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applied forces and moments as a result of the flow about its external surfaces. The typical terminology and designation of these forces and moments are given in the diagram shown below. The orientation of the axis for the drag force is typically along the principal body axis, although in certain applications, this axis is aligned with the principal axis of the free stream approach velocity U.

Since in many cases the drag force is aligned with the principal axis of the body shape and not necessarily aligned with the approaching wind vector. Review all data carefully to determine which coordinate system is being used: body axis coordinate system or a wind axis coordinate system. These externally applied forces and moments are generally a function of a. Body geometry b. Body orientation c. Flow conditions These forces and moments are also generally expressed in the form of a non-dimensional force/moment coefficient, e.g. the drag coefficient:

VII- 17

CD =

FD /A 1 2 2 ρ U∞

non-aerodynamic shapes. wings.friction or CD = FD. etc. cars. etc. Used for surface ships.g.g. pressure or friction drag. e. However. Planform (top view. dominates depends largely on the aerodynamics (streamlining) of the shape and to a lesser extent on the flow conditions. e. total /A 1 2 ρ U2 ∞ = FD.. thin shapes. The previous. Typically. /A 1 2 ρ U2 ∞ + FD. buildings. stubby. Therefore. barges.aerodynamic shapes.It is noted that it is common to see one of three reference areas used depending on the application: 1. Frontal (projected) area: Used for thick. the total drag coefficient of a body can be expressed as C D = CD.press + C D. a second major (and usually dominant) factor is pressure or form drag.18 . hydrofoils. Consider the two shapes shown below: VII.friction /A 1 2 ρ U2 ∞ Which factor.. 3. Pressure drag is drag due to the integrated surface pressure distribution over the body. 2. Wetted area: The total area in contact with the fluid. in general. flat plate boundary layer results considered only the contribution of viscous surface friction to drag forces on a body.press. the most important factor in the magnitude and significance of pressure or form drag is the boundary layer separation and resulting low pressure wake region associated with flow around non . etc. projected) area: Used for flat.

Non-aerodynamic shape large pressure drag boundary layer separation High Pressure Low Pressure Wake Aerodynamic shape low pressure drag no separated flow region The flow around the streamlined airfoil remains attached. resulting in a region of high surface pressure on the front side and low surface pressure on the back side and thus significant pressure drag. However.12 Drag of a 2-D. producing no boundary layer separation and comparatively small pressure drag. streamlined cylinder VII. the flow around the less aerodynamic circular cylinder separates. 7.19 . Fig. This effect is shown very graphically in the following figures from the text.

the magnitude of the pressure (and therefore the total) drag can also be changed by reducing the size of the low pressure wake region. a factor of 4 reduction due to a smaller wake region and reduced pressure drag. for a circular cylinder (t/c = 1) only 3% of the drag is due to friction with 97% due to pressure. boundary layer separation occurs at 82o.2. While for a thin flat plate (t/c = 0) all the drag is due to friction with no pressure drag. and the CD is 1.20 . Likewise. Fig.The previous figure shows the effect of streamlining and aerodynamics on the relative importance of friction and pressure drag. for most bluff. This is illustrated in the following figures from the text for a circular cylinder. non-aerodynamic bodies. for the cylinder on the right.3. 7. VII. However. the flow is turbulent and separation is delayed (occurs at 120o). pressure (also referred to as form drag) is the dominant contributor to the total drag. However.13 Circular cylinder with (a) laminar separation and (b) turbulent separation Note that for the cylinder on the left. the flow is laminar. even for nonaerodynamic shapes. One way to do this is to change the flow conditions from laminar to turbulent. It should also be pointed out that the friction drag for the cylinder on the right is probably greater (turbulent flow conditions) than for the cylinder on the left (laminar flow conditions). The drag coefficient CD is 0.

7. Fig. however. Thus. all changes from laminar to turbulent flow do not result in an increase in total drag. since pressure drag dominates.15. Finally.21 . the net result is a significant reduction in the total drag.However. the net result is a reduction in the drag force and CD and the total drag force. 7. The pressure distribution for laminar and turbulent flow over a cylinder is shown in Fig. thus greater drag. the effect of streamlining on total drag is shown very graphically with the sequence of modifications in Fig. Two observations can be made: (1) As body shape changes from a bluff body with fixed points of separation to a more aerodynamic shape. The front-to-rear pressure difference is greater for laminar flow.15 The effect of streamlining on total drag (2) The addition of surface area from (a) to (b) and (b) to (c) increases the friction drag. since pressure drag dominates. 7. VII. the effect of pressure drag and the drag coefficient will decrease.13c to the right.

e. e. etc.22 . square cylinder. that is. the bodies are very long (compared to the crosssection dimensions) in the dimension perpendicular to the page. 4 VII. Key Point: Non – aerodynamic shapes with fixed points of separations (sharp corners) have a single value of CD.2 are for 2-D geometries. irrespective of the value of the Reynolds number.The final two figures show results for the drag coefficient for two and three dimensional shapes with various geometries. Aerodynamic shapes generally have a reduction in CD for a change from laminar to turbulent flow as a result of the shift in the point of boundary layer separation.2 CD for Two-Dimensional Bodies at Re ≥ 10 First note that all values in Table 7. half-tube. Table 7.g. elliptical cylinder.g.

3 are all 3-D and thus are finite perpendicular to the page. whereas aerodynamic shapes such as slender bodies of revolution have individual values of CD for laminar and turbulent flow. Similar to the results from the previous table.Table 7.3 Drag of three-dimensional bodies at Re ≥ 10 4 The geometries in Table 7. bluff body geometries with fixed points of separation have a single CD.23 . VII.

relative to the bottom of the piling.24 .3 E 5 1. Table 7.99 3 *5 2 * 2. we obtain: Re = 5 ft / s. one must remember that broad generalizations such as saying that turbulent flow always increases drag. Example: A square 6-in piling is acted on by a water flow of 5 ft/s that is 20 ft deep. the bending moment is given by Mo = F * 0. Thus for a width of 0.In summary.5 = 10 ft slug 2 ft 2 FD = 0.1*10 ft 2 = 522 lbf ft s For uniform flow. The 2 frontal area is A = 20*0. Estimate the maximum bending stress exerted by the flow on the bottom of the piling. Thus.1.5 ρ U CD A = 0. the drag should be uniformly distributed over the total length with the net drag located at the mid-point of the piling.1 E – 5 ft /s Assume that the piling can be treated as 2-D and thus end effects are negligible.5 ft = 2.2 applies for 2D bodies and we read CD = 2 .5 *1.99 slugs/ft 2 3 ν = 1.5 L = 522 lbf* 10 ft = 5220 ft-lbf VII. drag coefficients always depend on Reynolds number. or increasing surface area increases drag are not always valid.1E − 5 ft 2 / s 2 ∞ In this range. One must consider carefully all effects (viscous and pressure drag) due to changing flow conditions and geometry.5 ft. Water: ρ = 1.

25 ft = 1 = 251. we can write σ= M o c 5220 ft − lbf * 0.3 and does not have to be accounted for separately.5 ft I 12 3 where c = distance to the neutral axis.2 and 7.From strength of materials.25 . Dynamic pressure is considered in the drag coefficients of Tables 7.000 psf = 1740 psi 3 3 0. I = moment of inertia = b h /12 Question: Since pressure acts on the piling and increases with increasing depth. but it acts uniformly around the piling at every depth and thus cancels.5 ft * 0. why wasn’t a pressure load considered? Answer: Static pressure does act on the piling. VII.

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