms used for spur gears have the same
mean.ing for bevel gears.
 However, some additional terms are peculiar to
bevel gears
5. BEVEL GEARS TERMS
 Vertex Distance of a Bevel Gear - The vertex
distance of a bevel gear is equal to the altitude of the
pitch cone.

##  Cutting Angle of a Bevel Gear - The cutting angle

of a bevel gear is the angle at which the gear blank is
held while cutting the teeth on a milling machine.
Bevel gears are also cut on special and machines.

##  Pitch Cone Angle of a Bevel Gear - The pitch cone

angle is the angle between the conical surface of the
pitch cone and the center line.
5. BEVEL GEARS TERMS
 Face Angle of a Bevel Gear - The face angle is the
angle to which the gear blank is machined before
cutting the teeth.

##  Miter Gears - Miter gears is the name given to

mating bevel gears having the same number of teeth
and pitch cone angles of 45°.
6. HELICAL GEARS
 A helical gear is one with teeth cut on a cylinder and
at an angle with the axis of rotation of the gear body.
 Helical gears are used to transmit motion from one
shaft to another shaft, which is parallel with it, as
with spur gears, or to another shaft, which is not
parallel with it,
 Usually designed to run in an oil bath, as in an
automobile transmission.
6. HELICAL GEARS TERMS

##  Helix Angle of a Helical Gear - The helix angle is

the angle at which the teeth of a helical gear are
slanted across the face of the gear.
 Lead of a Helical Gear - The lead of a helical gear
is the distance that the gear, if thought of as a
revolution of the gear.
7. HERRINGBONE GEARS
 Originally, a herringbone gear consisted of two helical
gears of equal size but of opposite hand joined
together.
 Today, most herringbone gears are produced as a
single unit on special machines which cut the teeth in
two directions at one time.
 The sliding action of helical gear teeth exerts
pressure of one gear toward the other, which must be
compensated for the use of thrust bearings. The
thrust is equalized when herringbone gears are used.
 Herringbone gears have a greater bearing surface
than other gears of like size,' which gives them
exceptional tooth strength and heavy load carrying
capacity.
 They are more satisfactory than other gears where a
large ratio between gears is necessary.
 They stand up under continuous high speed
operation better than other gears.
8. WORM & WORM GEARS
A warm gear is wheel having teeth cut angular
with axis of rotation and radially in the gear
face.
 A worm is a cylinder with teeth resembling
 The worm is mounted on a shaft, which is
perpendicular to the shaft of the worm gear.
 Worm gears are used for· heavy-duty work
where a large ratio of speed is required.
 They are used extensively in speed reducers.
8. WORM GEARS
TERMS USED IN WORM GEARING
TERMS USED IN WORM GEARING THAT ARE
NOT USED FOR OTHER TYPES OF GEARS
 The terms throat, throat radius, and throat diameter
are important in worm gearing.

##  Normal Pitch of a Worm - The normal pitch of a

worm is the distance between the center of one tooth
and the center of an adjacent tooth, measured
perpendicular to the teeth.

##  Throat of Worm Gear - The throat of a worm gear

is the concave surface of the gear tooth.
TERMS USED IN WORM GEARING THAT ARE
NOT USED FOR OTHER TYPES OF GEARS

##  Throat Radius of a Worm Gear - The throat

surface of the throat.

##  Throat Diameter of a Worm Gear - The throat

diameter of a worm gear is the diameter of the gear,
measured at the center of the throat.

##  Face Angle of a Worm Gear - The face angle of a

worm gear is the angle to which the face of the gear
is cut.
GEAR RATIO AND SIZE
 The gear ratio of a pair of meshing gears expresses a
relationship between the numbers of teeth each gear
contains.
 It is usually written as a fraction or ratio reduced to
its lowest terms- for example: 3: 1, 5: 2, 22: 1, and the
like.
 The size of a gear is given in terms of its pitch
diameter.
 The ratio of pitch diameters of a pair of meshing
gears is the same as the gear ratio.
SPEED RATIO
 The speed ratio of a pair of meshing gears expresses the
relationship between the rpm of each gear.
 It is usually expressed as a fraction or ratio reduced to its
lowest terms.
 Speed ratio is the inverse of gear ratio.-that is, a speed
ratio of 1:4 will be produced by two meshing gears with a
gear or size ratio of 4: 1.
 The smaller of the two gears will always rotate at a higher
rpm than the larger gear.
 Speed ratios and gear ratios can be calculated from the
number of teeth in each meshing gear.
 For example, the gear ratio of a pair of gears with 24 and
48 teeth is found as follows:
 48/24= 2/1=2: 1 gear ratio
 Note that the smaller number usually is used as the
denominator when calculating gear ratios.
TWO TYPES OF GEAR TRAINS.
1. Simple Gear Train
2. The Compound Gear Train.
 Simple Gear Train
 A simple gear train consists of two or more gears
mounted on separate shafts.
COMPOUND GEAR TRAIN
 A compound gear train is a series of gears with two of the
intermediate gears mounted on the same shaft and
rotating at the same speed.
 A compound gear train requires at least four gears.
 A driver and a driven gear at each end of the train, with
two intermediate gears mounted on the same shaft.
 Compound gearing permits a greater range of gear ratio
combinations within a limited space than is possible for
simple gear trains.
TYPES OF GEAR TRAIN
 Sun and planet gear train
 Differential gear train
BACKLASH
 Backlash is a clearance or lost motion in a mechanism
caused by gaps between the parts.
 Reasons for the presence of backlash include allowing
for lubrication, manufacturing errors, deflection under
 Some backlash must be allowed to prevent jamming.
 There are three basic ways to reduce or eliminate
backlash: precision gears, modified gears, and special
designs that use components other than gears.
RACK AND PINION
PINION
WORM GEAR
DIFFERENTIAL GEAR TRAIN
DIFFERENTIAL GEAR TRAIN
Planetary gear train ( sun and planet gear train)
TYPES OF GEAR TRAIN

## 1. Simple gear train

2. Compound gear train
3. Sun and planet gear train
4. Differential gear train