REPUBLIQUE ALGERIENNE DEMOCRATIQUE ET POPULAIRE

Ministère de la poste et des Technologies de l’information et de la communication Ministère de l’enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche Scientifique

Institut des télécommunications Abdelhafid BOUSSOUF ORAN

Mémoire de fin d’études
POUR L’OBTENTION DU DIPLOME

d’Ingénieur d’état en télécommunications Option : systèmes de télécommunication

Thème
BSC STRUCURE ET PRINCIPES DE FONCTIONNEMENT
Cas d’étude BSC ZXG10 V2 DE ZTE

Présenté par : • Mr Badredine AOUCHICHE • Mr Kacem ZERGOUN

Encadrement :

ZTE - CORPORATION.

Membres du jury : Président jury: Mr ABDI.M Examinateurs : Mr MEKALICHE.L Mr BENSAADA.L Mr OUAFI.M Mr KAID OMAR.O Promotion IGE 25, juin 2005

Remerciements

Tenons vivement à remercier monsieur L.Mekaliche directeur de notre institut, monsieur Ben Saada chef de département radio pour l’initiative qu’ils ont pris pour nous permettre de suivre un stage au sein d’une grande compagnie comme ZTE. Nous remercions très spécialement monsieur M.Abdi et monsieur Ouafi pour l’aide précieuse qu’ils nous ont apporté pour mener à bien ce travail. Nous remercions aussi toute l’équipe de ZTE pour l’accueil chaleureux qu’ils nous ont réservé ainsi que leur précieuse aide. Sans oublier de remercier tous les professeurs qui ont contribué à notre formation.

CONTENTS
Contents…………………………………………………………………………………………1 About This Theses……………………………………………………………………………. 3

CH1: A GSM Introduction.
I.INTRODUCTION: ………………………………………………………………………….. 4 II.GSM CELLULAR CONCEPT …………………………………………………………… 6 III.GSM NETWORK ARCHITECTURE …………………………………………………. 7 III.1.The Mobile Station and the Subscriber Identity Module…………………………… 8 III.1.1.Subscriber Identity Module …………………………………………………………..….. 8 III.1.2.Mobile Station …………………………………………………………………………. 9 III.2.The Base Station Subsystem (BSS)…………………………………………………... 9 III.2.1.Base Transceiver Station BTS…………………………………………………………. 9 III.2.2.Base Station Controller BSC………………………………………………………….. 11 III.2.3.Transcoding Rate and Adaptation Unit………………………………………………… 12 III.3.The Network Switching Subsystem (NSS)…………………………………………….. 13 III.3.1 Home Location Register and Authentication Center HLR ……………………………. 14 III.3.2.Visitor Location Register VLR………………………………………………………….14 III.3.3.The Mobile-Services Switching Center MSC…………………………………………… 14 III.3.4.Equipment Identity Register EIR……………………………………………………… 15 III.4.Operation and Maintenance Subsystem (OMS). ……………………………………. 15 IV.CARRIER FREQUENCY INTERVAL AND WIRELESS CHANNEL………………. 16 IV.1.Carrier Frequency Interval:…………………………………………………………… 16 IV.1.1Operating radio frequency of GSM900…………………………………………………… 16 IV.1.2 Operating radio frequency of GSM1800………………………………………………. 16 IV. 2.Wireless Channel………………………………………………………………………. 16 IV.2.1.Traffic Channel (TCH)…………………………………………………………………. 16 VI.2.2.Control Channel (CCH)……………………………………………………………….. 17

CH2:BSC:Principels and Functioning
I.ZXG 10 BSC FEATURES AND FONCTIONS ……………………………………………… 19 I.1.Features……………………………………………………………………………………… 19 I.2.Functions of ZXG 10 V 2 BSC…………………………………………………………..…… 20 I.2.1.Random Access and Initial Allocation …………………………………………………..…… 21 I.2.2.Paging……………………………………………………………………………………….. 21 I.2.3. Call Re-establishment………………………………………………………………………. 22 I.2.4. Load Management…………………………………………………………………………. 22 I.2.5. Handover…………………………………………………………………………………… 23 I.2.6.Power Control ………………………………………………………………………………. 25 II .BSC INTERFACES AND NETWORKING MODES……………………………………… 27 II.1.Interfaces……………………………………………………………………………………. 28 II.1.1.A-interface………………………………………………………………………………….. 28 II.1.2. Ater Interface. ……………………………………………………………………………… 30 II.1.3 .Abis-interface. ……………………………………………………………………………… 30 II.1.4.Air-interface………………………………………………………………………………… 31 II.1.5.Qx-interface………………………………………………………………………………32 1

II.2. Networking Mode……………………………………………………………………….….. 33 II.2.1.Abis Interface Networking………………………………………………………………..…. 33 II.2.2.A Interface Networking…………………………………………………………………..…… 34

CH3: ZXG10-BSC (V2) Hardware Structure.
I.SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS…………………………………………………………………… 37 I.1.Configuration of Rack without SMU………………………………………………………….. 37 I.1.1.Dual-module BSC……………………………………………………………………………….. 37 I.1.2.Three-module BSC…………………………………………………………………………… 37 I.1.3.Four-module BSC……………………………………………………………………………. 38 I.2.Configuration of Rack with SMU………………………………………………………………. 38 I.2.1.Far-end TC Rack in the Case of Sub-multiplexing…………………………………………. 38 I.2.2.Near-end BSC Racks in the Case of Sub-multiplexing…………………………………….. 39 II.ZXG10-BSC (V2)SHELVES……………………………………………………………………… 39 III.ZXG10-BSC (V2) SHELVES USED IN GSM…………………………………………………… 40 III.1. Control Layer Shelf ( BCTL)……………………………………………………………… 40 -Configuration of the BCTL-RMU shelf………………………………………………………….…… 40 -Configuration of the BCTL-SCU shelf……………………………………………………………… 41 III.2.Network Switching Layer Shelf (BNET)………………………………………………………. 43 III.3.Shelf of the A-Interface and Transcoder (BATC)…………………………………………….. 45 III.4.Shelf of the Base station interface unit (BBIU)………………………………………… 46 III.5. Shelf of the sub-multiplexing interface unit (BSMU)……………………………………. 48 -Configuration of the NSMU Shelf…………………………………………………………………….. 48 -Configuration of FSMU Shelf……………………………………………………………………….... 49 IV.COMMUNICATION RELATIONS BETWEEN SHELVES ………………………………….... 50

CH 4:ZXG10-BSC Software Structure and Configuration.
I.SOFTWARE STRUCTURE OF THE BSC………………………………………………………… 52 II.CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT…………………………………………………………….. 53 II.1.Starting the Client Interface…………………………………………………………………….. 54 II.2.Integrated configuration management…………………………………………………………. 56 II.2.1.Configure the basic properties of MSC and BSC…………………………………………….... 57 II.2.2.Configure the physical rack and frames of BSC…………………………………………..…….. 59 II.2.3.Configure the BSC board………………………………………………………………….……. 60 II.2.4.Configure the physical site………………………………………………………………………. 63 II.2.5.Configure the radio BSC……………………………………………………………….............. 65 II.2.6.Configure the radio cell………………………………………………………………………….. 65 II.2.7.Configure the radio transceiver…………………………………………………………………. 67 II.2. 8.Configuring the Cascading Site………………………………………………………................ 68 II.2.9.Save the file……………………………………………………………………………………… 70 II.2. 10.Generate and execute the configured man-machine command set……………………………. 71 Conclusion. ……………………………………………………………………………………………... 72 Glossary…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 73 Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………………….……. 76

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ABOUT THIS THESES

In the setting of our formation of engineer in telecommunication, and in the goal to enrich our knowledge in this vast domain, and especially to concretize the theoretical information that we have learned during our degree course, the institute of the telecommunications of ITO Oran in collaboration with the Chinese society ZTE organized for us a training of a length of three months. This document is organized in order to define in the first chapter the concept and the architecture of the GSM network with a very simplified introduction which will introduce all the subsystems. In the chapter that follows, the structure of the BSC and its different modules will make the main idea as well as the different protocols of communication between them to arrive in the end to the fourth chapter, which describe the software BSC and certainly the configuration of this last for the starting up of the network to have general idea on the role that the BSC occupies in GSM network. We have to specify that this training helped us a lot to better understand the structure of the GSM network, it also permitted us to attend several facilities, things that developed the engineer’s mind. We hope that this document and our experience will serve for best for the future generations of engineers in telecommunication or all reader interested by this marvellous domain.

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Chapter I :

A GSM Introduction

I. THE GSM DEVLOPMENT:
As our way of life demands more and more mobility and availability, Mobile telephones became very popular in the late nineties and are today an important tool for many people. One of the most important technologies used for mobile telephone networks today is the Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) technology, this acronym GSM was used for the first time in 1982, it stood for Groupe Spéciale Mobile, a committee under the umbrella of ConférenceEuropéenne des Postes et Télécommunications (CEPT), the European standardization organization. The task of GSM was to define a new standard for mobile communications in the 900 MHz range. It was decided to use digital technology. In the course of time, CEPT evolved into a new organization, the European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI). That, however, did not change the task of GSM. The goal of GSM was to replace the purely national, already overloaded, and thus expensive technologies of the member countries with an international standard. In 1991, the first GSM systems were ready to be brought into so-called friendly-user operation. The meaning of the acronym GSM was changed that same year to stand for Global System for Mobile Communications. The year 1991 also saw the definition of the first derivative of GSM, the Digital Cellular System 1800 (DCS 1800), which more or less translates the GSM system into the 1800 MHz frequency range. In the United States, DCS 1800 was adapted to the 1900 MHz band (Personal Communication System 1900, or PCS 1900). The next phase, GSM Phase 2, will provide even more end-user features than phase 1 of GSM did. Only “insiders” believed such a success would be possible because mobile communications could not be considered a mass market in most parts of Europe. By 1992, many European countries had operational networks, and GSM started to attract interest worldwide. Time has brought substantial technological progress to the GSM hardware. GSM has proved to be a major commercial success for system manufacturers as well as for network operators. How was such success possible? Particularly today, where Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), Personal Handy Phone System (PHS), Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT), and other systems try to mimic the success of GSM, that question comes to mind and is also discussed within the European standardization organizations.

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Chapter I : The following factors were major contributors to the success of GSM:

A GSM Introduction

• The liberalization of the monopoly of telecommunications in Europe during the 1990s and the resulting competition, which consequently lead to lower prices and more “market”; • The knowledge-base and professional approach within the Groupe Spéciale Mobile, together with the active cooperation of the industry; • The lack of competition: For example, in the United States and Japan, competitive standards for mobile services started being defined only after GSM was already well established. The future will show which system will prevail as the next generation of mobile communications. ETSI and the Special Mobile Group (SMG), renamed GSM, are currently standardizing the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS). Japan is currently improving PHS. The various satellite communications systems that now push into the market are another, possibly decisive, factor in providing mobile communications on a global basis. The most important events in the development of the GSM system are presented in this table.
Year 1982 1985 1986 Events CEPT establishes a GSM group in order to develop the standards for a pan-European cellular mobile system Adoption of a list of recommendations to be generated by the group Field tests were performed in order to test the different radio techniques proposed for the air interface TDMA is chosen as access method (in fact, it will be used with FDMA) Initial Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) signed by telecommunication operators (representing 12 countries) Validation of the GSM system The responsability of the GSM specifications is passed to the ETSI Appearance of the phase 1 of the GSM specifications Commercial launch of the GSM service Enlargement of the countries that signed the GSM- MoU> Coverage of larger cities/airports Coverage of main roads GSM services start outside Europe Phase 2 of the GSM specifications Coverage of rural areas Events in the development of GSM 5

1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1995

Chapter I :

A GSM Introduction

II. GSM CELLULAR CONCEPT :
Like all modern mobile networks, GSM utilizes a cellular structure as illustrated in Figure I.1. The basic idea of a cellular network is to partition the available frequency range, to assign only parts of that frequency spectrum to any base transceiver station, and to reduce the range of a base station in order to reuse the scarce frequencies as often as possible. One of the major goals of network planning is to reduce interference between different base stations. Anyone who starts thinking about possible alternatives should be reminded that current mobile networks operate in frequency ranges where attenuation is substantial. In particular, for mobile stations with low power emission, only small distances (less than 5 km) to a base station are feasible.

Figure I.1

Besides the advantage of reusing frequencies, a cellular network also comes with the following disadvantages: • An increasing number of base stations increases the cost of infrastructure and access lines. • All cellular networks require that, as the mobile station moves, an active call is handed over from one cell to another, a process known as handover. • The network has to be kept informed of the approximate location of the mobile station, even without a call in progress, to be able to deliver an incoming call to that mobile station. • The second and third items require extensive communication between the mobile station and the network, as well as between the various network elements. That communication is referred to as signaling and goes far beyond the extent of signaling that fixed networks use. The extension of communications requires a cellular network to be of modular or hierarchical structure. A single central computer could not process the amount of information involved.
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Chapter I :

A GSM Introduction

III. GSM NETWORK ARCHITECTURE:
The GSM technical specifications define the different entities that form the GSM network by defining their functions and interface requirements. The GSM network can be divided into three main parts:
• • • •

The Mobile Station (MS). The Base Station Subsystem (BSS). The Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS). The Operation and Maintenance Subsystem (OMS).

The architecture of the GSM network is presented in figure

OMS

Figure 1.2: Architecture of the GSM network

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Chapter I :

A GSM Introduction

III.1.The Mobile Station and the Subscriber Identity Module : The GSM telephone set and the SIM are the only system elements with which most users of GSM have direct contact. The GSM telephone set and the SIM form an almost complete GSM system within themselves with all the functionality, from ciphering to the HLR. III.1.1.Subscriber Identity Module : The SIM is a microchip that is planted on either a check card (ID-1 SIM) or a plastic piece about 1 cm square (plug-in SIM). Figure shows both variants. Except for emergency calls, a GSM mobile phone cannot be used without the SIM. The GSM terminology distinguishes between a mobile station and mobile equipment. The mobile equipment becomes a mobile station when the SIM is inserted. There is no difference in functionality between the ID-1 SIM and the plug-in SIM, except for size, which is an advantage for the plug-in SIM when used in a small handheld telephone. Today, many network operators offer (at an additional cost) identical pairs of ID-1 SIM/plug-in SIM, so the same SIM can be used in a car phone and in a handheld telephone.

Figure I.3

The major task of a SIM is to store data. That does not mean that the data is only subscriber data. One has to differentiate between data types for various tasks. The most important parameters that a SIM holds are presented in It should be noted that the list is not complete and that the SIM can also be used to store, for example, telephone numbers.

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Chapter I :

A GSM Introduction

III.1.2.Mobile Station : A GSM terminal is, even for experts, a technical marvel. Consider the rate at which prices have fallen, the complexity of the devices, and the large number of different types of equipment available. All the functionality known from the BTS transmitter/receiver (TRX), like Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK) modulation/demodulation up to channel coding/decoding, also needs to be implemented in an MS. Other MS-specific functionalities need to be mentioned, like dual-tone multifrequency (DTMF) generation and the most important issue, the economical use of battery power. From the perspective of the protocol, the MS is not only a peer of the BTS but communicates directly with the MSC and the VLR, via the mobility management (MM) and call control (CC). Furthermore, the MS has to be able to provide a transparent interface (terminal adaptation function, or TAF) for data and fax connections to external devices. • Functionality : GSM Recommendation 02.07 describes in detail what functionality mobile equipment has to support and what features are optional. The most important and mandatory features are: - DTMF capability; - Short-message service (SMS) capability - Availability of the ciphering algorithms A5/1 and A5/2; Display capability for short messages, dialed numbers, and available PLMN; - Support of emergency calls, even without the SIM inserted; “Burned-in” IMEI. III.2. The Base Station Subsystem BSS: Via the Air-interface, the BSS provides a connection between the MSs of a limited area and the network switching subsystem (NSS). The BSS consists of the following elements: -One or more BTSs (base transceiver station). -One BSC (base station controller). -One TRAU (transcoding rate and adaptation unit). III.2.1.Base Transceiver Station BTS : The BTS provides the physical connection of an MS to the network in form of the Airinterface. On the other side, toward the NSS, the BTS is connected to the BSC via the Abisinterface. The manufacturers of BTS equipment have been able to reduce its size substantially. The typical size in 1991 was that of an armoire; today the size is comparable to that of a mailbox. The basic structure of the BTS, however, has not changed. The block diagram and the signal flow of a BTS with one TRX are shown in Figure. The GSM Recommendations allow for one
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Chapter I :

A GSM Introduction

BTS to host up to 16 TRXs. In the field, the majority of the BTSs host between one and four TRXs.

Architecture and Functionality of a BTS :

1.Transmitter/Receiver Module : The TRX module is, from the perspective of signal processing, the most important part of a BTS. The TRX consists of a low-frequency part for digital signal processing and a highfrequency part for GMSK modulation and demodulation. Both parts are connected via a separate or an integrated frequency hopping unit. All other parts of the BTS are more or less associated with the TRXs and perform auxiliary or administrative tasks. 2.Operations and Maintenance Module : The operations and maintenance (O&M) module consists of at least one central unit, which administers all other parts of the BTS. For those purposes, it is connected directly to the BSC by means of a specifically assigned O&M channel. That allows the O&M module to process the commands from the BSC or the MSC directly into the BTS and to report the results. Typically, the central unit also contains the system and operations software of the TRXs. That allows it to be reloaded when necessary, without the need to “consult” the BSC. Furthermore, the O&M module provides a human-machine interface (HMI), which allows for local control of the BTS. 3.Clock Module : The modules for clock generation and distribution also are part of the O&M area. Although the trend is to derive the reference clock from the PCM signal on the Abis-interface, a BTS internal clock generation is mandatory. It is especially needed when a BTS has to be tested in a standalone environment, that is, without a connection to a BSC or when the PCM clock is not available due to link failure. 4.Input and Output Filters : Both input and output filters are used to limit the bandwidth of the received and the transmitted signals. The input filter typically is a nonadjustable wideband filter that lets pass all GSM 900, all DCS 1800, or all PCS 1900 frequencies in the uplink direction. In contrast, remote-controllable filters or wideband filters are used for the downlink direction that limits the bandwidth of the output signal to 200 kHz. When necessary, the O&M center (OMC) controls the settings of the filters, as in the case of a change in frequency.

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Chapter I :

A GSM Introduction

Figure I.4

III.2.2 Base Station Controller BSC : The BSC forms the center of the BSS. A BSC can, depending on the manufacturer, connect to many BTSs over the Abis-interface. The BSC is, from a technical perspective, a small digital exchange with some mobile-specific extensions. The BSC was defined with the intention of removing most of the radio-related load from the MSC. The BSC’s architecture and its tasks are a consequence of that goal. For simplicity, uses the same hardware for both the Abis-interface and the A-interface, which is not a requirement. • Architecture and Tasks of the BSC : 1.Switch Matrix : Because the BSC has the functionality of a small digital exchange, its functionis to switch the incoming traffic channels (A-interface from the MSC) to the correct Abis-interface channels. The BSC, therefore, comes with a switch matrix that takes care of the relay functionality and can be used as the internal control bus. 2. Terminal Control Elements of the Abis-Interface : The connection to the BTSs is established via the Abis-terminal control elements (TCEs), which, more or less independently from the BSC’s central unit, provide the control function for a TRX or a BTS. The number of Abis TCEs that a BSC may contain depends largely on the number of BTSs and on the system manufacturer. Major tasks of the Abis-TCEs are to set up LAPD connections toward the BTS peers, the transfer of signaling data, and last—but not least—the transparent transfer of payload. Depending on the manufacturer, the Abis TCEs also may be responsible for the administration of BTS radio resources. That entails the assignment and release of signaling and traffic channels over the Abis-interface and the Air-interface and for the evaluation of measurement results from the BTS concerning busy and idle channels, which are relevant for power control and used in making decisions about handovers. The final control functionality always remains with the BSC, although GSM explicitly allows the BTS to preprocess the measurement results. Depending on the manufacturer, those functions also can be assumed or controlled by a central unit. Connections from the Abis -TCEs to the A-TCEs are realized by the switch matrix. On the other side, the PCM connections are achieved by associated transmission elements.

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Chapter I :

A GSM Introduction

Figure I.5

3. A-Interface Terminal Control Elements : The connection of a BSC to the MSC is established via the A-TCEs. Although every BSC is connected to only one MSC, a large number of A-TCEs is needed to support the A-interface, since all the payload and the major part of the signaling data of the entire BSS have to be conveyed over this interface. Among the tasks of some, but usually not all A-TCEs is setting up and operating the SS7/SCCP connection toward the MSC. The number of necessary signaling channels depends largely on the predicted traffic load 4. Database : The BSC is the control center of the BSS. In that capacity, the BSC must maintain a relatively large database in which the maintenance status of the whole BSS, the quality of the radio resources and terrestrial resources, and so on are dynamically administrated. Furthermore, the BSC database contains the complete BTS operations software for all attached BTSs and all BSS specific information, such as assigned frequencies. 5. Central Module : One of the major tasks of the BSC is to decide when a handover should take place. The BSC may decide on intra-BTS handover and intra-BSC handover without needing the MSC. In contrast, for all BSC external handovers, the BSC needs to involve the MSC. Handover decision and power control are main tasks of the central module. 6 .Connection to the OMC : Another functionality that many manufacturers have decided the central module should perform is the connection to the OMC. Every BSS is supervised and managed by an OMC via the BSC. III.2.3. Transcoding Rate and Adaptation Unit(TRAU):”called also Transcoder (TC)” • Function of the Transcoding Rate and Adaptation Unit : One of the most interesting functions in GSM involves the TRAU, which typically is located between the BSC and the MSC. The task of the TRAU is to compress or decompress speech between the MS and the TRAU. The used method is called regular pulse excitation–long term
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Chapter I :

A GSM Introduction

prediction (RPE-LTP). It is able to compress speech from 64 Kbps to 16 Kbps, in the case of a full rate channel (net bit rate with full rate is 13 Kbps) and to 8 Kbps in the case of a half rate channel (net bit rate with half rate is 6.5 Kbps). • Site Selection for Transcoding Rate and Adaptation Unit: A Interface supports the near-end and far-end configuration of the TRAU unit. The near-end configuration means that the TRAU unit is placed at the BSC side when BSC is near to MSC. The far-end configuration means when BSC is relatively far away from MSC, to minimize transmission between BSC and MSC, TRAU is placed at the MSC side.

The two networking modes of A interface are shown in Figure I.6
.
BSC TC A interface MSC

BSC NSMU

FSMU Ater interface

TC A interface

MSC

Figure I.6

III.3.The Network Switching Subsystem NSS : The NSS plays the central part in every mobile network. While the BSS provides the radio access for the MS, the various network elements within the NSS assume responsibility for the complete set of control and database functions required to set up call connections using one or more of these features: encryption, authentication, and roaming. To satisfy those tasks, the NSS consists of the following: ♦ MSC (mobile switching center). ♦ HLR (home location register)/authentication center (AuC). ♦VLR (visitor location register). ♦ EIR (equipment identity register).

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Chapter I :

A GSM Introduction

Figure I.7

The subsystems are interconnected directly or indirectly via the worldwide SS7 network. The network topology of the NSS is more flexible than the hierarchical structure of the BSS. Several MSCs use one

common HLR; the use of an EIR is optional, and the required number of subscribers determines the required number of VLRs. The previous Figure provides an overview of the interfaces between the different network elements in the NSS. Note that most interfaces are virtual, that is, they are defined as reference points for signaling between the network elements. III.3.1 Home Location Register and Authentication Center HLR : Every PLMN requires access to at least one HLR as a permanent store of data. The HLR can best be regarded as a large database with access times that must be kept as short as possible. The faster the response from the database, the faster the call can be connected. Such a database is capable of managing data for literally hundreds of thousands subscribers. Within the HLR, subscriber-specific parameters are maintained, such as the parameter Ki, which is part of security handling. It is never transmitted on any interface and is known only to the HLR and the SIM. Each subscriber is assigned to one specific HLR, which acts as a fixed reference point and where information on the current location of the user is stored. To reduce the load on the HLR, the VLR was introduced to support the HLR by handling many of the subscriber-related queries (e.g., localization and approval of features). The AuC is always implemented as an integral part of the HLR. The reason for this is that although GSM mentions the interface between the AuC and the HLR and has even assigned it a name, the H-interface; it was never specified in sufficient detail to be a standalone entity. The only major function assigned to the AuC is to calculate and provide the authentication-triplets, that is, the signed response (SRES), the random number (RAND), and Kc. For each subscriber, up to five such triplets can be calculated at a time and sent to the HLR. The HLR, in turn, forwards the triplets to the VLR, which uses them as input parameters for authentication and ciphering. III.3.2.Visitor Location Register VLR :
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Chapter I :

A GSM Introduction

The VLR, like the HLR, is a database, but its function differs from that of the HLR While the HLR is responsible for more static functions; the VLR provides dynamic subscriber data management. Consider the example of a roaming subscriber. As the subscriber moves from one location to another, data are passed between the VLR of the location the subscriber is leaving (“old” VLR) to the VLR of the location being entered (“new” VLR). In this scenario, the old VLR hands over the related data to the new VLR. There are times when the new VLR has to request the subscriber’s HLR for additional data. III.3.3.The Mobile-Services Switching Center MSC : From a technical perspective, the MSC is just an ordinary Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) exchange with some modifications specifically required to handle the mobile application. The modifications of exchanges required for the provision of mobile service affect, in particular, the assignment of user channels toward the BSS, for which the MSC is responsible, and the functionality to perform and control inter-MSC handover. That defines two of the main tasks of the MSC. We have to add the inter working function (IWF), which is needed for speech and non speech connections to external networks. The IWF is responsible for protocol conversion between CC and the ISDN user part (ISUP), as well as for rate adaptation for data services. An MSC with an interface to other networks is called a gateway MSC.Network operators may opt to equip all of their MSCs with gateway functionality or only a few. Any MSC that does not possess gateway functionality has to route calls to external networks via a gateway MSC. The gateway MSC has some additional tasks during the establishment of a mobile terminating call from an external network. The call has to enter the PLMN via a gateway MSC, which queries the HLR and then forwards the call to the MSC where the called party is currently located. The sum of the MSC areas determines the geographic area of a PLMN. Looking at it another way, the PLMN can be considered as the total area covered by the BSSs connected to the MSCs. III.3.4.Equipment Identity Register EIR: The separation of the subscriber identity from the identifier of the MS also bears a potential pitfall for GSM subscribers. Because it is possible to operate any GSM MS with any valid GSM SIM, an opportunity exists for a black market in stolen equipment. To combat that, the EIR was introduced to identify, track, and bar such equipment from being used in the network. Each GSM phone has a unique identifier, its IMEI, which cannot be altered without destroying the phone. The IMEI contains a serial number and a type identifier. Like the HLR or the VLR, the EIR basically consists of a database, which maintains three lists: (1) the “white list” contains all the approved types of mobile stations; (2) the “black list” contains those IMEIs known to be stolen or to be barred for technical reasons; and (3) the “gray list” allows tracing of the related mobile stations.If the EIR is installed, there is no specification on when the EIR should be interrogated. The EIR may be queried at any time during call setup or location update.

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Chapter I : III.4.Operation & Maintenance Subsystem (OMS) :

A GSM Introduction

The OMS refers to the operation & maintenance part of the GSM system. All functional units in the GSM system can be connected to the OMS via respective networks. The OMS performs such functions as monitoring various functional units in the GSM network, issuing status report, and diagnosing faults. The OMS consists of two parts: Operation & Maintenance Center – System (OMC-S) and OMC-Radio (OMC-R).The OMC-S serves the NSS, while the OMC-R serves the BSS.

IV.Carrier Frequency Interval and Wireless Channel : IV.1.Carrier Frequency Interval : Different countries and regions are using different frequency bands, following are the frequencies bands for GSM900 and GSM1800 system: IV.1.1. Operating radio frequency of GSM900 : Uplink : (transmitted by MS and received by BS) frequency range: 890MHZ~915MHz
Downlink (transmitted by BS and received by MS) frequency range: 935MHZ~960MHz The operating bandwidth: 25MHz Duplexing interval (that is, transmitting and receiving frequency interval) : 45MHz. The carrier frequency interval: 200kHz Carrier frequency channels: 124 Channel bandwidth: 200kHz

IV.1.2.Operating radio frequency of GSM1800 :
Uplink frequency range: 1710MHZ~1785MHz Downlink frequency range: 1805MHZ~1880MHz Duplexing interval: 95MHz Operation bandwidth: 75MHz Carrier frequency interval: 200kHz, 16

Chapter I :
Carrier frequency channels: 374 Channel bandwidth: 200kHz

A GSM Introduction

IV.2.Wireless Channel : In the GSM, the channels are divided into logic channels and physical channels. Timeslot is a basic physical channel, and one carrier contains 8 physical channels. The physical channels support the logic channels. Logical channels are classified into traffic channels (TCH) and control channels (CCH) by function. IV.2.1.Traffic Channel (TCH) : TCH carries voice encoded signals or subscriber data, which consists of full-rate TCH (TCH/F) and half-rate TCH (TCH/H). 1)Voice TCH :
a) TCH/F: Full rate voice TCH. b) TCH/H: half-rate voice TCH.

2)Data TCH : a) TCH/F9.6: 9.6kb/s full-rate data traffic channel
b) TCH/F4.8: 4.8kb/s full and half-rate data traffic channel c) TCH/F2.4: ≤2.4kb/s full and half-rate data traffic channel

VI.2.2. Control Channel (CCH) : CCH carries signaling or synchronous data. It includes three types of control channels: broadcasting channels, common control channels and dedicated control channels. 1)Broadcasting Channel (BCH) :
The BCH is a kind of point-to-multipoint unidirectional downlink CCH, that is, unidirectional transmission from the BTS to MS. It consists of three types of channels which broadcast different information to MS:

a) FCCH: Frequency correction channel, carrying information for correcting MS frequency. b) SCH: Synchronization channel, carrying MS frame synchronization and BTS identification information. c)BCCH: Broadcasting Control Channel is used to send cell information. In each base transceiver station there is always a transceiver containing this channel to broadcast system information to all MSs within the cell. 2)Common Control Channel (CCCH) :
As a point-to-multipoint bi-directional control channel, CCCH is shared by the MSs in the network. It consists of three types of channels: 17

Chapter I :

A GSM Introduction

a)PCH: Paging channel, used by the BTS to page the MS (downlink channel). b)RACH: Random access channel, used by the MS to apply access requests randomly, that is, applying requests for DCCH (uplink channel). c)AGCH: Access granted channel, used by the BTS to respond to the MS random access requests, namely to allocate a DCCH or directly a TCH (downlink channel). 3)Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) :
DCCH is a point-to-point bi-directional CCH. It is allocated by BTS to MS to fulfill point-to-point transmission between BTS and MS.

a) SDCCH: Stand-alone DCCH, used to transmit channel allocation information. SDCCH comes in the following types: -SDCCH/8 Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel -SDCCH/4: Stand-alone DCCH in combination with BCCH/CCCH b) SACCH: Slow associated CCH, used in combination with one TCH or one SDCCH to transmit certain special information among subscriber information, such as power and frame adjustment control information, measurement data and so on. This channel can be divided into the following types: -SACCH/TF: SACCH associated with TCH/F -SACCH/TH: The SACCH associated with TCH/H -SACCH/C4: The SACCH associated with SDCCH/4 -SACCH/C8: The SACCH associated with SDCCH/8 c) FACCH: Fast associated control channel, used in combination with a TCH to carry the same signals as SDCCH, but FACCH will be allocated only if no SDCCH is allocated. Connection is done via the frame borrowed by TCH (stolen frame) to transmit such instructions as “cross-cell handover”. FACCH can be classified into the following types: -FACCH/F: Full-rate fast associated control channel -FACCH/H: Half-rate fast associated control channel TCH/F and SACCH are typically allocated in pairs. The combination of TCH/F and SACCH is represented as TACH/F. Each cell broadcasts one FCCH and an SCH. The basic combination in downlink includes an FCCH, an SCH, a BCCH and a CCCH (PCH+AGCH), allocated strictly to TN0 of BCCH carrier configured for a cell.

18

Chapter I :

A GSM Introduction

Figure I.8

19

Chapter II : Overview :

BSC:Principals and Functioning.

As everybody knows, BSC is the core of the BSS, and . Nowadays, more and more operators request for large capacity BSC, For this reason, ZTE Corporation has independently developed its ZXG10-BSC(V2), which is a base station controller with multiple modules and a large capacity. With the cutting-edge technologies of ZTE Corporation , since the BSC with large capacity has the following advantages : With BSC of larger capacity, networking planning (normally all cells in one place can be managed by one BSC) and maintenance management (with less BSC, less OMC-R is required) will be easier. With less cross-cell handover by BSC, the load of MSC is minimized. When the network is expanded, the number of cells to be assigned by the BSC will be decreased to result in faster network operation and higher efficiency. Cost of BSC will be decreased with the increase of capacity. The number of A interface signaling links will be decreased to lower the investment. I. ZXG 10 BSC features and fonctions : I.1. Features :
ZXG10-BSC(V2) has the following features:

Standardized A interface
ZXG10-BSC (V2) uses 32K×32K switching matrix, provides completely open A interface, and ensures interconnection with devices of various manufacturers.

High capacity and powerful processing capability
ZXG10-BSC (V2) supports a maximum of 512 cells, 1024 TRXs. It has high processing capability, and can simplify the system networking, improve the network quality and cut costs of the equipment room.

Modularized design to facilitate future expansion
ZXG10-BSC (V2) uses modularized design to facilitate network expansion. Without having to add any BSC, the system can accomplish smooth expansion just by overlapping the modules.

The unique distributed structure which economizes transmission.
ZXG10-BSC (V2) adopts the distributed structure design to economize transmission. The TC unit and RMM can be placed at the near end of the BSC, or at the far end of the BSC through the submultiplexing equipment.

Numerous handover algorithms
ZXG10-BSC (V2) supports a number of handover modes: synchronous handover, asynchronous handover and pseudo-synchronous handover.It also supports handover between different frequencies, for example handover between GSM900/1800. It supports the concentric cell handover algorithm based on load-interference ratio, ensuring voice quality in the meantime of enhancing network capacity. 20

Chapter II : Flexible networking

BSC:Principals and Functioning.

ZXG10-BSC (V2) supports star, chain and tree type connections, it also supports transmission equipment such as E1, satellite, microwave and optic fiber.

ZXG10-BSC (V2) supports GSM900, EGSM900, GSM850, GSM1800 and GSM1900 networks and is compatible with ZXG10-BSC (V1). It can manage combined accesses of ZXG10-BTS product series including ZXG10-BTS (V1), ZXG10-BTS (V1A), ZXG10-BTS (V2), ZXG10-MB and ZXG10 BS21. BTSs of other manufacturers can also access the system as long as they are consistent with interface definition of ZXG10-BSC (V2). I.2 Functions Of ZXG 10 V 2.8 BSC: 1).Circuit-type Voice Service 1)Full-rate voice service 2)Enhanced full-rate voice service 2).Circuit-type Data Service 1) 2) 3) 4) 1) 2) 3) 14.4kbit/s full-rate data service 9.6kbit/s full-rate data service 4.8kbit/s full-rate data service 2.4kbit/s full-rate data service Point-to-point short message service in which the mobile subscriber is called Point-to-point short message service in which the mobile subscriber is calling Cell broadcast service originated from the SMS center or the OMC-R.

3).SMS (support short messages)

4).GPRS Service
At present, the point-to-point interactive telecom services are supported, including:

1) Access to the database: Allocate service to subscribers as per the need, such as Internet, and provide storing and forwarding, as well as information processing for user-to-user communications. 2) Session service: Provide bi-directional user-to-user and port-to-port real time information communication, such as Internet Telnet service. 3) Tele-action service: Applicable to small-volume data processing services, credit card confirmations, lottery transactions, electronic monitoring, remote meter reading (water, electricity and gas), monitoring systems, and so on.

21

Chapter II :

BSC:Principals and Functioning.

We have chosen in this theses to speak just of some Circuit-type Services of the BSC:
I.2.1.Random Access and Initial Allocation :

Random access and initial allocation are used to start an MS, converting it from “idle” mode to “dedicated” mode. The MS sends a channel request (CHL REQ) message on the RACH and this message contains the cause of access. The BSC analyzes the cause, allocates a channel to satisfy the access requirement, and allocates a SDCCH by default. When there is no channel available for allocation, the BSC will inform the MS to make access attempt a little time later with the immediate assignment rejection command. After the channel activation process on the Abis interface, the BSC sends the Immediate Assignment Command (IMM-ASS) to the MS. After receiving the IMM-ASS command, the MS establishes a dedicated channel with the network via an Establishment Indication (EST IND) message, and the MS enters into the “dedicated” mode. After receiving EST IND message reported from the MS, the BSC analyzes the EST IND content, including processing of MS type markup, recording of power control and encryption, and then sends the MS-reported EST IND to the MSC.
MS CHL REQ IMM ASS EST IND CR £ºCM SERV REQ CC BSC MSC

Figure. II-1 Process of Random Access and Initial Allocation

I.2.2.Paging : When a call reaches the MSC where the subscriber is located, the MSC determines the MS registration area, and sends a paging message to all cells in this area. The paging message contains information to recognize the subscriber identity. In case of too many paging messages and overload as a result, BSC will report to MSC the A interface overload message, with the cause “CCCH overload”. After receiving a paging command, the called MS responds.
MS BSC PAGING MSC

PAGE REQ TYPE 1 , 2 , 3

Figure. II-3 Paging Flow

22

Chapter II : I.2.3. Call Re-establishment :

BSC:Principals and Functioning.

In the wireless mobile environment, a connection can be cut off suddenly because of transmission loss caused by obstacles and buildings. Normally, another cell will provide continuous communication. In such case, the MS usually triggers the handover to overcome the specific sudden call interruption. The call re-establishment is a kind of MS-triggered handover. Re-establishment of call is divided into two parts. First, the MS adopts random access and initial allocation process. Secondly, the MSC restores the context environment of the call. In the call re-establishment process, the speed is essential, as when a connection fails, the MSC will start a timer .When the timer is time-out, all related connections will be released. Therefore, the call re-establishment process must be completed before all of the lines are released. Since the time is limited, the MS can only select those known adjacent cells which have established presynchronization with the MS. The MS requests for call re-establishment via the access and initialization process, and reports the subscriber identity and MS category to the BSC. After identification, the BSC directly allocates a TCH, and sends the information to the MSC. The MSC re-establishes the call according to such information. The call re-establishment flow is shown in Figure. II-4, which is similar to the initial access flow except that a Call Re-establishment Request (CM CALL REEST REQ) is included in the Establishment Indication (EST IND).
MS CHL REQ IMM ASS EST IND CR :CM CALL REEST REQ CC CM SERVCE ACP BSC MSC

Figure. II-4

I.2.4. Load Management : The whole load management including exchange of current load information and control of overload occurrence is completed by the coordination of BTS, BSC and MSC. The CCCH load management flow is shown in Figure. II-5. The BTS is engaged in monitoring the load on the RACH and PCH, and it informs the BSC via a Load Indication (CCCH LOAD IND) message. After analyzing this message, the BSC performs relevant flow control.

23

Chapter II :
BTS

BSC:Principals and Functioning.
BSC

CCCH LOAD IND

Figure. II-5 CCCH Load Management Flow

The private channel management flow is shown in the figure, The BSC is engaged in monitoring the load of the private channel, and it informs the MSC via a Resource Indication (RES IND). The MSC inquires the BSC about the usage via a Resource Request (RES REQ) at any time, thus supporting handover between cells caused by overload.
BSC MSC

RES REQ RES IND

Figure. II-6 Private Channel Load Management Flow

The overload indication flow is shown in Figure. II-7 . The traffic load is informed between the BSC and MSC via an Overload Indication (OVERLOAD) Message.
BSC OVERLOAD BSC OVERLOAD OVERLOAD MSC

BSC OVERLOAD MSC OVERLOAD OVERLOAD

MSC

Figure II-7

Flow of Overload Indication

I.2.5. Handover : Handover is a crucial function for cellular mobile communication systems. The GSM cellular system adopts radio frequency resource multiplexing technology and one area is jointly covered by multiple cells, hence the concept of cross-cell handover. Handover enables continuous
24

Chapter II :

BSC:Principals and Functioning.

conversation when the subscriber is crossing different cellular cells. Besides, handover can also adjust the traffic of cells. This process is implemented without awareness and intervention of the subscriber. The advanced ZXG10-BSC (V2) software allows various types of effective handover to improve handover speed and reduce handover failure rate. It is also integrated with other new technologies to improve network capacity and service quality. A) Classifications of handovers :
Depending upon the home location of the two cells involved in the handover, the ZXG10-BSC(V2) supports the following types of handover:

1) Intra-cell Handover 2) Inter-cell Handover in BSC 3) Inter-BSC Handover in MSC 4) Inter-MSC Handover
Depending upon how the MS establishes contact with the destination cell during handover, the ZXG10-BSC(V2) supports the following three types of handover:

1) Synchronous Handover 2) Asynchronous Handover 3) Pseudo-synchronous Handover (used when both cells are synchronous with BSC) B) Handover Prerequisites :
The handover is often caused by the following:

1) The signal is too weak 2) The signal quality is poor 3) The signal is interfered 4) The mobile subscriber is too far away from the BS. 5) Sudden drop of the uplink electric level 6) Existence of a more suitable cell C) Flow of Handover Control :
The handover is completed through measurement report of MS and BTS as well as various handover control parameters. A typical flow of handover control is shown in the following figure. The flow consists in storage of measurement data, averaging of measurement data, comparison of thresholds and selection of candidate cells.

25

Chapter II :
Measurement data storage

BSC:Principals and Functioning.

Measurement data averaging

Comparison of threshold

Selection of candidate cells

Figure II.8. Flow of Handover Control

I.2.6.Power Control : Power control means to control the actual transmitting power (keep it as low as possible) of MS or BS in radio propagation, reducing the power consumption of MS/BS and the interference of the entire GSM network. Needless to say, power control shall ensure the good communication quality of the ongoing calls. The following is a brief description of the power control process. See the figure first:

A

B

Figure II.9

As shown in the figure, the MS at A is farther from the BS antenna. Because the propagation loss of electric wave in air is in direct proportion to n power of the distance, the MS at A needs comparatively larger transmitting power during communication to ensure the communication quality. Comparatively, point B is closer to the BS transmission antenna, hence smaller transmission loss; therefore, to obtain similar communication quality, a mobile phone at point B can use lower transmission power during communication. When a MS in communication is moving from point A towards point B, the power control can reduce its transmission power gradually. On the contrary, if it is moving from point B towards point A, the power control can increase its transmission power gradually. The power control is divided into uplink power control and downlink power control, which function separately. The uplink power control controls the MS transmitting power, while downlink power control controls the BS transmitting power. Both uplink and downlink power control can reduce interference from uplink and down direction through reducing the transmission power. The best advantage is the improvement of average communication quality on the whole GSM network and the extension of battery life.

26

Chapter II :

BSC:Principals and Functioning.

-Power Control Process :
The original information provided to make decisions during a power control process is obtained from the measurement data of the MS and BS. The corresponding control decision can be made after processing and analyzing the original data. Similar to the handover control process, the whole power control process is shown in the figure control process is shown in the figure
Measurement data storage Measurement data averaging Power control decision Power control command sending Measurement data correction

Figure II.10

27

Chapter II :

BSC:Principals and Functioning.

II .BSC Interfaces and Networking Modes:
ZXG10-BSC (V2) is a base station controller with multiple modules and a large capacity. It features high reliability, high performance-to-price ratio, and sound functions, with the network platform completely open. Compared with counterpart devices running on the network, it is of significant competitiveness. ZXG10-BSC (V2) is designed on the basis of GSM Phase II + standard. It supports all service functions of GSM Phase II, including GPRS data services, and it is also compatible with GSM Phase II standard. The location of ZXG-BSC (V2) in the GSM digital mobile communication network is shown in the figure II.11

M S

BSC Satellite

M S

.

28

Chapter II :

BSC:Principals and Functioning.

II.1. Interfaces : A lot of interfaces are introduced in the recommedations, but only a subset of these are relevant in our work. They are presented in a top-down fashion: A interface, Abis-interface, and Finally Air-interface. To give a quick overview of the relevant interfaces in a GSM network we have depicted them on Figure.

figure II.11

All interfaces follow the Open System Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model, which divides the interface into layers to allow interconnection of the different Interfaces and easy development of extensions to the specifications. For easy reference, the model is depicted on the Figure . All three interfaces utilize only the three lowest layers the OSI stack: physical, datalink, and network.

figure II.10

I1.1.1.A-interface: The interface between the BSC and MSC is known as A interface, which is an interface between the TC and MSC. The transcoder (TC) performs voice conversion between voice codes and 64k bit/s A-law PCM codes. In the same time, TC is also responsible for the data rate adaptation circuit type data services. The TC can be placed on either BSC side, or MSC side. In typical implementation schemes, it is located between the MSC and BSC.
29

Chapter II :

BSC:Principals and Functioning.

The A-interface is built on an existing communication standard, Signalling System 7 (SS7), which is used throughout the entire NSS. This standard is very common within telecommunication. The reason for adopting such a standard is obvious: interoperability with existing telecommunication networks (PSTN, ISDN). The SS7 network is huge and the complete description of it is out of scope for this thesis. The most important parts of the SS7 protocol stack, within the context of GSM, is illustrated on Figure bellow

figure II.11

The lower levels of the SS7 protocol stack (OSI layer 1_3) are called the Message Transfer Part (MTP). The user part of the MTP contains several standards, but only one is interesting in this context, the Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP). The SCCP is considered being the user part of the MTP, but it actually digs a little into layer 3. The GSM specific signaling on the A-interface is performed by the Base Station Subsystem Application Part (BSSAP). This is seperated into two layers: Base Station Subsystem Management Application Part (BSSMAP) and Direct Transfer Application Part(DTAP), The BSSMAP handles RR messages where, DTAP handles MM and CC messages. While DTAP maps directly to MM and CC messages, BSSMAP does not map directly to RR: Some RR messages are exchanged exclusively between the MS and the BSS and some BSSMAP messages are exchanged exclusively between the BSS and the MSC. An illustration of this can be seen on Figure II.12.

figure II.12

30

Chapter II :

BSC:Principals and Functioning.

II.2. Ater Interface : When the TC is at the MSC side, the Sub-Multiplexing Unit (SMU) is often used between the BSC and TC to reduce cost of the transmission line. The Ater interface is the interface between BSC and TC. The Ater interface is a self-defined interface of ZXG10-BSC (V2). Transmission done by the Ater interface is similar to that of A interface. The only one difference lies in the different transmission speeds of voice signals on the two interfaces. The voice signals in A interface are 64kbit/s A law PCM coded signals while the coded voice signals in Ater interfaces are the same as those in Abis interface. The signaling signal transmitted in the Ater interface is CCS7. II.3.Abis-interface : The interface between the BSC and BTS is known as Abis interface, through which the BSC is interconnected with the BTS. The BS interface equipment are configured on the both sides. The Abis interface is an internally self-defined interface of the ZXG10-BSS.Star, chain and tree networking modes of Abis interface are supported. The recommendations employ well known and well tested technologies on the fixed interfaces. Typically a PCM 30 link is used; providing a bandwidth at 2 Mbit/sec. The Abisinterface has never been very well specified. This has lead to the current market situation, where the BTS and the BSC always comes from the same vendor since other combinations would lead to incompatibilies. Layer 1 of the Abis-interface is the D-channel of the PCM30 links. Each One contains 30 Bchannels for traffic (each giving 64 kbit/sec.) and one Layer 2 of the D-channel uses the LAPD protocol for signalling. This is adopted for signalling on the Abis-interface. Layer 3 is split into four parallel sublayers: TRX Management (TRXM), Common Channel Management (CCM), Radio Link Management (RLM), and Dedicated Channel Management (DCM).

figure II.13 The TRXM sublayer is used for taking TRXs into and out of service, and controlling their status. CCM is used for broadcast messages for the entire cell, e.g. paging of an MS (the network tries to contact the MS, when it is called or an SMS is received), SMS broadcast, and information about the cell. RLM is for controlling layer 2 of the radio link between the MS and the BTS. This includes establishing and releasing connections. DCM is used for controlling
31

Chapter II :

BSC:Principals and Functioning.

layer 1 of the Air-interface such as handovers, measurements, channel activation/deactivation, and encryption setup. RLM and DCM are only used for active links on the Air-interface, i.e. there is no communication on them in idle mode. On figure II.13 the protocol stack of the Abisinterface is shown. On top of layer 3, the payload data is transported. The Abis-interface is mostly used for exchange of RR, CC, and MM messages specified in the Air-interface . II.4.Air-interface: The Air-interface is the radio interface between the MS and the fixed network. This interface has a lot of difficulties compared to the other interfaces, because radio communication is far more sensitive to external interference than cabled communication. To compensate for the hostile environment, a great deal of bandwidth is spent on error correction data.

figure II.14

Layer 1 is concerned with various divisioning schemes and modulation techniques employed to allow multiple access and ensure data quality of the radio. Layer 2 controls the transmission and has knowledge about the layout of the various logical channels on top of the physical channels. The data-link layer offers data transfer as well as mechanisms to priorities the data transfer. The protocol for signaling on this layer is the LAPDm a modified version of Link Access Protocol for the D-channel (LAPD) used in for example ISDN networks. The modification takes into account the limited resources on the radio interface; all the dispensable parts of LAPD are therefore removed. Layer 3 is divided into three sub layers, each concerned with different tasks in the network. The sub layers are Radio Resource (RR), Mobility Management (MM), and Call Connection Management (CC). The task of the RR sub layer is to ensure that the upper sub layers, i.e. MM and CC, are able to transmit transparently of the radio path used. The tasks are channel setup and release, handover, and various radio related procedures when there are active channels. The MM sublayer handles the procedures ensuring the reachability while being mobile, authentication of the subscriber towards the network as well as initialization of chipering (encryption) before call setup. The CC sublayer is responsible for setup and release of calls, and various things happening during the call. RR, MM, and CC are sublayers and not three individual protocols implementing network services. RR offers reliable radio services to MM and CC by taking care of the low level radio layers.
32

Chapter II : II.6. QX Interface:

BSC:Principals and Functioning.

The interface between the BSC and the background Operation Maintenance Center (OMC) is known as Qx interface, through which operation and maintenance commands are input and the system maintenance information is output. The Qx interface supports the following connection modes: connection through X25 leased line, connection through the public packet switching network PSPDN, connection through the Ethernet interface, as well as semi-permanent connection from the BSC to the OMC through the A interface circuit.

We have now presented the interfaces connecting the devices in a GSM network. We also presented the layers and the tasks each of them are responsible for.

MS CM MM RR RR

BTS

BSC

MSC CM MM

RR BTSM LapD Abis BTSM LapD

BSSAP SCCP MTP3 MTP2 A

BSSAP SCCP MTP3 MTP2

LapDm Physical layer Um

LapDm

figure II.15
Protocol Stack Structure of Circuit Services

33

Chapter II : II.2.Networking Mode:

BSC:Principals and Functioning.

ZXG10-BSC (V2) is designed with the flexible modular system. It can provide flexible networking mode according to the actual environment conditions, as well as different system configurations according to the actual capacity requirements. Thanks to the system’s modular design, ZXG10-BSC (V2) can be conveniently expanded. The system capacity can be easily extended by adding the peripheral module RMM, with little impact on the system in operation. Various networking modes with different interfaces supported by ZXG10-BSC (V2) are respectively described in the following. II.2.1.Abis Interface Networking: ZXG10-BSC (V2) supports the various models of ZTE ZXG10-BTS. According to different needs, ZXG10-BSC (V2) can correspondingly configure the BTS networking modes, and it supports the star, chain and tree networking modes of BTS. ZXG10-BSC (V2) Abis interface supports the following networking modes shown in figure II.16,17,18

SITE0 B S C SITE1 . . . SITEn

figure II.16 Abis Interface Star Networking
BSC SITE0 SITE1 SITE2

figure II.17 Abis Interface Chain Networking
S I T E 0 . . . SITEn SITE1

B S C

SITE2

figure II.18 Abis Interface Tree Networking

In star networking, each site is directly connected into BSC. This networking mode is simple, the cabling is reliable, the maintenance and construction is convenient. It is applicable to the densely populated region.

34

Chapter II :

BSC:Principals and Functioning.

The chain networking uses less transmission equipment, for ZXG10-BTS has the by-pass straight through function. That is, if it is the BTS broken link with relatively shallow depth, BTS with deeper cascading depth can be directly connected. So the normal operation of the equipment will not be affected, and the line is very reliable. This mode is applicable to the region with band-shaped distribution. The tree networking mode is suitable for areas that have large geographical space but less population. This networking mode is more complex, and the signal passes more nodes. The line reliability is lower. The fault of an upper-level SITE may affect the normal operation of a lower-level SITE. Therefore, the tree networking mode is not applied frequently. In practice, these networking modes tend to be combined to achieve the highest performanceprice ratio. II.2.2.A Interface Networking: ZXG10-BSC (V2) supports the near-end and far-end configuration of the TC unit. The nearend configuration means that the TC unit is placed at the BSC side when BSC is near to MSC. The far-end configuration means when BSC is relatively far away from MSC, to minimize transmission between BSC and MSC, TC is placed at the MSC side. The two networking modes of ZXG10-BSC (V2) A interface are shown in figure II.19.

BSC

TC A interface

MSC

BSC NSMU

FSMU Ater interface

TC A interface

MSC

figure II.19 A Interface System Networking of ZXG10-BSC (V2)

For the far-end configuration of TC, it is necessary to add Near-end Sub-Mupltiplexing Unit (NSMU), Far-end Sub-Multiplexing Unit (FSMU) and the far-end TC rack for ZXG10-BSC (V2). NSMU is placed on the rack on the BSC side, and FSMU on the far-end rack on the MSC side. TCU and AIU are configured on the far-end rack. The interface between the near end and the far end (between BSC and TC) is the Ater. Because the low-speed voice coding signal used by the air interface is transmitted at the Ater interface, while at the A interface, the 64K bit/s A law PCM voice coding is transmitted, when BSC is relatively far from MSC, the cost of transmission line can be reduced by adopting the networking scheme of placing TC at far end. figure II.20 is the sketch of ZXG10-BSC (V2) A interface system networking configuration. The upper part of the sketch is the TC near-end configuration, and the lower part is the TC farend configuration. TCU is composed of TCPP and DRT boards, AIU of AIPP and TIC boards,
35

Chapter II :

BSC:Principals and Functioning.

NSMU of NSPP and TIC boards, and FSMU of FSPP and TIC boards. When TC is configured at the near end, TCU and AIU are connected between the T network and A interface in the serial mode, and one TCU is connected with one AIU. When TC is configured at the far end, the TICs between NSMU and FSMU are connected through the one-to-one corresponding E1 interface. In the actual project, the networking mode for A interface depends on the distance between BSC and MSC.
N S U 8M¡Á 2 . . . TCU TCU 8M¡Á 2 TCU N S U N S M U E1 ... F S M U . . . TCU AIU AIU AIU AIU A interface

8M ¡Á2

Ater interface

figure II.20 A Interface System Networking Configuration of ZXG10-BSC (V2)

36

Chapter I : Overview :

ZXG10-BSC (V2) Hardware Structure

The overall hardware structure of ZXG10-BSC (V2) is shown in figure III.1
Abis interface RMM # 1 BIU 2M 8 × RMU BIU . . Abis interface . RMM # 4 BIU 2M × 8 RMU BIU 2M× 16 SCM SCU TC unit OMM 8M × 1 8M × 2 8M × 2 . . 8M × 2 . B O S N SPCU GIU TCU . . . TCU A interface AIU PCU Gb interface

8M× 2

AIU AIU

8M × 2

TCU E1 N F . . S S 8M × 2 . . M ... M . . U U TCU

AIU

figure III.1 Overall Structure of ZXG10-BSC (V2)

ZXG10-BSC (V2) provides two types of modules: SCM (System Control Module) and RMM (Radio Management Module). SCM processes the signaling interaction between BSC and MSC, SGSN. The system provides one SCM; RMM processes the signaling flow on the Abis interface, and the system provides 1~8 RMMs. The SCM comprises System Control Unit (SCU) which implements the direct management over the terrestrial circuit devices and the forwarding of SS7; the Network Switching Unit (NSU) which implements the circuit switching function and provides 32k×32k 2-bit switching network; the A Interface Unit (AIU), TransCoder and Rate Adaptation Unit (TCU) which implement the functions of A interface, transcoding and rate adaptation; the Abis Interface Unit (BIU) which implements Abis interface functions; the Far SubMultiplexing Unit (FSMU) and Near SubMultiplexing Unit (NSMU) which implement the sub-multiplexing function; the Packet Control Unit (PCU) which implements the GPRS function; the Gb Interface Unit (GIU) which fulfills Gb interface functions. RMM is composed by Radio Management Unit (RMU). One RMM can complete service handling of up to 256 carriers. In ZXG10-BSC (V2) different shelves are designed for different functional units. They are Control Layer Shelf BCTL (including BCTL-RMU shelf and BCTL-SCU shelf), network switching and clock layer shelf BNET, A interface, transcoding and rate adaptation function shelf BATC, Abis interface shelf BBIU, sub-multiplexing shelf BSMU and GPRS shelf (including BPCU shelf and BGIU shelf). These shelves are configured with different boards according to their functional requirements.

37

Chapter I : I.System Configurations:

ZXG10-BSC (V2) Hardware Structure

The ZXG10-BSC (V2) system can provide large-capacity configuration. The Abis interface and A interface can be configured according to the actual service models. Normally the allocation ratio of the switching network HW cables of Abis interface and A interface is 1:0.9. The number of racks to be used depends on the total number of carriers. I.1. Configuration of Rack without SMU: I.1.1.Dual-module BSC (one SCM module and one RMM module):
When smaller capacity (for example: 240 TRXs) is required, configuration of one shelf is sufficient. Configuration of the shelf is illustrated in figure III.2

figure III.2

I.1.2.Three-module BSC: With three modules, it is necessary to configure two shelves. Composition of the shelves is illustrated in figure III.3

figure III.3

38

Chapter I : I.1.3.Four-module BSC:

ZXG10-BSC (V2) Hardware Structure

With four modules, it is necessary to configure three shelves. Configuration of the shelves is illustrated in figure III.4
Layer 6 Layer 5 Layer 4 Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1

figure III.4

I.2.Configuration of Rack with SMU: There is one sub-multiplexing access point in ZXG10-BSC (V2), which is Ater interface, the sub-multiplexing interface at the TC side. The necessary number of SMU units depends on the number of modules located at the far-end. When sub-multiplexing the Ater interface, all of the TC units are located at the far-end. One pair of SMU units (one near-end SMU and one far-end SMU) and one far-end TC rack are necessary for every four TC shelves. I.2.1.Far-end TC Rack in the Case of Sub-multiplexing :
One far-end TC rack is composed of one far-end sub-multiplexing shelf and up to four TC shelves. The rack is illustrated in figure III.5

Layer-6 Layer-5 Layer-4 Layer-3 Layer-2 Layer-1 FSMU BATC-1 BATC-2 BATC-3 BATC-4

figure III.5 39

Chapter I :

ZXG10-BSC (V2) Hardware Structure

I.2.2.Near-end BSC Racks in the Case of Sub-multiplexing :
TC When the TC is at the far end, the near-end BSC (with four RMM modules) racks are configured as shown in figure III.6

Layer-6 Layer-5 Layer-4 Layer-3 Layer-2 Layer-1

BBIU-1 BCTL(RMU-1) BCTL(SCU) BNET BSMU(BATC-1~4) BSMU(BATC-5~8)

BBIU-2 BCTL(RMU-2) BBIU-3 BCTL(RMU-3)

BBIU-4 BCTL(RMU-4)

#1

#2

#3

figure III.6 Near-end BSC Racks

II. ZXG10-BSC (V2)Shelves: For different functions, the ZXG10-BSC (V2) is designed with 7 different kinds of functional shelves. The BSC system functions can be implemented through different combinations of these shelves. The 7 shelves and their respective functions are briefly described below: 1.Shelf of the control layer (BCTL)
BCTL shelves are of two types: the BCTL-SCU shelf and the BCTL-RMU shelf The BCTL-SCU shelf bears the system control unit (SCU), where the kernel program of the system is located. It implements the system control function. The BCTL-RMU bears the radio resources management unit (RMU) and implements the radio resources management function.

2.Network Switching Layer Shelf (BNET)
The BNET shelf bears the network switching unit (NSU) and provides the 32K×32K 2bit circuit switching network and clock functions.

3.Shelf of the A-interface and Transcoder (BATC)
The BATC shelf bears the A-interface unit (AIU) and the transcoding and rate adaptation unit (TCU). It enables A-interface, transcoding and rate adaptation functions.

4. Shelf of the Base station interface unit (BBIU)
The BBIU shelf bears the Abis interface unit (BIU) and enables the Abis interface function.

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Chapter I :

ZXG10-BSC (V2) Hardware Structure

5.Shelf of the sub-multiplexing interface unit (BSMU)
The SMU performs sub-multiplexing and is designed to save the cost of the transmission equipment. The BSMU shelf bears the near SMU or the remote SMU. If the SMU provides near sub-multiplexing, it is called NSMU. If the SMU provides far sub-multiplexing, it is called FSMU.

6.Shelf of the Packet Control Unit (BPCU)
The BPCU shelf bears the packet control unit (PCU) and processes GPRS services.

7.Shelf of the Gb interface unit (BGIU)
The BGIU shelf bears the Gb interface unit (GIU) and provides the Gb interface function.

III. ZXG10-BSC (V2) shelves Used In GSM: III.1.BCTL : 1.Overview : The BCTL shelf is the place where the kernel program of the system is loaded. BCTL shelves are of two types: the BCTL-SCU shelf and the BCTL-RMU shelf. The BCTL-SCU shelf completes the MPPP and MPMP communications and processes MTP2 signaling. The shelf fulfils the system control function by receiving OMCR instructions through the Ethernet to configure and upgrade the system and reporting the system status to OMCR. It enables the system control function. The BCTL-RMU shelf enables MPMP communications and LAPD processing. It enables the radio resource management function. 2.Configuration of the Control Layer Shelf : The control layer shelves are of two types: the BCTL-RMU shelf and the BCTL-SCU shelf. Configuration of the BCTL-RMU shelf : The BCTL-RMU occupies one shelf position. Its backplane is the control layer backplane. Configuration of boards of the BCTL-RMU is shown in figure III.7
1 P O W B 2 3 S M E M 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 C O M M C O M M C O M M C O M M C O M M C O M M C O M M C O M M C O M M C O M M C O M M C O M M C O M M C P O O M W M B

M P

M P

figure III.7 BCTL-RMU Shelf in Full Configuration

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Chapter I :

ZXG10-BSC (V2) Hardware Structure

The following boards can be configured in the BCTL-RMU shelf: 1.MP 2.COMM 3.SMEM 4.POWB Among them, MP is the main control board. Two MP boards are configured in the active and standby mode. They control the COMM board via the AT bus on the backplane. The two MPs exchange data through the shared memory board (SMEM) and are connected with OMCR through the Ethernet. COMM is the assistant processing board of MP. It enables MPMP communication and LAPD processing functions. It communicates with MP through the AT bus and is connected to COMI through the 2M HW line. COMM boards in slots 13 and 14 enables the MPMP communication function; COMM boards in slots 15-26 enable the LAPD processing function. Two POWB boards feed power to all boards of this layer. Configuration of the BCTL-SCU shelf : The BCTL-SCU occupies one shelf position. Its backplane is the control layer backplane. Configuration of the boards of BCTL-SCU is shown in figure III.8.
1 P O W B 2 3 S M E M 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 C O M M C O M M C O M M C O M M C O M M C O M M C O M M C O M M C O M M C O M M C O M M C O M M P P M O E O W P N B D

M P

M P

figure III.8 Full Configuration of the BCTL-SCU Shelf

The following boards can be configured in the BCTL-SCU shelf: 1.MP 2.COMM 3.SMEM 4. PEPD 5.MON 6.PCOM 7.POWB Among them, MP is the main control board. Two MP boards are configured in the active and standby mode. They control the COMM, PEPD, MON, and PCOM boards via the AT bus on the backplane. The two MPs exchange data through the shared memory board (SMEM).

42

Chapter I :

ZXG10-BSC (V2) Hardware Structure

COMM is the assistant processing board of MP. It enables MPMP and MPPP communication and MTP2 signaling. It communicates with MP through the AT bus and is connected to the network layer through the 2M HW line. COMM boards in slots 13 and 14 enable the MPMP communication function; COMM boards in slots 15-20 enable the MPPP communication function; COMM boards in slots 21 and 22 enable the MTP2 processing function. Slots 23 and 24 are standby slots. MON monitors the status of the power supply and clock boards through the 485 cable; it reports to MP through the AT bus. PEPD monitors the equipment room environment through sensor interfaces. To connect the shelf to the cell broadcast center (CBC), replace the COMM board in slot 23 with the PCOM board to provide the X.25 protocol function. Two POWB boards feed power to all boards at this layer. 3.Functional Principle : External communication interfaces of the BCTL layer are set with the 2MHW cable, the RS485 asynchronous serial bus and Ethernet interface. The principle is shown in figure III.9.
Ethernet
Backboard bus 1 of the control layer

Sharing memory board

Backboard bus 2 of the control layer

Ethernet

Communic ation board

Communic ation board

Monitoring board

IR smoke sensor

Temperature and humidity sensor

4*HW cables

4*HW cables

8*RS485 buses

figure III.9 Principle of the BCTL shelf

The active/standby MP boards exchange data through the SMEM board. They are connected to the COMM, MON, PEPD, and PCOM boards via the independent AT bus on the backplane. COMM processes the HDLC, LAPD (RMU) and MTP2 (SCU) data links. MON monitors power and clock boards via the 485 bus and reports the board status to the MP via the AT bus. PEPD monitors the equipment room via the external sensor interfaces (for example the smoke sensor) and reports the results to MP. MP is connected to the OMCR through the Ethernet; it receives configuration data from OMCR and reports alarms to OMCR. SMEM, MON, PEPD and PCOM are hot-pluggable. MP is not hot-pluggable. To plug/unplug MP, set the power switch on the MP panel to OFF.

43

Chapter I : III.2. Network Switching Layer Shelf (BNET): 1.Overview:

ZXG10-BSC (V2) Hardware Structure

The BNET shelf is the network switching layer of SCM of THE ZXG10-BSC (V2). It switches voice services, data services and communication timeslots of the system and provides clock signals for the whole system. 2.Shelf Configuration: The following boards can be configured in the BNET shelf: 1.CKI 2.SYCK 3.BOSN 4.DSNI 5.POWB A fully-configured BNET shelf is shown in figure III.10
1 P O W B 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 S Y C K B O S N B O S N D S N I D S N I D S N I D S N I D S N I D S N I D S N I D S N I D S N I D S N I P O W B

S C Y K C I K

figure III.10 A Fully-Configured BNET Shelf

The BNET shelf takes up one slot. Both the CKI and SYCK boards are clock synchronization units. One CKI board feeds in the external clock synchronization reference, and two SYCK boards, mutually active and standby, synchronize the external clock reference and then provide clock signals to the shelf at this layer and to the whole system. If this module has no BITS clock, the CKI board is not to be configured. The BNET shelf has two BOSN boards in the active/ standby mode. The BOSN boards are 32K×32K 2bit switching network boards and provide 64 pairs of bi-directional 8M HW singlepolarity signals. The BNET shelf has two MP-level DSNI boards, each of which converts two 8M HW signals into sixteen 2M HW LVDS signals. The boards are interconnected with the control layer shelf through a cable, and the clock of the control layer shelf is provided by the MP-level DSNI board through the same cable. Two MP-level DSNI boards can provide up to thirty-two 2M HWs. The MP-level DSNI boards are in slots 13 and 14, and the PP-level DSNI boards are in slots 15-22. The BNET shelf can have up to 5 pairs of active/standby PP-level DSNI boards. Each of the board pairs is connected to BOSN through 16 single-polarity 8M HW cables and converts the single-polarity signals into LVDS signals for connection with BATC, BBIU and BPCU. The shelf has 2 POWB boards at the fixed positions. The CKI, SYCK, BOSN and DSNI boards are hot-pluggable.
44

Chapter I : 3.Functional Principle :

ZXG10-BSC (V2) Hardware Structure

The principle of the BNET shelf is shown in figure III.11

figure III.11 Principle Diagram of the BNET Shelf

Functions of the digital switching network are: 1.It connects semi-permanently the communication timeslots of various external interface units to the COMM board of SCM MPU to establish communication with MP. It connects semipermanently the communication timeslot of RMM to the COMM board of the SCM MPU to establish MP-MP communication. As the BTS radio resource management by BSC is independently implemented by RMM, the communication information switched by BOSN is MP-PP, MTP and MP-MP communication information. 2.BOSN, the switching center of the system, switches the traffic in the subscriber’s voice and data channels of BSS to the MSC and SGSN sides. It supports n × 16Kbit/s timeslot switching and adopts the fixed time delay switching mode. 3. DSNI provides cable drive for the BOSN HW. It is connected with BATC, BBIU, and BPCU and provides clock signals. MPMP, MPPP, and MTP2 are semi-permanently connected through BOSN with the MP-level DSNI, which implements code rate conversion and cable drive, then connected with the control layer shelf. In this way, communication between the various units is fulfilled. Besides, the MP-level DSNI provides clock signals to the control layer shelf. 4.CKI provides the external clock reference interface (BITS). SYCK provides clock signals to all boards of the BNET shelf and clock signals through DSNI to all other units of the system.
45

Chapter I :

ZXG10-BSC (V2) Hardware Structure

III.3. Shelf of the A-Interface and Transcoder (BATC): 1.Overview : The BATC shelf carries TCU (transcoder unit) and AIU (A-interface unit). TCU performs transcoding and rate adaptation, and AIU completes the physical connection of A-interface. 2.Shelf Configuration: Configuration of the boards of BATC is shown in figure III.12.
1 P O W B 2 3 T C P P 4 T C P P 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 E/ D R T E/ E/ D D R R T T E /D R T E E /D /D R R T T E /D R T E /D R T A I P P A T T I I I P C C P T T I I C C T T I I C C T T I I C C P O W B

figure III.12 A Fully-Configured BATC Shelf

The following boards can be configured in the BATC shelf: 1.TCPP 2.DRT/EDRT 3.TCPP 4. TIC 5.POWB The BATC shelf has two mandatory POWB boards, two mandatory TCPP boards, two mandatory AIPP boards, up to eight DRT or EDRT boards which can be plugged together; and up to eight TIC boards. Each DRT board can process 126 FRs or 32 EFRs; each EDRT board can process 126 FRs or 126 EFRs; and each TIC board can provide four E1 trunk circuits. 3.Functional Principle: TransCoder Unit (TCU) and A-interface unit are connected in serial between T network and Ainterface. One TCU is connected with one AIU in serial, with the physical structure shown in
BOSN

DSNI 2× 8M TCU 1 × 8M ( E)DRT TCPP 1× 8M … ( E)DRT m m¡Ü8 A 接口 1 AIPP 1× 8M AIU TIC … TIC m 4× E1 1

figure III.13 Physical Structure of AIU and TCU.

46

Chapter I :

ZXG10-BSC (V2) Hardware Structure

The TCU function is as follows: TCU implements the transcoding and rate adaptation function of BSC. Transcoding and rate adaptation refer to the conversion between the voice code of the GSM wireless interface and the A law PCM voice code of the ordinary public telephone network, and the rate adaptation between the two voice codes (including the rate adaptation of data service). TCPP is the manager of the TC unit and is in turn controlled and managed by SUC through the HDLC channels. The physical carrier of the HDLC channel is the 8M HW cable connecting TCU and the T net. The active/standby TCPP board communicates with SCU through two 64Kbit/s HDLC channels. The software version of TCPP can be downloaded from MP through the HDLC channel. The transcoding and rate adaptation functions are completed by the DRT board or the EDRT board. DRT (EDRT) is managed by the active TCPP through the point-to-point HDLC links. Every DRT (EDRT) board communicates with the active TCPP through two load-sharing 64Kbit/s HDLC channels. The software version of the DRT and EDRT can be downloaded online from TCPP through HDLC links. The AIU functions are as follows: The main control of the AIU module is implemented by the active AIPP. AIPP is controlled and managed by SCU through HDLC channels. The physical carrier of HDLC channels is the 8M HW cable connecting AIU and the T net (forwarded through the 8M HW cable between TCPP and AIPP). The active/standby AIPP board communicates with SCU through two 64Kbit/s HDLC channels. The software version of AIPP can be downloaded from MP through the HDLC channel. Other boards (TIC) in the AIU module are managed by the active AIPP through the 485 bus. The RS485 address of each board is equal to the board address (0~7) in the shelf. The software version of TIC cannot be downloaded online. III.4. Shelf of the Base station interface unit (BBIU): 1.Overview The BBIU shelf carries BIU (Abis interface unit), which provides the physical layer function of the Abis interface through the digital trunk interface. 2.Configuration of the Abis Interface Shelf One BBIU shelf carries two BIUs, each of which is connected with the BNET layer through a cable (two 8M lines). The two BIUs correspond to one RMU which supports up to 256 TRXes. In practical configuration, a certain redundancy shall be reserved. Therefore, the default maximum configuration of one RMU is 240 TRXes.

47

Chapter I :

ZXG10-BSC (V2) Hardware Structure

Configuration of the boards of BBIU is shown in figure III.14.
1 P O W B 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 T T I I C C B B C C B B T T T T I I O O I I I I I I P P M M P P C C C C P P I I P P T T I I C C T T I I C C P O W B

T T I I C C

figure III.14 A fully-configured BBIU Shelf

The following boards can be configured in the BBIU shelf: 1.BIPP 2.COMI 3.TIC 4. POWB BIU consists of two BIPP boards and multiple TIC boards. The two BIPP boards are mandatory. BIU may have 6 TIC boards at the most, each of which may take four E1 trunk circuits. For the BBIU shelf, two COMI and two POWB boards must be provided. 3.Functional Principle The physical position of BIU in the ZXG10-BSC (V2.80) is shown in figure III.15 .
Cascade BIPP

Abis BIU COMMI 2¡Á8 M ¡ 16 2M Á BIPP ¡ 2 8M Á DSN I 8M

TIC . . . TIC

1

n

n¡Ü6

MPM P M P RMU

LapD S M E M

M P

figure III.15 Physical Position of BIU

48

Chapter I :

ZXG10-BSC (V2) Hardware Structure

It is connected with RMU through the 2MHW to form the radio resource management module. BIPP manages BIU while it is controlled and managed by the SCU through HDLC channel. It works in the active/standby mode. The hardware is GPP board. COMI completes connection between BIU and RRU through the HW cable. Of all the parallel and cascade BIUs in one RMM, two BIUs of the same shelf share one pair of active/standby COMI boards. The communication links in the cascade BIPPs are collected to the two COMIs through certain physical connection. The 2M HW connection between the BIU and RRU carries two types of communication channels: 2M HW connections between the BIU and the RMU bear two types of communications channels: communication connection between MPMP-RMU and SCU, and communication connection between LapD-RMU and BTS. TIC implements physical layer functions of the E1 interface. III. 5. Shelf of the sub-multiplexing interface unit (BSMU) : 1.Overview There are two categories of BSMU shelves: The near one and the far one. The BSMU shelf that provides the near SMU function is called NSMU. The BSMU shelf that provides the far SMU function is called FSMU. 2.Configuration of BSMU 1)Configuration of the NSMU Shelf: Configuration of the boards of NSMU is shown in figure III.16.
1 P O W B 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 N S P P N T T S I I P C C P T T I I C C T T I I C C T T I I C C P O W B

figure III.16 A Fully-Configured SMU Shelf

The following boards can be configured in the NSMU shelf: 1.NSPP 2.TIC 3.POWB The NSMU shelf has two POWB boards which are mandatory, two NSPP boards which are mandatory, and up to 8 TIC boards.

49

Chapter I : 2)Configuration of FSMU Shelf:

ZXG10-BSC (V2) Hardware Structure

Configuration of the boards of FSMU is shown in figure III.17.
1 P O W B 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 S Y C K F S P P F T T S I I P C C P T T I I C C T T I I C C T T I I C C P O W B S C Y K C I K

figure III.17 A Fully-Configured FSMU Shelf

The following boards can be configured in the FSMU shelf: 1.FSPP 2.TIC 3.CKI 4.SYCK 5.POWB The FSMU shelf has two POWB boards which are mandatory, one CKI board which is optional, two SYCK boards which are mandatory, two FSPP boards which are mandatory, and up to 8 TIC boards. 3.Functional Principle: SMU completes the physical layer function of the far-end interface of the BSC. As an optional unit in the ZXG10-BSC (V2.80), SMU is used only when TC is configured at the far end. According to its location relative to the T net in the ZXG10-BSC (V2.80), SMU is divided into two types: near SMU and far-end SMU, namely Near Sub-multiplexing Unit (NSMU) and Far Sub-multiplexing Unit (FSMU), as shown in figure III.18figure III.18 Block Diagram of the Basic Structure of SMU.
4¡ÁE1
8M TIC TIC NSPP TIC TIC 1 2 TIC 1 TIC 2 8M n FSPP SYCK

Remote TCPP
2¡Á8M . . .

1

n¡Á8M
T Net

Remote TCPP
n¡Ü8

n

n/2

figure III.18 Block Diagram of the Basic Structure of SMU

The trunk transmission of SMU is conducted between NSMU and FSMU, so the E1 interfaces of the two SMUs are in the one-to-one mode.

50

Chapter I :

ZXG10-BSC (V2) Hardware Structure

1.FSPP and NSPP, the respective controllers of FSMU and NSMU, adopt GPP (the uniform version of PP) for their hardware and implement their functions on the basis of the backplane configuration and the running of corresponding software. 2.The TIC of DTI, and the A-interface and Abis interface should be of the same design. 3.FSMU is configured with the clock module SYCK. Besides the BITS clock, the reference clock of SYCK comes from the device FSMU is connected with. When FSMU is connected with TCU, the reference clock comes from AIU (two at the most), or so to say, it is provided by AIPP (in fact, it is extracted from the E1 cable of the A-interface connected with it). 4.FSPP in FSMU also manages this unit and the BATC layer attached to it. That is, it manages the CKI, SYCK and TIC of FSMU through RS485. It also manages the POWB at the BATC layer of the same place. IV.Communication Relations Between Shelves: The inter-shelf communication relationship of the cabinet without SMU is shown in figure III.19.

figure III.19The Inter-Shelf Communication Relationship of the Cabinet without SMU

The BCTL (SCU) shelf is the shelf at the control layer of the central module. It consists of MP, COMM boards (such as MP-MP communication board, MP-PP communication board, and MTP2) and the alarm system. The MP board manages and controls the whole system, the COMM board carries out MP-MP communication, MP-PP communication and MTP2 processing, and the alarm system carries out alarm collection. The BNET shelf is at the switching network layer and consists of the clock synchronization unit and the circuit switching network unit. The clock synchronization unit carries out synchronization of the external clocks and provides clock signals to the whole system. The
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Chapter I :

ZXG10-BSC (V2) Hardware Structure

circuit switching NE carries out 32K×32K 2bit switching, the semi-permanent connection of the HDLC communication timeslots, and provides cable connection drive for other units. The BBIU shelf is the Abis interface shelf. It carries out switching between T net and the Abis interface and BCTL (RMU). That is, it switches the LAPD timeslots of the Abis interface and the MPMP timeslots of the 8M HW connected with T net to the BCTL (RMU) layer, and the service timeslots of the Abis interface to the T net. The BCTL (RMU) shelf is at the RMU control layer. It consists of the MP board and COMM boards (namely, the MP-MP communication board and the LAPD communication board). The MP board manages the radio resources, while the COMM board performs the MP-MP communication and LAP processing. The BATC shelf consists of the transcoding and rate adaptation unit and the A-interface unit. The transcoding and rate adaptation unit carries out conversion between the voice codes of the wireless interface and the A-law PCM voice codes. The A-interface switches the A-law PCM voice traffic and MTP2 signaling to the A-interface and provides the physical connection function of the A-interface.

52

Chapter I :

ZXG10-BSC Software Structure and Configuration Management

I.Software Structure Of The BSC: ZXG10-BSC (V2)} software is designed by different layers including Operation Support Subsystem (OSS), Operation Maintenance Subsystem (OMS), Service Processing Subsystem (SPS) and Data Base Subsystem (DBS). Relations of different layers of software structure is shown in figure IV.1.

SPS DBS OMS

OSS

Hardware Subsystem

Fig. IV-1 Software Structure of ZXG10-BSC (V2)

OSS is between other software modules and the hardware platform. It manages all hardware resources, screens complex hardware operations, provides interfaces for other modules visiting the hardware, and controls the dispatching of software modules and the message interaction. OMS resides on the BSC as a bridge between OMC and BSC, BTS. The OMC controls and manages the BSC and BTS through OMS. The SPS implements the protocol stack above the RR layer of Abis interface, above the SCCP layer of A interface, and above the NS layer of Gb interface. It is the core for implementing the functions of the whole system. DBS abstracts the BSC system into various data resources, and describes the BSC resources through the relational data table, and provides data access interfaces for other software modules. OMS is distributed on the Main Processor (MP) of the BSC. The other three types of software are distributed on the MP of the BSC and on various PPs.

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Chapter I :

ZXG10-BSC Software Structure and Configuration Management

II).Configuration Management: This chapter introduces the configuration flow, logic structure of configuration data and how to make the simplest data configuration. It describes the advanced data configuration of the network, including how to configure different sites. In compliance with the TMN (Telecommunications Management Network) system structure as described in the ITU-T Recommendations, the ZXG10-OMCR (V2) features high expandability and high reliability. It is designed into the client/server structure. The server uses the Sun installed with Solaris 8 OS or the Fujitsu series server/workstation, or simply a PC server. Among them, the SUN series or the Fujitsu series servers are suitable for large-capacity office deployment while the SUN workstation and PC server are suitable for small-capacity office deployment. The database can adopt Oracle8.1.7 or DB2V8.1. The client uses the Windows 2000 series workstation. ZXG10-BSC (V2) supports local and remote maintenance of OMC-R. Local maintenance means that BSC and OMC-R are connected via LAN. Remote maintenance means that BSC and OMC-R are connected via PCM, X.25, DDN and other modes shown in figure IV.1.
Upper level NM center Router Remote client

Server
Router

Server

PCM/X.25/ FR/DDN

Router

Router Local PCM/X.25/ FR/DDN Returnclient Router Local client

Remote BSC

figure IV.1

The local maintenance networking mode is the simplest and the most common networking mode. Under this networking, OMC-R and BSC are within the same LAN, and are
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Chapter I :

ZXG10-BSC Software Structure and Configuration Management

interconnected via the Ethernet. The OMC-R server is directly connected via LAN to the BSCs it manages. The BSCs managed by OMC-R are required to be physically in the same location. The local maintenance networking is shown in figure IV.2.
Server Client end 1 Client end 2

LAN

MSC

BSC 2

BSC 1

figure IV.2 Local Maintenance networking ZXG10-BSC (V2)

II.1.Starting the Client Interface: On the WINNT desktop, double click the icon for starting the OMCR (V2) system to enter the system. First the user will enter the system login interface, as shown in figure IV.3, where the user should input the user name and password, and select the server.

figure IV.3

After successful login, the user will enter the main interface, as shown in. The main interface shows the system domain topology map, from which the user can learn the cascading and running states of the domains. If there is only the current domain, the main interface will show
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the local BS topology tree instead of the domain topology tree. The nodes on the domain topology map show the alias names of different cascading domains and the domain ID information.

figure IV.4 Main Interface - Domain Topology Map

With the basic configuration information of the system shown in the topology map, the user can conveniently and quickly operate the OMCR (V2) system. Through the main interface, the user can enter the corresponding application module interface as desired (for example, Configuration Management, Fault Management, Performance Management, Security Management and System Tools), or start the character interface. The general course of data configuration is: Use the integrated configuration management to configure physical and basic radio parameters; Use the radio resource management to adjust detailed radio parameters; Use the software loading to configure the foreground software version; Use the dynamic data management to block/unblock timeslots in network debugging. We will focus in this theses in the integrated configuration management of the BSC. The integrated configuration management is used for initial configuration and for modification to the configuration data. It establishes for the user a flow that enables the operation & maintenance personnel to conduct the data configuration easily via the Wizard, and provides the

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user with a good graphical user interface based on the flow for the convenient data configuration of the user. The integrated configuration management provides the physical, radio and software configurations. The user can only use this tool to modify the physical configuration. The handling flow of the integrated configuration management is as follows: Read the data in the database to the client first and send the result to the server for resolution after the user edits the data via the Wizard. Upon successful resolution, the configuration command set is generated and returned to the client for execution. The configuration commands generated by the integrated configuration management must be executed at the client. Two execution modes are available: Execution one by one and batch execution. With slow execution speed and without rollback after an error occurs, the first mode may easily lead to data inconsistency. So batch execution is usually recommended. If the number of generated commands exceeds 6000 and are sent in big transaction mode, it is recommended that the user split the command file and send it in segments, to avoid timeout and rollback of big transactions. II.2.Integrated configuration management: A simplest configuration is introduced as follows, including BSC, base station and radio data configuration. a) Required steps:
1.Configure the basic properties of MSC and BSC. 2.Configure the physical rack and frames of BSC. 3.Configure the BSC board. 4.Configure the physical site. 5.Configure the radio BSC. 6.Configure the radio cell. 7.Configure the radio transceiver. 8.Configuring the Cascading Site. 9.Save the file. 10.Generate and execute the configured man-machine command set.

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b)Detailed procedure: II.2.1.Configure the basic properties of MSC and BSC: Enter the main interface of OMCR (V2) and click the [Configuration Management→Integrated configuration management] menu, as shown in figure IV.5.

figure IV.5 Start the Integrated Configuration Management

First pop up the [Select Mode] interface and select [Initial Configuration], as shown figure IV.6. Click <OK> to enter the [Graphical Script Edit] interface.

figure IV.6. Select Initial Configuration

Click <OK> to enter [First step of Creation Wizard: Add MSC Equipment information] interface
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to add an MSC. If this MSC has existed in the database, the user can fill the same MSC No. as that in the database. Fill any legal values for other information in the interface. as shown in figure IV.7.

figure IV.7 Configure the MSC Equipment

Click <Next> to enter [Second step of Create Wizard: Add BSC Equipment information], as shown in figure IV.8.

.
figure IV.8. Configure the BSC Parameters

The user selects [Initialization Radio Info], and the basic radio information corresponding to the physical BSC is automatically generated. Click <OK> to complete editing the basic BSC information. The application automatically generates the MSC and BSC nodes. The user can
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select a node and edit its properties, but cannot modify its No. The menu is shown in figure IV.9.

figure IV.9.BSC Equipment Node

II.2.2.Configure the physical rack and shelves of BSC: The BSC at this time has no rack. The user selects the [BSC Equipment] node, right-clicks and selects [Add Rack] in the popped up menu to enter the interface, as shown in figure IV.10.

figure IV.10.BSC Rack Configuration

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Click <Ok> and the basic configuration is automatically generated, as shown in figure IV.11.

figure IV.11. BSC Rack

II.2.3.Configure the BSC board: In the configuration script edited in graphical mode, the default boards in the slots of different frames have been drew. The procedure of adding the corresponding board is as follows: 1) Click to select a board, right-click on it and select the [Add Board] menu, as shown in figure IV.12.

figure IV.12. Add A BSC Board

2) For the TIC boards, the dialog box will pop up automatically to ask the user to input parameters.
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Configure the TIC in the ZXG10_BIF shelf The PCM shall be configured when the TIC in the BIF shelf is configured. Right-click on the TIC board to pop up a menu. In this menu, select the [Board property] menu to enter the interface for setting the TIC parameters, as shown in figure IV.13.

figure IV.13. Configure the TIC Board with Abis Interface

Generally, all the PCMs are allocated. If a PCM connects to the Site, the connection information will be displayed. When this TIC panel or the PCM is deleted in this interface, the connection information will also be deleted. Configure the TIC board with A interface Select the TIC in the [ZXG10_BATC] frame, right-click on it and select the [Add Board] menu to enter the interface for setting the TIC parameters, as shown in figure IV.14.

figure IV.14.Configure the TIC Board of A Interface

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The user can click an item in the N7Lik list. By selecting in the list, the user can specify the corresponding SLC and then click <OK>. 3) For the boards such as MTP (Message Transfer Part), GIPP (Gb Interface Peripheral Processor), BIPP (Bis Interface Peripheral Processor), TCPP (TransCoder unit Peripheral Processor), AIPP (A Interface Peripheral Processor), their properties can be viewed and modified. Configure the MTP When a BSC rack is added, an MTP board is configured by default in type [CMT_ZXG10_MTP], as shown in figure IV.15.

figure IV.15. Configure the MTP Board

If A interface is configured with 2M No. 7, the [CommType] parameter of this MTP board is set to [CMT_ZXG10_2MMTP]. If two MTP boards are configured, their [CommType] parameters must be consistent. This is a check item in the validity check. A prompt will occur if the configuration is invalid. Configure the BIPP Right-click on the BIPP board to pop up a menu. In this menu, select the [Board property] menu to enter the interface for setting the BIPP parameters, as shown in figure IV.16.

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figure IV.16. Configure the BIPP

HW1 is an odd No., and HW2 is equal to the selected HW1 value plus 1 and cannot be modified. During the incremental configuration, the HW No. cannot be modified because the connection has been configured. II.2.4.Configure the physical site: 1) Create the default rack as instructed by the Wizard. Select the node [Physical equipment] and right-click to select [Add base station]. The Wizard shown in figure IV.17. pops up.

figure IV. 17. Configure the Physical Site - Base Station Parameters

Fill parameters in the interface. Take the selection of [BTSV1.0(A)] in [Base Station Type] for
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example. Click <Next> to enter the interface, as shown in figure IV.18.

figure IV.18.Configure the Physical Site - Initialization Panel

Select [Initialization Panel ] and click <Next> to configure the EBIE panel. Select the connection type of PCM and click <Connect> to pop up the PCM list. If the list is null, it is necessary to configure the upper-level PCMs. Select a PCM. The interface is shown in figure IV.19.

figure IV.19. Configure the Physical Site - BIE Panel Configuration

The user can modify the EBIE panel type in this interface. Click <Finish>. The system will automatically generate the default racks for the BTSV1.0 (A).

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II.2.5.Configure the radio BSC: Select [BSC Radio Info] in the popup menu, as shown in figure IV.20.

figure IV.20. Configure the Radio BSC - Menu Option

The [Edit BSC Radio Info] pops up, as shown in figure IV.21.

figure IV.21. Configure the Radio BSC - BSC Parameters

Once the country code and the network code are sent, it cannot be modified. So, they should be correct during the initial configuration. II.2.6.Configure the radio cell : In [RadioView], right-click on the [BTS Site Manager1] node to pop up the menu as shown in figure IV.22 .

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figure IV.22 Configure Radio Cells - Menu Option

Select [Create Cell] in the popup menu to pop up the [Create cell radio information] interface, as shown in figure IV.23.

figure IV.23 Configure Radio Cells - Cell Parameters

The Location Area Code and the Cell Code are allocated by the MSC, and the MCC+MNC+LAC+CI is unique. The cell frequency band limits the frequency points of cells. For example, the frequency band of cells is GSM850, and the range of frequency point is [128,251].

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II.2.7.Configure carrier frequency (configure the radio transceiver): In [RadioView], right-click on the [Cell1] node to pop up the menu as shown in figure IV.24.

figure IV.24 Configure Carrier Frequency - Menu Option

Select [Create TRX] in the pop-up menu to configure the transceiver parameters. as shown in figure IV.25 in GSM environment.

figure IV.25 Configure Carrier Frequency - Parameter Configuration

One and only one BCCH carrier frequency must be configured in a cell.

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II.2.8.Configuring the Cascading Site: This section introduces how to configure the cascading site. 1.Add a site. The user can add another site or modify the original site and set it to a cascading site. Take the addition of a site, as shown in figure IV.26.

figure IV.26 Configure the Cascading Site - Add BTS

Select the [Add base station] menu to pop up the dialog box and configure the base station properties shown in figure IV.27 .

figure IV.27- Site Properties Configuration

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Click <Next> to enter the dialog box in figure IV.28. Select the [Initialization Panel] parameter to enter the [BIEPCM configuration] interface.

figure IV.28 - Rack Configuration

2.Configure the connection mode of the PCM:

figure IV.29 Select the PCM Connection Type

and click <Finish>. The base station and rack nodes will be added in [PhyView]. Select this base station node, and the connection relationship diagram as shown in figure IV.30 will be displayed.
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figure IV.30 Cascading Site Generation

II.2.9.Save the file: After the configuration is finished, click <Save> on the toolbar. Then the user will first enter the validity check phase, as shown in figure IV.31.

figure IV.31 Save File (1)

After <OK> is clicked, the check result list will be displayed, as shown in figure IV.32.

figure IV.32 Save File (2)

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II.2.10.Generate and execute the configured man-machine command set: BSC will be added. After the addition is successful, the system enters step 3 of Wizard: Send the script to the server for ICC resolution, as shown in figure IV.33.

figure IV.33 Generate Configuration Command (1)

Directly click <Next>. The script will be sent to the server, as shown in figure IV.34.

figure IV.34 Generate Configuration Command (2)

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CONCLUSION
The subdivision of the GSM network in various coins systems offers him a very big flexibility and speed to manage the the radio resource and to make decision for the choice of which cell does the MS communicate with, all of that thanks to the astute carving of the functions between BSS and NSS, this last will not take care besides of the frequencies band used. The main difference between the BSCs is the capacity, and this is because of the different constructors didn't have all the same philosophy Concerning the configuration of the BSC. Some conceived BSCs of weak capacity estimating better to multiply their number to minimize the BTS-BSCs distances and to reduce the costs of exploitation of the operators, others preferred to conceive BSCs of strong capacity. The first approach is adapted more to the weakly populated farming zones. But the second agrees to the urban zones or the strong density by unit of surface requires some BSCs that can sell an important traffic, the capacities of the BSCs are consisted between 100 and 900 Erlangs. of what is besides the case of the BSC ZXG10 of at ZTE that is a BSC of strong capacity with the possibility to manage until 1024 TRXS to see 512 cells with a configuration opened on MSCS of other businesses. ZTE adopted the second method while conceiving its BSC ZXG 10 with a very big capacity that allows him to manage until 1024 TRXses or 512 cells with a good quality of service for the subscriber, this technique is used in dyes and in several countries and it continues has give of very good results.

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GLOSSARY
Abbreviation Abis AIPP AIU AUC BAF BCCH BIE BIPP: BIU BOSN BRP BSIA BSC BSS BSSAP BSSGP BTS BVC CBCH CCCH DRT DSP EDRT: EFD EGSM ESU FN FR FRP FTAM FU FUC GGSN Gb Full Name A-bis Interface A Interface Peripheral Processor A Interface Unit Access Unit Controller BSS Adapter Function Broadcast Channel Base station Interface Equipment aBis Interface Peripheral Processor aBis Interface Unit Bit Oriented Switching Network BSSGP RLC/MAC Protocol Base Station Interface Adapter Base Station Controller Base station Sub System Base station Sub System Application Part Base station Sub System GPRS Protocol Base Transceiver Station BSSGP Virtual Connect Cell Broadcast Channel Common Control Channel Dual-Rate Transcoder Digital Signal Processor Enhanced DRT Event Forwarding Discriminator Extend GSM Executable Software Unit Frame Number Frame Relay FR Protocol File Transfer Access Maintenance Frame Unit Frame Unit Controller Gateway GPRS Support Node Gb Interface Peripheral Processor Abbreviations AIS AIU ATM BATC BBIU BCTL BHCA BNET BSMU BSSMAP BSSOMAP BTSM CBC CBE CC CCM CCS7 CKI CM COMI COMM CPU CS DBS DC GSM1800: DCE DSNI DSS1 DTAP DTE DTX EFRS EIR Full Name A-interface subsystem A-interface Unit Asynchronous Transfer Mode Backplane of A-interface and TransCoder Backplane of Abis Interface Unit Backplane of ConTroL Busy Hour Call Attempt Backplane of NET Backplane of Sub-multiplexing Unit BSS Management Application Part BSS Operation and Maintenance Application Part BTS Site Management Cell Broadcast Centre Cell Broadcast Equipment Calling Control Channel Change Module Common Channel Signaling System NO.7 ClocK Interface board Communication Management COMmunication Interface board COMMunication board Central Processing Unit Circuit Switched Data Base Subsystem Direct Current Digital Cellular System at 1800MHz Data Circuit terminating Equipment Digital Switch Network Interface Digital Subscriber Signalling No1 Direct Transfer Application Part Data Terminal Equipment Discontinuous Transmission Enhanced Full Rate Service Equipment Identification Register

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Abbreviation GIU GPRS GSM GSN HMS HSN LAF LAPD LMF LMT MAC MAF MAIO MIB MF MKF MMI MML MO MOC MOF MP MS MSC MSF MTP NAF NC NEF NMC NS NSVC OMC OMCR PACCH PAGCH PCU

Full Name GPRS Interface Unit General Packet Radio Service Globe System for Mobile communication GPRS Support Node ZXIP10-AS HMS Hopping Sequence Number Local Access Function Link Access Protocol of D-Channel Local Management Function Local Management Terminal Medium Access Control Management Application Functions Mobile Allocation Index Offset Management Information Base Mediation Function MMI Kernel Function Man Machine Interface Man Machine Language Managed Object Managed Object Class MO administration Function Main Processor Mobile Station Mobile Switch Center Management Support Function Message Transfer Part NMC Access Function Network Control Network Element Function Network Management Center Network Service NS Virtual Circuit Operation Maintenance Center Operation Maintenance Center Radio Packet Associated Control Channel Paging & Access Granted Channel Packet Control Unit

Abbreviations EMC EMI ETSI FRS FSMU FSPP GGSN GIPP GND GNDP GPP GPRS GTP HDLC HLR HPI: HSCSD IMSI ISDN L1 L2 L3 LAN LLC DRT MM MON MSS NEF NSMU NSPP NSU NS-VC OMC OMM OMS: OSF

Full Name ElectroMagnetic Compatibility Electro Magnetic Interference European Telecommunication Standards Institute Full Rate Service Far Sub-multiplexing Unit Far Sub-multiplexing Peripheral Processor Gateway GPRS Support Node A-interface Peripheral Processor Ground Ground Protection General Peripheral Processor General Packet Radio Service GPRS Tunnel Protocol High level Data Link Control Home Location Register Host Port Interface High Speed Circuit Switched Data International Mobile Subscriber Identity Integrated Services Digital Network Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 Local Area Network Logical Link Control Dual-Rate Transcoder Mobility Management MONitor board Mobile Switch System Network Element Function Near Sub-multiplexing Unit Near Sub-multiplexing Peripheral Processor Net Switching Unit NS Virtual Circuit Operation and Maintenance Center Operations and Maintenance Modle Operating Maintenance Subsystem Function of the operation and maintenance system

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Abbreviation PDCH PDTCH PDU PP PS PTM PTP PUC RACH RMM RLC SDCCH SGSN SMB SMM SMS TC TCH TCPP TIC

Full Name Packet Data Channel Packet Data Traffic Channel Protocol Data Unit Peripheral Processor Packet Switched Point To Multipoint Point To Point Packet Unit Control Random Access Channel Radio Management Module Radio Link Control Specified Control Channel Serving GPRS Support Node Short Message Broadcast Service Management Module Short Message Service TransCoder Traffic Channel TransCoder unit Peripheral Processor Trunk Interface Circuit

Abbreviations OSI OSS PBCCH PCB PCH PCM PCOM PDN PDP PEPD PHS PLMN POWB POWP PPCH PSPDN PSTN QoS RMS RMU RR RRU SAPI SCCP SM SMC SMEM SMPP SMU SPS SSM SYCK VLR

Full Name Open System Interconnection Operating & Support Subsystem Packet Broadcast Control Channel Process Control Block Paging CHannel Pulse Code Modulation Packet COMmunication board Public Data Network Packet Date Protocol Peripheral Environment &Power Detecting board PHysical Subsystem Public Land Mobile Network POWer B POWer P Packet Paging Channel Packet Switched Public Data Network Public Switching Telephone Network Quality of Service Radio Management subsystem Radio Manage Unit Radio Resource Radio Resource Unit Service Access Point Indicator Signaling Connection Control Part SubMultiplexing Short Message Center Share MEMory Subchannel Multiplexing Peripheral Processor Subchannel Multiplexing Unit Service Processing Subsystem Subjoin Service Management SYnchronous ClocK board Visitor Location Register

TMM
TRAU TRX TBF TCP TCU TDMA TE TEI RMU SCM SCU UDP Um

Transport Management Module
Transcoder and Rate Adaptor Unit Transceiver Temporary Block Flow Transmission control protocol TransCoder Unit Time Division Multiple Access Terminal Equipment Terminal Equipment Identification Radio Manage Unit System Control Module System Control Unit User Datagram Protocol Um Interface

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Bibliography
• Gsm Networks : Protocols, Terminology, and Implementation. nd (2 edition : January 1999) / Chapter 1&2; Artech House. • Gsm: Switching, Services and Protocols. ( edition : October 1999) John Wiley & Sons .Artech House. • GSM, GPRS AND EDGE Performance Second Edition : 2003 /Part 2 Timo Halonen & Javier Romero and Juan Melero. • ZXG10-BSS (V2) Technical manuals ZTE CORPORATION; Copyright © 2004 ZTE Corporation. • Réseau GSM/DCS 2ème édition : septembre 1996 ; Xavier Lagrange/ Philippe godlewski / Sami Tabbane • Système de radiocommunication avec les mobiles 2ème édition : 1997 ; Jean Gabriel REMY- Jean CUEUGNIET- Cedric SIBEN SITES : http://www.cellular-expert.com/go/ http://www.cellular-expert/3338/en-us/ http://www.awe-communication.com

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