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IIT Bombay

Dr. Rakesh G Mote

rakesh.mote@iitb.ac.in

Dimension and Tolerance

• Dimension is “a numerical value expressed in appropriate units

of measure and indicated on a drawing and in other documents

along with lines, symbols, and notes to define the size or

geometric characteristic, or both, of a part or part feature”

• It is difficult and uneconomical to produce the any part to exact

dimensions.

• This necessitates the manufacturing to be carried out with

some deviation from desired size.

• This permissible deviation of dimension from the desired size is

known as Tolerance

Dimension and Tolerance

• The total amount by which a specific dimension is permitted to

vary. The tolerance is the difference between the maximum

and minimum limits

• Tolerance is the acceptable error in manufacturing of a

component to suit functional requirement.

• It’s not wiser to have closer tolerances than necessary as this

results in high of manufacturing cost.

Dimension and Tolerance

What to consider?

• Functional requirements of mating parts

• Economy of production

• Available manufacturing facility

Tolerances: Types

and negative directions from the nominal dimension

• Unilateral tolerance: The variation from the specified dimension

is permitted in only one direction, either positive or negative

Basic Terms

• Shaft: Any external dimension of a component

– Shafts are designated as: a, b, c, …. y, z, za, zb, zc

• Hole: Any internal dimension of a component

– Shafts are designated as: A, B, C, …. Y, Z, ZA, ZB, ZC

• Basic size: The size obtained for a part from strength

calculations. It is same for both shaft and hole.

• Actual size: The dimension of a manufactured

component.

• Fits: The relationship resulting from the difference,

before assembly, between the sizes of the two features

(the hole and the shaft) which are to be assembled.

Basic Terms

• Upper Deviation: The algebraic difference between the maximum limit

and the corresponding basic size of a component

– ES and es for holes and shaft respectively

• Lower Deviation: The algebraic difference between the minimum limit

and the corresponding basic size of a component

– EI and ei for holes and shaft respectively

• Fundamental Deviation: The location of the tolerance zone with respect

to the nominal size

– This may be either the upper or lower deviation, but, according to

convention, the fundamental deviation is the one nearest the zero line.

– 25 types each: A- ZC (For holes) and a- zc (For shafts)

• Basic Shaft (h) and Basic Holes (H) have their fundamental deviation equal

to zero

Basic Terms

ISO System of Tolerances

ISO System of Tolerances

Deviations and Fundamental Deviations

ME 338 Instructor: Dr Rakesh G Mote 12

Tolerance Symbols

• Tolerance Class and Tolerance Size together

designates the fit

50 H8f7 or 50 H8/f7

• The number ‘50’ is basic size in mm

• Capital letter ‘H’ indicates the fundamental deviation

for the hole; ‘

• Lower‐case letter ‘f’ indicates the fundamental

deviation for the shaft.

• The numbers following the letters indicate the

corresponding standard Tolerance Grades

– Total 18 grades: IT01 ,IT0 and IT1-1T16

Tolerance Grades

Fits in Assembly

• The relationship existing between two

mating parts in an assembly with

respect to the amount of play or

interference between them when

assembled together

• Fit may result in movable joint or

permanent joint

• The nature of assembly of two mating

parts is defined by 3 types of fit system:

– Clearance Fit

– Transition Fit and

– Interference Fit.

• Allowance: a planned deviation from

the standard. Expressed as difference

between maximum material conditions

Fits: Clearance Fit

• The shaft of largest possible diameter can also be fitted easily

even in the hole of smallest possible diameter

Fits: Interference Fit

• There is always a overlapping of the matting parts. Hence, for

fit, they need to pressed together

Fits: Transition Fit

• Transition fit may have either clearance or

overlap in the fit

Examples

A hole is dimension ∅9+0.015

+0 mm. The corresponding

shaft is of dimension ∅9+0.010

+0.001 mm.

Find the nature of fit.

Ans: Transition fit

Examples

A hole is specified as ∅40+0.050

+0 mm. The mating shaft

has a clearance fit with minimum clearance of 0.01

mm. The tolerance on the shaft is 0.04 mm.

Find the maximum clearance in mm between the hole

and the shaft.

Ans.: 0.10 mm

Fit Systems: Hole Basis

• A system of fits in which the required clearances or

interferences are obtained by associating shafts of various

tolerance classes with holes of a single tolerance class.

• For the purposes of the IS0 system of limits and fits, a system

of fits in which the minimum limit of size of the hole is

identical to the basic size, i.e. the lower deviation is zero

Fit Systems: Hole Basis

Fit Systems: Shaft Basis

• A system of fits in which the required clearances or

interferences are obtained by associating holes of various

tolerance classes with shafts of a single tolerance class.

• a system of fits in which the maximum limit of size of the shaft

is identical to the basic size, i.e. the upper deviation is zero

Fit Systems: Shaft Basis

Example

For a basic size of 15mm, allowance of 0.02mm

Hole machining has a precision of ±0.01mm

Shaft machining has a precision of ±0.02mm

Determine the hole and shaft limits for a basic hole fit

Ans:

Hole: 15.00 mm and 15.02 mm;

Shaft: 14.98 mm and 14.94 mm

Example

A medium force fit on a 75 mm shaft requires a hole

tolerance and shaft tolerance each equal to .225 mm

and a minimum interference of 0.0375 mm. Determine

the proper hole and shaft dimension with the basis

hole standard.

Ans:

Hole: 75 mm and 75.225 mm

Shaft: 75.2625 mm and 75.4875 mm

Example

A 100mm diameter journal and bearing assembly has a

clearance fit.

Tolerance on bearing = 0.005 mm

Tolerance on journal = 0.004 mm

Allowance = 0.002 mm

Determine the sizes of the bearing and the journal.

Assume unilateral system of tolerances and hole basis

system.

Ans:

Bearing: 100.00 mm, 100.005 mm;

Journal: 99.998 mm, 99.994 mm

Typical Fits

• Clearance Fits

– H7/h6: Sealing rings, bearing covers

– H7/g6: Sleeve shafts, clutches

– H7/f7: High speed bearings, machine tool spindles

• Transition Fits

– H7/n6: Gears and bearing bushes, shaft and wheel

– H7/m6: Gears belt pulleys, couplings

• Interference Fits

– H8/u8: Worm wheel hubs, couplings

– H7/r6: Coupling of shaft ends, valve seats, gear

wheels

ME 338 Instructor: Dr Rakesh G Mote 28

Typical Fits

Description Hole Shaft

Loose Running H11 c11

Free Running H9 d9

Close Running –

H8 f8

Accurate machines

Sliding – Not to run freely H7 g6

Close Clearance - Spigots and

H8 f7

locations

Location/Clearance H7 h6

Location- Transition – Accurate

H7 k6

location

Location/Transition - More accurate

H7 n6

location

Location/Interference- Press fit

H7 p6

which can be separated

Medium Drive H7 s6

Force H7

ME 338 Instructor: Dr Rakesh G Mote

u6 29

Preferred Tolerances and Fits

ANSI B4.1-1967 (R2004)

Preferred Tolerances and Fits

ANSI B4.1-1967 (R2004)

• Running and Sliding Fits [RC]:

– Intended to provide a similar running performance, with suitable

lubrication allowance, through out the range of sizes.

– The clearances for the first two classes, used chiefly as slide fits,

increase more slowly with diameter than the other classes, so that

accurate location is maintained even at the expense of free relative

motion.

Preferred Tolerances and Fits

ANSI B4.1-1967 (R2004)

• Locational Fits [LC, LT and LN]:

– Locational clearance fits [LC]:

• Intended for parts which are normally stationary, but which can be freely assembled or

disassembled.

• They run from snug fits for parts requiring accuracy of location, through the medium clearance

fits for parts such as ball, race and housing, to the looser fastener fits

– Locational transition fits [LT] :

• A compromise between clearance and interference fits, for application where accuracy of

location is important, but either a small amount of clearance or interference is permissible.

– Locational interference fits [LN] :

• They are used where accuracy of location is of prime importance and for parts requiring rigidity

and alignment with no special requirements for bore pressure.

• Such fits are not intended for parts designed to transmit frictional loads from one part to

another by virtue of the tightness of fit, as these conditions are covered by force fits.

Preferred Tolerances and Fits

ANSI B4.1-1967 (R2004)

• Force Fits [FN] :

– Force or shrink fits constitute a special type of interference fit, normally

characterized by maintenance of constant bore pressures throughout the

range of sizes .

– The interference therefore varies almost directly with diameter, and the

difference between its minimum and maximum value is small to maintain the

resulting pressures within reasonable limits.

Tolerance Calculations

Fundamental Deviations (Shafts)

UPPER DEVIATION (es) LOWER DEVIATION (ei)

Shaft Designation In Microns (for D in mm) Shaft Designation In microns (for D in mm)

j5 to j8 No formula

= -(265 + 1.32D) for D ≤ 120 ;and js ITx1/2

a

= – 3.52D for D > 120

k4 to k7 =+ 0.6x 3 √ D

b ;And

= – 1.82D for D > 160 m = + (T7-IT6)

c

= -(95 + 0.82) for D> 40 P = + IT7 + 0 to 5

d = – 16D0.44

e = -11D0.41 = IT8 + 1 to 4; for D ≤50

s

ef G.M. of values for e and f = + 7T7 to + 0.4D; for D > 50

fg G.M. of values for f and g u = + IT7 + D

g = -2.5D0.34 V = + IT1 + 1.2525D

X = + IT7 + 1.62D

y = + IT7 + 2D

z = + IT7 + 2.52D

h =0

za = IT8 + 3 + 3.152D

zb = + IT9 + 4D

zc = + IT10 + 4D

ME 338 Instructor: Dr Rakesh G Mote 34

Tolerance Calculations

Fundamental Deviations (Holes)

All deviation except those below General rule

Hole limits are identical with the

shaft limits of the same symbol

(letter and grade) but disposed on

the other side of the zero line.

EI = Upper deviation es of the shaft

of the same letter symbol but of

opposite sign

For sizes N 9 and coarser ES = 0

above 3 mm grades

upto 500 mm J, K, M Upto grade 8 Special rule

and N inclusive ES = Lower deviation ei of the shaft

P to ZC Upto grade 7 of the same letter symbol but one

inclusive grade finer and of opposite sign

increased by the difference between

the tolerances of the two grades in

ei + ITx = ES + ITn

(x=n-1)

ME 338 Instructor: Dr Rakesh G Mote 35

Tolerance Calculations

IT Grades

• Basic size steps

– The values of the standard tolerances and

fundamental deviations for each basic size step

are calculated as:

– Geometric mean (D) of the extreme sizes (D1, and

D2) of that step: (in mm)

𝐷 = 𝐷1 × 𝐷2

Tolerance Calculations

IT Grades

Tolerance Calculations

IT Grades

• Standard Tolerance Unit/Factor the formula has parabolic

relationship with the size of the products.

– As the size increases, the tolerance within which a part can be

manufactured also increases.

• Tolerance values (in µm) are calculated for basic sizes upto

and including 500 mm as:

– IT01: 0.3 + 0.008D IT0: 0.5 + 0.012D IT1: 0.8 + 0.020D

– For grades IT5 to IT16:

3

Standard tolerance unit (i): 𝑖 = 0.45 × 𝐷 + 0.001 × 𝐷 and

standard tolerance values in microns are

IT5 IT6 IT7 IT8 IT9 IT10 IT11 IT12 IT13 IT14 IT15 IT16

7i 10i 16i 25i 40i 64i 100i 160i 250i 400i 640i 1000i

Example

• Evaluate limits and fit for an assembly pair 6 H7/g6

Ans:

Maximum clearance = 24 microns;

Min Clearance = 4 microns

and limits

Ans:

Hole: 100.012 mm and 100.047 mm

Shaft: 99.928 mm and 99.874 mm

Limit Gauges

• Gauging is defined as the acceptability of a

given dimension whether it lies in its specified

or allowable limits or not

• From functionality perspective, actual size

measurement of mating parts is not important

if it falls within the tolerance zone

MMC and LMC

• Maximum Material Conditions

– Upper limit of the shaft

– Lower limit of the hole

• Least Material Conditions

– Lower limit of the shaft

– Upper limit of the hole

Taylor’s Principle

• First consideration:

– “The maximum material limit of as many related

dimensions as possible or convenient should be

incorporated in the GO gauge; whereas the minimum

material limits of these dimension should be gauged

by separate NOT GO gauges”

• Second consideration

– GO gauges should be of Full Form i.e. should check all

related dimensions at a time

– NOGO gauge should check only one dimension at a

time

GO Limit and NO GO Limit

• GO Limit

– Limit between the two size limit which corresponds to the Maximum

Material Limit condition

• NO GO Limit

– Limit between the two size limit which corresponds to the Minimum

Material Limit condition

Taylor’s Principle Application

Taylor’s Principle Application

Plug Gauges

Snap and Ring Gauges

Gauge Tolerances

• Gauge Maker’s allowance or Gauge Tolerance

– Limit gauges are made nearly 10 times more accurate

than the tolerances they supposed to inspect

– Gauge tolerances are 1/10th of the work tolerances

• Wear Allowance

– GO gauges encounter more rubbing with the surfaces

– Generally, wear allowance is applied as 5% of work

tolerance or 10% of gauge tolerance

– It is applied in the opposite direction of the wear i.e.

in case of plug gauge, wear allowance is added and

ring or snap gauge, it is subtracted

Gauge Tolerances: Allocation

• Unilateral System

– The gauge tolerance zone lies entirely with in the work tolerance zone

– Due to this work tolerance zone available is only 80%. This system ensures that

every accepted component will be lies within the work tolerance zone.

• Bilateral System

– components which are within working limits can be rejected and parts which

are outside the working limits can be accepted

Gauge Tolerances: Allocation

• Application of wear allowance

Snap Gauges

Plug Gauges

Gauge Tolerance: Allocation

• Workshop gauge and Inspection Gauges

• In new systems, the tolerance zone for the ‘Go’ gauges should be placed

inside the work-limits and tolerance for the ‘No Go’ gauges outside the

work-limits.

Gauge Materials

• Gage wear surfaces are made of hardened alloy steel

for medium production quantities, and chromium-

plated steel for greater volume.

• Tungsten carbide is often used for high production

quantities and superior wear resistance.

• Worn contact surfaces are commonly ground, plated,

reground, and lapped to size.

Example

The size of a bearing is 30 ± 0.02 𝑚𝑚

Find dimension of GO and NO GO shop gauges to check the bearing.

Also find the limits of the gauges applying gauge tolerance and wear

allowance (5% of work tol.)

Ans:

MMC = 29.98 mm and LMC = 30.02 mm for hole

Gauge Tolerance = 10% of 0.04 = 0.004 mm

GO limits:

Max 29.98 + 0.004 = 29.984 mm; and Min 29.98 mm

NO GO limits:

Max 30.02 mm; and Min 30.02 - 0.004 = 30.016 mm

After wear allowance:

5% of 0.04 = 0.002 mm

GO gauge

Max (29.98 + 0.002) +0.004; and Min 29.98 mm

References

• Metrology and Quality Control – RK Jain

• Manufacturing Technology Vol. 2 – PN Rao

• Manufacturing Engineering and Technology -

Schmid and Kalpakjian

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