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Limits, Fits and Tolerances

ME 338: Manufacturing Process II


IIT Bombay
Dr. Rakesh G Mote
rakesh.mote@iitb.ac.in

ME 338 Instructor: Dr Rakesh G Mote 1


Dimension and Tolerance
• Dimension is “a numerical value expressed in appropriate units
of measure and indicated on a drawing and in other documents
along with lines, symbols, and notes to define the size or
geometric characteristic, or both, of a part or part feature”
• It is difficult and uneconomical to produce the any part to exact
dimensions.
• This necessitates the manufacturing to be carried out with
some deviation from desired size.
• This permissible deviation of dimension from the desired size is
known as Tolerance

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Dimension and Tolerance
• The total amount by which a specific dimension is permitted to
vary. The tolerance is the difference between the maximum
and minimum limits
• Tolerance is the acceptable error in manufacturing of a
component to suit functional requirement.
• It’s not wiser to have closer tolerances than necessary as this
results in high of manufacturing cost.

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Dimension and Tolerance

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What to consider?
• Functional requirements of mating parts
• Economy of production
• Available manufacturing facility

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Tolerances: Types

• Bilateral tolerance: The variation is permitted in both positive


and negative directions from the nominal dimension
• Unilateral tolerance: The variation from the specified dimension
is permitted in only one direction, either positive or negative

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Basic Terms
• Shaft: Any external dimension of a component
– Shafts are designated as: a, b, c, …. y, z, za, zb, zc
• Hole: Any internal dimension of a component
– Shafts are designated as: A, B, C, …. Y, Z, ZA, ZB, ZC
• Basic size: The size obtained for a part from strength
calculations. It is same for both shaft and hole.
• Actual size: The dimension of a manufactured
component.
• Fits: The relationship resulting from the difference,
before assembly, between the sizes of the two features
(the hole and the shaft) which are to be assembled.

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Basic Terms
• Upper Deviation: The algebraic difference between the maximum limit
and the corresponding basic size of a component
– ES and es for holes and shaft respectively
• Lower Deviation: The algebraic difference between the minimum limit
and the corresponding basic size of a component
– EI and ei for holes and shaft respectively
• Fundamental Deviation: The location of the tolerance zone with respect
to the nominal size
– This may be either the upper or lower deviation, but, according to
convention, the fundamental deviation is the one nearest the zero line.
– 25 types each: A- ZC (For holes) and a- zc (For shafts)
• Basic Shaft (h) and Basic Holes (H) have their fundamental deviation equal
to zero

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Basic Terms

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ISO System of Tolerances

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ISO System of Tolerances

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Deviations and Fundamental Deviations

Deviations for Shafts Deviations for Holes

What about fundamental deviations of js and JS?


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Tolerance Symbols
• Tolerance Class and Tolerance Size together
designates the fit
50 H8f7 or 50 H8/f7
• The number ‘50’ is basic size in mm
• Capital letter ‘H’ indicates the fundamental deviation
for the hole; ‘
• Lower‐case letter ‘f’ indicates the fundamental
deviation for the shaft.
• The numbers following the letters indicate the
corresponding standard Tolerance Grades
– Total 18 grades: IT01 ,IT0 and IT1-1T16

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Tolerance Grades

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Fits in Assembly
• The relationship existing between two
mating parts in an assembly with
respect to the amount of play or
interference between them when
assembled together
• Fit may result in movable joint or
permanent joint
• The nature of assembly of two mating
parts is defined by 3 types of fit system:
– Clearance Fit
– Transition Fit and
– Interference Fit.
• Allowance: a planned deviation from
the standard. Expressed as difference
between maximum material conditions

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Fits: Clearance Fit
• The shaft of largest possible diameter can also be fitted easily
even in the hole of smallest possible diameter

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Fits: Interference Fit
• There is always a overlapping of the matting parts. Hence, for
fit, they need to pressed together

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Fits: Transition Fit
• Transition fit may have either clearance or
overlap in the fit

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Examples
A hole is dimension ∅9+0.015
+0 mm. The corresponding
shaft is of dimension ∅9+0.010
+0.001 mm.
Find the nature of fit.
Ans: Transition fit

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Examples
A hole is specified as ∅40+0.050
+0 mm. The mating shaft
has a clearance fit with minimum clearance of 0.01
mm. The tolerance on the shaft is 0.04 mm.
Find the maximum clearance in mm between the hole
and the shaft.
Ans.: 0.10 mm

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Fit Systems: Hole Basis
• A system of fits in which the required clearances or
interferences are obtained by associating shafts of various
tolerance classes with holes of a single tolerance class.
• For the purposes of the IS0 system of limits and fits, a system
of fits in which the minimum limit of size of the hole is
identical to the basic size, i.e. the lower deviation is zero

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Fit Systems: Hole Basis

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Fit Systems: Shaft Basis
• A system of fits in which the required clearances or
interferences are obtained by associating holes of various
tolerance classes with shafts of a single tolerance class.
• a system of fits in which the maximum limit of size of the shaft
is identical to the basic size, i.e. the upper deviation is zero

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Fit Systems: Shaft Basis

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Example
For a basic size of 15mm, allowance of 0.02mm
Hole machining has a precision of ±0.01mm
Shaft machining has a precision of ±0.02mm
Determine the hole and shaft limits for a basic hole fit
Ans:
Hole: 15.00 mm and 15.02 mm;
Shaft: 14.98 mm and 14.94 mm

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Example
A medium force fit on a 75 mm shaft requires a hole
tolerance and shaft tolerance each equal to .225 mm
and a minimum interference of 0.0375 mm. Determine
the proper hole and shaft dimension with the basis
hole standard.
Ans:
Hole: 75 mm and 75.225 mm
Shaft: 75.2625 mm and 75.4875 mm

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Example
A 100mm diameter journal and bearing assembly has a
clearance fit.
Tolerance on bearing = 0.005 mm
Tolerance on journal = 0.004 mm
Allowance = 0.002 mm
Determine the sizes of the bearing and the journal.
Assume unilateral system of tolerances and hole basis
system.
Ans:
Bearing: 100.00 mm, 100.005 mm;
Journal: 99.998 mm, 99.994 mm

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Typical Fits
• Clearance Fits
– H7/h6: Sealing rings, bearing covers
– H7/g6: Sleeve shafts, clutches
– H7/f7: High speed bearings, machine tool spindles
• Transition Fits
– H7/n6: Gears and bearing bushes, shaft and wheel
– H7/m6: Gears belt pulleys, couplings
• Interference Fits
– H8/u8: Worm wheel hubs, couplings
– H7/r6: Coupling of shaft ends, valve seats, gear
wheels
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Typical Fits
Description Hole Shaft
Loose Running H11 c11
Free Running H9 d9
Close Running –
H8 f8
Accurate machines
Sliding – Not to run freely H7 g6
Close Clearance - Spigots and
H8 f7
locations
Location/Clearance H7 h6
Location- Transition – Accurate
H7 k6
location
Location/Transition - More accurate
H7 n6
location
Location/Interference- Press fit
H7 p6
which can be separated
Medium Drive H7 s6
Force H7
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Preferred Tolerances and Fits
ANSI B4.1-1967 (R2004)

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Preferred Tolerances and Fits
ANSI B4.1-1967 (R2004)
• Running and Sliding Fits [RC]:
– Intended to provide a similar running performance, with suitable
lubrication allowance, through out the range of sizes.
– The clearances for the first two classes, used chiefly as slide fits,
increase more slowly with diameter than the other classes, so that
accurate location is maintained even at the expense of free relative
motion.

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Preferred Tolerances and Fits
ANSI B4.1-1967 (R2004)
• Locational Fits [LC, LT and LN]:
– Locational clearance fits [LC]:
• Intended for parts which are normally stationary, but which can be freely assembled or
disassembled.
• They run from snug fits for parts requiring accuracy of location, through the medium clearance
fits for parts such as ball, race and housing, to the looser fastener fits
– Locational transition fits [LT] :
• A compromise between clearance and interference fits, for application where accuracy of
location is important, but either a small amount of clearance or interference is permissible.
– Locational interference fits [LN] :
• They are used where accuracy of location is of prime importance and for parts requiring rigidity
and alignment with no special requirements for bore pressure.
• Such fits are not intended for parts designed to transmit frictional loads from one part to
another by virtue of the tightness of fit, as these conditions are covered by force fits.

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Preferred Tolerances and Fits
ANSI B4.1-1967 (R2004)
• Force Fits [FN] :
– Force or shrink fits constitute a special type of interference fit, normally
characterized by maintenance of constant bore pressures throughout the
range of sizes .
– The interference therefore varies almost directly with diameter, and the
difference between its minimum and maximum value is small to maintain the
resulting pressures within reasonable limits.

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Tolerance Calculations
Fundamental Deviations (Shafts)
UPPER DEVIATION (es) LOWER DEVIATION (ei)
Shaft Designation In Microns (for D in mm) Shaft Designation In microns (for D in mm)
j5 to j8 No formula
= -(265 + 1.32D) for D ≤ 120 ;and js ITx1/2
a
= – 3.52D for D > 120
k4 to k7 =+ 0.6x 3 √ D

= – (140 + 0.852D); for D <160 k for Grade ≤3 and ≥4 =0


b ;And
= – 1.82D for D > 160 m = + (T7-IT6)

= – 52D0.2 for D ≤ 40 n = + 5D0.34


c
= -(95 + 0.82) for D> 40 P = + IT7 + 0 to 5

cd G.M. of values for c and d r = GM of values for p and s


d = – 16D0.44
e = -11D0.41 = IT8 + 1 to 4; for D ≤50
s
ef G.M. of values for e and f = + 7T7 to + 0.4D; for D > 50

f = -5.5D0.41 t = + IT7 + 0.63D


fg G.M. of values for f and g u = + IT7 + D
g = -2.5D0.34 V = + IT1 + 1.2525D
X = + IT7 + 1.62D
y = + IT7 + 2D
z = + IT7 + 2.52D
h =0
za = IT8 + 3 + 3.152D
zb = + IT9 + 4D
zc = + IT10 + 4D
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Tolerance Calculations
Fundamental Deviations (Holes)
All deviation except those below General rule
Hole limits are identical with the
shaft limits of the same symbol
(letter and grade) but disposed on
the other side of the zero line.
EI = Upper deviation es of the shaft
of the same letter symbol but of
opposite sign
For sizes N 9 and coarser ES = 0
above 3 mm grades
upto 500 mm J, K, M Upto grade 8 Special rule
and N inclusive ES = Lower deviation ei of the shaft
P to ZC Upto grade 7 of the same letter symbol but one
inclusive grade finer and of opposite sign
increased by the difference between
the tolerances of the two grades in
ei + ITx = ES + ITn
(x=n-1)
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Tolerance Calculations
IT Grades
• Basic size steps
– The values of the standard tolerances and
fundamental deviations for each basic size step
are calculated as:
– Geometric mean (D) of the extreme sizes (D1, and
D2) of that step: (in mm)

𝐷 = 𝐷1 × 𝐷2

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Tolerance Calculations
IT Grades

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Tolerance Calculations
IT Grades
• Standard Tolerance Unit/Factor the formula has parabolic
relationship with the size of the products.
– As the size increases, the tolerance within which a part can be
manufactured also increases.
• Tolerance values (in µm) are calculated for basic sizes upto
and including 500 mm as:
– IT01: 0.3 + 0.008D IT0: 0.5 + 0.012D IT1: 0.8 + 0.020D
– For grades IT5 to IT16:
3
Standard tolerance unit (i): 𝑖 = 0.45 × 𝐷 + 0.001 × 𝐷 and
standard tolerance values in microns are
IT5 IT6 IT7 IT8 IT9 IT10 IT11 IT12 IT13 IT14 IT15 IT16

7i 10i 16i 25i 40i 64i 100i 160i 250i 400i 640i 1000i

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Example
• Evaluate limits and fit for an assembly pair 6 H7/g6
Ans:
Maximum clearance = 24 microns;
Min Clearance = 4 microns

• A fit is to be designed as 100 G7/e8. Find the fit type


and limits
Ans:
Hole: 100.012 mm and 100.047 mm
Shaft: 99.928 mm and 99.874 mm

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Limit Gauges
• Gauging is defined as the acceptability of a
given dimension whether it lies in its specified
or allowable limits or not
• From functionality perspective, actual size
measurement of mating parts is not important
if it falls within the tolerance zone

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MMC and LMC
• Maximum Material Conditions
– Upper limit of the shaft
– Lower limit of the hole
• Least Material Conditions
– Lower limit of the shaft
– Upper limit of the hole

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Taylor’s Principle
• First consideration:
– “The maximum material limit of as many related
dimensions as possible or convenient should be
incorporated in the GO gauge; whereas the minimum
material limits of these dimension should be gauged
by separate NOT GO gauges”
• Second consideration
– GO gauges should be of Full Form i.e. should check all
related dimensions at a time
– NOGO gauge should check only one dimension at a
time

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GO Limit and NO GO Limit
• GO Limit
– Limit between the two size limit which corresponds to the Maximum
Material Limit condition
• NO GO Limit
– Limit between the two size limit which corresponds to the Minimum
Material Limit condition

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Taylor’s Principle Application

GO Gauge should be at least the maximum thickness of the hole

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Taylor’s Principle Application

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Plug Gauges

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Snap and Ring Gauges

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Gauge Tolerances
• Gauge Maker’s allowance or Gauge Tolerance
– Limit gauges are made nearly 10 times more accurate
than the tolerances they supposed to inspect
– Gauge tolerances are 1/10th of the work tolerances
• Wear Allowance
– GO gauges encounter more rubbing with the surfaces
– Generally, wear allowance is applied as 5% of work
tolerance or 10% of gauge tolerance
– It is applied in the opposite direction of the wear i.e.
in case of plug gauge, wear allowance is added and
ring or snap gauge, it is subtracted

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Gauge Tolerances: Allocation
• Unilateral System
– The gauge tolerance zone lies entirely with in the work tolerance zone
– Due to this work tolerance zone available is only 80%. This system ensures that
every accepted component will be lies within the work tolerance zone.
• Bilateral System
– components which are within working limits can be rejected and parts which
are outside the working limits can be accepted

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Gauge Tolerances: Allocation
• Application of wear allowance

Snap Gauges

Plug Gauges

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Gauge Tolerance: Allocation
• Workshop gauge and Inspection Gauges

No wear allowance is provided for Inspection Gauges

• In new systems, the tolerance zone for the ‘Go’ gauges should be placed
inside the work-limits and tolerance for the ‘No Go’ gauges outside the
work-limits.

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Gauge Materials
• Gage wear surfaces are made of hardened alloy steel
for medium production quantities, and chromium-
plated steel for greater volume.
• Tungsten carbide is often used for high production
quantities and superior wear resistance.
• Worn contact surfaces are commonly ground, plated,
reground, and lapped to size.

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Example
The size of a bearing is 30 ± 0.02 𝑚𝑚
Find dimension of GO and NO GO shop gauges to check the bearing.
Also find the limits of the gauges applying gauge tolerance and wear
allowance (5% of work tol.)
Ans:
MMC = 29.98 mm and LMC = 30.02 mm for hole
Gauge Tolerance = 10% of 0.04 = 0.004 mm
GO limits:
Max 29.98 + 0.004 = 29.984 mm; and Min 29.98 mm
NO GO limits:
Max 30.02 mm; and Min 30.02 - 0.004 = 30.016 mm
After wear allowance:
5% of 0.04 = 0.002 mm
GO gauge
Max (29.98 + 0.002) +0.004; and Min 29.98 mm

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References
• Metrology and Quality Control – RK Jain
• Manufacturing Technology Vol. 2 – PN Rao
• Manufacturing Engineering and Technology -
Schmid and Kalpakjian

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