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J. S. Cushing & Co. - Berwick & Smith

Norwood Mass. U.S.A.

This edition of the dinner scene at Trimalchio's house,

an episode in the Satirae of Petronius, is based upon the

text as established by Biicheler. I have occasionally

departed from his readings, but only, as a rule, where he

himself was in doubt, and other conjectural readings
could be made with equal or greater plausibility. In the

preparation of my commentary I have been under special

obligation not only to Friedlander's edition of the Cena

Trimalcliionis,and the reviews of the same, particularly
in the Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift and the Classi-

cal Beview, but also to the valuable contributions on

the language of Petronius in the Archiv filr Lateinische

Lexicographie, to Heraeus for his comparisons with the

Corpus Glossariorum, and to Otto for the comparative
study of numerous redensarten peculiar to Petronius. I
am also indebted to professors in the Latin departments

of Columbia University for very valuable suggestions and

assistance in the preparation of the commentary, as well
as in the reading of a considerable portion of the proof.

I must express my special obligation to Professor Peck


for helpful criticisms, and to Professor Lodge for the


kindness he has shown in permitting me the fuU and

f ree use of his large library at all times.

The Gena Tnmalchionis is fairly entitled to a place of

prominence in the study of Roman life and literature.

It reveals an important side of life in the early years of

our era, in all its naturalness and with perfect truthful-

ness, and is to that extent of the same value as the plays

of Plautus or the Letters of Cicero. The name of Petro-

nius has been anathema to a large number of Latin

scholars, but in the Cena his puritas is no longer imp^i-

rissima, and what he discloses there concerning the lan-

guage, life, and customs of a very influential portion of

Italian society in the closing years of the Republic and
at the dawn of the Empire makes pleasant and valuable
reading, especially as it supplements information gath-
ered from inscriptions, or from Comedy and the poets
and prose writers of the period of Petronius, or from the
discoveries which have been and are still being continu-

ally made in the excavations at Pompeii.

By far the greater portion of the text of the Cena

rests upon one manuscript alone, the Codex Tragurien-
sis (H). In this edition that portion is set in Eoman
type. Where the text rests, however,
upon same this

manuscript and the apographon of Scaliger, called the

Codex Leidensis (L), Italics have been employed. The
portion set in black-faced type rests upon other manu-
scripts in addition to these two. I believe that the

employment of different fonts to indicate the difference

in manuscript authority has an advantage over the per-

pendiculars used by Bticheler and Friedlander.

W. E. W.
New York University,
April, 1902.

I. Petronius m Eelation to Earlier Writers of


A story well told can find its ready hearers ;

none can this probably be said with greater truth than
of the tale of exciting and varied adventure which fills
the Odyssey, and was heard by the listening Greek with
silent wonder and pride as the rhapsodist chanted and
recited f rom the great poem at the city or national fes-
tivals. The mythical but extremely romantic and

entertaining histories of Herodotus, who had himself

wandered quite as widely as the Ithacan, had a simi-
lar charm.^ And though the age of Pericles saw in
one historian, Thucydides, an unswerving regard for
truth and critical accuracy, yet for the Greeks, history,
especially that of foreign nations and remote countries,
remained substantially the province for more or less of
romantic and rhetorical treatment. Ktesias and Xeno-
phon had filled the minds of their countrymen with
curious tales concerning Persia; and Athenian orators,
expatiating at festivals and on memorial days upon the
past glories of Greece, were turning records of events
Compare, for example, the story told of the emotion which Thu-
cydides betrayed while listening, on a certain occasion, to the Father
of History himself. (Marcellinus, 54, in Westermann's Biog. Graec,
p. 198; see Suidas, under 6pyap.)

into tales of romance, mnch after the f ashion of modern

orators. Deinon^ of Colophon, author of a compendious
account of Persia, which has been lost,was probably one
of these many historians whose stfle was rhetorical
and whose purpose was entertainment. To his son, Cli-
tarchus, this account may have served as a model; for
his talent as an historian of f orcible descriptive powers is

praised, rather than his regard for truth and accuracy.^

We have it upon the authority of Cicero^ that this Cli-
tarchus was an author who was read with special pleas-
ure by the Roman historian Cornelius Sisenna, and
exerted considerable infiuence upon him. As to the
nature of this influence, there is reason for believing
that Clitarchus,* whom Alexander the Great had taken
with him on his Persian campaign for the purpose of
recording its history, was a writer not only rhetorical

in his style, but strongly inclined to romancing; that

1 Deinon's
history of Persia extended to the year 340 b.c, the date
of the conquest of Egypt by Artaxerxes III.
Quint. X. 1, 74:. Clitarchi probatur ingenium, fides infamatur.
Cicero, De legibus, i. 2: "Sisenna eius amicus omnes adhuc no-

stros scriptores, nisi qui forte nondum ediderunt, de quibus existimare

non possumus, facile superavit. Is taraen neque orator in numero
vestro unquam est habitus et in historia puerile quiddam consectatur,
ut unum Clitarchum neque praeterea quemquam de Graecis legisse
videatur, eum tamen velle dumtaxat imitari; quem si adsequi posset,
aliquantum ab optumo tamen abesset."
Compare Cicero's criticism of Sisenna, Brutus, 228.
* was a native of Megara he attended Alexander
Clitarchus ;
his invasion of the Persian Empire, and was the author of a History,
in twelve books, terminating with the battle of Ipsus. He also wrote
a history of Persia, covering the period before and after Xerxes. As
to his historical accuracy, c/. Cicero, Brutus, 42 Concessum est

rhetoribus ementiri in historiis, ut aliquid dicere possint argutius ut ;

enim tu nunc de Coriolano, sic CUtarchus, sic Stratocles de Themi-

stocle finxit."

his influence tended to make the writing of history

biographical, and that history thus written from the —
standpoint of the study of individual heroes
— was what
specially attracted Sisenna and made him, in adopting
this style of treatment from Clitarchus, the probable pro-

totype of Sallust.^ It is natural, therefore, that Sisenna,

historian and biographer though he truly was, should have
also translated those purely romancing and fictitious nar-

ratives, the Milesian Tales of Aristides,^ in which he found

the same attractive and historical style — certainly the
same f orm of biographical treatment —
as in the histories
of Clitarchus, which were his models and masterpieces.
1(7/". Jug. 95, 2:
Sallust, L. Sisenna, optume et diligentissime
omnium qui eas [Sullanas] res dixere perseeutus, parum mihi libero
ore locutus videtur.
X6701 ipuriKoL of Aristides has come down to us
2 None of the

the famous tale of the Widow of Ephesus, told by Petronius in chap-

ters 111-112, furnishes a very good cle\7 to his witty style and choice
of theme. The ipwTiKk xadrj/xaTa of Parthenius, which have come
down to us, but in meagre and colorless outlines, probably lacked the
freshness as well as the grace and smootliness of the tales of Aristides,
though tliey were doubtless written with great effect. Cf. Christ, § 608 ;

H. T. Peck, Tri>nalchio's Dinner, p. 21 ff. The \byoL ipcoTiKol super-

seded the erotic elegy, and indeed the New Comedy with its countless
plots depicting the course of love in its anxious and unhappy moments.
Just so soon as the poetic treatment of love motives had virtually dis-
appeared from tlie stage, and Menander and Diphilus were read from
books only, the dialogue and the cantica had to go their way, and a
form of composition was evolved, better adapted for mere perusal.
This caused the sacrifice of the metrical clothiug; rhythmical prose
was a sufficient substitute. At the same time the novel reached a
greater freedom of invention, by breaking from tlie traditional realism
of what we call studies in social life." In comparison with the elegy
and the dramatic comedy, wliose very form implies a large amount of
jEsthetic pleasure through the means of literary art, the purpose of the

prose novelette and short story was to make romance subserve enter-
tainment only.

From the conquest of Carthage and the fall of Corinth,

there existed in Eome a growing philhellenic aristocracy,
delighted by the refined civilization and entertaining
literature of Greece, fond of listening to the episodes of
the Odyssey and witnessing the comedies of Diphilus and
Menander, as Terence and Plautus brought them upon
the stage. In the time of Sisenna, however, many of
these families had degenerated into an idle, ease-loving
aristocracy, for whom, in the decline of the drama and
the lack of originality upon the stage, the romances of
Aristides were an attractive substitute.
It is these Milesian Tales to which we turn in finding
for Petronius his proper setting among Latin writers ;

for, although his writings are called Satirae^ Petroniu s

as not a satirist, but a romancer. Though both the
Milesian Tales and Sisenna's translations, with the ex-
j\^) ception of a bare dozen lines, have perished, yet we
may form a fairly adequate impression of their nature.
They usually depicted the tempestuous course of true
love; yet they were not such novels as George Eliot
and Thomas Hardy have given us; for in these there
is great unity and directness, due not alone to the
individuality of the chief personages, but to the psy-
chological treatment of evolution or decay of character ;

which indeed forms the charm of these authors. The

Milesian Tales were mere amusing stories, full of inci-
dents, devoid of development, crowned with an end at
last which suited the virtues or vices of the hero ^ and

1 How problematicthis is, however, can be seen from recent discus-

sion. Verhandlungen der 30^«»' Philologenversammlung p. 55, and
Cf. ,

Rhein. Mus. xlviii. 1893, p. 125, where Rohde maintains that these tales
were short, disconnected stories like those of Boccaccio or Chaucer.

was in fair accord with the sympathies which the story

awakened in the reader. Their modern analogues are
some of the more highly seasoned of Chaucer's Canter-
hury Tales, or such pure unbounded romances as* Steven-
son's Treasure Island. It is doubtful whether the Spanish

picaresque tales may be cited as in any way suggestive

of, or related to, Petronius' Satirae}
Sisenna's translations were in all probability read

Biirger believes that they were each complete in themselves and more
on the order of novels than short stories cf. Hermes, xxvii. 1892, p. 845.

borne in mind that the Milesian Tale was in the begiuning an

If it is
encroachraent upon the field of the New Coraedy, it may be seen that
probably both Rohde and Biirger are right. At first the tale would not
much differ frora a prose rendering of the plot of a coraedy, a kind of
explanatory libretto. Such productions would be found to be popular
and interesting " short stories." It would next corae to be worth while
to invent and write other *' original stories on their pattern the way

would thus be paved for the writing of long original stories into which
the writer put all the literary art which he possessed.
1 "
Although the picaresque tale was indigenous to Spain, its elements
had existed carlier and elsewhere iu literature. The Greek novels had
employed pirates and robbers with unf ailing regularity. In them leaders
of land and water thieves were prominent figures, although these as
rogues could claim no merit or special character; for in the Greek
novel, which was fitted to live again only in the heroic genre of Gom-
berville, Calprenede, Scudery, even the rogues were heroes, not anti-
heroes. The Plautine comedy had offered a nearer approach to the
ideal of Spanish roguery in the Epidicus, Mostellaria, or Persa, for the
intriguing slave and the parasite of the classic stage bore some resem-
blance to the picaro living by his wits. Encolpius, in the Satyricon of
Petronius Arbiter, has been liailed as the forerunner of Spanish rogues,
and the facts that raost of the Peninsular picaresque autliors were classi-
cists, and that Petronius in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries had
a special vogue, have been adduced as proving a probable bond between
the Satyricon and the roraances of roguery. But the low-life adven-
tures of the decadent voluptuary, or the excesses of the feast of Tri-
raalchio, have little in coraraon with the shifts of the unfortunate rascal
in service." Cf. Chandler, Romances of Roguery, p. 3.

with great delight. Ovid^ was certainly acquainted

with them. One of their effects was the sanctioning
and further extension of that romantic coloring which
Roman historians and writers of travel were putting into
their works. Livy furnishes a marked instance of such
an effect.

But the special form of literary art which Petronius

adopted had been subject in the fifty or sixty years pre-
ceding him to other vital influences, differing from these
which we have traced back to the disjointed Milesian
Tales of Aristides and his fellows. We refer to the
accounts of wonderful voyages and strange adventures
written by Roman travellers, which by their biographical
treatment pointed the way to the transition from stories
of varied and loosely related situations to creations of
a higher type possessing unity and order. There are
greater unity and order in the Odyssey than in the Iliad,
or in a novel of Thackeray's than in the Arabian Nights.
It was the great Roman encyclopedist, Varro, author of
the Periplus, a journey around the world, who won popu-
lar acceptance for this artistic treatment of tales of
travel. Others followed in his footsteps we can name ;

at least two, Statius Sebosus and Lucius Manilius.^ The

former was a voyager whom Pliny mentions as one of
Cf. Ovid, Tristia, ii. 443: " Vertit Aristidem Sisenna, nec obfuit
illi historiae turpis inseruisse iocos."

2 To
this, Heinze is opposed, who believes it impossible to prove that
these writers showed any approach to free treatment. However, the
transition from the realism of accounts of actual travel to imagina-
tive accounts, like those ofLucian or Jules Verne, is very easy the ;

middle ground of transition would be the occasional appearance of

what was incredible, but highly entertaining, in the midst of what was
told in sober earnest as real and true. Cf. Heinze, Hermes, xxxiv. 1899,
p. 510, n. 1; Schanz, Rdm. Litteraturgesch. ii. § 395.

his chief sources; both apparently laid special stress

iipon curiosities and things marvellous. They wrote in

order to entertain and amuse; it can be imagined that
they stretched the truth occasionally, and that fiction
and were hopelessly blended. Whether or not
the narrator was made to speak in his own person is
uncertain. If that was the case, there would be a close
connection between their autobiographical style and that
of Petronius, which would be most interesting.

II. Petronius and the Menippean Satire.

However tempting it might have been to Petronius
to write in the racy prose of the short Milesian Tale,
or of biographical or autobiograpliical travel with its
touches of romance, in the composition of his Satirae,-
his style is actually that of the so-called Menippean
s atire it best suited his frolicking temper.
f Menippus

and that side of Varro which imitated him were congen-

ial to Petronius. This genre had certainly been long in
use, and, by breaking up the flow of the prose by means
of passages in verse, was adapted to the expression of

any personal feeling and temper on the part of the

writer or his characters, that might be seasonable. It
is probable, therefore, that tlie form of the Menippean

satire was the deliberate choice of Petronius. In his

times^ the expression of personal feeling by means of
satire was very much the vogue, as the poems of Hor-
aceand Persius and Juvenal testify. In the Cena the
poeticalpassages contain no expression of sentiment
from Petronius himself or his spokesman, Encolpius.
1 On the date of Petronius, see chapter IV. of this Introduction.

The three passages of this sort which occur there be-

long to Trimalchio. The Cena is, therefore, practically
a tale in pure prose.
Petronius's Satirae had, then, a free and rollicking move-
ment, which was frequently interrupted by poetical por-
tions of varying length, now in one metre, now in another,
but all serving by their satire or humor or seriousness to

give clever touches of one sort and another to the course

of the narrative.^ This is the characteristic of the Menip-

pean satire. Compare in the Cena the close of chapter 34

and the two passages in"chapter 65. More numerous
examples of these poetical passages are found, however,
in the f ragments of Petronius ^ not included in the Cena.
For the origin of this style of composition, one must
go back to Timon of Phlius, about 315-226 b.c, who was
the writer par excellence of humorous satirical narratives
and dialogues aimed at social follies of various kinds,
but mainly at the philosophers, whose schools were fail-

ing in the old lines of distinction and in the dignity and

sobriety of their teachings. His silloi, as such composi-
tions were called, were in verse only but we are told that

in Menippus, a Syrian of Gadara,^ there was a mixture

Cf. the alternation of prose with verse in Shakspere, e.g. in Tem-
pest ; cf. also Alice in Wonderland, or W. W. Story's He and She,
although this is not strictly a parallel. Holmes's Autocrat frequehtly
drops into poetry.
Cf. pages 114 ff. in Bucheler's third edition of the Satirae. Berlin,
8 The
origin of the peculiar form of mixture of prose and verse, so
characteristic of the satires of Menippus, as well as of Varro's imita-
tions, is explained Hirzel, Der Dialog, \. pp. 380-389.
by See also
Schanz, i. § 184: "As
early as the time of Gorgias and Plato this
style of composition was coming into vogue. The fondness of the
Cynics for parodying the verses of Homer, and the tragic writers espe-

of prose with the verse. Scarcely anything that Timon

or Menippus wrote has come down to us, and both might
have been to us little more than mere names were it not
that the great voluminous Roman writer, M. Terentius
Varro (116-27 b.c), imitated the style of the latter in
150 books of Satirae Menippeae, wherein, adhering quite
slavishly to the style and manner of his master, he
preached much serious wisdom through the vehicle of
satire and humor.^ These are preserved to us in a few
precious fragments/ and furnish some fairly good intima-

cially, may have influenced Menippus of Gadara (third century b.c.)

to combine prose and verse f reely in his burlesque writings, which were
doing their sliare in filling the place of the moribuud Comedy. But it
is scarcely possible to say how and to what extent he did tliis." If we

may malie any inference from Lucian, he probably parodied the verses
of those of whom he made sport, as Aristophanes parodies Euripides'
verses in the Frogs. That iraptfdeTp, as well as simple niiJit]<Tis and
travesty, certainly played a great role in popular Latiu literature, is
shown by the imitations of Varro, of Seneca, in the Apocolocyntosis,
and of Petronius. Aristides did not write his Milesian Tales in alter-
nating prose and verse his translator, Sisenna, however, is named by

Fronto (Naber, p. 62) in a list of poets, and one little fragment of

Sisenna's, n6cte vagdtrix, seems to belong to a verse. Cf. Norden,
Kunstprosa, ii. 755 ff.
Says Varro (Cicero, Academica posteriora, 2, 8) "in illis veteri-
1 :

bus quae Menippum imitati, non interpretati, quadam hilaritate

conspersimus, quo facilius minus docti intellegerent iucunditate qua-
dam ad legendum invitati, multa admixta ex intima philosophia, multa
dicta dialectice." Then, in 9, addressing Varro, Cicero says:
mumque idem poetis nostris omninoque Latinis et litteris luminis et
verbis attulisti atque ipse varium et elegans omni fere numero poema
fecistiphilosophiamque multis locis inchoasti, ad impellendum satis, ad
edocendum parum." Cf. Probus on Vergil, Ecl. vi. 31 " Varro qui est :

Menippeus non a magistro, cuius aetas longe praecesserat, nominatus,

sed a societate ingenii, quod is quoque omnigeno carmine satiras suas
expoliaverat," Cf. Quintilian, Inst. Orat. x. 1, 95; ii. 18.
2 These have been published by Biicheler in his third edition of
Petronius, pp. 161-224.

tions of the style of the master. But it was reserved for

Lucian/fellow-countrynian of Menippus, not so much to
interpret his literary style
— for Lugian employs prose
alone — as to reveal the spirit of the old satirist, and, by

holding the mirror to him, to give us brilliant and f asci-

nating pictures of him in the dialogues entitled CharoUf
MenippuSj and Icaromenippus.

III. The Satirae and their Principal Fragment.

Although it is not evident from the composition of

the Cena alone, in which we have no admixture of verse
outside of chapters 34 and 55, in form the Satirae of
Petronius are Menippean. This conclusion is reached
from a study of the fragments beyond the Ce7ia, and
of the probable mise-en-sc^ne of the considerable num-
ber of poetical excerpts from Petronius which we have.
This of course does not imply that the purpose of the
metrical portions is just the same as in previous writers
who employed Menippean satire. It is the characteristic
of Petronius that he so heartily identifies himself with
the escapades and psychological moods of his characters
that the metrical portions are not the vehicle of expres-
sion for his own sentiments alone, but for those of his
characters also, with whom, in the metrical portions, he
often merges his own personality. This change from
objective to subjective treatment in the Menippean satire
was a distinct advance.
In the free and rapid history of the adventures and
escapades of his hero, Petronius probably shows the in-
fluence of that other class of literature represented by
accounts of marvellous travel which Statius Sebosus and

Lucius Manilius were writing at the beginning of the
firstcentury their romantic element gave them
b.c. ;

something in common with the Milesian Tales. The

hero in Petronius is a young man, by name Encolpius,
who is made to describe in his own person the experi-
ences which befell him and his comrades in a number of
places which they visited. Their travels, like those of
Odysseus, were not voluntary, but a forced wandering
begun in punishment for some violation of a temple of
the god Priapus by Encolpius.^ The anger of the offended
god becomes here, therefore, as the wrath of Poseidon
in the Odyssey, the compelling motif, causing and thus

unifying the, action throughout all the episodes of the

story.^ But the time of Homer is not that of Petronius.

1 See above, p. vi ; c/. Schanz, Rdm. Litt. i. § 204.

Cf. Biicheler, Ist ed., p. vii; Friedlander, p. 5; Schanz, l.c. ii. 2,
p. 103. It is probably Encolpius who says in a chapter (139) at the end

of the Satirae, — " et

regnum Neptuni pavit Ulixes.
me quoque per terras, per cani Nereos aequor
Hellespontiaci sequitur gravis ira Priapi."

Cf, with this his appeal to Priapus, chap. 133 :

" non tristi
perfusus venio. non templis impius hostis
admovi dextram, sed inops et rebus egenis
attritus facinus non toto corpore feci."

theory of Elimer Klebs. The trials of Encolpius are a

8 This is the

parody on the woes of Odysseus, and done by Petronius with consum-

mate wit cf. Philologus, xlvii. 1889, p. 623 ff. " Es ist aber verkehrt,"

says Schanz, "den helden zum Odysseus redivivus zu machen, wie

Biirger Hermes, xxvii. 1892, p. 34:6; Heinze, Hermes, xxxiv. 1899,

p. 507. of the Avenging Fury was, however, very common

The idea
among the Greeks. lo and Herakles are each harassed by the iudig-
nant Hera the house of the Atridae inherits a curse f rom Pelops so
; ;

the house of Oedipus suffers, Aeneas is tossed on land and sea on


The latter describes not only wonders and miraculous

adventures, but the ordinary follies and vices of men,
satirizing them as well, a thing which the Menippean
form of which he wrote easily enabled him to do,
satire in

4- through mingling of humorous and serious, prose and


verse. The work is therefore a Satira; Biicheler entitles

it Satirae. Only fragments of the fifteenth and sixteenth
books are in existence.^ It was too large a production
to survive entire, and since it therefore lent itself to
condensation, an abbreviated form of it was made very
early. From such an abbreviated or excerpted copy, as
late probably as the ninth century, the manuscripts are
descended which are still in existence. The complete
Petronius, being the more expensive, did not survive, so
far as we know, later than the seventh century.^ The
best and also most connected fragment of the Satirae is
the Cena Trimalcliionis. For almost the entire ^ortion
of this there is but one manuscript it was found in the ;

library of Cippius by Marinus Statilius, about 1650, in
the little town of Trau on the east shore of the Adriatic*

account of the anger of Juno. Petronius may have meant to parody

the general Greek conception of the Avenging Fury rather than any
particular instance.
Bucheler, Ist ed., pp. vi, vii. Chapter 20 is said in an old codex
of Fulgentius to belong to the fourteenth book; c/. Biicheler,. Ist ed.,
p. 208, vii. On the possible range of scene and action in the Satirae,
cf. Heinze, Z.c, p. 495, n. 1, and Biirger, l.c, p. 346, n. 5.
Biicheler, Ist ed., p. xi; Friedlander, pp. 10, 11; Peck, Trimal-
chio's Dinner, pp. 50-54.
8 xhe first edition was
published in Padua, 1664; in the same year
Tilebomenus (Jac. Mentel) published an edition in Paris; an edition
with notes by J. Scheffer appeared at Upsala, 1665; Reinesius brought
out his edition at Leipzig in 1666.
4 R. Ellis states in the Journal
of Philology, 1883, p. 266, that
in a letter written by Francis Vernon, dated 1675, the discoverer of

In the Cena, as in the entire Satirae, tlie hero, Encol-

pius/ is the narrator Ascyltus and Giton are his com-

rades. The rhetorician Agamemnon is with them but ;

after the Cena his place is taken by the insipid poet,

Eumolpus. From chapter 116, the scene is laid in Cro-

tona ;
but only in a general way is any intimation given
of the different scenes of action up to that point. The
home of TrimalchiOj where the
Cena was given, was a
Greek and not f ar from Baiae ^
city^ situated on the sea,*
and Capua.^ For these and certain other reasons ^ he is
thought to have lived at Cumae, though some difficulty
lies in the way of deciding definitely for Cumae. The
Cena extends from section 26 to 78 some of the scenes ;

which precede it must have been laid in Massilia.

As to the time in which the adventures and incidents
of the Satirae were laid, the decision is somewhat diffi-
cult. The most recent opinion favors the period toward
the Trau Ms, is named Mr. Stasileo; c/. Bursian's Jahresbericht,
1886, p. 198.
Regarding this hero, c/. Heinze, ^c, p. 506, n. 1.
2 Of these two, the boy Giton is the more prominent character.
8 4 « 6
Chap. 81. Chapp. 77, 81. Chap. 50. Chap. 62.
7 For the
arguments in favor of Cumae, c/. Mommsen, Hermes, xiii.
1878, pp. 106 ff. His decision, since the place is a Greek town of Cam-
pania, lay between Naples, Misenum, Puteoli, and Cumae yet some ;

objection could be made against each of these. However, there is one

positive argument in favor of Cumae, given by Mommsen, which car-
ried weight with Bucheler and brought Friedlander out of his un-
certainty (Bursian's Jahresbericht, xiv. p. 171) so as to accept Cumae
and to bracket Cumis, chap. 48, as a word inserted by the epitomator,
and to decide in the Wochenschrift fUr Klassische Philologie, viii. p.

1315, against Haley {Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, ii. pp.

1-40), w ho had^r^iiedLiiLJaspr of Puteoli. Schanz, in his second
edition, 1901, ceases to accept Friedlander's bracketing of Cumis, and
now admits die bestimmung des ortes ist strittig." Cf. Schanz, n. 2,
p. 103, Der ort der handlung.

the end of the reign of Claudius or the beginning of

Nero's reign/ between 50 and 57 a.d. Whatever the date,

Mommsen, with whom Haley agrees, places the action of the Satirae
in the reign of Augustus, previous, therefore, to 14 a.d. He argues in
favor of this earlier date from Trimalchio's words, chap. 57, puer capil-
latus in hanc coloniam veni; adhuc basilica non erat facta." The
building of the basilica, he argues, was an important incident in the
founding of the Roman colony at Cumae, which falls between 42 and
26 B.c. If Trimalchio were ten years old then {puer capillatus) and sixty
at the time of the Cena, the banquet would fall between 8 and 24 a.d.
But, as Friedlander says, though numbers of new buildings were
erected to mark the colonial expansion of Cumae, the basilica
may well
have been one of the very latest of them.
BUcheler, Ist ed., p. vii,
decides in favor of the last years of the reign of Tiberius, 33-37 a.d. ;

but this is excluded by the fact that in chap. 60 the reigning emperor
is styled pater patriae, an epithet which that emperor had persistently

refused. It is Friedlander who puts the date between 50 and 57 a.d.,

basing his argument on Trimalchio's second cognomen, Maecenatianus,

chap. 71, and the mention of the musical virtuoso, Apelles, chap. 64, and
the composer, Menecrates, chap. 73, individuals whom everybody knew.
The former was famous under Caligula, the latter under Nero. Indeed,
B'riedlander's argument rests mainly upon the mention of those two
names. The Scaurus named in chap. 77 need not, he believes, be
taken as one of the family of the Aemilii Scauri which became extinct
in 34 A.D. Nor is the fact that August is still called Sextilis, chap. 53,
a proof that the Cena was written before or after 7 a.d., in which year
the change of name was made. Common people cling to old names, and
Petronius can for that reason have represented the secretary of Tri-
malchio as still employing the name Sextilis. As to the hundred year
old Opimian wine placed on the table, chap. 34, it furnishes the host
f urther occasion for ignorant boasting. The emperor, under whom mal-

leable glass was discovered, chap. 51, was probably Tiberius; c/. Pliuy,
Nat. Hist. xxxvi. 195 Dio Cassius, Ivii. 21. As to Apelles and Mene-

crates, they must have been the distinguished bearers of these names
whom we know from other sources; c/. Dio Cassius, lix. 5; Sueton.
Nero, c. 30. It would be remarkable if in Petronius's time there were
two men answering to each of these uames, the two in the Cena being
unheard of except for Petronius. The Apelles in the Cena, spoken of
as already belonging to the past, is the artist who flourished under
Caligula; while Menecrates is the composer whom Nero honored so

even thoiigli it be the Augustan period, Petronius is de-

scribing the life of his own tinies, and has no intention
of making or developing contrasts between it and the life
under Augustus, nor can we doubt that, in chapters 89 and
119-124, Petronius is making innuendoes at the poems of
Nero and Lucan, who are post-Augustan personages.

IV. Date and Identity of Petronius.

That the author of the Satirae was a Petronius Arbiter

is attested by ancient writers and grammarians, as well
as by all the manuscripts of the work.^ It is also quite
universally^ accepted now that our author is the Petro-
nius mentioned and described by Tacitus in the Annales
as one of the numerous intimates of Nero. That he
belouged to the time of Nero was first demonstrated with
by G. Studer in 1843. This demonstration
satisf action
was based chiefly upon the internal evidence furnished
" The manner
highly, and Claudius may already have distinguished.
in which both names are mentioned warrants," says Friedlander,
" our
assumiug the time of the Cena to he the end of Claudius's reign
or the beginning of Nero's. If it be the former, the author is easily

pardoned for giving it a bit of Neronic coloring from his own times."
Biicheler, Ist ed., p. iii.
Cruttwell, Rom. Lit. p. 394
2 Wlio he was is not certainly known."

Mackail, Lat. Lit. p. 183: One of the emperor's [Nero's] intimate
circle in the excesses of his later years." Teuffel, Rom. Lit. Gesch.
" Welchen man
1890, p. 743 : fiir den von Nero im J. 66 zum tode
" Valde
genotigten Petronius halten darf." Biicheler, Ist ed., p. v:
probabiliter eundem esse quem Nero morte damnavit." C/. Fried-
lander, p. 3. With these Schanz agrees in both editions. See also
Peck, Tnmalchio's Dinner, pp. 45-48.
* In the Rhein. Mus. ii. Merivale's History of the Ro-
pp. 50, 202.
mans, chap. liii, gives in abstract a fair idea of the general nature of a
portion of his argument.

by the Satirae itself, that

upon the study of its dic-

tion, including vocabulary and tbe autlior's descriptive

style, and of the contents of tlie stoyy, including alhi-

sions to persons, customs, and historical conditions which

could belong to a certain age only, which Studer, as has
been said, showed was the middle of the first century
A.D. The language, the metre in the poetical passages,
the social conditions described, are those of Nero's time.
" The critique of Lucan's Pliarsalia, by way of parody, in
chapters 119-124, would fail of all meaning and value
unless it had been written in Lucan's time or very soon
thereafter while the contents and bearing of that short

poetic passage on the fall of Troy, the Troiae Halosis, in

chapter 89, could not be appreciated unless Petronius's
parody were the work of a contemporary of Nero." It

was, in fact, a bit of parody or satire on Nero^s attempts

at poetry.^ Criticism in Petronius, like criticism in gen-
eral, and especially literary criticism, is directed against
present conditions.
If an author, moreover, may be judged from his works,
no one could more fairly be held to be the author of the
Satirae than the Petronius whom Nero fancied for a
season and finally cast off and put to death. " He was
a man," says Tacitus,^ "who devoted the day to sleep
and spent the night in business or pleasure, and was
distinguished rather for his idleness than for his thrift ;

one who gained the reputation, not of a glutton or of a

profligate, like most spendthrifts, but of a cultured epi-
cure, whose words and deeds were accepted all the more

Cf. Schanz, ed. 1901, ii. 2, pp. 11 and 106: "2>ie Troica und die
"AXwffts Neros.'*
AnnaleSf xvi. 18 and 19.

gladly as models of simplicity in proportion as they were

unconventional and careless. As proconsul in Bithynia,
and afterwards consul suffectus, he proved himself active
and equal to his work but upon returning to his evil

ways, or possibly by a pretence of evil, he became one of

ISrero's few and most intimate friends, his authority in

matters of taste/ so that, fatigued with pleasures, the

Emperor thought nothing charming or delicate unless
Petronius had approved it. Thus Tigellinus became
jealous of him as a powerful rival through his skill in
entertaining, and addressing himself to that greatest of
Nero's vices, his cruelty, he accused Petronius of intimacy
with Scaevinus. He bribed a slave to substantiate the
charge, prevented all defence, and threw a large part of
the household of Petronius into prison. Nero happened
at that time to be on his way to Campania, and Petro-
nius had followed him
as far as Cumae, where he was
arrested. He decided not to prolong his life between
hope and fear, nor to put an immediate end to it;
but opening his veins and binding them repeatedly, he
conversed with his friends, not on serious topics or such
as might have shown his firmness of spirit. Nor did he
Cf. Pope, Essay on Criticism : —
Fancy and art in gay Petronius please,
The scho]ar's learning, with the courtier's ease."

In the language of Ophelia in praise of Hamlet, he was "the glass

of fashion and the mould of form."
The cognomen Arbiter is a puzzle. It may he that it stuck to him,
as Moramsen thinks {Hermes, xiii. p. 107), from the title arhiter ele-
gantiae, which was giren to him in good-natured jest at court. On the
other hand, Biicheler {Neites Schweizerische Museu7n,\\\. p. 18) holds,"
says Schanz, that already having the cognomen Arhiter, he was dubbed
elegantiae arhiter by his fellows." Cf. Schanz, Rom. Litt. ii. 2, p.
107 n.

listen to any discussion on the immortality of the soul

or to the wise saws of philosophers, but only to frivolous
songs and gay verses. To some of his slaves he gave
largesses ;
others he directed to be punished. He feasted
and slept, that his death, though violent, might seem
due to accident. Nor, as most men do when so situated,
did he in his will extol Nero or Tigellinus or any other of
those in power; but, employing names of rakes and dis-
solute women, he described the Emperor's crimes and
each new form of his license, sealed the account and sent
it to Nero.^ He broke his ring also, lest it be used f orth-
with for some mischief. To Nero, wondering how the
nature of his nightly ventures was discovered, the name
of Siliawas suggested as the informant, a woman of some
notoriety by reason of her marriage with a senator she ;

knew personally of all the Emperor's excesses and was

very intimate with Petronius."
This work, therefore, which bore the title of Satirae
(Satyricon in the manuscripts) and was written by a Pe-
tronius, and, judging from a study of its contents, most
probably belonged to the middle of the first century a.d.,
must with equal probability have been written by the
Petronius described by Tacitus, who belongs to this same
period, if ever a presumable author may be f airly decided
upon from the writings attributed to him.

1 This
document, which set down in black and white the crimes of
Nero, should not be identified with the Satirae. No doubt the former
was unpleasantly personal and destined for Nero alone. Besides, Pe-
tronius did not have time enough to compose so long and so literary a
piece of work as the entire Satirae must have been. Studer fell into
the error of identifying the two but Ritter set the matter right in the

same volume of the Rhein. Mus. pp. 561 fP. c/. Peck, Trimalchio' s

Dinner, p. 49.

V. The Contents of the Satirae.

The fragments of the Satirae, as lias been said, are
from the fifteenth and sixteenth books. They begin
with a scene in which Encolpius inveighs against the
decline of oratory. He describes the affected pathos,
the hollow phrases and ranting of the schools, as all
wrong, and blames the teachers. But Agamemnon, who
is himself a teacher, puts the blame upon the scholars
and parents, whom the teachers must please if they
would not keep school to themselves. During this dis-
cussion, Ascyltus, the companion of Encolpius, slips
away. The latter decides to return to his hotel, but is
unable to find it, and inquires the way of an old herb-
woman; she conducts him to a house of questionable

character, where to his surprise Ascyltus reappears.

Together they return to their quarters, only to fall
into a quarrel, however, over the young Giton, the

special pet and favorite of Encolpius. After a short

estrangement and separation, they renew their friend-

ship and appear together in the forum, trying to dis-

pose of a pallium. While doing so, they discover a
countryman with a tunic which they had themselves
lost,with some coins sewed up in it. The countryman
and his wife lay claim to the pallium, which they
declare had been stolen from them, while Encolpius and
his friend, in turn, recover the tunic. They are next
visited by a certain Quartilla, whom they had inter-

rupted iti her offerings to Priapus and must satisfy for

the wrong thus done and for the afiliction from which
she is suffering. After undergoing various punish-
ments they banquet with her and a number of other

guests; at the close, all fall asleep. Syrians, in the

meantime, enter and begin to make off with the silver.
This, however, awakens the guests; a cinaedus enters,
and assaults them. This scene is followed by the cele-
bration of a mock marriage between Quartilla's maid
and the boy Giton. At this point the Gena- begins.
With Ascjltus and Giton^ Encolpius goes to dine at
the house of the freedman Trimalchio. Eirst they
take the baths, and find there the old gentleman play-
ing ball (26-27). Thence they follow him to his house.
Filled with admiration and wonder at what they see

upon entering, they advance to the triclinium (28-31).

They take their places, and a light appetizer is served,
Trimalchio reclining with them, but continuing a game
of dice which he had begun (31-33). His abilities as
a host are praised; when the first course, with wine,
is served, he urges the company to eat, drink, and be

merry (34-36). Encolpius learns from one of the guests

somewhat concerning Trimalchio, his wife, and the other
guests (37-38). The host shows his knowledge of phil-
ology," and on the serving of the second course excuses
himself from the company (39-41). In his absence the
conversation becomes free Dama talks about the weather;

Seleucus, about a funeral; Phileros, about the deceased

man and his brother Ganymedes, about the scarcity of

provisions caused by the dishonesty of aediles and the

impiety of man Echion, about the town games, the can-

didates for the aedileship, learning, and the education of

his son (41-46). Trimalchio returns, and directs that a
pig be slain and prepared f orthwith for the dinner after

being cooked, it is drawn in the presence of the guests.

The conversation turns upon medicine, rhetoric, some his-

torical events,and the craze for bric-a-brac (47-52). Half-

seas over, the host undertakes to dance the cordax; he
listens to his secretary^s account of the day's doings on
his estates; while watching the performances of some

tumblers, he is wounded by a boy who falls upon his

couch (52-54). He
composes an epigram upon this acci-
dent, and, talking about poets, compares Cicero and Syrus,
learning with technical skill, oxen with bees, until the
bonbons are distributed (55-56). Hermeros, a fellow
freedman of Trimalchio's, discovers Giton and Ascyltus
laughing at this, and takes them to task (57-58). Actors
of Homeric scenes enter, and one of them, impersonating
the mad Ajax, cuts to pieces some boiled veaL Fruit
and flasks of ointment are distributed honor is paid to

the gods (59-60). a story of a soldier

Niceros tells

who changed into a wolf, and Trimalchio one about the

witches and the touch of the evil hand (61-63). Tri-
malchio becomes effusive toward one of his friends, his
pet boy, his house dog, and his slaves (64). While fur-
ther delicacies are served, the festive Habinnas enters
with his wife Scintilla, and describes a dinner from
which he has just come; he insists that Trimalchio^s
wife, Fortunata, join them; and while she is talking
with Scintilla about her jewels, he lifts her feet up
from the couch upon which she was reclining (65-67).
A side dish is finally served; the attendant of Habin-
nas furnishes some vocal performances the guests are ;

anointed; slaves are admitted into the room. Trimal-

chio brings tears to his household by reciting his^
will (68-71). He takes a bath to recoveT^^om his
drunken condition, and renews festivities in a second
triclinium (72-74). He falls to quarrelling with his

wife, and talks of his past history, his home, his suc-
cesses, and his expectations. Einally, he orders the
trumpeters to strike up for him the funeral measure;
hereupon great tuniult ensues, during which Encolpius
escapes with Giton and Ascyltus (75-78). Here the
Cena ends. //
Encolpius returns home, and during the night loses
Giton, who was carried olf by Ascyltus. This leads to
a rupture in their friendship. Giton decides to share
the fortunes of Ascyltus, to the great grief of Encol-
pius, who in his frenzy plans the murder of Ascyltus.
He is brought to his right senses by a soldier, however,
and lays aside his sword. He strays into a picture

gallery, and, while consoling himself with pictures of

amorous scenes, he is accosted by the poet Eumolpus,
who apologizes for his poverty stricken estate by his
devotion to the Muses. After Encolpius is regale'd by
the account Eumolpus gives of some incidents of his
life at Pergamus, he asks why painting and other arts

have declined; his companion blames the mercantile

spirit of the times, B,nd interprets in tragic verse a
picture representing the fall of Troy. A
shower of
stones from the bystanders drives the tedious Eumolpus
away. At the baths, Encolpius finds Giton and takes
him to his quarters, while Ascyltus, hunting for Giton,
who had taken charge of his clothes, is befriended by
a Koman knight. Eumolpus joins Encolpius in his
rooms and proceeds to compose more verse, but is
checked by the latter, though admired by Giton. The
poet confesses his love for the boy and is promptly
driven out by Encolpius, who is, however, neatly locked
in his room by the fleeing poet. Filled with rage and

with fear for Giton, who had gone out a few moments
before, Encolpius about to hang himself, when the

two return, and the coaxings of Giton recall his master

to his senses. Another guest comes in, to complain of
the tumult; a quarrel ensues, in which the poet, who
has ousted and pursued the intruder, is in turn soundly
beaten —a feast to the eyes of Encolpius
— till the
landlord brings him aid. Ascyltus now comes in with
a crier, seeking Giton, who hides beneath the mattress
and eludes them. Eumolpus, however, returns and
threatens to reveal his whereabouts, but, between the
kisses of Giton and the tears of Encolpius, is induced
to keep quiet. Good will now prevails, and the three
take ship for some port unknown.
Here Encolpius discovers that he has fallen among
old enemies, — Lichas, the master of the ship, and Try-
phaena. They plan to escape from their danger, and
decide that Eumolpus shall pretend that the other two,
with shaven heads and branded foreheads, are his run-
away slaves. Warned by a dream and the information
of a passenger who was stricken with on seeing
the men shaving on shipboard, Lichas and Tryphaena
order the offenders to be dragged out and beaten Giton ;

isrecognized by the one, Encolpius by the other. Both

Tryphaena and Eumolpus try to secure their pardon;
their efforts end in a quarrel, which is settled by the
appeals ofthe pilot. A
truce is declared, and har-
mony restored with plenty of good eating and drinking.
Eumolpus recites some verses apropos of his baldheaded
slaves,whose appearance is somewhat restored by the
aid of false curls. Eumolpus satirizes woman's fickle-
ness also, and tells the story of a certain widow of

Ephesus. While they are thus beguiling the time, and

love making merry among them, the sea rises Lichas
is ;

is drowned, Tryphaena is placed in a boat, while Giton

and Encolpius embrace each other and commit them-

selves to the waves. They are saved from death, and
drag Eumolpus to land; they bewail the unhappy end
of Lichas, and perform the rites due to his body.

They now make their way to a city not far distant,

which turns out to be Crotona, notorious for its legacy
hunters. They propose to take advantage of this repu-
tation of the town and, by pretending to have large
estates in Africa, to deceive the inhabitants and re-
habilitate their fortunes. They install Eumolpus as
their master, and swear devotion to him. En route,
Eumolpus delivers himself of a poem of considerable
" On the Civil
length, War," as the model for an author
who treats history in verse. They enter Crotona; their
scheme succeeds. Encolpius, under the assumed name
Polyaenos, is caught in the meshes of the fair Circe.
He offends her by his coolness, and to her letter of

complaint sends her a reply excusing himself. Again

he sees her; again his coolness, with which even he
himself is offended on returning home. He seeks
relief at atemple of Priapus, and begins to be him-
selfonce more by the help of the priestess Oenothea;
from whose tedious cure he, however, flees. Einally,
a mother commends her sons to Eumolpus as his heirs;
but in his will he has ordered candidates for his fortune
to consume the body of the testator.
From this rapid survey of the fragments of the Satirae
it may easily be seen what the nature of the entire work
must have been, what a wild succession of adventures it

contained, and, as lias been said above, how greatly it

differed from the niodern novels of character study.
It is not unlike the novels of that school of the eigh-
teenth century to which Fielding and Smollett belong,
nor, except for coarseness in a considerable number of
the fragments, does greatly differ from those rapid

and absorbing chapters in such tales of Stevenson, as

Treasure Island, Kidnapped, and TJie Dynamiter}

1It is tempting to conjecture what the size of the original and com-

plete Satirae was, in comparison with the excerpted edition which has
come down to us c/. Biirger, Der antike Roman vor Petronius ; Hermes,

xxvii. 1892, p. 347, note "It is not noted with sufficient care tliat

what we have of Petronius comprises only excerpts from two and pos-
sihly three books, and very short excerpts at that. Their relation to
the original in size may be judged by comparing the only fairly com-
plete section preserved

namely, the Cena Trimalchionis, as contained
in the Trau Ms. —
with the remaining excerpts. Of the thirty-four
pages which this covers in Biicheler's text, only six have the parallel
excerpts found in Scaliger's copy. That is, the Trau Ms. aud Scaliger's
copy agree for only one-sixth of the entire Ce^ia ; the remaining twenty-
four pages have scarcely a single excerpt by Scaliger. That the original
excerptor cut Petronius as badly as Scaliger cut his original cannot
be said yet his method was the same. Whenever he decided to in-

clude in his abridgment any particular section of Petronius, he began

liberally then his excerpts came to be fewer and shorter very rapidly.

Cf. the narratives in chaps. 16-21 and 110-113. These are instances
of those inserted scenes of which Petronius was fond and which he
worked up with some fulness, while the later excerptor ruthlessly and
with good conscience cut out five-sixths of their contents. If there
were originally seventeen books of the Satirae, and if we make the
reasonable assumption that the Cena is in size equal to about one of
them, the coraplete original must have numbered about 600 pages,
attaining a length which equalled the novels of Cervantes and Lesage,
if it did not actually surpass them."

Cf. Macrobius, Somn. Scipionis, i. 2, 8: "auditum mulcent velut

comoediae, quales Menander eiusve imitatores agendas dederunt, vel
argumenta fictis casibus amatorum referta, quibus vel multum Arbiter
se exercuit vel Apuleium nonnunquam lusisse miramur." This implies

VI. Peculiarities in the Language and Style of


In the account of Trimalchio's Dinner, Petronius speaks

not only in his own person, through Encolpius, employ-
ing the pure language and style natural to him as one
of the best writers of Silver Latin and as an arbiter ele-

gantiae, but also in the extremely different character of

the illiterate nouveau riche. We
have, therefore, in the
conversation at Trimalchio's table, very characteristic
specimens of both the Sermo Urbanus and the Sermo
Plebeius in the time of the early emperors.


A. Interchange of Vowels.
1. i occurs in place of e in the final syll. nom. s.
3d decl. in the Sermo Plebeius, as volpis uda, 58, 35, for

was much more extensive than the same work of

that Petronius's novel
Apuleius since the Metamorphoses of the latter is itself no small work,

it may be judged how large indeed must have been the original Satirae

of Petronius.
In Hermes, xxxiv. 1899, p. 495, n., Heinze (Petron und der griech-
ische Roman) comes at the matter a little differently. He thinks
that in the process of excerption only about one-third was cut out.
If, with the rather doubtful authorities we have, we assume that
the excerpts of book XV
begin at chap. 26, and divide the remainder
through chap. 141 (or the ninety pages which these cover) into two parts,
assigning them respectively to the fifteenth and sixteenth books, we
have forty-five pages for each, representing two-thirds of the original.
That is, each book in complete form would have filled about fifty-five
printed pages. The original sixteen would then have filled 880 pages,
— a gigantic affair. But the matter will not be so bad if we assume, as
there is some ground for doing, that the excerpts extend through four
books of the original. Even that, however, makes the original novel very
long— longer than the longest Greek novel, which Heliodorus wrote.

vulpes uda; so Odyssian for OdysseaUy 29, 21; c/. Varro,

Menippeae, 60 (ed. Biich. p. 168).
2. ?2 occurs in place of i, as dupunduarius, 58, 19, for

dupundiarius ; ipsumam, 69, 9 ; pedudum, 57, 26 ; ossucula,

65, 27.
w also occurs for o in dupunduarius, 58, 19 (g/. 74, 38),
for dupondiarius.
3. occurs in place of u, as in Jioc illoc, 39, 23 ; istoc,

57, 40 cf. plovebat, 44, 40.


occurs for a in percolopabant, 44, 11, for percolapa-

a?-fc in
bant; for oricularios, 43, 17; codex, 74, 35; plodo,
45, 42; cqpo, 39, 30 and 61, 14; in 98, however, Petr.
uses caupo in the serm. urbanus.

Syncope of Vowels. Epenthesis.

Unaccented i is dropped, as in caldus, used througli-

out by Petr. except in one fragment, for calidus; so cal-

facio, 41, 27 ; caldicerebrius, 45, 10.
2. -es is syncopated to -s in the nom. s. 3d decl. in

stips for stipes, 43, 14.

3. Unaccented u may disappear, as in cardelis, 46, 14,
for carduelis; oclopetam, 35, 11, for oculopetam; so pedi^
cZ?im, 57, 26
ridiclei,; 57, 27
bublum, 44, 23; offla, 56, 18. ;

4. Epenthesis occurs in fericulus, 39, 11 and 68, 6, for

fercidum; cf. -ye^wo, 47, 13 and 53, 16, for veto.

C. Consonants.
Loss of aspiration occurs, as in percolopabant, 44, 11,

for -colaphabant ; so berbex, 57, 4, a reading for vervex;

tisicus, 64, 11, for phthisicus.

2. In Greek words, initial ^ becomes s, as saplutus, 37,
10 ; sacritus, 63, 7, = SiaKptTo?, 8ta- having passed into a
z sound, as in Aeolic Greek.

3. r be wrongly inserted near a dental, if credrae

and culdtra, 38, 2 and 10, are correct readings for cedrae
and culcita.

4. On the other hand, r may disappear, as in susum,

77, 12, = sursum.


A. Greek Words. These abound throughout the Sati-
Greek and the action takes
rae, since the characters are
place in a number of Greek towns. In this regard,
Petronius strongly suggests Plautus and Terence. Cf.
the Index, under Greek Words.

B. Diminutives. As in Cicero's Letters and in the

comic poets, diminutives are numerous in Petronius on
account of their expressiveness. They occur in the
Sermo Urbanus as well as in the Sermo Plebeius. Cf.
the Index, under Diminutive Nouns.

C. Derivative and Compounds. The plebeian fond-

ness for " effective long words, whether derivatives or
compounds," may be traced to some extent in Petr.,
although not so evident here as in the comic poets,
Apuleius or Lucian.
1. -monium tristimonium, 63, 9 gaudimonium, 61, 7
; ;

for tristitia, gaudium.

(a) -ax dbstinax, 42, 10 nugax, 52, 13 (6) -arius
; ;

puHarius, oricularius, 43, 27 and 17 so sestertiarius, dupun-


duarius, micarius, caligarius; (c) -osus calcitrosus, 39, 18 :


dignitossus, 57, 36 linguosus, 43, 9

; (d) -ivus absentivos,

33, 2 -bundus cantabundus, 62, 7.


3. Adverbs in -im, -iter : urceatim, 44, 39 ; largiter, 71,


21 ; corporaliter, 61, 16. Suaviter in the combination sua-

viter esse or facere occurs f our times.
4. (a) Verbs, intensive, inchoative,
and desiderative in

form, occur, as adiutare, 62, 23 ; amplexare, 63, 21 ; dictare,

45, 39 ; frunisci, 43, 19, 44, 34, 75, 6 exopinissare, 62, 34

; ;

canturire, 64, 7. (6) Denominatives occur, as aginare, 61,

22 ; apoculay-e, 62, 5, 67, 5 argutare, 46, 2, 57, 28
convi- ;

vare, 57, 6 ; culare, 38, 4 ;

so decollare, improperare, man-
ducare, molestare, naufragare, percolopare.
5. Here belongs an extensive list of part. adj. in -atus,
as expudoratus, 39, 15 cf the Index, under -atus.

A. Declension.
1. The following Greek nouns in -/xa of the 3d decl.

appear as of the Ist scJiema, 44, 16 stigma, 45, 28 69, 4.

; ;

2. The neut. intestina appears as a fem. of the Ist decl.,

76, 28.
3. Nouns of the Ist decl. appear as of the 2d, as sta-

tunculum, 50, 17; margaritum, 63, 7; quisquilia, 75, 19;

seplasium, 76, 14.
4. The 2d decl. forms, vasus and vasum, occur in 57, 29
and 51, 6, for vas; cf. pauperorum, 46, 4.

B. Case Forms.
Irregularities are found, as hovis, 62,
31, far hos; lovis, 47, 11 58, 7, for luppiter ; sanguen,

59, 4, for sanguis; lacte, 38, 2, for Zac; excellente, 45, 8;

66, 9, for excellens; Phileronem, 46, 29, for Philerotem;
Niceronem, 63, 2, for Nicerotem; diihus, 44, 35, for diis.

C. e2tae~Fc»:«Ei»~a»d Gender.
Irregularities occur

1. In the use of the masculine for the neuter, as hal-
neus, 41, 27; halniscus, 42, 2; caelus, 39, 11 and 45, 6;

fatus, 42, 13, c/. note ; 71, 3 ; 77, 8 ;

so candelabrus,fericulus,
lasanus, lorus, reticulus, vasus, vinus, lactem.
2. The converse occnrs in libra rubficata, 46, 22 ;
praecisa, 45, 38 ; thesaurum, 46, 32.
D. Ipsimus. The superlative of ipse occurs as a sub-
stitute f or dominus meus, as ipsimi, 75, 27 ;
cf .
69, 9 and 75, 29.

E. Irregularities in Conjugation.
1. In forms, as vinciturum, 45, 33, for victurum; do-
mata, 74, 37, for domita; mavoluit, 77, 15, for maluit;
parsero, 58, 17, foi pepercero ; faciantar, 71, 32, ioifiant;
farsi, 69, 20, for farti; so fefellitus sum, for falsus sum.
2. In change of conj., as defraudit, 69, 5, for defraudat.
3. In change of voice, (a) to the active form, as am-
plexaret, 63, 21; argutat, 46, 2; ar^i<fas, 57, 28 convivare, ;

57, 6; 24;
exhortavit, 76, (&) to the passive form, as
delector, 45, 19 and 64, 6 ; fastiditum, 48, 10 ; rideatur,
57, 9; somniatur, 74, 36; pudeatur, 47, 9.

'a. Cases. The accus. encroaches upon the dat. and
abl., as te persuadeam, 46, 6 ;
so 62, 2 ;
maiorem maledicas,
58, 41 ;
aediles male eveniat, 44, 5 ;
meos fruniscar, 44, 34 ;

quod frunitus est, 43, 19 ; cf 75, 6.

B. The nom. tu is occasionally used with

apparent redundancy, as when a speaker addresses some
one of the guests very pointedly so in the comic poets. ;

Cf. tu dominam fecisti, etc, 77, 2-5

. . . so tu labo- ;
. . .

riosus es, etc, 57, 25-30. With this cf the use of ego, in
ego me apoculo, 67, 5 ; damnavi ego, 41, 9 sedeo ego, 62, 7. ;

C. Adverbs. Occasionally they take the place of pred.

si, 42, 19 belle erit, 46, 8
adjectives, as aeque est ac ;
sole- ;

bas suavius esse, 61, 3 ;

tam fui quam vos, 75, 17 ;
so sit

vinearum largiter, 71, is used as insanum

21. Desperatum
in Plautus in desperatum valde ingeniosus, 68, 21.

Negatives are repeated for vividness, as neminem nihil

boni facere oportet, 42, 18 nec sursum nec deorsum non ;

cresco, 58, 15 so in 76, 4. The appearance of this usage


in the Cena is probably due to the fact that the speakers

who employ it are of Greek origin.

D. Conj unctions.
1. Et may be used redundantly, as in caseum et sapam
et cochleas, etc, 66, 20. It adds a summarizing notion to
several which precede, as aqua lasani et cetera minutalia,
47, 15 cf 47, 29 and 74, 23.
; Occasionally, in lively talk,
et stands f or tamen or sed, as, 45, 42, munus tamen, inquit,

tibi dedi et ego tibi plodo; so in 57, 14.

. . . Sometimes
it is strengthened by ecce, as in 40, 8, et ecce canes Laco-
nici; so in 45, 8. It may have the force of et quidem,
as in 39, 13, 41, 26, or 51, 24. In 74, 18, et quidem is

found, followed by hi autem, suggesting the contrast ol

fx€v . ol Se.
. On the omission of et see p. xlii, under

2. Que and atque do not occur in the Sermo Plebeius in
Petr. ; ac is found but once, and then as a comparative.
At is used for autem; once it is strengthened by contra.
It contrasts persons, as at ille; at illa; at ego 6 8e, ^ =
8e, eyo) 8e. Three times at no7i occurs in a kind of mock
non ita Trimalchio.
seriousness, as 49, 20, at
3. found strengthened by enim, in order to
Quia is

make assurance doubly sure, as 51, 11, quia enim , . .


aurum pro luto hdberemus, It has here its origmal cor-

roborative f orce.

R Prepositionfl. Prepositions are ftsed witli occasional

irregularity :

1. Sometimes they are omitted, as Africam ire, 48, 7 ;

cuUros Norico ferro =

cxdtros ex Norioo ferro, 70, 8.
2. Prae occurs with the accusative in prae mala 9ua,

39,29 pra£ Utteras, 46, 5.


3.In occurs with the accusative for the ablative in

fui in funus, that is, contvli me in funus et adfui, 42, 5 ;

'ffideho tein publicum, 58, 14.

4. Conversely, the ablative occurs for the accusative in
voca cocum in medio, 49, 8 ; possibly in in halneo sequi,
26, 11.
5. So foras for foris in foras cenat, 30, 12 ; foras est

mdpes, 44, 31.


A. Proverbs. Proverbs and popular forms of expres-

sion,"as vehicles of everyday feeling, experience, and
wisdom," are frequent, as in the comic poets and Varro.
Cf the Index, under Froverbs.
B. Comparisons. These are common, as a popular and
natural form of picturesque characterization. Cf. udi tmn-
quam mures, 44, 41; so orbis vertitur tamquam mda et
terra bona omnia in se habet tamquam favus. In these
comparisons, tamquam (sometimes tannquam si) is used.
Cf. the Index, under Tamquam. Tamquam is omitted
when the comparison becomes an equation, as phantasia
non homo, 38, 32.

C. Alliteration. Parbnomasia.
1. Alliteration, common in the older language and in
the Menippean Satires of Varro, occurs in the conversation
of the Cena. Cf. the Index, under Alliterations.
2. Paronomasia is seen (a) in repetition of words of
the same form (epizeuxis), as modo modo, 37, 5; Glyco
Olyco, 45, 27; quid? qidd? voca voca, 49, 6 and 8; so
vei-o vero; habae hahae; au au. (h) in the repetition of a
word in a different form, as hotno inter homines, 39, 9,
57, 17, 74, 33; amicus amico, 43, 10, 44, 14; nummorum
nummos, 37, 15; so mortuus pro mortuo; olim oliorum.

D. Oaths and Asseverations. These are common, even

in ordinary speech, strengthening any statement, of how-
ever slight importance. They occur in the comic poets
and inscriptions.
1. Mehercules, as may be seen in the Index, is used
2. Ita (sic) foUowed by ut or an impv. is used when the
speaker expresses his desire or belief as proportionate to
the thought or hope expressed in the clause introduced
by ita or sic, as ita meos fruniscar, ut puto, 44, 34, lit.

may I enjoy in proportion as I think,' i.e. *I just as

surely think as I hope to enjoy,' or may I never enjoy if


I don't think.'
3. The genius of a man is frequently appealed to in

strong statements. This custom grew up in the Augustan

Age, and was first extended to appeals made to or by the
sacred person of the Emperor subsequently persons swore

per genium of any individual whom they held in peculiar

esteem ;
even a parasite came to call his lordly f riend his
genius. In Petr. only liheHini employ this form of oath,

as in genios vestros iratos habeam, 62, 35 ;

ita genium meum
propitium hdbeam, 74, 36.

E. Uses of Certain Words.

1. Facio : cf fecit Caesarem reporrigere, 51, 3,
ut Caesar reporrigeret ; also servi ad se fecerunt, 38, 26, =
servi sihi ademerunt; also sibi suaviter facere, 71, 33, =
sibi consulere; aXsofecit assem, 61, 18, =
sibi paravit assem;
also barbatoriam fecit, 73, 26, =
b. celebravit; also gallum

. . rustici faciunt, 47, 29,

. =
g. r. in cenam coquunt; also
coactus est facere, 45, 22, = c. e. coire; also siquis voluerit
sua re facere, 47, 8, where the reference is to necessitates

2. Coepi : this occurs regularly with either voice of the
infin., which either indicates motion or denotes some state
of the mind. It is a periphrasis for the imperf. of narra-
tion with emphasis on the beginning of the act, with the
added sense of ^ proceeding ' its most remarkable use

in the Ceiia is with velle followed by a second infin., as

iam coeperat Fortunata velle saltare, 70, 26.
3. Notare occurs in the sense of animadvertere, a usage

also found in Cicero, Valerius Flaccus, and Gellius, but

more rarely than in Petr. Cf. certe ego notavi super me

positum cocum, 70, 31 ;

notavi etiam gregem cursorum se
exercentem, 29, 14.
4. Merus in the sense of ^outright,' ^plain,' as mero

meridie, 37, 8 fugae merae, 45, 41

; ;
trica^ merae, 53, 29 ;

so hilaria mera; mera mapalia.

5. Ad summam occurs abundantly. It occurs ten times
in the conversation of the freedmen, fifteen times else-

where, when Encolpius quotes his own or another's words,

but not in the purely narrative portions. It is, therefore,

a conversational phrase. Cf. ad summam quemvis ex istis

babaecalis in rutae folium co7iiciet, 37, 37 ad ;

siquid vis, ego et tu sponsiunculam ; exi, defero lamnam,
58, 24. It is frequent in Seneca and occiirs in Horace.
6. Plane occurs as a strong asseverative particle, in
is no doubt that,' as in plane fortunae
the sense of there
filius, 43, 20 plane fugae merae, 45, 41
; plane qualis ;

dominus talis et servus, 58, 12. So in Cic. Att. 11, 11, 1,

narro tibi plane relegatus mihi videor posteaquam in For-
miano sum.

F. Parataxis. Parataxis is common throughout the

animated conversation of the Ceria. It occurs between
independent sentences, where autem or igitur or quam-
quam might have been expected. It extends even fur-
ther than this, so that where an infinitive or subjunctive
should occur in a dependent clause, an indicative is used.
This construction is found after credo, puto, scio, spero,
fateor, video, oro, quaeso, dico, rogo, narro. Compare such
instances as et puto cum vicensimariis magnam mantissam
habet, 65, 25 ;
scitisnavis ^nagnam fortitudinem ha-
bet, 76, 13 ; spero tamen iam veterem pudorem sibi imponet,
47, 6.
Rogo, in particular, is followed construc-
tions either — as in Plautus, and by paratactic
frequently in Ter-


ence by the indicative, as in rogo me putatis illa cena esse

contentum f 39, 5 rogo, inquit, numquid duodecim aerumnas

Herculis tenes? 48, 20 or by the imperative, so that it has


the parenthetic force of 1 beg you,' as sed narra tu mihi,

Gai, rogo, Fortunata quare non recumbit ? 67, 1. Erequently

it is placed first in a sentence, somewhat like an
tion, in order to draw attention, as in rogo, vos, oportet cre-

datis, 63, sic pecuUum tuum fruniscaris ;

25; rogo, Hahinna,
siquid perperam feci, in faciem meam inspue, 75, 6.
With the use of the indic. after rogo compare the simi-
lar use after narra, as in sed narra tu milii, Agamemnon,
quam controversiam hodie declamastif 48, 8.

G. Asyndeton. Analogous to parataxis, in careless

conversation, is asyndeton, or the omission of connect-
ing particles.
1.Asyndeton within a Sentence.
This is found in early literature as well as in inscrip-
tions. Petr. has it after verbs of commanding, advising,

warning, and the like. Typical illustrations occur in sua-

deo non patiaris, 74, 40 curabo lovis iratus sit, 58, 7 dic
; ;

etMenophila£ discumbat, 70, 29; cave contemnas, 38, 12;

rogamus mittas (in the serm. urbanus), 49, 14; volo sint,
71, 20 nolo ponas, 74, 45.
In 38, 30, we have an exam-
ple of the omission of et: solebat sic cenare, quomodo rex;

apros gausapatos, opera pistoria, avis, cocos, pistores. So

itaque quisquis nascitur illo signo, multa pecora habet, mul-
tum lanae, caput praeterea durum, frontem expudoratam,
cornum acutum, 39, 13. Cf 38, 2, where et is omitted
between a number of appositives omnia domi nascuntur;

lana, credrae, piper, lacte gallinaceum, si quaesiris, invenies.

2. (a) A
lack of connection between sentences also
occurs, especially in animated conversation at times, ;

however, it is difficult to distinguish an apparent from

a real asyndeton. In 62, 5, the thrilliug character of the
tale of the werwolf is indicated by asyndeton apoculor :

mus nos circa gallicinia. luna lucebat tamquam meridie.

venimus intra monimenta. homo meus coepit ad stelas

facere, sedeo ego cantabundus.


(b) The injection of homely wisdom, old saws, and

proverbs into the conversation is made without the use
ofany connective. Cf. modo sic, modo sic, inquit rusticus;
varium porcum perdiderat. quod hodie non est cras erit,
45, 2 so in 59, 4, semper in hac re qui vincitur vincit is

introduced by no explanatory connective. Cf. utres in~

jiati ambulamus. minores quam muscae sumus, 42, 7.
(c) Disjunctive asyndeton occurs several times, as jjIus

minus, 52, 2 hac illac, 57, 38 velit nolit, 71, 39. With
; ;

this may be classed the asyndeton occurring between

opposing ideas, as in quem amat amat, quem non amat

non amat, 37, 13; or in 44, 30, nunc populus est domi
leones,foras vulpes, and nemo lovem pili facit, sed omnes
opertis oculis bona sua computant. antea stolatae ibant,
44, 36.
There are six instances in the Cena where a new
sentence is begun with such a form of puto as putes or

putares or putasses, for which a result clause introduced

by ut might have been expected, as putares eos gallos gal-
linaceos, 45, 36 ; putes taurum, 47, 7 putares me hoc ius-

sisse, 76, 7. So vides, with the force of the French voild,,

stands at the beginning of a sentence, needing no con-
it with the preceding sentence; cf. 36, 17,
nective to join
38, 10 and 13, 46, 29.
Quod as a Conjunction. Of the conjunctive use of quod,
which dates as early as the time of Plautus, but little can
be said, so far as
its appearance in Petronius is concerned.

There are possibly two illustrations, viz. 45, 30, subolfacio

quod nobis epulum Mammea daturus est, and 46, 14, dixi
quod mustella comedit. It is out of this use of quod that
the modern French que (' that ') arose.

Acomplete bibliography of the literature on Petronius for the
past twenty-five years will be found in Bursian's Jahresbericht
iiber die Fortschritte der Altertumswissenschaft, vols. xiv., 1878,

pp. 171-172; xlvi., 1886, pp. 195 ff. ; Ixxii., 1892, pp. 161-181;
xcviii., 1898, pp. 33-117. The following is a selected list, and
includes : —
A. Texts.

Petr. Burmanno curante, T. Petronii Arbitri satyricon quae super-

sunt cuni doctorum virorum commentariis ; et notis Heinsii et
Goesii antea ineditis ; quibus additae Dupeuratii et auctiores
Bourdelotii ac Beinesii notae. Adiciuntur Dousae praecida-
nea, Oonsali de Salas commenta, variae dissertationes et prae-

fationes, Editio altera. Amstelaedami, mdccxxxxiii.

F. BUcheler, Petronii Arbitri Satirarum Beliquiae. Berolini:
Apud Weidmannos, mdccclxii.
F. Biicheler, Petronii Satirae et Liber Priapeorum, tert. edit. Ad-
iectae sunt Varronis et Senecae Satirae similesque reliquiae.
Berolini :
Apud Weidmannos, mdccclxxxii.
L. Friedlander, Petronii Cena Trimalchionis, mit deutscher uber-
setzung und erkldrenden anmerkungen. Leipzig: S. Hirzel,

B. General Critique.

Martin Schanz, in Muller's Handbuch der klass. Altertums-

wissenschaft, viii. ii. 2, 2d ed., Bom. Literaturgeschichte.
Munchen: C. H. Beck, 1901.
L. Friedlander, Darstellungen aus der sittengeschichte Boms.
6th ed. Leipzig S. Hirzel, 1888.

J. Marquardt, Privatleben der Bomer. 2d ed. Leipzig : S. Hir-

zel, 1886.
A. Collignon, ^tude sur Petrone. Paris Hachette et Cie., 1892.

E. Thomas, Venvers de la societe romaine d^apres Petrone. 2d ed.

Paris Fontemoing, 1902.

K. Biirger, Der antike Boman vor Petronius (Hermes, 1892, vol.

xxiv., pp. 345-358).

E. Rohde, Zum griechischen Boman ( Rheinisches Museum, 1893,
vol. xlviii., pp. 125 ff.).
R. Heinze, Petron und der griechische Boman ("Hermes," 1899,
vol. xxxiiii., pp. 512 ff.).
E. Norden, Die antike kunst-prosa.Leipzig Teubner, 1898. :

R. Hirzel, Der Dialog. Leipzig S. Hirzel, 1895.


E. Klebs, Zur composition von Petronius'' Satirae (Pliilologus,

1889, vol. xlvii.).
Haberlin, in the Berl. Phil. Wochenschrift^ 1893, col. 946.
Mau-Kelsey, Pompeii; its Life and Art. New York: Macmillan,
J. Schmidt, De Seviris Augustalibus. Halis Saxonum: M. Nie-
meyer, mdccclxxviii.
C. H. Beck, The Age of Petronius. Cambridge (Mass.): 1856.
The MSS. of Petronius. Cambridge (Mass.): 1863.
A. Otto, Die sprichworter und sprichioortlichen redensarten der
Bomer. Leipzig: Teubner, 1890.
H. T. Peck, C. Petronii Arhitri Gena Trimalchionis anglice red-
didit et prooemio cum appendice bibliograph. instruxit. Nov.
Ebor. : Dodd Mead et Soc, mdcccxcviii.
H. W. Hayley, Quaestiones Petronianae (Harv. Studies in Class.
Philology, ii., pp. 1-40. Boston: Ginn & Co., 1891).

C. Language, Grammar, and Interpretation.

Segebade et Lommatzsch, Lexicon Petronianum. Lipsiae :

W. Heraeus, Die Sprache des Petron und die Glossen. Offenbach :

H. Ronsch, Bala und Vulgata, das sprachidiom der urchristlichen
itala und der katholischen vulgata unter berucksichtigung der
Bomischen volkssprache. Marburg N. G. Elwert, 1875. :

F. T. Cooper, Word Formation in the Boman Sermo Plebeius.

Boston Ginn & Co., 1895.

E. Ludwig, De Petronii sermone plebeio dissertatio. Leipzig, 1870.


J. Segebade, Observationes grammaticae et criticae in Petronium.

Halis Saxonum Typ. Karrasianis, mdccclxxx.

A. von Guericke, De linguae vulgaris reliquiis apud Petronium

et in inscriptionibus parietariis Pompeianis, dissert. inaug.
Gumbinnae Typ. Krausen., mdccclxxv.

G. N. Olcott, Studies in the Word Formation of the Latin Inscrip-

tions with reference to the Latin Sermo Vulgaris. Rome:
Sallustian Typography, 1898.

Encolpius and his friend, Ascyltus, prepare for Trimalchio's

banquet. Wandering about, they find him at exercise, play-

ing ball.

Venerat iam tertiusdies, id est expectatio liberae cenae, 26

sed tot vulneribus confossis fuga magis placebat, quam

quies. itaque cum maesti deliberaremus, quonam genere

praesentem evitaremus procellam, unus servus Agamem-
' '
nonis interpellavit trepidantes et quid ? vos inquit ne-

scitis, hodie apudquem Trimalchio, lautissimus


homo, horologium in triclinio et bucinatorem habet subor-

natum, ut subinde sciat, quantum de vita perdiderit.' ami-
cimur ergo diligenter obliti omnium malorum, et Gitona
libentissime servile officium tuentem usque hoc iubemus
in balnea sequi. Nos interim vestiti errare coepimus 27
immo iocari magis et circulis ludentum accedere,
cum subito videmus senem calvum, tunica vestitum russea,
inter pueros capillatos ludentem pila. nec tam pueri no.%

quamquam erat operae pretium, ad spectaculum duxerant, 5

quam ipse pater familiae, qui solecUus pila prasina exerce-

batur. nec amplius eam repetebat quae terram contigerat,
sed follem plenum habebat servus sufficiebatque ludentibus.

notavimus etiam res novas. nam duo spadones in diversa


10 parte circuli stabant, quorum alter matellam tenehat argen-

team, alter numerabat pilas, non quidem eas quae inter

manus lusu expellente vihrahant, sed eas quae in terram

decidebant. cum has ergo miraremur lautitias, accurrit
et Mc est inquit apud quem cubitum pone-
Menelaus ' '

tis, quidem iam principium cenae videtis.' et iam

non loquebatur Menelaus cum Trimalchio digitos concre-

puit, ad quod signum mateUam spado ludenti subiecit.
exonerata ille vesica aquam poposcit ad manus, digitosque
paululum adspersos in capite pueri tersit.

After the game, all bathe and proceed to the house of the host.

28 Longum erat singula excipere. itaque intravimus baI-\

neum, et sudore calfacti momento temporis ad frigidam
eximus. iam Trimalchio unguento perfusus tergebatur,
non linteis, sed palliis ex lana mollissima factis. tres in-

5 terim iatraliptae in conspectu eius Falernum potabant,

etcum plurimum rixantes effunderent, Trimalcliio hoc
suum propinasse dicebat. hijic involutus coccina gausapa
lecticae impositus est praecedentibus phaleratis cursoribus
quattuor et chiramaxio, in quo deliciae eius vehebantur,
10 puer domino Trimalchione deformior. cum
vetulus, lippus,

ergo auferretur, ad caput eius symphoniacus cum minimis

tibiis accessit et tanquam in aurem aliquid secreto diceret,

toto itinere cantavit.

Description of the entrance to the house, and of the startling

mural paintings.

Sequimur nos admiratione iam saturi et cum Agamem-

15 none ad ianuam pervenimus, in cuius poste libellus erat

cum hac inscriptione fixus :

qvisqvis servvs sine domi-

aditu autem ipso stabat ostiarius prasincUus, cerasino suc-

cinctus cingulo, atque in lance argentea pisum purgabat.

super limen autem cavea pendebat aurea, in qua pica varia
intrantes salutabat. Ceterum ego dum omnia stupeo, paene 29
resupinatus crura mea fregi. ad sinistram eiiim intranti-
bus non longe ab ostiarii cella canis ingens, catena vinctus,
in pariete erat pictus superque quadrata litera scriptum
CAVE CANEM. ct colUgae quidem mei riserunt, ego autem 5

collecto spiritu non destiti totum parietem persequi. erat

autem venalicium (cum) titulis pictum, et ipse Trimalchio
caduceum tenebat Minervaque ducente Romam
intrabat. liinc quemadmodum ratiocinari didicisset, deni-

que dispensator factus esset, omnia diligenter curiosus pictor 10

cum inscriptione reddiderat. in deficiente vero iam porticu
levatum mento in tribunal excelsum Mercurius rapiebat.
praesto erat Fortuna (cum) cornu abundanti '[copiosa'] et
tres Parcae aurea pensa torquentes. notavi etiam in por-
ticu gregem cursorum cum magistro se exercentem. prae-\^
terea grande armarium in angulo vidi, in cuius aedicula
erant Lares argentei positi Venerisque signum marmoreum
et pyxis aurea non pusilla, in qua barbam
ipsius conditam
esse dicebant.

Interrogare ergo atriensem coepi, quas in medio picturas 20

haberent. Iliada et Odyssian^ inquit 'ac Laenatis gla-
diatorium munus.' Non licebat multas iam (picturas) 30

The guests reach the triclinium. Interesting decorations, in-

scriptions and notices. A negligent slave is saved from


Nos lam ad triclinium perveneramuSj in cuius parte prima

procurator rationes accipiehat. et quod praecipue miratus

5 sum, in postibus tricUnii fasces erant cum securibus Jixi,

quorum imam partem qua^i embolum navis aerieum Jinie-

bat, in quo erat scriptum: c. pompeio trimalchioni,
titulo et lucerna bilychnis de camera pendebat, et duae tabu-
10 lae in utroque poste defixae, quarum altera, si bene memini,
hoc habebat inscriptum: iii. et pridie kalendas ianva-
.RiAS c. NOSTER FORAS CENAT, altcra luuae cursum stel-

larumque septem imagines pictas; et qui dies boni quique

incommodi essent, distinguente bulla notabantur.

15 His repleti voluptatibus cum conaremur in triclinium

intrare, exclamavit unus ex pueris, qui super hoc officium

erat positus, 'dextro pede.' sine dubio paulisper trepi-

davimus, ne contra praeceptum aliquis nostrum limen

transiret. ceterum ut pariter movimus dextros gressus,
20 sei-vus nobis despoliatus procubuit ad pedes ac rogare coe-
pit, ut se poenae eriperemus: nec ma^num esse peccatum
suum, propter quod periclitaretur ; subducta enim sibi

menta dispensatoris in balneo, quae vix fuissent decem se-

stertiorum. rettulimus ergo dextros pedes dispensatoremque
25 in atrio aureos numerantem deprecati sumus, ut servo re-

mitteret poenam. superbus ille sustulit vultum et

non tam
iactura me movet^ inquit 'quam negligentia nequissimi servi.
vestimenta mea cubitoria perdidit, quae mihi natali meo cliens

quidam donaverat, Tyria sine dubio, sed iam semel lota.

quid ergo est? dono vobis eumJ 31

Obligati tam grandi beneficio cum intrassemus tricli-

nium, occurrit nobis ille idem servus, pro quo rogave-

ramus, et stupentibus spississima basia impegit gratias
agens humanitati nostrae. ^ad summam, statim scietis,' 5

ait 'cui dederitis beneficium. vinum dominicum ministror

toris gratia est

They take their places upon entering the dining room. The first

light course, an appetizer, is brought in. Its description.

Tandem ergo discubuimus pueris Alexandrinis aquam in
manus nivatam infundentibus aliisque insequentibus ad
pedes ac paronychia cum ingenti subtilitate tollentibus. 10

ac ne iii hoc quidem tam molesto tacebant ojficio, sed obi-

ter cantdbant. ego experiri volui, an tota familia canta-
ret, itaque potionem poposci. paratissimus puer non minus
me acido cantico excepit, et quisquis aliquid rogatus erat
ut daret, {simul cantabat.) pantomimi chorum, non patris 15

familiae triclinium crederes.

allata est tamen gustatio
valde lauta; nam iam omyies discubuerant praeter ipsum

Trimalchionem, cui locus novo more primus servabatur.

ceterum in promulsidari asellus erat Corinthius cum bisac- 20
cio positus, qui habebat olivas in altera parte albas, in
dltera nigras. tegebant asellum duae lances, in quarum
mai-ginibus nomen Trimalchionis inscriptum erat et argenti

pondus. ponticuli etiam ferruminati sustinebant glires

melle ac papavere sparsos. fuerunt et tomacula supra cra- 25

ticulam argenteam ferventia positay et infra craticulam

Syriaca pruna cum granis Punici mq^i.

Trimalchio enters to the accompaniment of music. His ridiculous

appearance and dress. While he continues a game ivhich he
desires to fnish, a second appetizer is served ; its description.

Some dishes are smashed in its hasty removal.

32 In Jiis eramus lautitiis, cum ipse TrimalcJiio ad sympJio-

niam allatus est positusque inter cervicalia minutissima
expressit imprudentihus risum. pallio enim coccineo adra-
sum excluserat caput circaque oneratas veste cervices lati-

5 claviam immiserat mappam fimhriis Jmic atque illiyic

pendentihus. Jiahehat etiam in minimo digito sinistrae

manus anulum grandem suhauratum, extremo vero arti-

culo digiti sequentis minorem, ut miJii videhatur, totum

aureum, sed plane ferreis veluti stellis ferruminatum. et

10 ne Jias tantum ostenderet divitias, dextrum nudavit lacer-

tum armilla aurea cultum et ehoreo circulo lamina splen-
33 dente conexo. Ut deinde pinna argentea dentes perfodit,
amici '
inquit nondum miJii suave erat in tricUnium

venire, sed ne diutius ahsentivos morae vohis essem, om-

nem voluptatem miJii negavi. permittetis tamen finiri
5 lusum.' sequehatur puer cum tahula terehintJiina et cry-
stallinis tesseris notavique rem omnium delicatissimam.

pro calculis enim alhis ac nigris aureos argenteosque

Jiahehat denarios. interim dum ille omnium textorum
dicta inter lusum consumit, gustantihus adJiuc nohis repo-
10 sitoriuyn allatum est cum corhe, in quo gallina erat lignea
patentihus in orhem alis, quales esse solent quae incuhant
ova. accessere continuo duo servi et sympJionia strepente

scrutari paleam coeperunt erutaque suhinde pavonina ova

divisere convivis. convertit ad hanc scaenayn Trimalchio

vidtum et ^amici^ ait 'pavonis ova gallinae iussi supj^oni. 15

et mehercules timeo ne iam concepti sint; temptemus tamen,

si adhuc sorhilia accipimus 7ios cochlearia non minus

selihras pendentia ovaque ex farina pingui Jigurata per-

tundimus. ego quidem paene proieci partem meam, 7iam

videhatur mihi iam in pullum coisse. deinde ut audivi 20
veterem convivam 'hic nescio quid honi dehet esse,' per-
secutus putamen manu pinguissimam jicedulam inveni pipe-
rato vitello circumdatam.

Trimalchio eadem omnia lusu intermisso poposcerat 34

feceratque potestatem clara voce, si quis nostrum iterum

vellet mulsum sumere, cum suhito signum symphonia datur
et gustatoria pariter a choro caiitante rapiuntur. ceterum
inter tumultum cum forte paropsis excidisset et puer iacen- 5

tem sustuUsset, animadvertit Trimalchio colaphisque ohiur-

garipuerum ac proicere rursus paropside^n iussit. insecutus
est {supeT)lecticarius argentumque inter reliqua
scopis coepit everrere. subinde intraverunt duo Aethio
pes capillati cum pusillis utribus, quales solent esse qui 10
harenam in amphitheatro spargunt, vinumque dedere in
manus ; aquam enim nemo porrexit.
Laudatus propter elegantias dominus '
aequum^ inquit
Mars amat. itaque iussi suam cuique mensam assignari.
ohiter et putidissimi servi minorem nohis aestum frequentia 15

sua facient.'

Falernian wine is hrought in. Apostrophe of Trimalchio over the

silver skeleton.

Statim allatae sunt ampJiorae vitreae diligenter gypsatae^

quarum in cervicibus pittacia erant affixa cum hoc titulo :


20 perlegimus^ manus et 'eheu' inquit

complosit Trimalchio
vinum quam homuncio. quare tengo-
^ergo diutius vivit
menas faciamus. vinum vita est. verum Opimianum
praesto. heri non tam bonum posui, et multo honestiores
cenabant.^ potantibus ergo nobis et accuratissime lautitias
25 mirantibus laruam argenteam attulit servus sic aptatam,
ut articuli eius vertebraeque luxatae in omnem partem
jiecterentur. hanc cum super mensam semel iterumque
abiecisset, et catenatio mobilis aliquot jiguras exprimeret,
Trimalchio adiecit :
eheu nos miseros, quam totus homuncio nil est.
sic erimus cuncti, postquam nos auferet Orcus.
ergo vivamus, dum licet esse beneJ

The third course turns out to be a clever zodiacal design. Transition

to the fourth course, ivith which the real eating hegins. Carpus
does the carving.

35 Laudationem ferculum est insecutum plane non pro ex-

pectatione magnum; novitas tamen omnium convertit ocu-

los. rotundum enim repositorium duodecim habebat signa

in orbe disposita, super quae proprium convenientemque
5 materiae structor imposuerat cibum: super arietem cicer

arietinum, super taurum bubulae frustum, super geminos

testiculos ac rienes, super cancrum coronam, super leonem

ficum Africanam, super virginem steriliculam, super
stateram in cuius altera parte scriUita erat, in altera pla-
centa,super scorpionem pisciculum marinum, super sagit-
tarium oclopetam, super capricornum locustam marinam,
super aquarium anserem, super pisces duos muUos. in

medio autem caespes cum herhis excisus favum sustinebat.

circumferehat Aegyptius puer clibano argenteo panem

atque ipse etiam taeterrima voce de Laserpiciario mimo 15

canticum extorsit. nos ut tristiores ad tam viles accessi-

mus cibos, 'suadeo^ inquit Trimalchio 'cenemus' [hoc est

cenae.'] Haec ut dixit, ad symphoniam quattuor tri- 36

pudiantes procurrerunt superioremque partem repositorii

ahstulerunt. quo facto videmus infra \_scilicet in altero

fercxdo'] altilia et sumina leporemque

in medio pinnis

subornatum, ut Pegasus videretur. notavimus etiam circa 5

angulos repositorii Marsyas quattuor, ex quorum utricuUs

garum piperatum currebat super pisces, qui
tanquam in

euripo natabant. damus omnes plausum a familia in-

ceptum et res electissimas riderites aggredimur. non minus

et Trimalchio eiusmodi methodio laetus ' Carpe inquit. 10

processit statim scissor et ad symphoniam gesticulatus ita

laceravit obsonium, ut putares essedarium hydraule can-
tante pugnare. ingerebat nihilo minus Trimalchio lentis-

sima voce '

Carpe, Carpe.' ego suspicatus ad aliquam
urbanitatem totiens iteratam vocem pertinere, non erubui 15

eum qui supra me accumbebat, hoc ipsum interrogare. at

ille, qui saepius eiusmodi ludos spectaverat, 'vides illum^

inquit qui obsoyiium carpit: Carpus vocatur. ita quo-

" eodem verbo et vocat et
tiescunque Carpe/' imperat.^

Encolpius chats with his neighbor dbout their host and hostess, Tri-
malchio and Fortunata. They discuss Qne of the hanqueters,
once a slave but now a rich freedman. Another, who was an
undertaker, has had his financial ups and downs.

37 Non potui amplius quicquam gustare, sed conversus ad

eum, ut quam plurima exciperem, longe accersere fabulas
coepi sciscitarique, quae esset mulier illa, quae huc atque
' ^
uxor Trimalchionis, Fortunata
illuc discurreret. inquit
5 appellatur, quae nummos modio et modo, modo

quid fuitf ignoscet mihi genius tuus, noluisses de manu

illius panem accipere. nunc, nec quid nec quare, in cae-
lum abiit et Trimalchionis topanta est. ad summam, mero
meridie si dixerit illi tenebras esse, credet. ipse nescit
10 quid habeat, adeo saplutus est; sed haec lupatria pro-
videt ornnia et ubi non putes. est sicca, sobria, bonorum
consiliorum [tantum auri vides], est tamen malae lin-

guae, pica pulvinaris. quem amat, amat; quem non

amat, non amat. ipse Trimalchio fundos habet, qua
15 milvi volant, nummorum nummos. argentum in ostia-
rii illius cella plus iacet, quam quisquam in fortunis

habet. familia vero babae babae, non mehercules puto

decumam partem esse quae dominum suum noverit. ad
summam, quemvis ex istis babaecalis in rutae folium
38 coniciet. Nec est quod putes illum quicquam emere.
omnia domi nascuntur lana, :
credrae, piper, lacte galli-
naceum si quaesieris, invenies. ad summam, parum illi

bona lana nascebatur ;

arietes a Tarento emit et eos cula-
5 vit in gregem. mel Atticum ut domi nasceretur, apes ab
Athenis iussit afferri; obiter et vernaculae quae sunt,
meliusculae a Graeculis fient. ecce intra hos dies

scripsit, ut illi ex India semen boletorum mitteretur.

nam mulam quidem nullam habet, quae non ex onagro
nata sit.vides tot culcitras: nulla non aut conchylia- 10

tum aut coccineum tomentum habet. tanta est animi

beatitudo. reliquos autem collibertos eius cave con-
temnas. valde sucossi sunt. vides illum qui in imo
imus recumbit : bodie sua octingenta possidet. . de nihilo
crevit. modo solebat collo suo ligna portare. sed quo- 15

modo dicunt — ego nihil scio, sed audivi — qiiom In-

cuboni pilleum rapuisset, [et] thesaurum invenit. ego
nemini invideo, si quid deus dedit. est tamen sub alapa
et non vult sibi male. itaque proxime locationem hoc
titulo proscripsit: c. pompeivs diogenes ex kalendis 20


ille qui libertini loco iacet, quam bene se habuit. non
impropero illi. sestertium suum vidit decies, sed male
vacillavit. non puto illum capillos liberos habere, nec
inehercules sua culpa; ipso enim homo melior non est; 25
sed liberti scelerati, qui omnia ad se fecerunt. scito
autem sociorum olla male f ervet, et ubi semel res incli-

nata est, amici de medio. et quam honestam negotia-

tionem exercuit, quod illum sic vides. libitinarius fuit.
solebat sic cenare, quomodo rex :
apros gausapatos, opera 30
pistoria, avis, cocos, pistores. plus vini sub mensa effun-

debatur, quam aliquis in cella habet. phantasia, non

homo. inclinatis quoque rebus suis, cum timeret ne
creditores illum conturbare existimarent, hoc titulo auc-
tionem proscripsit: (c.) ivlivs procvlvs avctionem 35



TrimalcMo now engrosses the conversation. His astrological lore.

39 Interpellavit tam dulces f abulas Trimalchio nam iam ;

STiblatum erat ferculum, hilaresque convivae vino ser-

monibusque publicatis operam coeperant dare. is ergo

reclinatus in cubitum ^hoc vinum' inquit 'vos oportet
6 suave faciatis. pisces natare oportet. rogo, me putatis
illa cena esse contentum, quam in theca repositorii vide-
'' "
ratis ? sic notus Vlixes ? quid ergo est ? oportet
etiam inter cenandum philologiam nosse. patrono meo
ossa bene quiescant, qui me hominem inter homines
10 voluit esse. nam mihi nihil novi potest afferri, sicut
ille fericulus iam habuit praxim. caelus hic, in quo
duodecim dii habitant, in totidem se figuras convertit,
et modo fit aries. itaque quisquis nascitur illo signo,

multa pecora habet, multum

caput praeterea
15 durum, frontem expudoratam, cornum acutum. plurimi
hoc signo scholastici nascuntur et arietilli.' laudamus
urbanitatem mathematici; itaque adiecit 'deinde totus
caelus taurulus fit. itaque tunc calcitrosi nascuntur et
bubulci et qui se ipsi pascunt. in geminis autem nascun-
20 tur bigae et boves et colei et qui utrosque parietes linunt.
in cancro ego natus sum. ideo multis pedibus sto, et in
mari et in terra multa possideo; nam cancer et hoc et
illoc quadrat. et ideo iam dudum nihil supra illum

posui, ne genesim meam premerem. in leone catapha-

25 gae nascuntur et imperiosi in virgine mulieres et fugi-

tivi et compediti; in libra laniones et unguentarii et

quicunque aliquid expediunt; in scorpione venenarii et

percussores ;
in sagittario strabones, qui holera spectant,

lardum tollunt; in capricorno aerumnosi, quibus prae

mala sua cornua nascuntur; in aquario copones et cu- 30

curbitae ;
in piscibus obsonatores et rhetores. sic orbis

vertiturtanquam mola, et semper aliquid mali facit, ut

homines aut nascantur aut pereant. quod autem in
medio caespitem videtis et supra caespitem favum, nihil
sine ratione facio. terra mater est in medio quasi ovum 35

corrotundata, et omnia bona in se habet tanquam favus.'

A second of the banquet proper. Meaning of the

fifih course, the

cap on the head of the stuffed pig.

liberty Grapes are passed.
Punning on Liher (liber).

Sophos universi clamamus et sublatis manibus ad 40

^ '

cameram iuramus Hipparchum Aratumque comparandos

illi homines non fuisse, donec advenerunt ministri ac

toralia praeposuerunt toris, in quibus retia erant picta

subsessoresque cum venabulis et totus venationis appa- 5

ratus. necdum sciebamus, (quo) mitteremus suspiciones

nostras, cum extra triclinium clamor sublatus est ingens,
et ecce canes Laconici etiam circa mensam discurrere

coeperunt. secutum est hos repositorium, in quo posi-

tus erat primae magnitudinis aper, et quidem pilleatus, lO
e cuius dentibus sportellae dependebant duae palmulis
textae, altera caryotis altera thebaicis repleta. circa
autem minores ex coptoplacentis facti, quas"
uberibus imminerent, scrofam esse positam significabant.
et hi quidem apophoreti fuerunt. ceterum ad scinden- 15

dum aprum non ille

Carpus accessit, qui altilia lacerave-

rat, sed barbatus ingens, fasciis cruralibus alligatus et

alicula subornatus polymita, strictoque venatorio cultro

latus apri vehementer percussit, ex cuins plaga turdi

20 evolaverunt. parati aucupes cum harjindinibus fuerunt
et eos circa triclinium volitantes momento exceperunt.
inde cum suum cuique iussisset referri Trimalchio, adie-
cit: 'etiam videte, quam porcus ille silvaticus lotam
comederit glandem.' statim pueri ad sportellas accesse-

runt, quae pendet)ant e dentibus, thebaicasque et caryotas

41 ad numerum divisere cenantibus. Interim ego, qui priva-
tum habebam secessum, in multas cogitationes deductus
sum, quare aper pilleatus intrasset. postquam itaque
omnis bacalusias consumpsi, duravi interrogare illum
5 interpretem meum, quod me torqueret. at ille: 'plane
etiam hoc servus tuus indicare potest non enim aenigma

est,sed res aperta. hic aper, cum heri summa cena eum

vindicasset, a convivis dimissus (est) itaque hodie tan-


quam libertus in convivium revertitur.' damnavi ego

10 stuporem meum et nihil amplius interrogavi, ne viderer
nunquam inter honestos cenasse.
Dumhaec loquimur, puer speciosus, vitibus hederisque
redimitus, modo Bromium, interdum Lyaeum Euhiumque
confessus, calathisco uvas circumtulit et poemata domini
15 sui acutissima voce traduxit. ad quem sonum conversus
Trimalchio 'Dionyse' inquit ^liber esto.' puer detraxit
pilleum apro capitique suo imposuit. tum Trimalchio
me' inquit ^habere Libe-
rursus adiecit: ^non negabitis
rum patrem.' laudavimus dictum Trimalchionis et cir-
20 cumeuntem puerum sane perbasiamus.

TrimalcMo leaves the table, general conversation ensues. Dama

hegins hy praising wine.

Ab hoc ferculo Trimalchio ad lasanum surrexit. nos

libertatem sine tyranno nacti coepimus invitare convi-
varum sermones. Dama itaque primus cum pataracina
poposcisset/ dies
inquit 'nihil est. dum versas te, nox
fit. itaque nihil est melius, quam de cubiculo recta in 25

triclinium ire. et mundum frigus habuimus. vix me

balneus calfecit. tamen calda potio vestiarius est. sta-
minatas duxi, et plane matus sum. vinus mihi in cere-
brum abiit.'

Seleucus agrees as to the heating effect of wine, hut gives a chilling

account of the funeral of Chrysanthus.

Excepit Seleucus f abulae partem et ^

non 42
cotidie lavor ;
balniscus enim f ullo est, aqua dentes habet,
et cor nostrum cotidie liquescit. sed cum mulsi pulta-
rium obduxi, frigori laecasin dico. nec sane lavare

potui fui enim hodie in f unus.

homo bellus, tam bonus 5

Chrysanthus animam ebulliit. modo, modo me appel-

lavit. videor mihi cum illo loqui. heu, eheu. utres in-
flati ambulamus. minoris quam muscae sumus, (muscae)
tamen aliquam virtutem habent, nos non pluris sumus
quam bullae. et quid si non abstinax fuisset ? quinque lo

dies aquam in os suum non coniecit, non micam panis.

tamen abiit ad plures. medici illum perdiderunt, immo
magis malus fatus; medicus enim nihil aliud est quam
animi consolatio. tamen bene elatus est, vitali lecto,

stragulis bonis. planctus est optime

— manu misit ali- 15

quot — etiam si maligne illum ploravit uxor. quid si

non illam optime accepisset? sed mulier quae mulier

milvinum genus. neminem niliil boni facere oportet;
aeque est enim ac si in puteum conicias. sed antiquus
20 amor cancer est.'

Phileros tells a more cheerful tale ahout the prosperous brother of


43 Molestus f uit,Philerosque proclamavit vivorum me-


minerimus. ille habet, quod sibi debebatur honeste :

vixit, honeste quid habet quod queratur?

obiit. ab
asse crevit et paratus fuit quadrantem de stercore mor-
6 dicus tollere. itaque crevit, quicquid crevit, tanquam
favus. puto mehercules illum reliquisse solida centum,
et omnia in nummis habuit. de re tamen ego-verum
dicam, qui linguam caninam comedi : durae buccae fuit,

linguosus, discordia, non homo. frater eius fortis fuit,

10 amicus amico, manu plena, uncta mensa. et inter initia
malam parram pilavit, sed recorrexit costas illius prima

vindemia; vendidit enim vinum, quanti ipse voluit. et

quod illius mentum sustulit, hereditatem accepit, ex qua
plus involavit, quam illi relictum est. et ille stips, dum
15 fratri suo irascitur, nescio cui terrae filio patrimonium
elegavit. longe fugit, quisquis suos fugit. habuit autem
oricularios servos, qui illum pessum dederunt. nunquam
autem recte faciet, qui cito credit, utique homo negotians.
tamen verum quod frunitus est, quam diu vixit
20 cui datum est, non cui destinatum. plane Eortunae
filius, in manu illius plumbum aurum fiebat. facile

est autem, ubi omnia quadrata currunt. et quot putas


illiimannos secum tulisse? septuaginta et supra. sed

corneolus fuit, aetatem bene ferebat, niger tanquam cor-
vus. noveram hominem olim oliorum, et adhuc salax 25

erat. non mehercules illum puto in domo canera reli-

quisse, immo etiam pullarius erat, omnis minervae
homo. nec improbo ;
hoc solum enim secum tulit.'

Ganymedes complains of high prices in the grain market ; the good

old time of generous Aediles is gone ; and men do not seek divine

help in times offamine as they used to.

Haec Phileros dixit, illa Ganymedes :

narratis quod 44
nec ad caelum nec ad terram pertinet, cum interim nemo
curat, quid annona mordet. non mehercules hodie buc-
cam panis invenire potui. et quomodo siccitas perseve-
rat. iam annum esuritio fuit. aediles male eveniat, qui 5

cum " serva

pistoribus colludunt me, servabo te." itaque
populus minutus laborat nam isti maiores maxillae sem-

per Saturnalia agunt. o si haberemus illos leones, quos

ego hic inveni, cum primum ex Asia veni. illud erat
vivere. simila si siligine inferior esset, laruas sic istos 10
percolopabant, ut illis lupiter iratus esset. [sed] me-
mini Safinium: tunc habitabat ad arcum veterem, me
puero, piper, non homo. is quacunque ibat, terram adu-
rebat. sed rectus, sed certus, amicus amico, cum quo
audacter posses in tenebris micare. in curia autem quo- 15

modo singulos [vel] pilabat [tractabat]. nec schemas

loquebatur sed directura. cura ageret porro in foro, sic
illius vox crescebat tanquam tuba. nec sudavit unquara
nec expuit, puto eura nescio quid Asiadis habuisse. et

quam benignus resalutare, nomina omniura reddere, tan- 20


quam unus de nobis. tempore annona pro

itaque illo

luto erat. panem quem emisses, non potuisses cum

altero devorare. nunc oculum bublum vidi maiorem.
heu heu, quotidie peius. haec colonia retroversus crescit
25 tanquam coda vituli. sed quare nos habemus aedilem
trium cauniarum, qui sibi mavult assem quam vitam
nostram? itaque domi gaudet, plus in die nummorum
accipit, quam alter patrimonium habet. iam scio, unde
acceperit denarios mille aureos. sed si nos coleos habe-
30 remus, non tantum nunc popuhis est domi
sibi placeret.

leones, foras vulpes. quod ad me attinet, iam pannos

meos coraedi, et si perseverat haec annona, casulas meas
vendam. quid enim futurum est, si nec dii nec homines
huius coloniae miserentur? ita meos fruniscar, ut ego
35 puto omnia illa a diibus fieri. nemo enim caelum caelum
putat, nemo ieiunium se)'vat, nemo lovem pili facit, sed
omnes opertis oculis bona sua computant. antea stolatae
ibant nudis pedibus in clivum, passis capillis, mentibus

puris, et lovem aquam exorabant. itaque statim urcea-

40 tim plovebat aut tunc aut nunquam et omnes redibant
; ;

udi tanquam mures. itaque dii pedes lanatos habent,

quia nos religiosi npn sumus. agri iacent

A long harangue by Echion: "things never remain at their worst;
our Titus will cheer us with gladiatorial shows." The sjieaker
may seem too talkative, but he has some promising lads at home
whom he desires Agamemnon to see.

45 ^Oro te' inquit Echion centonarius 'melius loquere.

"modo sic, modo sic" inquit rusticus; varium porcum

perdiderat. quod hodie non est, cras erit: sic vita tru-

ditur. non mehercules patria melior dici potest, si homi-

sed laborat hoc tempore, nec haec sola.
nes liaberet. 5

non debemus delicati esse, ubique medius caelus est.

tu si aliubi fueris, dices hic porcos coctos ambulare. et

ecce habituri sumus munus excellente in triduo die

festa; familia non lanisticia, sed plurimi liberti. et

Titus noster magnum animum habet et est caldicere- 10

brius; aut hoc aut illud erit, quid utique. nam illi
domesticus sum, non est miscix. ferrum optimum datu-
rus est, sine fuga, carnarium in medio, ut amphitheater
videat. et habet unde; relictum est illi sestertium tri-

centies, decessit illius pater male. ut quadringenta im- 15

pendat, non sentiet patrimonium illius, et sempiterno

nominabitur. iam Manios aliquot habet et mulierem es-
sedariam et dispensatorem Glyconis, qui deprehensus est,
cum dominam suam delectaretur. videbis populi rixam
inter zelotypos et amasiunculos. Glyco autem, sestertia- 20

rius homo, dispensatorem ad bestias dedit. hoc est se

ipsum traducere. quid servus peccavit, qui coactus est
facere? magis illa matella digna fuit, quam taurus
iactaret. sed qui asinum non potest, stratum caedit.

quid autem Glyco putabat Hermogenis filicem unquam 25

bonum exitum facturam ? ille milvo volanti poterat un-

gues resecare colubra restem non parit.

; Glyco, Glyco
dedit suas; itaque quamdiu vixerit, habebit stigmam,
nec illam nisi Orcus delebit. sed sibi quisque peccat.
sed subolfacio, quod nobis epulum daturus est Mammaea, 30

binos denarios mihi et meis. quod si hoc fecerit, eripiat

Norbano totum favorem. scias oportet, plenis velis hunc
vinciturum. et revera, quid ille nobis boni fecit ? dedit

gladiatores sestertiarips iam decrepitos, quos si sufflas-

35 ses, cecidissent ;
iam meliores bestiarios vidi. occidit
de lucerna equites, putares eos gallos gallinaceos; alter
burdubasta alter loripes, tertiarius mortuus pro mortuo,

qui habebat nervia praecisa. unus alicuius flaturae fuit

Thraex, qui et ipse ad d^ctata pugnavit. ad summam,

40 omnes postea secti sunt; adeo de magna turba "adhi-
bete " acceperant, plane f ugae merae. " munus tamen "

inquit "tibi dedi," et ego tibi plodo. computa, et tibi

46 plus do quam accepi. manus manum lavat. Videris
mihi, Agamemnon, dicere quid iste argutat moles-

tus ? quia tu, qui potes loqui, non loquere. non es
nostrae fasciae, et ideo pauperorum verba derides. sci-
5 mus te prae literas fatuum esse. quid ergo est ? aliqua
die tepersuadeam ut ad villam venias et videas casulas
nostras ? inveniemus quod manducemus, pullum, ova ;

belle erit, etiam si omnia hoc anno tempestas dispare

pallavit; inveniemus ergo unde saturi fiamus. et iam
10 tibi discipulus crescit cicaro meus. iam quattuor partis
dicit; si vixerit, habebis ad latus servulum. nam quic-
quid illi vacat, caput de tabula non tollit. ingeniosus
est et bono filo, etiam si in aves morbosus est. ego illi
iam tres cardeles occidi, et dixi quod mustella comedit.
15 invenit tamen alias nenias, et libentissime pingit. cete-

rum iam Graeculis calcem impingit et Latinas coepit

non male appetere, etiam si magister eius sibi placens fit
nec uno loco consistit, sed venit dem literas, sed non
vult laborare. est et alter non quidem doctus, sed curio-

20 sus, qui plus docet quam itaque feriatis diebus


solet domum venire, et quicquid dederis, contentus est.


emi ergo nunc puero aliquot libra rubricata, quia volo

illum ad domusionem aliquid de iure gustare. habet
liaec res panem. nam literis satis inquinatus est. quod
destinavi illum (aliquid) artificii docere, aut 25
si resilierit,

tonstreinum aut praeconem aut certe causidicum, quod

illiauferre non possit nisi Orcus. ideo illi cotidie

clamo; "Primigenij crede mihi, quicquid discis, tibi

discis. vides Phileronem causidicum : si non didicisset,

hodie famem a labris modo, modo collo
non abigeret. 30

suo circumferebat onera venalia, nunc etiam adversus

Norbanum se extendit. literae thesaurum est, et artifi-
cium nunquam moritur."

Trimalchio returns to the banquet; his consideration. Three porkers

are driven in, one of which shall he served up for the banquet.

Eiusmodi fabulae vibrabant, cum Trimalchio intravit 47

et, detersa fronte, unguento manus lavit spatioque minimo

ignoscite mihi iam

' '
interposito inquit amici, multis die-

bus venter mihi non respondit. nec medici se inveniunt.

profuit niihi tamen malicorium et taeda ex aceto. spero 5

tamen, iam veterem pudorem sibi imponet. alioquin

circa stomachum mihi sonat, putes taurum. itaque si

quis vestrum voluerit sua re [causa] facere, non est

quod illum pudeatur. nemo nostrum solide natus est.
ego nullum puto tam magnum tormentum esse quam 10

continere. hoc solum vetare nec lovis potest. rides,

Fortunata, quae soles me nocte desomnem facere? nec
tamen in triclinio ullum vetuo facere quod se iuvet, et
medici vetant continere. vel si quid plus venit, omnia
f oras parata sunt :
aqua, lasani et cetera minutalia. cre- 15

dite mihi, anathymiasis in cerebrum it et in toto cor-

pore fluctum facit. multos scio sic periisse, dum nolunt

sibi verum dicere.'
gratias agimus liberalitati indulgen-
tiaeque eius, et subinde castigamus crebris potiunculis
20 risum. nec adhuc sciebamus nos in medio lautitiarum,
quod aiunt, clivo laborare. nam cum, mundatis ad sym-
phoniam mensis, tres albi sues in triclinium adducti sunt
capistris et tintinnabulis culti, quorum unum binium
nomenculator esse dicebat, alterum trimuin, tertium vero
26 iam sexennem, ego putabam petauristarios intrasse et

porcos, sicut in circulis mos portenta aliqua factu-

ros sed Trimalchio expectatione discussa quem inquit

ex eis vultis in cenam statim fieri ? gallum enim galli-
naceum, penthiacum et eiusmodi nenias rustici faciunt ;

30 mei coci etiam vitulos aeno coctos solent facere.' con-

tinuoque cocum vocari iussit, et non expectata electione
nostra. maximum natu iussit occidi, et clara voce ^ex
quota inquit decuria es ?
cum ille se ex quadrage-

sima respondisset, ^empticius an' inquit ^domi natus?'

35 ^neutrum' inquit cocus 'sed testamento Pansae tibi
relictus sum.' ^vide ergo' ait 'ut diligenter ponas; si

non, te iubebo in decuriam viatorum conici.' et cocum

quidem potentiae admonitum in culinam obsonium duxit,

Trimalchio tells of his estates; he would gladly add to what he has.

His two lihraries; his hazy knowledge of their contenis.

48 Trimalchio autem miti ad nos vultu respexit et vinum ' '

si non placet, mutabo vos illud oportet bonum

faciatis. deorum beneficio non emo, sed nunc quicquid

ad salivam facit, in suburbano nascitur eo, quod ego

adhuc non novi. dicitur confine esse Tarraciniensibus 5

et Tarentinis.nunc coniungere agellis Siciliam volo ut,

cum Africam libuerit ire, per meos fines navigem. sed
narra tu mihi, Agamemnon, quam controversiam hodie
declamasti ? ego etiam si causas non ago, in domusio-
nem tamen literas didici. et ne me putes studia fasti- 10

ditum, II bybliothecas habeo, unam Graecam, alteram

Latinam. dic ergo, si me amas, peristasim declamatio- "

nis tuae.' cum dixisset Agamemnon 'pauper et dives

inimici erant,' ait Trimalchio ^quid est pauper?' ^ur-
bane ' inquit Agamemnon et nescio quam controversiam 15
statim Trimalchio hoc si f actum est,
' '
exposuit. inquit
controversia non est ;
si factum non est, nihil est.' haec
aliaque cum effusissimis prosequeremur laudationibus,
^rogo' inquit ^Agamemnon mihi carissime, numquid duo-
decim aerumnas Herculis tenes, aut de Vlixe fabulam, 20

quemadmodum Cyclops pollicem porcino extorsit?


solebam haec ego puer apud Homerum legere. nam

Sibyllam quidem Cumis ego ipse oculis meis vidi in am-
pulla pendere, et cum illi pueri dicerent :
2ty8vAA.a, ri di-

A.€is; respondebat illa: aTroOaveiv OiXoi.'' 25

With astonisMng quickness the porker is

hrought in. Upon heing
drawn, it discloses the side dishes of the course.

Nondum efflaverat omnia, cum repositorium cum sue 49

ingenti mensam occupavit. mirari nos celeritatem coepi-
mus et iurare, ne gallum quidem gallinaceum tam cito

percoqui potuisse, tanto quidem magis, quod longe maior

nobis porcus videbatur esse, quam paulo ante aper fuerat. 5

deinde magis magisque Trimalchio intuens eum ^quid?


quid?' inquit ^porcns hic non est exinteratns ? non

mehercules est. vocaj voca cocum in medio/ cum con-
stitisset ad mensam cocus tristis et diceret se oblitum
' '
10 esse exinterare, quid ? oblitus ? Trimalchio exclamat
'putes illum piper et cuminum non coniecisse. despo-
lia.' non mora, despoliatur cocus atque inter duos

tortores maestus consistit. deprecari tamen omnes coe-

perunt et dicere solet fieri ; rogamus, mittas ; postea si

15 fecerit, nemo nostrum pro illo rogabit.' ego, crudelis-

simae severitatis, non potui me tenere, sed inclinatus ad
aurem Agamemnonis ^plane' inquam ^hic debet servus
esse nequissimus ; aliquis oblivisceretur porcum exinte-
rare ? non mehercules ignoscerem, si piscem praeteris-

20 set.' at non Trimalchio, qui relaxato in hilaritatem vultu

ergo inquit quia tam malae memoriae es, palam nobis

^ ' '

illum exintera.' receptacocus tunica cultrum arripuit

porcique ventrem hinc atque illinc timida manu secuit.

nec mora, ex plagis ponderis inclinatione crescentibus
25 tomacula cum botidis effusa sunt.

The cook isrewarded with a Corinthian drinking service. Origin

of such ware. Glass is in some respects better.

50 Plausum post hoc automatum familia dedit et ^Gaio

feliciter' conclamavit. nec non cocus potione honora-
tus est et argentea corona, poculumque in lance accepit
Corinthia. quam cum Agamemnon propius consideraret,
5 ait Trimalchio 'solus sum qui vera Corinthea habeam.'
expectabam, ut pro reliqua insolentia diceret sibi vasa
Corintho afferri. sed ille melius: 'et forsitan' inquit

^quaeris, quare solus Corinthea vera possideam: quia


scilicet aerarius, a quo emo, Corinthus vocatur. quid est

autem Corintheum, nisi quis Corinthum habet? et ne 10

me putetis nesapium esse, valde bene scio, unde primum

Corinthea nata sint. cum Ilium captum est, Hannibal,
homo vafer et magnus stelio, omnes statuas aeneas et

aureas et argenteas in unum rogum congessit et eas in-

cendit; factae sunt in unum aera miscellanea. ita ex 15

hac massa f abri sustulerunt et fecerunt catilla et paropsi-

des (et) statuncula. Corinthea nata sunt, ex omnibus


in unum, nec hoc nec ilhid. ignoscetis mihi, quod dixero :

ego malo mihi vitrea, certe non ohmt. quod si non frange-
rentur, mallem mihi quam aurum ;
nunc autem vilia sunt. 20

Trimalchio's story of the inventor of malleahle glass. He feels his

wine, and requests Fortunata to dance.

Fuit tamen faber qui fecit phialam vitream, quae 51

non frangebatur. admissus ergo Caesarem est cum suo
munere, deinde fecit se porrigere Caesari et illam in

pavimentum proiecit. Caesar non pote valdius quam

expavit. at ille sustulit phialam de terra; collisa erat 5

tanquam vasum aeneum deinde martiolum de sinu pro-


tulit et phialam otio belle correxit. hoc facto putabat se

solium lovis tenere, utique postquam (Caesar) illi dixit
" "
numquid alius scit hanc condituram vitreorum ? vide
modo. postquam negavit, iussit illum Caesar decollari : lo

quia enim, si scitum esset, aurum pro luto haberemus.

in argento plane studiosus sum. habeo scyphos urnales 52
pUis minus (C) quemadmodum Cassandra
occidit filios suos, et pueri mortui iacent sic ut vivere
putes. habeo capides M, quas reliquit patrono (meo)

6 Mummius, ubi Daedalus Niobam in equum

Troianum includit. nam Hermerotis pugnas et Petraitis
in poculis habeo, omnia ponderosa; meum enim intelligere
nulla pecunia vendo/
Haec dum refert, puer calicem proiecit. ad quem respi-
10 ciens Trimalchio ' cito inquit
ipsum caede, quia nugax
es.' statim puer demisso labro orare. at ille ' quid me '
inquit rogas ? tanquam ego tibi molestus sim. suadeo,
a te impetres, ne sis nugax.' tandem ergo
exoratus a nobis missionem dedit puero. ille dimissus
15 circa mensam percucurrit

et ^
aquam foras, vinum

urbanitatem iocantis, et ante omnes Agamemnon, qui scie-
bat quibus meritis revocaretur ad cenam. ceterum lau-
datus Trimalchio hilarius bibit et iam ebrio proximus
nemo inquit vestrum rogat Fortunatam meam, ut
' '

saltet? credite mihi: cordacem nemo melius ducit.'

atque ipse erectis supra frontem manibus Syrum his-

trionem exhibebat concinente tota familia 'madeia peri-

madeia.' et prodisset in medium, nisi Fortunata ad aurem
25 accessisset ; [et] credo, dixerit non decere gravitatem eius
tam humiles ineptias. nihil autem tam inaequale erat;
nam modo Fortunatam (verebatur), modo ad naturam
suam revertebatur.

Report of Trimalchio's accountant on a day's happenings on his

master's estates. Jugglers perform.

53 Et plane interpellavit saltationis libidinem actuarius,

qui tanquam urbis acta recitavit: ^VII. kalendas sex-

tiles: in praedio Cumano, quod est Trimalchionis, nati

sunt pueri XXX, puellae XL; sublata in horreum ex

area tritici millia modium quingenta; boves domiti 5

quingenti. eodem die : Mithridates servus in crucem

actus est,quia Gai nostri genio male dixerat. eodem
die: in arcam relatum est, quod coliocari non potuit,
sestertium centies. eodem die: incendium factum est

in hortis Pompeianis, ortum ex aedibus Nastae vilici.' 10

'quid?' inquit Trimalchio 'quando mihi Pompeiani

' '
horti empti sunt ? '
anno priore inquit actuarius

ideo in rationem nondum venerunt.' excanduit Trimal-

quicunque inquit mihi fundi empti fuerint,
' ' '
chio et
nisi intra sextum mensem sciero, in rationes meas inferri 15

vetuo.' iam etiam edicta aedilium recitabantur et sal-

tuariorum testamenta, quibus Trimalchio cum elogio

exheredabatur ;
iam nomina vilicorum et repudiata a
circitore liberta in balneatoris contubernio deprehensa et

atriensis Baias relegatus ;

iam reus factus dispensator et 20
iudicium inter cubicularios actum.

Petauristarii autem tandem venerunt. baro insulsis-

simus cum scalis constitit puerumque iussit per gradus
et in summa parte odaria saltare, circulos deinde ardentes
transilire et dentibus amphoram sustinere. mirabatur 25

haec solus Trimalchio dicebatque ingratum artificium

esse. ceterum duo esse in rebus humanis, quae liben-
tissime spectaret, petauristarios et cornicines; reliqua
[animalia] acroamata tricas meras esse. '
nam et comoe-
dos' inquit 'emeram, sed malui illos Atellaniam facere, 30

et choraulen meum iussi Latine cantare.'


An accident leads to conversatlon on the unexpected. Tnmalchio's

epigram. Puhlilius criiicised.

54 Cum maxime haec dicente Gaio puer

Trimalcliioiiis delapsus est. conclamavit familia, nec
minus convivae, non propter hominem tam putidum,
cuius et cervices fractas libenter vidissent, sed propter
5 malum exitum cenae, ne necesse haberent alienum mor-
tuum plorare. ipse Trimalchio cum graviter ingemuisset
superque brachium tanquam laesum incubuisset, concur-
rere medici, et inter primos Fortunata crinibus passis
cum scypho, miseramque se atque infelicem proclamavit.
10 nam puer quidem, qui ceciderat, circumibat iam dudum
pedes nostros et missionem rogabat. pessime mihi erat,
ne his precibus per ridiculum aliquid catastropha quaere-
retur. nec enim adhuc^ exciderat cocus ille, qui oblitus
fuerat porcum exinterare. itaque totum circumspicere
15 triclinium coepi, ne per parietem automatum aliquod

exiret, utique postquam servus verberari coepit, qui

brachium domini contusiun alba potius quam conchy-
liata involverat lana. nec longe aberravit suspicio mea ;

in vicem enim poenae venit decretum Trimalchionis, quo

20 puerum iussit liberum esse, ne quis posset dicere tantum
virum esse a servo vulneratum.
55 Oomprobamus nos factum et quam in prae-

cipiti res humanae essent, vario sermone garrimus. 4ta'

inquit Trimalchio
non oportet hunc casum sine inscrip-
tione transire' statimque codicillos poposcit et non diu
5 cogitatione distorta haec recitavit :

quod non
expectes, ex transverso Jit {uhique)

(nostra) et supra nos Fortuna negotia curat.

quare da nobis vina Falerna, puer.'


Ab hoc epigrammate coepit poetarum esse mentio

diuque summa carminis penes Mopsum Thracem memorata est lo
donec Trimalchio magister, quid putas inter Oice-
' '

rogo inquit
ronem et Publilium interesse? ego alterum puto disertiorem
fuisse, alterum honestiorem. quid enim his melius dici potest?
" luxuriae rictu Mdrtis marcent moenia.
tuo palato clausus pavo pascitur 15

plumato amictus aureo Babylonico,

gallina tibi Numidica, tibi gallus spado ;

ciconia etiam, grata peregrina hospita

pietaticultrix gr^cilipes crotalistria

avis exul hiemis, titulus tepidi temporis, 20

nequitiae nidum in caccabo fecit modo.

quo margaritam caram tibi, bacam Indicam ?

an tit matrona ornata phaleris pelagiis
toUat pedes indomita in strato extrdneo ?

zmaragdum ad quam rem viridem, pretiosum vitrum ? 25

quo Oarchedonios optas ignes lapideos,

nisi ut scintillet probitas e carbunculis ?

aequum est induere nuptam ventum textilem,

palam prostare nudam in nebula linea ? "

Why it
goes Jiard with doctors and money changers and sheep and
oxen. Favors are distrihuled.

'Quod autem' inquit 'putamiis secundum literas diffi- 56

cillimum esse artificium ? ego puto medicum et num-

mularium: medicus, qui scit quid homunciones intra
praecordia sua habeant et quando febris veniat, etiam
si illos odi pessime, quod mihi iubent saepe anatinam 5

parari ; nummularius, qui per argentum aes videt. nam


mutae bestiae laboriosissimae boves et oves :

boves, quo-
rum beneficio panem manducamus ; oves, quod lana illae

nos gloriosos faciunt. et facinus indignum, aliquis ovil-

10 lam est et apes enim ego divinas bestias

tunicam habet.
puto, quae mel vomunt, etiam si dicuntur illud a love
afferre ;
ideo autem pungunt, quia ubicunque dulce est, ibi

et acidum invenies.'

lam etiam pbilosophos de negotio deiciebat, cum pittar

15 cia in scypho circumferri coeperunt, puerque super hoc
positus officium apophoreta recitavit. ^argentum scele-
ratum : allata est perna, super quam acetabula erant
' ' '
posita. cervical : offla collaris allata est. serisapia
et contumelia xerophagi ex sapa dati sunt et contus

20 cum malo. '

porri et persica
flagellum et cultrum :

passeres et muscarium '
: uvam passam et mel
Atticum. '
cenatoria et f orensia : offlam et tabulas
' '
accepit. canale et pedale lepus et solea est allata.

muraena et litera
: murem cuni rana alligata f ascemque
25 betae (accepit). diu risimus; sexcenta huiusmodi fue-

runt, quae iam exciderunt memoriae meae.

Hermeros berates Ascyltus.

57 Ceterum Ascyltos, intemperantis licentiae, cum omnia

sublatis manibus eluderet et usque ad lacrimas rideret,
unus ex conlibertis Trimalchionis excanduit, is ipse qui
supra me quid rides inquit vervex ?
discumbebat, et
' ' '

6 an tibi non placent lautitiae domini mei ? tu enim bea-

tior es et convivare melius soles. ita tutelam huius loci

habeam propitiam, ut ego si secundum illum discumbe-

rem, iam illi balatum cluxissem. bellum pomum, qui

rideatur alios; larifuga nescio quis, nocturnus, qui non

valet lotium suum. ad summamj si circumminxero lo

illum, nesciet qua fugiat. non mehercules soleo cito

fervere, sed in molle carne vermes nascuntur. ridet.

quid habet, quod rideat? numquid pater fetum emit

lamna? eques Romanus es : et ego regis filius. "quare
quia ipse me
ergo servivisti ? dedi in servitutem et 15

malui civis Romanus esse quam tributarius. et nunc

spero me sic vivere, ut nemini iocus sim. homo inter

homines sum, capite aperto ambulo; assem aerarium

nemini debeo constitutum habui nunquam nemo mihi
; ;

in foro dixit "redde, quod debes." glebulas emi, lame- 20

lullas paravi; viginti ventres pasco et canem; contu-
bernalem meam redemi, ne quis in (sinu) illius manus
tergeret; mille denarios pro capite solvi; sevir gratis
factus sum spero, sic moriar, ut mortuus non erubescam.

tu autem tam laboriosus es, ut post te non respicias ? in 25

alio peduclum vides, in te ricinum non vides. tibi soli

videmur; ecce raagister tuus, homo maior natus

ridiclei :

placemus illi. tu lacticulosus nec mu nec ma argutas,

vasus fictilis, immo lorus in aqua, lentior, non melior.
tu beatior es: bis prande, bis cena. ego fidem meam 30

malo quam thesauros. ad summam, quisquam me bis

poposcit ? annis quadraginta servivi nemo tamen sciit, ;

utrum servus essem an liber. et puer capillatus in hanc

coloniam veni; adhuc basilica non erat facta. dedi ta-
men operam, ut domino satis facerem, homini maiiesto 35

et dignitosso, cuius pluris erat unguis quam tu totus

es. habebam
et in domo, qui mihi pedem opponerent
hac illac tamen;
— genio illius gratias — enatavi. haec

sunt vera athla; nam [in] ingenuum nasci tam facile

40 est quam "accede istoc." quid nunc stupes tanquam
hircus in ervilia ?

Giton meets the same punishment.

58 Post hoc dictum Giton, qui ad pedes stabat, risum iam

diu compressum etiam indecenter effudit. quod cum
animadvertisset adversarius Ascylti, flexit convicium in

puerum et ^tu autem' inquit 'etiam tu rides, caepa

5 cirrata? io Saturnalia, rogo, mensis december est?
quando vicesimam numerasti? quid faciat, crucis

offla, corvorum cibaria. curabo, iam tibi lovis iratus

sit, et isti qui tibi non imperat. ita satur pane fiam,
ut ego istud conliberto meo dono; alioquin iam tibi
10 depraesentiarum reddidissem. bene nos habemus, at
isti nugae, qui tibi non imperant. plane qualis domi-
nus, talis et servus. vix me teneo, nec sum natura

caldicerebrius, (sed)cum coepi, matrem meam dupundii

non facio.
recte, videbo te in publicum, mus, immo

15 terrae tuber: nec sursum nec deorsum non cresco, nisi

dominum tuum in rutae folium [non] coniecero, nec
tibi parsero, licet mehercules lovem Olympium clames.
curabo, longe tibi sit comula ista besalis et dominus
dupunduarius. recte, venies sub dentem: aut ego non
20 me novi, aut non deridebis, licet barbam auream habeas.
Athana tibi irata sit, curabo, et qui te primus XripwSrj
fecit. non didici geometrias, critica et
alogias menias, sed lapidarias literas scio, partes centum
dico ad aes, ad pondus, ad nummum. ad summam, si
25 quid vis, ego et tu sponsiunculam :
exi, def ero lamnam.

iam scies patrein tuum mercedes perdidisse, quamvis et

rhetoricam scis. ecce

qui de nobis longe venio, late venio ? solve me."
dicam tibi, qui de nobis currit et de loco non movetur;

qui de nobis crescit et minor fit. curris, stupes, satagis, 30

tanquam mus in matella. ergo aut tace aut meliorem noli
molestare, qui te natum non putat ;
nisi si me iudicas anu-
los buxeos curare, quos amicae tuae involasti. Occuponem
propitium. eamus in forum et pecunias mutuemur. iam
scies hoc ferrum fidem habere. vah, bella res est volpis 35

uda. ita lucrum faciam et ita bene moriar ut populus per

exitum meum iuret, nisi te ubique toga perversa fuero per-

secutus. bella res et iste, qui te haec docet, mufrius, non
magister. (nos alia) didiciraus; dicebat enim magister
" sunt vestra salva ? recta domum 40
cave, circumspicias
; ;

cave, maiorem maledicas. (Qui illos scholasticos bene

noverit, omnes fatuos esse sciet, studia eorum) autem
mera mapalia. (Plane recte aestimanti) nemo (eorum)
dupondii evadet." ego, quod me sic vides, propter arti-
ficium meum diis gratias ago.' 45

A scene from Homer ; interpretation hy tJie host.

Coeperat Ascyltos respondere convicio, sed Trimalchio 59

^ '
delectatus colliberti eloquentia '
inquit scordalias
de medio. suaviter sit potius, et tu, Hermeros, parce
adulesoentulo. sanguen illi fervet, tu melior esto. sem-
per in hac re qid vindhir, vincit. et tu cum esses capo, 5

cocococo, atque cor non habebas. simus ergo, quod me-

lius est, a primitiis hilares et Homeristas spectemus.'
intravit factio statim hastisque scuta
concrepuit. ipse

Trimalchio in pulvino consedit, et cum Homeristae

10 Graecis versibus colloquerentur, ut insolenter solent,
ille canora voce Latine legebat librum. mox silentio

^quam fabulam agant? Diomedes

facto ^scitis' inquit
et Ganymedes duo fratres fuerunt. horum soror erat
Helena. Agamemnon illam rapuit et Dianae cervam
15 subiecit. ita nunc Homeros dicit, quemadmodum inter
se pugnent Troiani et Parentini. vicit scilicet et Iphi-

geniam, filiam suam, Achilli dedit uxorem. ob eam rem

Aiax insanit argumentum explicabit.' haec ut
et statim
dixit Trimalchio, clamorem Homeristae sustulerunt, in-
20 terque familiam discurrentem vitulus in lance ducenaria
elixus allatus est, et quidem galeatus. secutus est Aiax

strictoque gladio, tanquam insaniret, concidit, ac modo

versa modo supina gesticulatus, mucrone frusta collegit
mirantibusque vitulum partitus est.

A hoop hung with favors descends from ihe ceiling. A new and
dainty course. The Lares are hrought in.

60 Nec diu mirari licuit tam elegantes strophas; nam

repente lacunaria sonare coeperunt totumque triclinium

intremuit. consternatus ego exsurrexi et timui, ne per
tectum petauristarius aliquis descenderet. nec minus
5 reliqui convivae mirantes
erexere vultus, expectantes

quid novi de caelo nuntiaretur. ecce autem diductis

lacunaribus subito circulus ingens, de cupa v-idelicet
grandi excussus, demittitur, cuius per totum orbem coro-
nae aureae cum alabastris
unguenti pendebant. dum
10 haec apophoreta iubemur sumere, respiciens ad mensam
(rursus rem novam notavi). iam illic repositorium cum

placentis aliquot erat positura, quod medium Priapus a

pistore factus tenebat, gremioque satis amplo omnis
generis poma et uvas sustinebat more vulgato. avidius
ad pompani manus porreximus, et repente nova ludorum 15

missio hilaritatem hic refecit. omnes enim placentae

omniaque poma etiam minima vexatione contacta coepe-
runt effundere crocum, et usque ad os molestus umor
accidere. rati ergo sacrum esse fericulum tam religioso

apparatu perfusum, consurreximus altius et ^Augusto, 20

patri patriae, feliciter' diximus. quibusdam tamen

etiam post hanc venerationem poma rapientibus et ipsi
mappas implevimus, ego praecipue, qui niillo satis amplo
munere putabam me onerare Gitonis sinum.
Inter haec tres pueri candidas succincti tunicas in- 25

traverunt, quorum duo Lares bullatos super mensam

posuerunt, unus pateram vini circumferens dii propitii
' '

clamabat. aiebat autem unum Cerdonem, al-

terum Felicionem, tertium Lucrionem vocari. nos etiam
veram imaginem ipsius Trimalchionis, cum iam omnes 30

basiarent, erubuimus praeterire.

The werwolf.

Postquam ergo omnes bonam mentem bonamque vali- 61

tudinem Trimalchio ad Nicerotem respexit
sibi optarunt,
' ' '
et solebas inquit suavius esse in convictu nescio quid;

nunc taces nec muttis. oro te, sic felicem me videas,

narra illud quod tibi usu venit.' Niceros delectatus affa- 5

bilitate amici 'omne me' inquit 'lucrum transeat, nisi

iam dudum gaudimonio dissilio, quod te talem video.

itaque hilaria mera sint, etsi timeo istos scholasticos, ne

me rideant. viderint: narrabo tamen; quid enim mihi

10 aufert, qui ridet ? satius est rideri quam derideri/ haec
ubi dicta dedit, talem fabulam exorsus est :

'Cum adhuc servirem, habitabamus in vico angusto;

nunc Gavillae domus est. ibi, quomodo dii volunt,
amare coepi uxorem Terentii coponis noveratis Melis- :

15 sam Tarentinam, pulcherrimum bacciballum. sed ego

non mehercules corporaliter (illam) aut propter res vene-
rias curavi, sed magis quod bene morata fuit. si quid ab
illa petii, nunquam mihi negatum fecit assem, semissem

habui (quicquid habui), in illius sinum demandavi, nec


20 unquam fefellitus sum. huius contubernalis ad villam

supremum diem obiit. itaque per scutum per ocream

egi aginavi, quemadmodum ad illam pervenirem: (sci-
62 tis) autem, in angustiis amici apparent. forte ^dominus

Capuam exierat ad scruta scita expedienda. nactus ego

occasionem persuadeo hospitem nostrum, ut mecum ad
quintum miliarium veniat. erat autem miles, fortis
5 tanquam Orcus. apoculamus nos circa gallicinia, luna
lucebat tanquam meridie. venimus intra monimenta:
homo meus coepit ad stelas facere, sedeo ego canta-
bundus et stelas numero. deinde ut respexi ad comitem,
ille exuit se et omnia vestimenta secundum viam posuit.

10 mihi anima in naso esse, stabam tanquam mortuus. at

ille circumminxit vestimenta sua et subito lupus factus

est. nolite me iocari putare ;

ut mentiar, nullius patri-
monium tanti facio.
sed, quod coeperam dicere, post-

quam lupusfactus est, ululare coepit et in silvas fugit.

15 ego primitus nesciebam ubi essem, deinde accessi, ut

vestimenta eius tollerem ;

illa autem lapidea facta sunt.

qui mori timore nisi ego ? gladium tamen strinxi et in

tota via umbras cecidi, donec ad villam amicae meae per-
venirem. ut larua intravi, paene animam ebullivi, sudor
mihi per bifurcum volabat, oculi mortui, vix unquam re- 20

fectus sum. Melissa mea mirari coepit, quod tam sero

" "
ambularem, et " si ante inquit venisses, saltem nobis
adiutasses; lupus enim villam intravit et omnia pecora
(perculit), tanquam lanius sanguinem illis misit, nec
tamen derisit, etiam si fugit ;
servus enim noster lancea 25
collum eius traiecit." haec ut audivi, operire oculos
amplius non potui, sed luce clara Gai nostri domum

fugi tanquam copo compilatus, et postquam veni in

illum locum, in quo lapidea vestimenta erant facta, nihil
inveni nisi sanguinem. ut vero domum veni, iacebat 30
miles meus in lecto tanquam bovis, et coUum illius

medicus curabat. intellexi illum versipellem esse, nec

postea cum illo panem gustare potui, non si me occidis-

ses. viderintquid de hoc exopinissent

alii ; ego si

mentior, genios vestros iratos habeam.' 35

Trimalchio' s tale of Ihe witches; he becomes more quarrelsome. An

unpleasant dessert is served.

Attonitis admiratione universis ^salvo' inquit ^tuo ser- 63

mone Trimalchio
' ^
si qua fides est, ut mihi pili inhorrue-

runt, quia scio Niceronem nihil nugarum narrare immo :

certus est et minime linguosus. nam et ipse vobis rem

horribilem narrabo. asinus in tegulis. cum adhuc capil- 5

latus essem, nam a puero vitam Chiam gessi, ipsimi nostri

delicatus decessit, mehercules margaritum, sacritus et
omnium numerum. cum ergo illum mater misella plan-

geret et nos tum plures in tristimonio essemus, subito

10 strigae (stridere) coeperunt putares canem leporem per-

sequi. habebamus tunc hominem Cappadocem, longum,

valde audaculum et qui valebat: poterat bovem iratum
tollere. hic audacter stricto gladio extra ostium pro-

cucurrit, involuta sinistra manu curiose, et mulierem

15 tanquam lioc loco — salvum quod tango — mediam

traiecit. audimus gemitum, et — plane non mentiar —

ipsas non vidimus. baro autem noster introversus se pro-
iecit in lectum, et corpus totum lividum habebat quasi

flagellis caesus,quia scilicet illum tetigerat mala manus.

20 nos cluso ostio redimus iterum ad officium, sed cum mater
amplexaret corpus filii sui, tangit et videtmanuciolum
de stramentis factum. non cor habebat, non intestina,
non quicquam : scilicet iam puerum strigae invOlaverant
et supposuerant stramenticium vavatonem. rogo vos,
25 oportet credatis, sunt mulieres plussciae, sunt nocturnae,
et quod sursum est, deorsum faciunt. ceterum baro ille
longus post hoc factum nunquam coloris sui fuit, immo
post paucos dies phreneticus periit.'
64 Miramur nos et pariter credimus, osculatique mensam
rogamus Nocturnas, ut suis (sedibus) se teneant, dum
redimus a cena.

Et sane iam lucernae mihi plures videbantur ardere

totumque triclinium esse mutatum, cum Trimalchio
6 tibi
inquit Plocame, nihil narras ? nihil nos delectaris ?
et solebas suavius esse, belle deverbia dicere, melica can-
turire. heu heu, abistis dulcis caricae.' 'iam' inquit
ille ^quadrigae meae decucurrerunt, ex quo podagricus

factus sum. alioquin cum essem adulescentulus, can- lo

tando paene tisicus factus sum. quid saltare ? quid

deverbia ? quid tonstrinum quando parem habui nisi

unum Apelletem ? appositaque ad os mann nescio quid


taetrum exsibilavit, quod postea Graecum esse affirmabat.

Nec non Trimalchio ipse cum tubicines esset imita- 15

tus, ad delicias suas respexit, quem Croesum appellabat.

puer autem lippus, sordidissimis dentibus, catellam nigram
atque indecenter pingnem prasina involvebat fascia pa-
nemque semissem ponebat super torum atque hanc nausea
recusantem saginabat. quo admonitus officii Trimalchio 20

Scylacem iussit addnci praesidium domus familiaeque.'


nec mora, ingentis formae adductus est canis catena

vinctus, admonitusque ostiarii calce, ut cubaret, ante
mensam tum Trimalchio iactans candidum
se posuit.

panem ^nemo' inquit *in domo mea me phis amat.' 25

indignatus puer, quod Scylacem tam effuse laudaret, catel-

lam in terram deposuit hortatusque (est), ut ad rixam
properaret. Scylax, canino scilicet usus ingenio, taeter-
rimo latratu trichnium implevit Margaritamque Croesi
paene laceravit. nec intra rixam tumultus constitit, sed 30

candelabrum etiam super mensam eversum et vasa omnia

crystallina comminuit et oleo ferventi aliquot convivas

respersit.Trimalchio ne videretur iactura motus, basia-

vit puerum ac iussit super dorsum ascendere suum. non
moratus ille usus (est) equo manuque plena scapulas eius 35

subinde verberavit, interque risum proclamavit: ^bucca,

bucca, quot sunt hic?' repressus ergo
aliquamdiu Trimalchio camellam grandem iussit misceri
(et) potiones dividi omnibus servis, qui ad pedes sedebant,

^ '
40 adiecta exceptione : si quis inquit
noluerit accipere,

caput illi
perfunde. interdiu severa, nunc hilaria.'

Arrival of Habinnas, who has been dining out. Fortunata enters

to gossip with Scintilla, his wife. They compare jewelry.

65 Hanc humanitatem
insecutae sunt matteae, quarum
etiam recordatio me, si qua est dicenti fides, offendit.
singulae enim gallinae altiles pro turdis circumlatae sunt
et ova anserina pilleata, quae ut comessemus, ambitiosis-
6 sime nobis Trimalchio petiit dicens exossatas esse

gallinas. inter haec triclinii valvas lictor percussit,

amictusque veste alba cum ingenti frequentia comissator

intravit. ego maiestate conterritus praetorem putabam
venisse. itaque temptavi assurgere et nudos pedes in
10 terram deferre. risit hanc trepidationem Agamemnon
et '
contine te '
homo stultissime. Habinnas se-
vir est idemque lapidarius, qui videtur monumenta optime

Eecreatus hoc sermone reposui cubitum, Habinnamque

15 intrantem cum admiratione ingenti spectabam. ille autem
iam ebrius uxoris suae umeris imposuerat manus, onera-
tusque aliquot coronis et unguento per frontem in oculos
fluente praetorio loco se posuit continuoque vinum et

caldam poposcit. delectatus hac Trimalchio hilaritate

20 et ipse capaciorem poposcit scyphum quaesivitque, quo-
modo acceptus esset. omnia inquit habuimus praeter
^ ' ^

te; oculi enim mei hic erant. et mehercules bene fuit.

Scissa lautum novemdiale servo suo misello faciebat,

quem mortuum manu miserat. et puto, cum vicensima-

25 riis magnam mantissam habet ; quinquaginta enim milli-

bus aestimant mortimm. sed tamen suaviter fuit, etiam

si coacti sumus dimidias potiones super ossucula eius
effundere.' ^tamen' inquit Trimalchio ^quid habuistis 66
in cena ?
' '
dicam inquit si potuero nam tam bonae
' '

memoriae sum, ut frequenter nomen meum obliviscar.

habuimus tamen in primo porcum botulo coronatum et
circa saviuncuhim et gizeria optime facta et certe betam 5

et panem autopyrum de suo quem ego malo quam


candidum; et vires facit, et cum mea re [causa] facio,

non ploro. sequens 'ferculum fuit scriblita frigida et
super mel caldum infusum excellente Hispanum. itaque
de scriblita quidem non minimum edi, de melle me usque 10

tetigi. lupinum, calvae arbitratu et mala

circa cicer et

singula. ego tanien duo sustuli et ecce in mappa alHgata

habeo nam si aUquid muneris meo vernulae non tulero,

habebo convicium. bene me admonet domina mea. in

prospectu habuimus ursinae frustum, de quo cum im- 15

prudens Scintilla gustasset, paene intestina sua vomuit.

ego contra phis libram comedi, nam ipsum aprum sapie-
bat. et si, inquam, ursus homuncionem comest, quanto

magis homuncio debet ursum comesse ? in summo habui-

mus caseum mollem ex sapa et cocleas singulas et cordae 20

frusta et hepatia in catillis et ova pilleata et rapam et

senape et catillum concacatum, pax Palamedes. etiam

in alveo circumlata sunt oxycomina, unde quidam etiam
improbe ternos pugnos sustulerunt. nam pernae mis-
sionem dedimus. sed narra mihi, Gai, rogo, Fortunata 67
quare non recumbit ?
' '
quomodo nosti inquit illam
' ' '

Trimalchio, 'nisi argentum composuerit, nisi

pueris diviserit, aquam in os suum non coniciet.' ' '

5 respondit Habinnas
nisi illa discnmbit, ego me apoculo/
et coeperat surgere, nisi signo dato Fortunata quater am-
plius a tota familia esset vocata. venit ergo galbino suc-
cincta cingillo, ita ut infra cerasina appareret tunica et

periscelides tortae phaecasiaeque inauratae. tunc sudario

10 manus tergens, quod in collo liabebat, applicat se illi toro,
in quo Scintilla Habinnae discumbebat uxor, osculataque
^ ' ' '
plaudentem est te inquit videre ?

Eo deinde perventum est, ut Fortunata armillas suas

crassissimis detraberet lacertis Scintillaeque miranti
15 ostenderet. ultimo etiam periscelides resolvit et reticu-
lum aureum, quem ex obrussa esse dicebat. notavit
baec Trimalchio iussitque afferri omnia et ^videtis'

inquit 'mulieris compedes nos barcalae despolia-

: sic

mur. sex pondo et selibram debet habere. et ipse ni-

20 hilo minus habeo decem pondo armillam ex millesimis
Mercurii factam.' ultimo etiam, ne mentiri videretur,
stateram iussit afferri et circumlatum approbari pondus.
nec melior Scintilla,' quae de cervice sua capsellam de-
traxit aureolam, quam Felicionem appellabat. inde duo
25 crotalia protulit et Fortunatae in vicem consideranda
dedit et domini inquit mei beneficio nemo habet me-
^ ' '

^quid?' inquit Habinnas excatarissasti me, ut


tibi emerem fabam vitream. plane si filiam haberem,

auriculas illi praeciderem. mulieres si non essent, omnia
30 pro luto haberemus ;
nunc hoc est caldum meiere et

frigidum potare.'

Interim mulieres sociae inter se riserunt ebriaeque

iunxerunt oscula, dum altera diligentiam matris familiae

iactat, altera delicias et indiligentiam viri. dumque sic

cohaerent, Habinnas f urtim consurrexit pedesque Fortu- 35

natae correptos super lectum immisit. '
au au illa pro-
clamavit aberrante tunica super genua. composita ergo
in gremio Scintillae incensissimam rubore faciem sudario

Secundae mensae. Boisterous singing. Habinnas and his slave.

The din increases.

Interposito deinde spatio cum secundas mensas Tri- 68

malchio iussisset afferri, sustulerunt servi omnes mensas
et alias attulerunt, scobemque croco et minio tinctam
sparserunt et, quod nunquam ante videram, ex lapide
speculari pulverem tritum. statim Trimalchio poteram '

quidem' inquit 'hoc fericulo esse contentus; secundas

enim mensas habetis. (sed) si quid belli habes, affer.'
Interim puer Alexandrinus, qui caldam ministrabat,
luscinias coepit imitari clamante Trimalchione subinde
muta.' servus qui ad pedes Habinnae
ecce alius ludus. 10

sedebat, iussus, credo, a domino suo proclamavit subito

canora voce:
interea medium Aeneas iam classe tenebat.'
nullus sonus unquam acidior percussit aures meas nam ;

praeter errantis barbariae aut adiectum aut deminutum 15

clamorem miscebat Atellanicos versus, ut tunc primum

me etiam Vergilius offenderit. plausum tamen, cum
aliquando desisset, adiecit Habinnas et nunquam
^ '

didicit, sed ego ad circulatores eum mittendo
erudibam. itaque parem non habet, sive muliones volet 20
sive circulatores imitari. desperatum valde ingeniosus

est: idem sutor est, idem cocus, idem pistor, omnis

musae mancipium. duo tamen vitia habet, quae si non
haberet, esset omnium numerum : recutitus est et stertit.
nam quod strabonus est,non curo sicut Venus spectat.

69 ideo nihil tacet, vix oculo mortuo unquam. illum emi

trecentis denariis.'interpellavit loquentem Scintilla et
plane inquit non
omnia '
artificia servi nequam narras.

agaga est; at curabo stigmam habeat.' risit Trimalchio

' ' ^
5 et adcognosco inquit Cappadocem nihil sibi defraudit. :

et mehercules laudo illum hoc enim nemo parentat. tu


autem, Scintilla, noli zelotypa esse, crede mihi, et vos

novimus. sic me salvum habeatis, ut ego sic solebam

ipsumam meam debattuere, ut etiam dominus suspicare-

10 tur et ideo me in vilicationem relegavit. sed tace, lingua,

dabo panem.' tanquam laudatus esset nequissimus ser-

vus, lucernam de sinu fictilem protulit et amplius semihora
tubicines imitatus est succinente Habinna et inferius la-

brum manu deprimente. ultimo etiam in medium proces-

15 sit et modo harundinibus quassis choraulas imitatus est,

modo lacernatus cum flagello mulionum fata egit, donec

vocatum ad se Habinnas basiavit, potionemque illi por-
rexit et '
tanto melior ' inquit '
Massa, dono tibi caligas.'

The arrival of the epidipnis restores order ; a piece de resistance


prepared hy the cook Daedalus. Curious way of serving oysters.

Some disgusting economy. The hostess is inclined to dance, hut

slaves crowd into the room, and the noisome cook makes himself
too familiar.

Nec ullus tot malorum finis fuisset, nisi epidipnis esset

20 allata ;
turdi siliginei uvis passis nucibusque f arsi. inse-

cuta sunt Cydonia etiam mala spinis confixa, ut ecliinos

efficerent. et haec quidem tolerabilia erant, si non fericu-

lum longe monstrosius effecisset, ut vel fame perire mal-

lemus. nam cum positus esset, ut nos putabamus, anser
altiliscircaque pisces et omnia genera avium, ('amici') 25
inquit Trimalchio quicquid videtis hic positum, de uno

corpore est factum.' ego, scilicet homo prudentissimus,

statim intellexi quid esset, et respiciens Agamemnonem
^mirabor' inquam 'nisi omnia ista de (fimo) facta sunt
aut certe de luto. vidi Eomae Saturnalibus eiusmodi
cenarum imaginem fieri.' necdum
finieram sermonem, 70
cum Trimalchio ait crescam patrimonio, non cor-

pore, ut ista cocus meus de porco fecit. non potest esse

pretiosior homo. volueris, de vulva faciet piscem, de
lardo palumbum, de perna turturem, de colaepio gallinam 5

et ideo ingenio meo impositum est illi nomen bellissimum ;

nam Daedalus vocatur. et quia bonam mentem habet,

attuli illi Roma munus cultros Norico ferro.' quos sta-

tim iussit afferri inspectosque miratus est. et nobis

potestatem fecit, ut mucronem ad buccam probaremus. 10

Subito intraverunt duo servi, tanquam qui rixam ad

lacum fecissent ;
certe in collo adhuc amphoras habebant.
cum ergo Trimalchio ius inter litigantes diceret, neuter
sententiam tulit decernentis, sed alterius amphoram fuste
percussit. consternati nos insolentia ebriorum intentavi- 15

mus oculos in proeliantes notavimusque ostrea pectinesque

e gastris labentia, quae collecta puer lance circumtulit.

has lautitias aequavit ingeniosus cocus in craticula enim


argentea cochleas attulit et tremula taeterrimaque voce

cantavit. 20

Pudet referre quae secuntur inaudito enim more pueri


capillati attulerunt unguentum in argentea pelve pedesque

recumbentium unxerunt, cum ante crura talosque corollis
vinxissent. hinc ex eodem unguento in vinarium atque
25 lucernam aliquantum est infusum.
lam coeperat Fortunata velle saltare, iam Scintilla fre-
quentius plaudebat quam loquebatur, cum Trimalchio
^permitto' inquit ^Philargyre et Cario, etsi prasinianus
es famosus, dic et Menophilae, contubernali tuae, discum-
30 bat.' quid multa ? paene de lectis deiecti sumus, adeo
totum triclinium familia occupaverat. certe ego notavi
super me
positum cocum, qui de porco anserem f ecerat,
muria condimentisque fetentem. nec contentus fuit re-
cumbere, sed continuo Ephesum tragoedum coepit imitari
35 et subinde dominum suum sponsione provocare ^-si prasi-
nus proximis circensibus primam palmam.'

Reading of Trimalchio's will ; Tiis

funeral directions ; weeping.
A bath is proposed.

71 Diffusus hac contentione Trimalchio ^amici' inquit ^et

servi homines sunt et aeque unum lactem biberunt, etiam
si illos malus f atus oppressit. tamen me salvo cito aquam
liberam gustabunt. ad summam, omnes illos in testamento
5 meo manumitto. Philargyro etiam fundum lego et con-
tubernalem suam, Carioni quoque insulam et vicesimam
et lectum stratum. nam Fortunatam meam heredem
facio, et commendo illam omnibus amicis meis. et haec
ideo omnia iam nunc sic me amet
publico, ut familia niea
10 tanquam mortuum.' gratias agere omnes indulgentiae
coeperant domini, cum ille oblitus nugarum exemplar

testamenti iussit afferri et totum a primo ad ultimum

ingemescente familia recitavit. respiciens deinde Ha-
binnam quid '

amice carissime ? aedificas

monumentum meum, quemadmodum te.iussi? valde te 15

rogo, ut secundum pedes statuae meae catellam ponas et

coronas et unguenta et Petraitis omnes pugnas, ut mihi

contingat tuo beneficio post mortem vivere praeterea ;

ut sint in fronte pedes centum, in agrum pedes ducenti.

omne genus enim poma volo sint circa cineres meos, et 20

vinearum largiter. valde enim falsum est vivo quidem

domos cultas esse, non curari eas, ubi diutius nobis habi-
tandum est. et ideo ante omnia adici volo : hoc monvmen-
TVM HEREDEM NON SEQViTVR. ceterum crit mihi curae,
ut testamento caveam, ne mortuus iniuriam accipiam. 25

praeponam enim unum ex libertis sepulcro meo custodiae

causa, ne in monumentum meum populus cacatum currat.

te rogo, ut naves etiam (in lateribus) monumenti mei
facias plenis velis euntes, et me in tribunali sedentem

praetextatum cum anulis aureis quinque et nummos in 30

publico de sacculo effundentem scis enim, quod epulum


dedi binos denarios. faciantur, si tibi videtur, et triclinia.

totum populum sibi suaviter f acientem. ad dex-
f acias et

teram meam ponas statuam Fortunatae meae columbam

tenentem: et catellam cingulo alligatam ducat: et cica- 35
ronem meum, et amphoras copiosas gypsatas, ne effiuant
vinum. et urnam licet fractam sculpas, et
super eam
puerum plorantem. horologium in medio, ut quisquis
horas inspiciet, velit nolit, nomen meum legat.
quoque vide diligenter si haec satis idonea tibi vide- 40
tur: C. POMPEIVS trimalchio maecenatianvs hic re-


vale: ET TV.'

72 Haec ut dixit Trimalchio, flere coepit ubertim. flebat

et Fortunata, flebat et Habinnas, tota denique familia,
tanquam in funus rogata, lamentatione triclinium imple-
vit. immo iam coeperam etiam ego plorare, cum Tri-
ergo inquit cum sciamus nos morituros esse,
5 malchio ^ '

quare non vivamus? sic vos felices videam, coniciamus

nos in balneum, meo periculo, non paenitebit. sic calet

vero, vero inquit Habinnas de una

^ ^
tanquam f nrnus.'
malo nudisque consurrexit pedibus
die duas f acere, nihil

10 et Trimalchionem plaudentem subsequi (coepit). -

Encolpius tries to escape, but is /orced to return and join tJie

at the bath.

Ego respiciens ad Ascylton quid cogitas ? inquam ego
' '

enim si videro balneum, statim expirabo.' * assectemur '

ait ille
et dum illi balneum petunt, nos in turba exeamus.'

cum haec placuissent, ducente per porticum Gitone ad

15 ianuam venimus, ubi canis catenarius tanto nos tumultu
excepit, ut Ascyltos etiam in piscinam ceciderit. nec
non ego quoque ebrius, qui etiam pictum timueram
canem, dum natanti opem fero, in eundem gurgitem
tractus sum. servavit nos tamen atriensis, qui inter-
20 ventu suo et canem placavit et nos trementes extraxit in
siccum. et Giton quidem iam dudum se ratione acutis-
sima redemerat a cane j quicquid enim a nobis acceperat

de cena, latranti sparserat ita ille avocatus cibo f urorera


suppresserat. ceterum cum algentes udique petissemus

ab atriense, ut nos extra ianuam emitteret, erras inquit '

si hac posse, qua venisti. nemo unquam
putas te exire
convivarum per eandem ianuam emissus est alia intrant, ;

alia exeunt.' quid faciamus homines miserrimi et novi 73

generis labyrintho inclusi, quibus lavari iam coeperat
votum esse? ultro ergo rogavimus, ut nos ad balneum
duceret, proiectisque vestimentis, quae Giton in aditu
siccare coepit, balneum intravimus, angustum scilicet et 5

cisternae frigidariae simile, in quo Trimalchio rectus

stabat. ac ne sic quidem putidissimam eius iactationem
licuit effugere ;
nam nihil melius esse dicebat, quam sine
turba lavari, et eo ipso loco aliquando pistrinum fuisse.
deinde ut lassatus consedit, invitatus balnei sono diduxit 10
usque ad cameram os ebrium et coepit Menecratis cantica
lacerare, sicut illi dicebant, qui linguam eius intellege-
bant. ceteri convivae circa labrum manibus nexis cur-
rebant et gingilipho ingenti clamore sonabant. alii autem

[aut] restrictis manibus anulos de pavimento conabantur 15

tollere aut posito genu cervices post terga flectere et pe-

dum extremos pollices tangere. nos, dum alii sibi ludos
faciunt, in solium, quod Trimalchioni temperabatur, de-

The crowing of a cock creates terror. Domestic unpleasantness

hetween host and hostess.

Ergo ebrietate discussa in aliud triclinium deducti 20

sumus, ubi Fortunata disposuerat lautitias [suas] ita ut
supra lucernas aeneolosque piscatores notaverim et

mensas totas argenteas calicesque circa fictiles inauratos

et vinum in conspectu sacco defluens. tum Trimalchio
26 ^amici' inquit 'hodie servus meus barbatoriam fecit,
homo praefiscini frugi et micarius. itaque tengomenas
74 faciamus et usque in lucem cenemus.' haec dicente eo
qua voce confusus Trimal-
gallus gallinaceus cantavit.
chiovinum sub mensa iussit effundi lucernamque etiam
mero spargi. immo anulum traiecit in dexteram manum
6 et 'non sine causa' inquit ^hic bucinus signum dedit;
nam aut incendium oportet fiat, aut aliquis in vicinia
animam longe a nobis. itaque quisquis hunc

indicem attulerit, corollarium accipiet.^ dicto citius de

vicinia gallus allatus est, quem Trimalchio (occidi) ius-
10 sit, ut aeno coctus fieret. laceratus igitur ab illo doc-
tissimo coco, qui paulo ante de porco aves piscesque

fecerat, in caccabum est coniectus. dumque Daedalus

potionem ferventissimam haurit, Fortunata mola buxea
piper trivit.

15 Sumptis igitur matteis respiciens ad familiam Trimal-

quid, vos inquit adhuc non cenastis ?
^ ' ^
chio abite, ut
alii veniant ad officium.' subiit igitur alia classis, et illi

quidem exclamavere
vale Gai

hi autem ^
ave Gai.'
hinc primum hilaritas nostra turbata est ;
nam cum puer
20 non inspeciosus inter novos intrasset ministros, invasit
eum Trimalchio et osculari diutius coepit. itaque For-
tunata, ut ex aequo ius firmum approbaret, male dicere
Trimalchioni coepit et purgamentum dedecusque praedi-
care, qui non contineret libidinem suam. ultimo etiam
25 adiecit ^
canis.' Trimalchio contra offensus convicio
calicem in faciem Eortunatae immisit. illa tanquam

oculum perdidisset, exclamavit manusque trementes ad

faciem suam admovit. consternata est etiam Scintilla

trepidantemque sinu suo texit. immo puer quoque offi-

ciosus urceolum frigidum ad malam eius admovit, super 30

quem incumbens Fortunata gemere ac flere coepit. con-

tra Trimalchio ^
quid enim ? '
ambubaia non
meminit, sed de machina illam sustuli, hominem inter
homines feci. tanquam rana, et in sinum
at inflat se
suum non spuit, codex, non mulier. sed hic, qui in per- 35

gula natus est, aedes non somniatur. ita genium meum

propitium habeam, curabo, domata sit Cassandra cali-

garia. et ego, homo dipundiarius, sestertium centies
accipere potui. scis tu me non mentiri. Agatho, un-
guentarius herae proximae, seduxit me et "suadeo" 40
inquit non patiaris genus tuum interire." at ego dum
bonatus ago et nolo videri levis, ipse mihi asciam in
crus impegi. recte, curabo, me unguibus quaeras. et ut

depraesentiarum intelligas, quid Habinna, tibi feceris :

nolo,statuam eius in monumento meo ponas, ne moriflms 45

quidem lites habeam. immo, ut sciat me posse malum

dare, nolo me mortuum basiet.'

Trimalchio reviews Tiis

past career and successful money ventures;
he contemplates that in the end he must die ; he calls for his

funeral robes.

Post hoc fulmen Habinnas rogare coepit, ut iam desi- 75

nemo inquit nostrum non peccat. homi-
neret irasci et ' ' '

nes sumus non dei.^ idem et Scintilla flens dixit ac per

genium eius, Gaium appellando, rogare coepit, ut se

frangeret. non tenuit ultra lacrimas Trimalchio et 5

peculium tuum
* ' ^
rogo inquit Habinna, sic fruniscaris :

si quid perperam feci, in faciem meam inspue. puerum

basiavi frugalissimum, non propter formam, sed quia
frugi est: decem partes dicit, librum ab oculo legit,
10 thraecium sibi de diariis fecit, arcbisellium de suo para-
vit et duas truUas. non est dignus quem in oculis
feram ? sed Fortunata vetat. ita tibi videtur, f ulci-
pedia? suadeo, concoquas, milva, et me
bonum tuum
non facias ringentem, amasiuncula; alioquin experieris
15 cerebrum meum. nosti me quod semel destinavi, clavo :

tabulari fixum est. sed vivorum meminerimus. vos

rogo, amici, ut vobis suaviter sit. nam ego quoque tam
fui quam vos estis, sed virtute mea ad hoc perveni. cor-
cillum est quod homines facit, cetera quisquilia omnia.
" bene "
20 emo, bene vendo alius alia vobis dicet.- f elici-

tate dissilio. tu autem, sterteia, etiamnum ploras ? iam

curabo fatum tuum plores. sed, ut coeperam dicere, ad
hanc me fortunam frugalitas mea perduxit. tam magnus
ex Asia veni, quam hic candelabrus est. ad summam,
25 quotidie me solebam ad illum metiri, et ut celerius
rostrum barbatum haberem, labra de lucerna ungebam.
tamen ad delicias [femina] ipsimi [domini] annos quat-
tuordecim fui. nec turpe est, quod dominus iubet. ego
tamen et ipsimae [dominae] satis faciebam. scitis, quid
76 dicam :
taceo, quia non sum de gloriosis. ceterum, quem-
admodum di volunt, dominus in domo factus sum, et ecce

cepi ipsimi cerebellum. quid multa ? coheredem me

Caesari fecit, et accepi patrimonium laticlavium. nemini
5 tamen nihil satis est.
concupivi negotiari. ne multis
vos morer, quinque naves aedificavi, oneravi vinum et —

tunc erat contra aurum — inisi Eomam. putares me hoc

iussisse : omnes naves nauf ragarunt ;
f actum, non f abula.
uno die Neptunus trecenties sestertium devoravit. puta-
tis me defecisse ? non mehercules mi haec iactura gusti lo*

fuit, tanquam nihil facti. alteras feci maiores et melio-

res et feliciores, ut nemo non me virum fortem diceret.

scitis, magna navis magnam f ortitudinem habet. oneravi

rursus vinum, lardum, fabam, seplasium, mancipia. hoc
loco Fortunata rem piam fecit ;
omne enim aurum suum, 16

omnia vestimenta vendidit et mi centum aureos in manu

posuit. hoc fuit peculii mei fermentum. cito fit, quod

di volunt. uno cursu centies sestertium corrotundavi.

statim redemi fundos omnes, qui patroni mei fuerant.
aedifico domum, venalicia coemo iumenta quicquid tan- ;

gebam, crescebat tanquam favus. postquam coepi plus

habere, quam tota patria mea habet, manum de tabula :

sustuli me de negotiatione et coepi libertos faenerare.

et sane nolentem me negotium meum
agere exhortavit
mathematicus, qui venerat forte in coloniam nostram, 25

Graeculio, Serapa nomine, consiliator deorum. hic mihi

dixit etiam ea, quae oblitus eram ; ab acia et acu mi
omnia exposuit; intestinas meas noverat, tantum quod
mihi non dixerat, quid pridie cenaveram. putasses illum
semper mecum habitasse. rogo, Habinna puto, inter- 77

fuisti —
"tu dominam tuam de rebus illis fecisti. tu

parum felix in amicos es. nemo unquam tibi parem gra-

tiam tu latifundia possides.
refert. tu viperam sub
ala nutricas" et, quod vobis non dixerim, et nunc mi 5

restare vitae annos triginta et menses quattuor et dies

duos. praeterea cito accipiam hereditatem. hoc mihi


dicit fatus meus. quod si contigerit fundos Apuliae

iungere, satis vivus pervenero, interim dum Mercurius
10 vigilat, aedificavi hanc domum. ut scitis, casula erat;
nunc templum est. habet quattuor cenationes, cubicula
viginti, porticus marmoratos duos, susum cenationem,
cubiculum in quo ipse dormio, viperae huius sessorium,
ostiarii cellam perbonam; hospitium hospites capit. ad
15 summam, Scaurus cum huc venit, nusquam mavoluit hos-

pitari, ethabet ad mare paternum hospitium. et multa

alia sunt, quae statim vobis ostendam. credite mihi:
assem habeas, assem valeas habes, habeberis. sic ami-

cus vester, qui fuit rana, nunc est rex. interim, Stiche,
20 profer vitalia, in quibus volo me efferri. profer et
unguentum et ex illa amphora gustum, ex qua iubeo
lavari ossa mea.'

The mock funeral ends in an invasion hy the jire department.

Encolpius and his friends flee ; thus the description of the
Banquet comes to an end.

78 Non est moratus Stichus, sed et stragulam albam et

praetextam in triclinium attulit
iussitque nos temptare, an bonis lanis essent confecta.
tum subridens vide tu inquit Stiche, ne ista mures
^ ' ^

5 tangant aut tineae alioquin te vivum comburam, ego


gloriosus volo efferri, ut totus mihi populus bene impre-

cetur.' statim ampullam nardi aperuit omnesque nos

spero inquit f uturum ut aeque me mortuum

' '
unxit et ^

iuvet tanquam vivum.' nam vinum quidem in vinarium

10 iussit infundi et ^putate vos' ait 'ad parentalia mea invi-

tatos esse.'

Ibat res adsumniam nauseam, cum Trimalchio ebrie-

tate turpissima gravis novum acroama, cornicines, in
triclinium iussit adduci, fultusque cervicalibus multis
extendit se super torum extremum et '
fingite me '

inquit 15
mortuum esse. dicite aliquid belli.' consonuere corni-
cines funebri strepitu. unus praecipue servus libitinarii

illius, qui inter hos honestissimus erat, tam valde into-

nuit, ut totam concitaret viciniam. itaque vigiles, qui

custodiebant vicinam regionem, rati ardere Trimalchionis 20

domum, effregerunt ianuam subito et cum aqua securi-

busque tumultuari suo iure coeperunt. nos occasionem

opportunissimam nacti Agamemnoni verba dedimus rap-
timque tam plane quam ex incendio fugimus.

Most of the abbreviations used in tlie Notes will be

understood by referring to pages xliv-xlvi of the Intro-

duction. The f oUowing may need explanation :

C. G. L.= Corpus Glossariorum Latinorum.
C.I.L = Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum.
Archiv = Archiv ftir Lateinische Lexicographie.

Friedl. Sitteng. is explained under B in the Introduction, p. xliv.

Baumeister = Baumeister's Denkmaler der Klassischen Altertums-

26. Venerat iam tertius dies the Trau inanuscript alone

contains the opening lines of the Cena ; it plunges at once

in medias res. Possibly we have here the opening of the
fifteenth book of the original; hence the abruptness. Cf.
Introd. p. xviii. If we had the concluding portion of the pre-

ceding book, the aUusions in tertius dies, tot vulneribus, prae-

sentem procellam, might be clear. —
liberae cenae commonly :

the dinner served to gladiators on the day before their con-

tests in the arena (Friedl. Sitteng. ii. p. 385) here simply Tri-;

malchio's 'free spread,' to which the rhetorician Agamemnon has

been asked, with his pupils, Ascyltus and Encolpius. They sit
near one another; cf. 49, 16, inclinatus ad aurem Agamemnonis;
65, 10, risit Tianc trepidationem ; 72, 11, ego respiciens ad Ascylton.

— id est expectatio liberae cenae these words are out of


place. Possibly the fif teenth book was headed, Expectatio Libe-

rae Cenae,' and the title has been incorporated into the text

by the epitomator by means of id est. quonam genere = —

quo modo : so in the younger Seneca, whose Latinity at times
strikingly resembles that of Petronius ; cf De Beneficiis, ii. 10,
2, sed, si quo genere accipienti maxime profuturum erit, dabis, con-
tentus eris te teste ; so in the plural, Epist. Mor. 95, 29, armare se

coepit multis generibus.

— unus servus but in 78,
a slave

17, unus praecipue servus, *one slave in particular.' As early as

Plautus, unus was used in the sense of an emphatic any,' ein '

beliebiger, eh ris; cf Wagner, Plaut. Aulul. 563, note ;

Andria, 118; so Cic. Ad Att. ix. 10, 2, me haec res torquet quod
Pompeium tamquam unus manipulus secutus sim; cf De Orat. i.
58 NOTES. CHAP. 26, LINES 5-11.

29, 132, with Wilkins's note also Catullus, 22, 10, unus capri-

mulgus, an absolute bumpkin.' In these passages unus

= qui-
vis, quilibet unus, an emphatic any.' vos nescitis the ' — :

pronoun seems redundant ego and tu are often so used in


Petr. Introd. p. xxxvi cf. Landgraf Cic. Pro Sex. Rosc. p. 131.
; ; ,

— apud quem fiat :

where the cooking*s to be.* — Trimalchio
lautissimus homo :
translated, in the Glossarium
Malchio is

unpleasa nt
Philoxeni (Corp. Gloss. Lat. 11. 126, 27), by ar) ;
thus Trimalchio = toU avSri^ . The glossTs supported by Mar-
tial, iii. 82, 32, hos malchionis patimur improbi fastus. Malchio
also occurs as a cognomen in inscriptions from Cumae, Rome,
Verona; Nettleship, Contributions to Lat. Lex. p. 552. On the
f orce of the prefix tri-, cf. trifur, trifurcifer, triparcus, trivenefca ;

so in Greek, TpLKVfxta, 'a huge wave,' Tpi6p)(r)<s, TpnrdXai, Tpt-

7raA.Tos. — bucinatorem subornatum :
possibly he blew his
trumpet every hour. We read of such bucinatores in Juv. 10, 216,
quot nuntiet horas ; Mart.
horas quinque puernondum
viii. 67, 1,

tibi nuntiat. — quantum de vita

'how the time has flown'; :

Trim. was not lugubrious, but strenuous and methodical. —

usque hoc : for huc usque, a strong adhuc; hoc is the old and

popular form of huc. In his letters, Cic. adheres to the form

huc, while hoc occurs in those of his friends.
— in balnea sequi :

possibly some of the original description by Petr. has been

omitted after these words. Encolpius and his friends had
dressed, not for the banquet, but in order to go out. Having
the usual preliminary bath in mind, they request Giton to
attend as pedisequus; but arriving at the baths, they are lost
in the crowds or find themselves ahead of time (which facts
are omitted in this abbreviated account), and they proceed to
killtime (interim) by stroUing about, joking, and watching the
games which are going on. Whether the account has been
abbreviated after errare coepimus depends upon how much was
probably omitted after balnea sequi. The sport described in
this chapter takes place in the large room called the sphaeri-
sterium. Cf. Marquardt, Privatleben der Romer, p. 281.
NOTES. CHAP. 27, LINES 1-15. 59

27. errare coepimus c/. Introd. p. xl. pueros capilatos

— :

members of the grex capillatus ; cf. Mart. ii. 57, 5. They were
youths whose services were light and required grace cf. 70, 21. ;

They were selected for their beauty, their long hair being an

important element. A
conlibertus of Trimalchio says of him-

self, 57, 33, puer capillatus in Jianc coloniam veni. Another in

anger calls the boy attendant of Encolpius, 58, 4, caepa cirrata,
you frizzled onion,' and threatens iam curabo longe tihi sit

comula ista besalis,

I'll see to it that those little curls do you
small good.' —
notavimus Introd. p. xl. So Mart. ii. 71, 1, :

Candidius nihil est te, Caeciliane ; notavi , cf the phrase nota

hene. —
matellam argenteam an example of Trim.'s lau- :

titia,with which cf his private horologium and bucinator,

just mentioned. Social conditions in Nero's time had many
modern features, particularly in the rise of the parvenu and
the ostentation of the nouveau riche. Ordinarily the matella
was made of bronze or clay ;
Mart. alludes to a very elaborate
one in Epigram. xi. 11, 6, Te potare decet gemma, qui Mentora
frangis in
scaphium moechae, Sardanapalle, tuae.
alter nu- —
merabat pilas Trim. plays the game like any rich man, con-

tenting himself with simply sending the balls for others to

catch on the bound commonly the successful catches were

counted, but here the failures were scored and the dead
balls were left to lie where they fell. Cf Marq. Privatl.
p. 841 if .

Menelaus mentioned only here in the Cena ; he

is an instructor who assists Agamemnon. — cubitum pone-

' '
tis : dine ; cf reclinatus iji cubitum, 39, 4 ; reposui cubitum,
65, 14. Many ancient monuments show the Roman resting
his left arm upon a pulvinus while reclining at dinner. Cf
Marq. Privatl. p. 303. —
principium cenae Friedlander sug- :

gests that Trim. probably partook of a light lunch here,

and that this explains why he appeared at table after the
eating had begun. That lunches were sold at the baths is
shown by Mart. xii. 19, In thermis sumit lactucas ova lacertum
Aemilius; Sen. Ep. 56, 2, complains of the cries of the cake
and sausage venders. Exercise was, however, a practically
60 NOTES. CHAP. 28, LINES 1-20.

part of the dinner; cf. Hor. Sat. i. 5, where Maecenas and

his friends play ball before dining.

28. Longum erat singula excipere :

it would be a long
task (but I do not) ; cf. Gildersleeve-Lodge, 254, 2. Singula
refers to their presentation to Trim., and the exchange of greet-

ings scarcely to such excitement in and about the baths as Sen.


describes, Ep. 56. 2. calfacti momento frigidam exi- . . .

mus : on calfacti, cf Introd. p. xxxiii, B, 1. The suddenness of the

change from hot to cold is mentioned on account of its unusual-
ness there seems to have been no tepidarium. Cf the account

of the Stabian Baths, Mau-Kelsey, Pompeii, p. 184. iatra- —

liptae not unlike the masseurs of modern sanatoriums. The

word occurs in some superscriptions to Horace, Odes, ii. 4 ;

this is its first appearance in the literature. Friedl. Sitteng.
ii. p. 487.
— hoc suum propinasse : Trim. protests that this
ishis precious Falernian that they had spilled ; they were not
to make so free with what belonged to him. With all his

wealth, Trim. can be close cf 34, init. cursoribus phale-


ratis note the evidences here of the hosfs lautitia : in using

liveried runners he imitates Nero, of whom Suet. says {Nero,

c.30) that he travelled armillata falerataque Mazacum turha atque
cursorum. —
chiramaxio on Greek words in Petr., cf Introd.

p. xxxiv, and Index, Greeh Words. symphoniacus cum — . . .

tibiis there is much music during the dinner cf 31, 11 so 32,


; ;

1; 33, 12; cf Index, under Symphonia. libellus erat cum in-

scriptione : Trim.'s establishment was so large that system was
necessary. The Roman house was a machine in which all the
powers of body and mind possessed by the slaves and freedmen
were for the use of the master Friedl. Sitteng. iii. 137, SHaven-

luxus. —
pica varia salutabat magpies, jays, and parrots were

pet birds the Romans were fond of their chattering cf Mart.

; ;

xiv. 76, Pica loquax certa dominum te voce saluto ; vii. 87, 6, Pica
salutatrix si tibi, Lause, placet. Crows and parrots were taught
to say, " have" or have, Caesar ; Mart. iii. 95, 1 ;
xiv. 73. On
NOTES. CHAP. 29, LINES 1-7. 61

talking parrots and magpies,

cf. Jahn, Persius,
Prol. 8. In iii. 60,
Mart. complains that, when he dines out, he gets no fat bird
when the game is served ponitur in cavea mortua pica mihi.

The pica is varia on account of its long spotted tail ;

Plin. N.H.
X. 29, 41.

29. Ceterum = sed. It is so used by Petr. when he departs

from the general thread to less important but humorous par-
ticulars, especially where there is a change of persons, as 52, 18 ;

57, 1. Conversely, it may be used where, after a digression, he re-

turns to the original thread of the story. —
dum omnia stupeo :

Petr. uses dum throughout with either the pres. or impf. ind.,
and with a temporal or causal sense. Stupeo is trans., as in Val.
Flacc. i. 149 so often in verse so again in Petr. 137, haec me
— cave canem
; ;

stupente; in 58, 30, it is intr. : see Mau-Kelsey,

p. 309, on the famous canis catenarius in mosaics found in the

floor of the House of the Tragic Poet at Pompeii here the dog ;

is painted on the wall ad sinistram intrantibus. The letters in

which the warning was painted are quadratae, or hewn letters,' '

i.e., letters used in inscriptions on saxa quadrata ; these of course

would be capitals. In 72, 15, the ostiarius has a real dog, canis
catenarius (ingentis formae catena vinctus, 64, 22) totum pa- .

rietem persequi Encolpius is now in the large porticus (c/.

1. 11, in
defciente vero iam poiiicu). In houses of men of ordi-
nary wealth the vestibule, or fauces, opened into the atrium ;

see, e.g., Mau-Kelsey, pp. 308, 316. Trim. has by no means a

small establishment. This porticus is not only large enough to
give full scope for his amour-propre in its extensive mural paint-
ings, but makes a training ground for a grex cursorum ; 29, 15. —
venalicium cum titulis the first of a series of pictures illus-

trating the Rise of Trimalchio here he stands for sale in a


slave market, a little long-haired fellow, of whom the f ull-grown

man says, 76, 23, tam magnus ex Asia veni quam hic candelahrus
est. He carries the emblem of the patron god of the business
62 NOTES. CHAP. 29, LINES &-17.

man, since, thanks to Minerva who had given him wit, he had
coined money and won his freedom.
The Tituli are the
-names appended to the different figures in the pictures, as on
Greek vases c/. Roscher, Mythol. Lex. i. p. 1174, or the illus-

trations in Miss Harrison's Myths of the Odyssey. denique —

dispensator the epitomator gives the first few and the last of

the pictures on the side panels, i.e., on the wall parallel with the
street. These represented Trim. the slave, the office of dispen-
sator being the highest to which he could rise. To the f ar right
or left of the company as they entered, i.e., on the wall at right

angles with the street, are scenes from the life of Trim. the
freedman. — in tribunal excelsum : this was his proudest
moment ;
his wealth had given him a civil office. The scene
is to be engraved on his tomb
71, 29. It is a shrewd
; cf.

symbolism, which ascribes the elevation of his chin to Mer-

cury's hand placed beneath it; in 43, 12, one of the guests says of
another freedman, et quod illius mentum sustulit, hereditatem acce-

pit. The action in the picture is expressed by both the verb

and its tense. —
Fortuna often seen with horn of plenty on

coins; cf Roscher, i. 1504 ff. ;

Friedl. Sitteng. iii. 224. — aurea
pensa torquentes Seneca, Apocolocyntosis, 4, 3-7, describes

the Fates similarly deciding the career of Nero :

at Lachesis ...
candida de niveo subtemina vellere sumit

felicimoderanda manu, quae ducta colorem

assumpsere novum. mirantur pensa sorores :
mutatur vilis pretioso lana metallo,
aurea formoso descendunt saecula filo.
nec modus est illis, felicia vellera ducunt
et gaudent implere manus, sunt dulcia pensa.
— erant Lares argentei cf Mau-Kelsey, Pompeii, pp. 262-

266. In 60, 28, the names of three are given with them ;

was a vera imago ipsius Trimalchionis ; it was his genius. The

Veneris signum stood among them, either for its beauty, or
because the goddess had first opened the road to wealth for
NOTES. CHAP. 29, LINE 18; CHAP. 30, LINE 8. 63

Trim. 75, 28.

; cf.

barbam ipsius conditam esse the first :

shaving of the beard, depositio barbae, had for the Romans even
more interest than for moderns the first clipping of a baby's
curls. Trim. proposes, in 73, 25, tangomenas facere, in honor
of the barbatoria of one of his slaves. Cf Juv. Sat. 3, 186.
Trim. may have dedicated his beard to Yenus. According to
Dio Cass., his beard to Jupiter,
Nero dedicated and celebrated
the event with a festival. Cf Suet. Nero, 12. — interrogare
ergo atriensem: they have passed from the porticus to the
atrium the description has been condensed by the epitomator,

as indicated by ergo ; so in 31, 8. Iliada Homeric scenes — :

were favorite subjects for mural painting; cf Miss Harrison,

Myths of the Odyssey ; Mau-Kelsey, pp. 468-474.

30. procurator wealthy Romans had a slave of this high


ofiice toserve as general factotum or entrepreneur when their

possessions or business got beyond their personal control. This

officermight have whole greges of slaves subject to his author-
ity he was the superior of the dispensator, see 1. 8.
fasces —
erant cum securibus as sevir Augustalis, Trim. was entitled

to the fasces, but not to the secures, which were an unwarranted

decoration added by the artist. The bottom of the fasces termi-
nates in a point which rests upon the beak of a ship. Inscrip-
tion No. 5035 in C.I.L. has fasces on either side infra acuminati
as here. Bucheler holds that the embolum formed part of the
cornice of the door and that the two bundles of fasces drooped
from it for imam partem he reads unam partem, i.e., the upper

— Seviro Augustali: the seviri Augustales constituted a
prominent society in the towns of Italy. They were wealthy
men, not noble nor freeborn, but usually engaged in one of the
less reputable professions or trades. In return for the honors
given them at public functions, they made large gifts of money
to their fellow-townsmen. They represented and maintained
the observance of the worship of the emperor. They had a
middle positiou between the nobility and the small people, and
64 NOTES. CHAP. 30, LINE 9; CHAP. 31, LINE 1.

were highly pleased when one of the former gave a friendly

acknowledgment to their salutations, or spoke to them by
name as one of us. Marq. Stadtsverfass. i. 197 ff. lucerna —
bilychnis cf Maii-Kelsey, p. 365.
: III et pridie kalendas — :

these two functions had already taken place, since the question
is asked, 58, 5, rogo mensis december est ? The Cena must have
been given in early January, while the days were cold and
short; cf 41, 24, dum versas te, noxfit et mundumfrigus habui-. . .

mus. —C. noster f oras cenat f reedmen loved to be addressed


by their first names cf Hor. Sat. ii. 5, 32, gaudent praenomine


molles auriculae. In 50, 1, we have Gaio feliciter ; 67, 1, Gai,

rogo, Fortunata quare non recumbit ; cf 70, 18; 75, 4. foras
iovforis; cf Introd. p. xxxviii; lit. 'dines forth to-day.' — His
voluptatibus these have been omitted by the epitomator.

dextro pede frequently in the sense oifeliciter; c/Juv. 10,

quid tam dextro pede concipis, ut te

conatus non paeniteat votique peracti ?

and Friedlander's note on the line. Here it is used literally ;

Trim. has his superstitions; note his belief in astrology just

hinted at. Cf his alarm at the crowing of the cock, 74, 1. —
ceterum ut pariter cf ceterum ego, 29, 1 the added thought

ishumorous, parenthetic, and of minor importance. despoli- —

atus: 'stripped'; cf 49, 11. subducta —
in balneo steal- . . . :

ing clothes at the baths was common in Athens as well as in

Rome ; cf Plaut. Rudens, 384 ; CatuUus, 33, 1, o furum optime
balneariorum, and Ellis's note. The punishment f or such thefts
was severe, Title 47, 17 of the Digesta treats particularly de

furibus balneariis ; cf Marq. Privatl. p. 281.

31. quid ergo est? 'Well! what of it?' Petr. has this

phrase five times it ;

iscommon in the philosophic writings of
the younger Seneca. — tam grandi = tanto ; so 86, tam grande
munus ; 92, pondus tam grande; 108, tam grande facinus. Al-
though grandis (not magnus) has left its descendants in the
NOTES. CHAP. 31, LINES 3-8. 65

romance languages, tam magnus is the commoner plebeian sub-

stitute for tantus as late as the time of Petr. — stupentibus :

to our consternation.' — ad summam :
cf. Introd. p. xl, E, 5 ;

this phrase is frequent in Seneca ; cf. De Otio, 5, 13, ad summam

quaero an ex praeceptis suis vixerint Cleanthes . . . Zenon ; so Cic.
De Off. i. 149, ad summam
ne agam de singulis ; Hor. Epis. i. cf.

1, 106 so Juv. 3, 79, in summa non Maurus erat neque Sarmata


Thrax; cf Hand, Tursellinus, p. 130. vinum domini-—

cum : Juv. describes in Sat. 5, 24 ff. how different wines are set

before their guests by rich patrons ; cf Friedl. Sitteng. i. 386 ff.

Martial, quoted by Burmann, tells how the rich patron

iv. 85,

sometimes used cups of alabaster so that the difference of

quality in the wines might not be detected :

Nos bibimus vitro, tu murra, Pontice. Quare ?

Prodat perspicuus ne duo vina calix.

When it was said to Pliny {Epp. ii. 6) that he must find his

custom expensive of having but one quality on his table, he

replied that it was not, for his wine was all cheap. Friedl. has
noted the senarius vinum dominicum ministratdris grdtia est.

— Tandem ergo discubuimus : the first two words are those

of the epitomator, who thus resumes after omitting a part of the

original; so in 52, 13 he uses tandem alone in 53, 23 ergo alone

; ;

61, 1 64, 37 29, 20 igitur, 74, 15. Discubuimus is used of one

; ; ;

person in 57, 4 67, 5 70, 29, for accumbere or recumbere; so Juv.

; ;

5, 12 and 6, 434. That the company is a large one is seen from

the number who take part in the conversation :
Agamemnon, Ascyltus, Encolpius, Diogenes, Hermeros, Mceros,
Phileros, Plocamus, I. Proculus, Echion,
Ganymedes, Seleucus,
Dama ;
the couches must have been large enough also to accom-
modate five or more apiece, since Habinnas and his wife come
in later and recline with them. The triclinium was, therefore,
an unusually large one. There are also numerous slaves pass-
ing continually, and several scenes take place which require
room. Such crowding was once considered undignified In (Cic.
bb NOTES. CHAP. 31, LINES 8-20.

Pis. 27, 67) ;

for four on one couch, cf. Hor. Sat. i. 3. Cf.
Mau-Kelsey, pp. 256-260, on the Pompeian dining-rooms Tri- ;

malchio's must have been larger than even the largest

(25 X 33 ft.) mentioned on p. 259.

pueris Alexandrinis in :

34, 9, are duo Aethiopes ; in 35, 14, an Aegyptius puer ; in 68,

8, a puer Alexandrinus. The most honored slaves were not only
those associated with the master in his business, or literary and
leisure hours, but also, toward the end of the Republic, his
musicians and pantomimes, and particularly pueri Alexandrini
who were much sought on account of their loquacity ; cf Sta-
tius, Silv. y. 5, 66.

Non ego mercatus Pharia de puppe loquaces

delicias, doctumve sui convicia Nili
infantem, lingua nimium salibusque protervum

Marq. Privatl. p. 151. — aquam

nivatam ex nivibus facta = :

nivea aqua, Mart. xii. 17, Corp. Gloss. Lat. VI., p. 740.
6. Cf —
pantomimi chorum one would think he was in the green-

room of a theatre instead of in the dining-room of,' etc. Origi-

nally pantomime was the rhythmic performance of a notable
scene f rom some play but as it rose to the dignity of artistic

dancing, song naturally accompanied it. Pylades, 22 b.c, added

an orchestra, consisting of the syrinx, cymbals, zither, lyre,
and, for marking time, the scabellum Friedl. Sitteng. ii. 453. ;

— locus .
primus servabatur the conventional place for
. . :

the host the summus in imo ; here Trim. takes the summus

in summo; cf Marq. Privatl. p. 304; Mau-Kelsey, p. 257. in —

promulsidari upon this:the gustatio (sometimes called gustus,
or promulsis when served with wine and honey) was brought in,

forming a course preliminary to the dinner proper. Soft eggs

usually formed part of it hence Horace's ab ovo usque ad mala,

from oysters to coffee.' Here the guests have olives, strained
honey with poppy seeds, sausages, damascenes, and sliced pome-
granate, from which to choose.

asellus Corinthius Trim. :
NOTES. CHAP. 31, LINE 20; CHAP. 32, LINE 6. 67

explains in c. 50 the origin of

this variety of bronze. bis- —
sacio here only in Lat. lit. in glosses and in Pseudoacron's
: ;

schol. on Hor. Sat. i. 6, 106, it appears in the fem. pera quam ;

dicunt bissaciam quia pauperes quum insidunt iumentis post se sarci-

nas habent. It survived as a fem. in the Romance languages, and
was probably a plebeian word. inscriptum erat et argenti —
pondus in 33, 17, engraved
: silver spoons (cocldearia) are
mentioned in 59, 20, a platter (lanx) is described as ducenaria

(adopting Friedlander's reading) in 67, 22, scales are actually ;

brought in to test the correctness of the inscription. C/. Friedl.

Sitteng. iii. p. 124.

Syriaca pruna this fruit was being suc- :

cessfuUy cultivated in Italy; cf. Plin. Nat. Hist. xv. 43, Dama-
scena a Syriae Damasco cognominata, iampridem in Italia nascentia.
— granis Punici mali pomegranate so Mart. vii. 29, 10, Puni-:

corum . . .
grana malorum; i. 43, 6, Punica grana.

32. ad symphoniam allatus est to the tune of Hail to :


the chief!' cf. 28, 11. adrasum excluserat caput what — :

amused the guests was the sight of the old man's bald head lost
amid so many dainty sofa cushions. He seems to have copied
some of the habits of his old master, Maecenas cf. Sen. Epis. ;

114, 4 and 6, quo modo ambulaverit \_Maecenas'\ quam delicatus

fuerit . . . sic apparuit ut pallio velaretur caput exclusis utrimque
auriculis. oneratas — circaque
and around his well-padded :

neck he had put a broad-striped napkin with fringes hanging

to either side.' Veste : the generous folds of his pallium. —
mappam napkins are first mentioned by Horace, Sat. ii. 8,

63, though their use, at least in polite company, was much

older. The host provided them but guests frequently brought ;

their own in order to take away the apophoreta. That napkins

were sometimes stolen by guests is evident from Mart. Epig.
xii. 29. — sinistrae manus anulum . . . subauratum : when
the cock crows, 74, 4, he shifts the ring to his right hand ;

sculptured monumeiits show that men as a rule wore the ring

on the f ourth finger, probably of the left hand Marq. Privatl. ;
68 NOTES. CHAP. 32, LINE 11; CHAP. 33, LINE 9.

p. 701 ;
Plin. Nat. Hist. xxxiii. 24. Triin. could wear a pure gold
equestrian ring only when actually serving as sevir; on his tomb
he desires to be represented wearifig five gold rings while holding
the office of seviratus, 71, 30. The Emperor Claudius punished
a number of f reedmen who wore these rings unlawf ully Friedl.
Sitteng. i. 294.

armilla aurea another is described in 67, :

20 the custom of wearing armlets and bracelets came to Rome


from the Orient. Cf. 2 Samuel, i. 10.

33. pinna dentes perfodit the action suits the words

. . . :

which foUow; Trim. had probably already had something to

eat; see note on principium cenae, 27, 15. Martial, xiv. 22,
speaks of various toothpicks :

Lentiscum melius: sed si tibifrondea cuspis
Defuerit, dentes pinna levare potest.

— absentivos morae cf Introd. pp. xxxiii and xxxiv, 2. Adjec-


tives in -ivus belong to the Sermo Pleh. and are found in Plautus
(e.g., abditivus, ascriptivus, collativus, subditivus),
Terence and Cato ;

cf also C.I.L. II. 3444. Similar forms which occur in the later
Latin, as, e.g., primitivus, are given in Ronsch, Itala und Vulgata.
— aureos . . . denarios denarii were of silver
; gold coins
(nummi) are meant which in size resembled denarii. Cf 44, 29,
and Plin. Nat. Hist. xxxiv. 7, where denarius aureus refers to 37,

gold pieces of foreign coinage. This game in which coins were

used instead of the usual ebony and glass pawns is, according
to Friedl., the ludus duodecim scriptorum described in Marq.
Privatl. 857; we know only that there were twenty-four
checks, twelve on each side, and that the pawns were moved
according to the throws of the dice. Cf Harpers' Dict. Antiq.
p. 562.
— omnium textorum : so Juv. (3, 294) uses sutor of
common folk in general. The ref . is to
Billingsgate." dicta = —
witticisms.' — repositorium allatum est : a second course in
the gustatio is unusual ;
it is evidence of the lautitia of the host ;

cf also 32, 1. Without this second course, however, the dinner

NOTES. CHAP. 33, LINE 16; CHAP. 34, LINE 3. 69

woiild not have had its usual progress, ab ovo usque ad mala. —
mehercules :
cf. Introd. p. xxxix, D, and Index. In early com-
edy the form hercle is the commoner but the longer forms grow

in frequency until in Seneca, Petronius, and Apuleius (Meta-

morphoses), mehercules prevails almost exclusively. cochlearia —
. .selibras pendentia the cochlear is strictly a small spoon,
. :

having a round bowl and a long-pointed handle. It was used

in eating eggs and
snails (cocMeae), whence the name. The
modern teaspoon is more like the ligula; cf. Marq. Privatl.
and Martial,
p. 314, xiv. 121, under the lemma, Cochlear,

Sum cochleis habilis sed nec minus utilis ovis ;

Numquid scis, potius cur cochleare vocer f

That the cochlear was usually very small and not so heavy as
the ligula is apparent from Martial viii. 71, 9-10 :

Octavus ligulam misit sextante mmorem ;

Nonus acu levius vix cochleare tulit.
Ftir Martial sowie fur die allgemeine anschau ist das cochleare
das winkigste hohlmaas das uberhaupt vorkommt,' Hultsch.
Trim.'s cochiearia, however, weighing each a half pound, are
immensely large; probably their weight was engraved upon
them, as upon the edges of the lances ; 31, 23. ficedulam —
. . . circumdatam
the sight of this little fig-pecker (or reed-

bird) buried in the yolk ex farina pingui explains why Encolpius

imagined his egg in pullum coisse.

34. lusu intermisso game : the described in the preceding

— iterum mulsum sumere :that this was but a formal
request, which the guests were to decline, is evinced by the
suddenness with which the gustatoria are removed. Columella,
12,41, gives the receipt for making mulsum. An amphora found
in Pompeii has inscribed upon it the word mulsum; cf. Mau-

Kelsey, p. 496.
— symphonia :
cf 28, 11 ; 32, 1 ;
on choro can-
tante, cf. 31, 15. The description suggests how thoroughly
70 NOTES. CHAP. 34, LINES 8-19.

Trim. believed that order '
is Heaven's first law ;
the symphonia
and the chorus suggest the bell-tapping and the marching exer-
cises of a schooh^oom. That Trim. is a vigorous disciplinarian
is shown in the foUowing sentence cf. also 52, 10 53, 13

; ; ;

and 74, 16 f .
supellecticarius on the great variety of slaves:

(controlled by the atriensis) who saw to the different parts of the

house and each particular belonging, cf. Marq. Privatl. pp. 142,
143. — coepit everrere :
began (i.e., proceeded) to clean up.'

Cf Introd. p. xl, E, 2. Aethiopes capillati their long hair :

marked them as not full-blooded Africans. Pueri Alexandrini

are mentioned in 31, 8, and 68, 8, and an Aegyptius puer in 35,
14. —harenam in amphitheatro spargunt: in the pauses in
gladiatorial contests the blood-stained ground was spaded over
and covered with sand ; cf Martial, ii. 75, 5 :

Nam duo de tenera puerilia corpora turha

sanguineam rastris quae renovdbat humum.

— elegantias : the vagueness of reference in this plural f orm

shows that the original account is abridged here.
— aequum
Mars amat each guest is
: to dine, as
were, aequo Marte, by it

having his individual table, upon which his food will be brought,
from the centre table. For the usual arrangement of the table
and the couches see Marq. Privatl. 302 ff. Harpers' Dict. Class. ;

Ant. p. 1606. —
amphorae gypsatae with this Falernian
. . . :

wine and the ferculum described in the foUowing chapter the

gustatio, or prelude to the Cena, comes to an end. An old llo-
man cellar was excavated near the Porta Flaminia in Rome
in which many amphorae were found standing in a row in
sand; cf Marq. Privatl. p. 647. The amphorae in which wine
was stored were stopped with terra cotta corks and pitch or
plaster, very much as to-day carboys containing acid are sealed.
The vintage of the wine was inscribed either upon the amphora
itself or upon a tag (pittacium) ; cf Marq. Privatl. p. 461.

— Falernum Opimianum Opimius w^as consul, b.c. 121.

: It
was upon this passage that Mommsen based his argument for
NOTES. CHAP. 34, LINES 22-32. 71

the year b.c. 21, as the date of the Cena. Cicero, Brut. 83, 287,
writing in b.c. 46, says that Opimian wine was too old. It was
at its best when fifteen or twenty years old. Petr. gives us here

only a bit of the reckless bragging of Trim. It is moreover

doubtful whether Falernian wine was famous as early as the
consulate of Opimius. Exaggeration of the age of one's wines
was not uncommon ; cf. Martial, viii. 45, 4 and iii. 62, 1.

menas faciamus :
let us do the whistle-wetting act.' Biicheler
suggests that Trim. is here using tengomenas (which does not
occur outside of Petr.) as an acc. plu. fem. object of faciamuSy
on the analogy of kalendas facere, and that he mistakes it for a
participle and has no more difficulty in S2iym^ tangomenas facere
than in saying, e.g., epagomenas facere. The origin and strict
sense of tengomenas are obscure ; there is no better explanation
than that of Reinesius who connects it with Alcaeus, frag.
39, riyye 7rv€vfxova<s (= tangomenas) otvo), 'wet thy lungs
with wine.' Robinson
Ellis, Class. Rev. 1892, p. 116, suggests

T€yya)/xev Tva<;, us wet our muscles,' i.e., soak ourselves.'

let '

Of the two, however, the former seems the more plausible.

Heraeus, in the Vahlenfestschrift, 1901, suggests that thisword is
the. title of a comedy or mime, Teyyo/xevat, = die beschwippsten '

weiber,' and compares with it such titles as the ^vjxfiaXXo^evcu

of Epinikos, or the Swepya^o/xevat of Herondas. The spelling
tangomenas in the Ms. for tengomenas is due to the confusion
which is furtlier ilkistrated in the analyzing of
compounds like
which the popular mind was more inclined to
contingo, attingo,
take from tango than from ting(u)o. So in Petr. 66, 11, we have
de melle me usque tetigi, though the verb has less of the meaning
of tango than of tingo. —
larvam argenteam a very small :

jointed silver skeleton has been found similar to the one here
mentioned. Cf. drawing in Archaeol. Anzeig. 1889, p. 106.
This trick of Trim.'s suggests the Egyptian habit referred to
in Herodotus ii. 78 and Plutarch, Isis et Osiris, 17. Puteoli, the
chief port of trade with Egypt, was not far from the estate of
Trim. — ergo vivamus that Trim. was a maker of verse

appears from 41, 14. — In putting two hexameters before his

72 NOTES. CHAP. 35, LINES 1-8.

pentameter, however (a form of tristich which is not uncom-

mon on the tombstones of illiterate people), Trim. shows the
earmarks of his humble origin. That these triplets could be
composed off-hand without difficulty, probably because they
had a popular jingle, is seen in 55, 5. With the first of
Trim.^s verses, cf. Plaut. Capt. 22 and 51 ;
with his second,
c/. Hor. Od. iv. 7, 15 and 16.

ferculum est insecutum an unusual conclusion of the

35. :

gustatio,which Trim. has thus made to consist of three parts,

exclusive of the wines, (a) the gustatio lauta in which the
asellus Corinthius figured, (b) the gallina lignea with the pavonina
ova, (c) the present zodiacal piece. Laudationem refers to the
sentiment in the preceding triplet (a laudatio funehris). We
need not suppose therefore that the original has been condensed.
— convertit oculos : 'drew the eyes*; so Cic. in Catil. 4, 1, 1,
in me omnium vestrum ora atque oculos esse conversos ; Seneca,
De ira, ii. 11, 3, totum in se populum convertit. — structor: one of
the familia urbana, qui fercula docte componat,' Juvenal, Sat. 7,

181; cf Marq. Privatl. p. 146. Servius on Aen. i. 704, says

struere = ordinare, componere ; unde structores dicuntur ferculorum
He occurs in cf C.I.L. VI. 4034
— super arieteminscriptions
; ;

9045 ;
9046. we have here one of the earliest

enumerations of the zodiacal signs in strictly Latin literature.

The astronomica of Hyginus, which also gives the list, is not many
years earlier. On cicer arietinum, 'a bumptious chickpea,' cf
chickpea in the Cent. Dict. Plin. Nat. Hist. xviii. 124, says that
unde ita appellant.
it is arietino capiti simile, super cancrum —
coronam perhaps because the centre of this constellation has

a circular or elliptical form. Cf what Trim. says in 39, 21 ;

this is the only sign which has no edible piece placed over it.

— super leonem ficum Africanam :

possibly because the lion
(more correctly the panther) was called Africana ; or, as Friedl.
suggests, because the sun passes through Leo in summer,
NOTES. CHAP. 35, LINE 11; CHAP. 36, LINE 11. 73

and Africa was to the Romans a perpetual summer. — oclo-


(Friedl.). What kind of an animal

this '

was is uncertain ;
it may be a raven and we ;

may have here a humorous reference to that bird, whose habit

of pecking out eyes proverbial. Cf. Isidor 13, 7, 43, corvus:

hic prior in cadaverihus oculum petit. That birds of the raven

variety were eaten appears from Mart. iii. 60, 8 cf. Friedl. iii. ;

p. 17. — capricornum locustam : since the lobster's claws

SLiggest a pair of horns.

aquarius anserem probably since :

tlie wild goose is a water-bird. atque ipse extorsit — . . . :

and Trim. himself murdered a song from the mime of the
" Garlic eater."'
Cf. note on centonarius, 45, 1, and Wblfflin,
Rhein. Mus. xliii. 308. — suadeo cenemus :
i.e., suad. ut cene-

mus; cf 58, 7, 18, 41 ; 74, 43 ;

Plaut. Trin. 591, 681 ;
Asin. 644.

— hoc est in. cenae : 'here begins the Cena'; in. = initium

(Reiske). If this be thecorrect interpretation, these four words

have probably slipped into the text from a marginal note made
by an ancient copyist or reader of Petronius, who saw that the
Cena proper actually begins here.

36. tripudiantes in marked contrast to the tristitia with


which the guests were about to apply themselves ad tam viles

cibos. Old glosses give gaudium = tripudium, cf Corp. Gloss. Lat.
VI. 484. —
superiorem partem repositorii abstulerat by this :

removal of the zodiacal cover with its false bottom the transi-
tion is made from gustatio to cena, hence the ceremonious ad

symphoniam tripudiantes.

methodio only here in Latin litera- :

ture ;
in the glosses, where it also occurs, it /xe^oSeia, decep-
= '

tion ; cf Paul, Epist. to the
Ephesians, iv. 14, Trpos ty}v ixeOoStcav
Trj<; 7rXdvY}<;, against the wiles of error.'
scissor properly
— :

the slave who did the carving often, however, the structor, who

prepared the dishes (c/. 35, 5), did this also. The scissor was
given a very exact and careful schooling in order to perform
his art with rhythm and grace cf Marq. Privatl. 146 Seneca, ; ;
74 NOTES. CHAP. 36, LINE 12; CHAP. 37, LINE 6.

De brevit. vitae, 12, 5 Epis. 47, 6 De vit. heat. 17, 2. In Juv. 9,

; ;

109, he is called a carptor, essedarium pugnare there . . . :

were probably in Rome and elsewhere in Italy in Petronius's tinie

gladiators who reproduced the famous chariot fighting of the
Celts and Britons, described by Caesar, Bell. Gall. iv. 33 v. 15 ;

and 19. Cf. below 45, 17, mulierem essedariam, and Friedl. ii. 534.

— hydraule cantante : Burmann's warning is hardly neces-

sary, cave capias de quae nostris, quorum usus in templis,

similia sunt. He understands that the accompaniment is niade

by a tibicen qui Jistula, cuius canales aqua implehantur, canehat
etessedarium quasi classico incendehat ; this would siiggest the
sound which children to-day make with a kind of water-whistle.
That Nero was fond of organa Jiydraulica novi et ignoti generis
(about whose nature we are therefore in the dark) appears from
Suetonius, Nej'o, 41. Quint. ix. 4, 11 and i. 10, 25 describes the
expressiveness of the water-organ and its power over the feel-
ings of an audience. On its construction cf. Chappell, History
of Music, p. 325.

non erubui = duravi, c. 41, 4. qui supra —
me accumbebat cf. 57, 4. Hermeros is the name of this

neighbor ; cf 59, 3.

37. longe accersere fabulas to draw all I could out of :


him.' — huc atque illuc discurreret so Seneca, Apocolocyn. 9, :

Hercules, qui videret ferrum suum in igne esse, modo huc modo illuc
cursahat. —
nummos modio metitur this : form of expressing
great wealth is common in Greek and Latin as in English ;

Otto, Sprichworter, p. 225. So Cic. Philipp. 2, 38, 97, itaque

tanti acervi nummorum apud istum construuntur, ut iam expen-

dantur, non numerentur pecuniae ; cf Plaut. Stichus, 587, mihi

medimnum mille esse argenti velim; so Juv. 3, 220; Xenoph.
Hellen. iii. 2, 27.
— modo modo '
only yesterday
cf 42, 6,

and 46, 30. — genius tuus : the deification of the emperor did
much to develop this mode of addressing a man indirectly by
his abstract alter ego. Nero may be Divinity '
(in Quo Vadis),
NOTES. CHAP. 37, LINES 7-13. 75

but ordinary people are your spirit,' your genius.' So in

' '


English your highness,' your honor.' Cf. 62, 35 75, 4 '

; ;

53, 7 Roscher, Myiliol. Lex. 1, 1619

; Baumeister, Denkm. ;

p. 593 Mau-Kelsey, Pompeii, 263-267.

; panem accipere so — :

Diphilus, frag. 91 (Kock), Trap' rjs rov aprov rj

Kvniv ov Aap./3avet;

cf.Alexis, frag. 73 (Kock). nec quid nec quare, in caelum —

abiit and so she has gone soaring aloft and away from us,

and I don't know how or why.' So Cic. Ad Att. ii. 19, 2, Bibulus
in caelo est nec quare scio ; cf ii. 20, 4; ii. 9, 1 ii. 21, 4; and ;

Hor. Odes, i. 1, 36, suUimi feriam sidera vertice. Cf Index,

\mdiQ,Y Alliteration. — topanta est 'is all' to him; a common

Greek expression; cf Herod. i.

122, rjv re 61 iv tw \6yio tol

TrdvTa ^ Kww; Eurip. Orestes, 730, Travra yap raS' eiav fxoi.
So Ovid, Epist. 12, 161, qui nobis omnia solus erat. Fortunata
isbrought down from her top notch at the end of the cena; cf
74, 26.

ad summam, mero cf Introd. p. x, 4 and 5. On :

the thought, cf Plaut. Bacch. 699 :

Ch. Quid dixit ? Mn. si tu illum solem, sihi solem esse dixeris,
lunam credere esse, et noctem, qui nunc est
se illum dies.

— saplutus Introd. p. xxxiii, C, 2 similarly zeta appears as s


in C.I.L. 1047 and 1299, in Setus, = Zetus. The proper name


Saplutius occurs on a votive offering found at Mainz in C.I.L.


VIII. 7219, the form is Zaplutius. lupatria dieser Racker :

< '

(Friedlander). The word is of uncertain derivation and mean-

ing. It ought to contain some complimentary reference to For-
tunata's keenness. Biich., taking the first element to be lu^ms,
suggests that it = XvKdvOpoiTro^, versipelUs quae incognita appa-
reat. Friedl. takes it in a
contemptuous sense ( = etwa huren-

mensch '), and suggests

lupatria lupa TropvevTpLa Tropv-q', for : : : :

this derivation the formation of the word poetria affords some

— sicca sobria 'sober and steady'; cf Index, under

Alliteration. This was a current phrase under the empire; cf

Mart. xii. 30, 1, siccus sobrius est Senec. Vita beata, 12, 4;
— picaAper

Epist. 18, 4, and 114, 3. pulvinaris :

a regular my
76 NOTES. CHAP. 37, LINE 13; CHAP. 38, LINE 2.

lady's magpie.' The is pulvinaris because it is tame and

has the freedom of mistress's room and may perch in pulvi-

nari by her side. — quem amat, amat cf. Publil. Syrus, 6, aut :

amat aut odit mulier, nil est tertium. — qua milvi volant: Her-
meros has in mind the proverb, quantum milvi volant, of which
the scholiast on Pers. 4, 26, quantum non milvus oberret, is re-
minded. Cf. schol. on Juv. 9, 55, tot milvos intra tua pascua lassos,
viz., nec milvi ea transvolare possunt.
— nummorum nummos :

and such heaps this suggests Hebrew f orms of
of money ;

expression, like 'song of songs,' 'holy of holies,' 'lord of lords';

so Soph. Oed. Tyr. 464, apprjT dpprJTiov', Philoctet. 65, taxo-T

iaxa-Twv KaKa. Cf Plaut. Capt. 825, regum rex regalior. Possi-

bly olim oliorum, in 43, 25, is analogous. Landgraf, Berl. Phil.
Woch. 1892, p. 755. —
babaeoalis in rutae folium conioiet :

*he can knock any one of these simpletons into a cocked hat.'
Cf 67, 18, sic nos habaecali (Heinsius, for harcalae) despoliamur ;
in both passages, hahaecalus = ' poor f ool.' In Arnobius, 4, 22
(p. 159, 1. 11, in Reiffersch.), it has the sense of lihidinosus.
It may be derived f rom (3dKY]\o<s, reduplicated to express intense
disgust, then by volksetymologie," wrongly connecting it with
fta^aL, altered in the quantity of the second and third syllables.
Grober derives it directly from leaving the penult, how-

ever, unexplained. The origin of in rutae folium conicio is

obscure; it recurs in 58, 16, and = redigere in angustias. Cf
Mart. xi. 31, 17. Burmann explains :
agit de immensa multitu-
dine servorum, qui quotannis in contuberniis suis prolem foecundam
et vernaculam turham domino suo proferehant. sed ait illum non
curare hanc copiam, quin quemvis ex istis mulierosis in rutae folium
coniceret, id est, medicamentis steriles faceret ; hanc enim vim rutae
esse docet praeter alios Plinius, xx. 13, 51.

38. nec est quod putes : so Plaut. Merc. 317, nihil est iam
quod mihi succenseas ; Gildersleeve-Lodge, 525, 1, note 2. cre- —
drae properly the lemon, citrus ; by some conf usion this latter

was also called cedrus, whence the mod. Ital. cedro. The inser-
NOTES. CHAP. 38, LINES 2-9. 77

tion of r gives a form analogous with draucus for daucus, frus-

trum fov frustum; cf Gram. Latini, IV. 198, 30; 199, 3. In 1. 10,
culcitras is for culcitas. gallinaceum things as rare — lacte :

as hens' teeth he has home-grown cf Lucian, Trept t. c. /xio-^o) ;

CTVv6vT<jiv, § 13, KoX e^eis to Trj<i 'A^X^tas K€pa<;.KaL d/xeA.^ets

6pviO(Dv ydXa. Lacte is an early and late popular form of lac

Formenlehre, I. 230), from which have come the Span.
French lait, Ital. latte (Grober, Archiv, III. 274)
leche, Port. leite, ;

it is found in glosses; cf C.G.L. VI. 616; lactem occurs iu


71, 2. Cf Wagener, Neue Phil. Rundschau, 1899, p. 73. cula- —

vit in gregem and had him serve his ewes.' The best Italian

sheep were those of Apulia, Calabria, and particularly Tarentum,

where, as in Attica and a few other places, the sheep were cov-
ered with coats, in order to keep the wool pure and to produce
those gauzy woolen fabrics which were celebrated in Lucian's
time ; Lucian, Rhet. Praec. 15 Hor. Odes, ii. 6, 10. Culare, frora ;

culus, 'the hinder parts,' is at the base of the Eng. recoil, Fr.
reculer, Ital. rinculare; cf Gr. Trvyt^eti/. obiter . — . . iient:
and at the same time his native bees will be a little improved
by crossing with the Greek ones.' Obiter = simul here, as in
31, 11 ; 34, 15; so in Sen. De ira, iii. 1, 3; Juv. 3, 241 6, 481. ;

— ecce . . .
scripsit: 'and mark you, sir! hewrote'; the interj.
is livelier than ad summam above, 1. 2. — illi . . . boletorum
mitteretur : illi = sibi, as f req. in Sallust cf Sen. Epis. 48, 8 ; ;

Juv. 13, 203. In fact, ille, as well as ad summam, is one of the

peculiar usages of Hermeros cf. 56, 9, oves quod lana illae ;

(= Fr. elles), the pronoun being entirely unnecessary in pure

Latin. In superseding se, ille points to the later romance devel-
opment; Heraeus, Vahlenfestschrift, 1901. The boletus is a first-
class mushroom cf Juv. 5, 147, fungi ponentur amicis, boletus
— nam
; \

domino. mulam . . . nata sit ' (and all he has is of


the best) for'; a similar omission of the fact for which the
nam-clause adduces a proof occurs in 48, 22; 52, 6; 53, 29;
56, 6 63, 4 cf Juv. 10, 204, and Mayor's and Friedlander's
; ;

notes on the line; see Index, under nam. — ex onagro: this

78 NOTES. CHAP. 38, LINES 10-18.

shows the excellence of his breed; for the ordinary breeding,

c/. Lat. Anth. (Meyer), 1, 387 :

Burdonem sonipes generat commixtus asellae.

Mulus ah Arcadicis et equina matre creatus.

— culcitraa : hence Sp. colcedra, Ital. coltriche, f eatherbed ;

it is

the popular form of culcita. In many Mss. of Cic. Tusc. (iii. 46)
and Suet. Tiher. (54) the spelling with r occurs as a variant. —
conchyliatum : not so deep a purple or violet as the Tyrian
dye, Marq. Privatl. p. 508. valde sucossi sunt with refer- — :

ence to their wealth. Valde is a favorite with Petr. as with

Cicero, who first brought it into use in the sense in which it

occurs here ;
see Index, suh voc. On the form sucossi, cf. digni-
tosso, 57, 36. So C.I.L. IV. 1830; cf. Olcott, Word Formation,
p. 208,Schonwerth-Weyman, Archiv,Y. 12. imus in imo this — :

is Pompeius Diogenes, 1. 20 his place is uncertain it is not

; ;

the libertini locus, since this is occupied by Proculus, 1. 22 cf. ;

Marq. Privatl. p. 304. —

octingenta sc. millia sestertium, about :

$34,000, double the property qualification of equites. quo- —

modo dicunt comme on dit.' Incuboni the story of the
< — :

dwarf who guards the treasure, but can be made to reveal its
hiding-place when his cap is stolen from him, is ancient as
well as modern. Siegfried recovers the Rhine treasure by get-
ting possession of the cap of Alberich. Incubo is not only an
imp creating terror, like Pan and the satyrs, but a treasure
god, as here. He shares this latter honor with Hercules; cf.
Hor. Sat. ii. 6, 15, with Wickham's note ;
Pers. 2, 10, o si \
rastro crepet argenti mihi seria dextro Hercule ; Ramsay's note
on Plaut. Mostell. p. 168. Cf. Roscher, Myth. Lex. II. 128. —
est sub alapa male aber er will hoch hinaus, und gonnt
. . . :

sich das beste (Friedl.) i.e., he is a high-flyer and looks out for
' '

number one.' S. Ellis 'the man, however, is a lick-spittle
: ;

Nettleship: 'he may still be slapped.' This last explanation

rests on schol. ad Pers. 5, 75 : as often as they manumitted a
NOTES. CHAP. 38, LINES 22-26. 79

slave, they gave him an alapa (the manumission stroke) and

led him about, thus confirming his freedom. Biicheler er ist :

aber noch kein fertiger reicher, viehnehr in der Mauser be-

' '

griffen i.e.,
he is no rich man, but rather getting there the ;

alapa being the longed-for all-in-all ceremonial which shall

make of him a new man he is adhuc sub iudice. Friedl. would

emend to sufflatus, 'puffed up.' Cf. C.G.L. VI. 47, where alapus
= qui propter mercedem alapas patitur, a boot-lick.' Heraeus,


Sprache des Petron., suggests suhalapo or subalapator, braggart,'

on the analogy of alapari, a low Latin verb, = gloriari, Ronsch,
Rhein. Mus. 1879, p. 632. In C.G.L. III. 372, 56, alapator is ex-

plained as KavxrjT-q^s. A
subalapator would thus be something

of a braggart.' Non vult sibi male is freq. in tlfe comic poets ;

cf. Plaut. Pers. 820. In C.G.L. an improbus = inconsideratus

vel qui soli sibi vult bene. —
libertini loco plainly a definite :

place at the table, though its location is uncertain possibly it ;

is in imo secundus ; this would bring Proculus, 1. 35, next to

Diogenes, with Trimalchio above him. libertus was occasion- A

ally invited dinner by his ingenuus friend
to this might ;

account for the origin of the phrase libertini locus. There was
also a locus consularis ; cf Marq. Privatl. p. 304.
— impropero :

freq. in the Vulgate, the older versions of the Bible, and in

patristic Latin, as well as in glosses cf Heraeus, Sprache, p. 5

and the references. It survives in Fr. improperer and Ital. m-

— sestertium . . . decies :
he saw his 100,000
ten times over.' This gave him a senatorial qualification ;
the early empire senators had come to possess enormous wealth
and to say that a man had a patriinonium laticlavium (76, 4)
was to characterize him as a Croesus. " Richer than the sena-
tor Crispus," says Martial, iv. 54, 7
yet Crispus; was worth two
hundred million sesterces. — male vacillavit 'he went wrong.' :

Trim. who had done better, ascribes his wealth to his lucky
star, the firm-footed Crab, 39, 21. liberti —
ad se fece- . . .

runt: so in 43, 17, the brother of Chrysanthus had been

fleeced by slaves; cf Sen. De benef 2, 27, 1, Lentulus, divitiarum
maximum exemplum, antequam illum libertini pauperem facerent.
80 NOTES. CHAP. 38, LINES 26-35.

— scito autem :
you know
it's the old story your f riend's !

pot boils poorly, and when

things take a bad turn, away flee
your friends.' Judging from the different words for friends, it
is probable that two proverbs are run together here (a) the :

pot of a crowd doesn't boil well i.e., too raany cooks spoil the ;

broth : (b) a friend in need is a friend indeed. Cf. Berl. Philol.

Wochensch. 1892, p. 755. The Greeks had a proverb :
^et x^Tpa?

^et ^tA.ta,,
all goes well when the pot boils,' Zenob. 4, 12 ;
it does not seem to fitthe sentiment here, though cited by
Friedl. and Otto. On amici de medio cf. Plaut. Stich. 521 f ., si res

firma est, itidem frmi amici sunt: si res labat, itidem amici j

hescunt; and Hor. Od. i. 35, 21 ff. So Petron. c. 80,

cum fortuna manet, vullum servatis, amici;

cum cecidit, turpi vertitis orafuga.

Cf Soph. frag. 667, dvS/oos KaKws Trpda-a-ovTOs CKTroSaii/ <j>iXoL.

— quod illum sic vides what a fine business he carried on,


that you see him so well oif to-day.' Cf Gildersleeve-Lodge,

§ 534, Rem. As in modern times, there was money in the
undertaker's business, though, like ancient auctioneering and
public acting, the business was unsuited to the holding of pub-
lic office. The sevirate was, however, open to libertini who
pursued any of these callings. On the adject. use of sic, cf tam
75, 17.

effundebatur quam . . . cella habet cf 37, 16;

74, 2 and the picture of Bacchis causing waste of wine, in


phantasia, non homo no ordinary man '

Ter. Heaut. 1. 457. :

he he was a perfect dream.' Cf Introd. p. xxxviii, B Index

; ;

under Comparisons ; so c. 134, lorum in aqua, non inguina. For

other examples, cf H, S. Jones, Class. Rev. vii. 224. C. lulius —
Proculus this man being a collibertus (1. 12) of Trim. should

have the same nomen (Pompeius) ; cf Diogenes, another colli-

bertus, 1. Friedl. suggests that in being manumitted he

20. had
been presented to a Julian so Cicero's slave, Dionysius, ;
presented to Atticus and assumed not Cicero's gentile name,
Tullius, but Atticus's, Pomponius ; Marq. Privatl. p. 22.
NOTES. CHAP. 39, LINES 1-8. 81

39. ferculum : mentioned in 35, 1 ;

the repositorium, or
cover, with its zodiacal signs, on the table, or at leastis still

within sight. It had been removed from the lower portion

of the ferculum at the beginning of c. 36, revealing the viands
with which the cena began. sermonibus publicatis in — :

distinction from the fabulae, 'private talk,' stories,' of the two '

preceding chapters. Hilarity and chatting are the life of the

cena ; so in c. 111 the fahula of the Lady of Ephesus is told
ne sileret sine fahulis hilaritas. reclinatus in cubitum — : as

though some duties had just compelled him as host to sit up ;

cf 132, erectus in cuhitum, and 65, 14.

c. suave faciatis — :

sc. fahulis vestris ; the invitation is repeated in 48, 2, though

the offer is made to change the wine if it cannot be so sweet-

ened. Cf Mart. v. 78, 16, vinum tu facies honum bihendo.

— rogo, me putatis :
cf Introd. p. xli, F ; Index, under Para-
taxis; Gildersleeve-Lodge, 467, note Studemund, Studien, 1, 141.
— theca repositorii the same as the superiorem partem

— sic notus Ulixes am no cleverer Verg.
2. :
ii. 44; in 68, 13, a passage froni the Aeneid by the is recited

pedisequus of Habinnas. To his countrymen, Vergil came to

be, under the empire, a Schiller or a Shakspere, through the
nobleness, as well as the human element, of his poetry. It was
even considered that he was prophetic, and that the Aeneid was
an inspired book to be appealed to. Men were fond of quoting
his verses and using them as mottoes. Martial, xii. 67, 5, speaks
of the high regard in which his birthday was held. Cf Tunison,
Master Vergil, 39. — quid ergo est: cf 30, 30. philologiam = —
litterarum studium : Sen. Epist. 108, 23, observes, quae philosophia
fuit, facta philologia est ; in Apocoloc. 5, 4, Claudius gaudet esse
illic [in caelo'] philologos homines.
— patrono meo ossa . . .

quiescant :
thanks to my
patronus — and may his ashes rest
in peace —
there is nothing new under the sun for me'; the
prayer, in the abbreviated form o. t. b. q., is common in tomb-
stone inscriptions from Africa; cf C./.X. VIII. 2, p. 1104, and
Wilmanns, Exempla Ins. Lat., Indic. p. 693, ossa. — hominem
82 NOTES. CHAP. 39, LINES 9-29.

inter homines :
c/. 57, 17 ; 74, 33. An expression common

among slaves and freedmen. (7/!, however, Tac. Hist. iv. 64,
liheri inter liberos eritis ; Herond. Mim. 5, 15, r) ae Odcra iv

— fericulus: the illiterate form iov ferculum; cf.
68, 6 ; this, with caelus for
caelurn, vinus f or vinum, fatus for

fatum, the earliest examples of the change of neut.

is among
to masc, the complete result of which is seen in the total

disappearance of neuters in romance languages; cf Suchier,

Archiv III. 163. — multum lanae :
'heaucoup de laine.' — expu-
doratam: In C.G.L. IV. 339, 42, this word is

glossed inpudicus; in III. 112, 23, dvatSeWaTC = expuderate.

It is theparent of the Ital. spudorato. cornum acutum 'a — :

sharp frontal bump.' On the form cornum = cornu, cf Neue,

Formenl. I. 529. et arietilli —
and thankless creatures a :
' '

dim. of aries = arietulus. So /cptos

is a synonym for a~ thankless
creature; cf Lid. and Scott, suh v. calcitrosi adj. in -osus — :

are frequent in Petr. cf C.G.L. II. 358, 17, XaKTL(TTrj<s calci- :

— bigae

tj'osus. et boves :
spans of horses, yokes of oxen,
shifty people, who blow hot and cold.' On parites linunt, cf
Cic. Ad fam. vii. 29, 2, sine eum errare et putare me virum honum
esse nec sclre duo parietes de eadem fidelia dealhare. multis —
pedibus sto : a f armer's phrase ; cf Quint. xii. 9, 18, itaque.
in iis actionibus omni, ut agricolae dicunt, pede standum est.

With this, contrast Horace's stans pede in uno, Sat. i. 4, 10.

— hoc et illoc = huc et illuc; Introd. p. xxxiii, A, 3 cf 26, 10 ; ;

57, 40. Trim. means that crabs are at home on land and sea ;

there are both varieties. —

nihil super illum he had actually :

placed a crown supra cancrum; cf 35, 7, and note. cataphagae — :

a Greek noun of agency, like haKvas, dyayas (for dywyas, = leno') ;

equiv. to «^ayds, and f req. in comedy in the glossaries (C. G.L.


II. 36 and 32) it = gulator, ganeo. aliquid expediunt display :


their wares.' —
sagittario strabones because an archer aims :

above, and not directly at, the object he expects to hit. prae —
mala sua :
who from their very woes beget horns.' Prae with
acc, as in 46, 5 ; cf Introd. p. xxxviii, B, 2. So in inscriptions 150
NOTES. CHAP. 39, LINE 30; CHAP. 40, LINE 8. 83

years laterthan Petr., ex literas (C./.L. VIII. 10570), ex numerum

(C.I.L. VIII. 9292). The tendency grew, in the serjno vulgaris, to
merge the abl. and the acc. into one case ; Suchier, Archiv, III.
165. The idea in cornua nasci may be explained by xepao-^o-
= '
cuckold,' )(€paTa Troietv tlvl = '
to cuckold,' ^epaTas = '
cuckold^' —
in aquario : because of its malign influence; the
caupo was not held in great esteem ; cf. Mart. i. 56 iii. 57 Hor.; ;

Sat. i. 1, 29, and 5, 4.

— tanquam mola :
cf. Introd. p. xxxviii, B ;

Index, tanquam.

40. sophos = the more classical hene, perhene, optume; cf

Mart. i. 3, 7,

Audieris cum grande sophos, dum hasia iactas,

ibis ah excusso missus in astra sago.

Probably and evye, denoting approval, made their way


into Rome
with Greek music and rhetoric, as bravo has to-day
wherever Italian music is sung. Cf Friedl. Sitteng. i. 384. —
Hip^arp^s, Aiaius see :
Christ, Griech. Literaturgeschichte,
pp.~86^ and 530. donec — :

always with indic. in Petr.,


except in 62, 18. the parent of the Fr. donc, but in Petr.
It is
it does not yet have the sense of that word
cf Englander,


Archiv, VI. 467. toralia praeposuerunt toris the triclinium :

is thus changed into a

hunting scene. The toralia were stretched
along the outside of the tori. — et ecce :
and lo and behold '

this occurs four times in Petr., thrice in the talk of the liher-

tini; cf Introd. p. xxxvii, D, 1. Its earliest

appearance is in
Varro, e.g., p. 135, 5, Riese's ed. — canes Laconici both Verg., :

Georg. iii. 405, and Hor., Epod. 6, 5, mention Spartan in con-

nection with Molossian dogs. Soph,, Ajax, 8, speaks of their
keen scent, Cf Shakspere, Othello, concluding lines :

Spartan dog,
More fell than anguish, hunger, or the sea."
84 NOTES. CHAP. 40, LINES 9-26.

So Midsummer NigMs Dream, iv. 1 :

" I was with Hercules and Cadmus once

When in a wild of Crete they bay'd the bear
"With hounds of Sparta ;
never did I hear
Such gallant chiding."

— secutus est hos repositorium : this is the second course of

the cena ; the described in 36, 4.
first is By the time of Petr.
the serving of whole boars was coinmon was introduced as

early as Sulla's time by Sei-vilius PuUus; Plin. N.H. viii. 210.

Cf. Mart. vii. 59 Juv. in 1, 140 exclaims,

quanta est gula quae sibi totos

ponit apros, animal propter convivia natum f

Friedl. Sitteng.
iii. 40, 8. altera cary otis — repleta the . . . :

one with walnut dates, the other with Theban.'

filled The
Romans used the former as gifts at the Saturnalia and on
New Year's Day, scattering them as missilia ; cf. Marq. Privatl.

p. 428.
— circa autem . . .
porcelli . . . scrofam . . .
bant : the animal was a boar, served, however, to resemble a
sow. On the decorations placed about it, and the cap on its
head, cf 66, 4, where the porcus has a crown and is surrounded
with saviunculum et gizeria. The hard-baked coptoplacenta, of
which the porcelli were made, are the hard copta of Mart. xiv. 68 :

Peccantis famuli pugno ne percute dentes :

clara Rhodos coptam quam tibi misit edat.

They probably resembled the KOTTTOTrXaKov? of Athenaeus, 647 f .

The word reappears in Anth. Lat. (Riese) 199, 47. — apopho-

reti: guests took away these gifts in the mappae which they

brought with them Marq. Pfivatl. p. 313.

; Martial's fourteenth —
book is made up of verses meant to accompany the gifts; so
" "
to-day sugar-kisses are sold with erotic distichs wrapped with
them. —
altilia laceraverat 36, 12. momento at once
— :
' '

cf 28, 2, momento temporis ; Petr., however, prefers statim. —

ad numerum divisere divided equally.':
NOTES. CHAP. 41, LIXES i-28. 85

41. bacalusias 'after I had exhausted eYery likely solution.'


Possibly from ^(zkt/Aos, which Suet. (Aug. § 87) says Augustus

constantly used for stultus. The second element (-lusias) was
then popularly associated with luclere : hence lit. nonsense- '


duravi = non erubui, 36, 15; so Lucan. Phars. iv.
519, ut vivere durent. plane —
assuredly,' a strong affirmation, :

as in comedy;67, 28, and Plaut. Truc. 618.

— summa cena:
'the last course of yesterday's dinner allowed him to go un-

so in 66, 19, in summo . . . caseum. In Mart. x. 37,
9, however, summa mejisa is probably the principal course of the
cena. —
dimissus est c/. 66, 24. damnavi ego the pron.
— :

seems redundant and almost enclitic ; so narra tu, 48, 8 ;


tu, 74, 39 ; vide tu, 78, 3. It was desirable to be a

good diner-
out; cf. 34, 24. puer speciosus — :
cf 74, 20; the pantomimic
burlesque, hitting off the various attributes of Dionysus, by gest-
ure, costume and words, has something very modern in it. Cf.
Friedl. Sitteng. ii. 4.58. — modo interdum . . . : cf. 39, 13 and 17,
and Wolfflin, Archiv, — liberum patrem
II. 2.53, :
that I am the
child of Free-Father.' is a great punster aud poetaster.
Under Xero, however, was extremely perilous to establish a

reputation as a true poet. Cf Tac. Ann. xvi. 28 and xiv. 52;

also Friedl. Sitteng. iii. —
pataracina the interpretation is
412. :

difficult ;
the word seems
to refer to the size of the cups, not to
the strength of the wine, like anancaea, Allifana, hatiacae ; cf.
Mart. xiv. 93 ff., and Cic. In Verrem, ii. 1, 26, 66, poscunt maio-
ribus poculis. — versas : Introd. p. xxxv, C, 4. — mundum fri-

gus agrees with 30, 11, as to the time of year when the dinner

was given. balneus Introd. p. xxxv, C, 1. : staminatas 'I — :

have had several stiff drinks.' The word is suggested by vestia-

rius, just used; his drinks had stamen, no subtemen, they were wine
with no addition of water. In the Corp. Gloss. Lat., staminarius
is vT^Grrrp, 6 tov On the ending -atus, cf Index.
matus: 'foolish'; Ital. matto; cf
C.G.L. V. 568, 58, where
fatuus is glossed stultus . . mattus. .
— vinus:
Introd. p. xxxv,
C, 1. Possibly the masc. is used because the speaker is of Greek
extraction and in his language the word for '
wine is masc.
86 NOTES. CHAP. 42, LINES 2-19.

42. balniscus : Introd. p. xxxv, C, 1. The weakening effect

of too much bathmg was noticed by the early Father, Clemens
of Alexandria, who says (Paedagog. 3, 3), that it may lead to

serious physical breakdown, and adds, " the ancients called the
bath a place for bleaching men, since it wore out the body, just
as heat also may take the temper out of iron." cor nostrum — :

'the courage' to stand the shock of the cold water. laecasin — :

Aetxa^etv, fellare ; cf. Mart. xi. 58, 12. On the form, cf. Introd.
p. xxxiii,C, 2. —
fui in funus Introd. p. xxxviii, B, 3 so in cu- :

riamfuerunt, Wilmanns, 2083, 18 ex litteras, C.I.L. VIII. 10570 ; ;

cf Sen. Epist. 108, 4.

animam ebulliit so 62, 19 Pers. 2, 10, :


si ehulliat patruus; Sen. Apocoloc. 4, 2, animam ehuUiit. utres

inflati :
cf Hor. Sat. ii. 5, 98, crescentem tumidis infla sermonihus
utrem. — bullae : Homer likens man to autumn leaves, II. vi.

146 cf Pind. Pyth. 8, 95, o-Ktas ovap avdpoirro^ and Luc. Charon,

; ;

19. So Varro, R.R. 1, 1, 1, homo hulla. abstinax Introd. :

p. xxxiv, C, 2 ;
f ound only here, = ahstemius. — abiit ad plures :

cf the German er ist zur grossen

he's joined the majority ;

armee ahgegangen ; so Plaut. Trin. 291, quin prius me ad plures

penetravi. In Aristoph. Eccles. 1073, ypavq avea-TrjKvux irapa
T(x>v TrXcLovoiv = *
a woman risen from the dead.' Cf C.I.L. VI.
142, = Orelli, 6042, plures me antecesserunt, omnes expecto. — ma-
lus fatus probably the neut. personified, hence not like caelus

for caelum. Fatus is the spirit which attends one through

life tiU death takes his place. Roscher, Myth. Lex. 1, 1452 ;

cf C.I.L. VI. 4379, noli dolere, amica, eventum meurn, properavit

aetas : hoc dedit Fatus mihi ; so 6932, 10127. — vitali lecto :
77, 20, and Sen.
Epist. 99, 22. The collegia funeralicia called
themselves salutaria by a similar euphemism. accepisset — :

'whafkind would he have had, if he had not

of a funeral
treated her so very well? mulier quae mulier '

all women, :

one as well as another.' Ribbeck, inserting omnes, makes a

senarius mulier quae mulier omnes milvinum genus.
: neminem —
nihil Introd. p. xxxvii, C cf the double negative in 58, 15 and


76, 4.

aeque Introd. p. xxxvii, C.
: in puteum conicias :

so Hor. Sat. ii. 3, 242, in rapidum fiuvium iaceretve cloacam; Sen.

NOTES. CHAP. 42, LINE 20; CHAP. 43, LINE 15. 87

Epist. 87, 16, denarius in cloacam ; cf. Hor. Sat. ii. 3, 166, and
Plaut. Curc. 121. —
amor cancer either because, like the dis- :

ease, gets into the very blood (c/. Lucret. iv. 1064, ulcus enim

vivescit et inveterascit alendo), or because its grip is as firm as a

lobster's. Ellis, Class. Rev. 1892, p. 116, explains differently.

43. vivorum meminerimus : used in 75, 16, in a broader

sense ;
that the phrase proverbial is shown f rom Cic. De

jin. V. 1, 3, veteris proverhii admonitu vivorum memini. crevit —


quicquid crevit : he grew for all he was worth

the phrase


is of the same pattern as mulier quae mulier, 42, 17. solida

centum (millia) a cool 100,000 the: Ital. '
soldo and Fr.

sou are derivatives from solida ; note how the original f orce has
weakened. Cf. Mart. iv. 37, 4, ex insutis fundisque tricies soldum;
so jjlenum vicies in i. 99. linguam caninam comedi i.e., he — :

has the cynic's (kvcov, * dog') love of truth at any cost. In 69, 10,
is the recipe for quieting such an irrepressible tongue.

— durae buccae :
of unlimited cheek,' 'bombastic' — lin-

guosus, 'a chatterbox.' — discordia the very embodiment of


32. — amicus amico

contention cf 38, ;
a popular phrase :

cf Plaut. Miles Gl. 658, and the distich, C.I.L. VI. 6275, hic est
ille situs, qui qualis amicus amico quaque fide fuerit, mors fuit
indicio. — malam parram pilavit \

: 'he had hard luck


; cf Hor.
Od. iii. 27, 1, impios parrae recinentis omen \
ducat. — mentem
sustulit cf the picture of Trim., in 29, 12, showing Mercury

in the act of lifting him to the high tribunal by his chin. ille —
stips the ille of h 2 lines 9-14 describe his brother. The con-

versation turns on the dead Chrysanthus, notwithstanding


the protest in line 1, and the cheerf ul but short digression. Stips =
blockhead so truncus, codex, stipe^s plumbeus; cf Cic. In Pison.

9, 19 ;
Ter. Heaut. 877. It stands for stipes ; so seps for saepes,
nuhs for nuhes, orhs for orhis, all of which are found in old glos-
saries. —
terrae filio :

groundling,' a designation of unknown

or disagreeable people, cf Cic. Ad Att. i. 13, 4, Tiuic terrae

filio nescio cui committere epistulam . . . non audeo ; so Pers.

88 NOTES. CHAP. 43, LINE 16; CHAP. 44, LINE 3.

vi. 57, progenies terrae. longe fugit —

the title of one . . . :

of VaiTo's Menippean Satires; cf. Biich. Petronius, ed. 1882,

p. 188.

oricularios = auricularios, Introd. p. xxxiii, cf. Fr.
oreille, and Catullus's oricilla, 25. 2. The seuse,
tial secretary/ recurs in the Vulgate, 2 Samuel, xxiii. 23. —
quod (habuit) frunitus est : 'he enjoyed what he had'; fru-
niscor is a lengthened form of fruor ; cf. 44, 34. Before cui
datum est, something like ille felicissimus est is to be supplied.
— fortunae filius: cf. Hor. Sat. ii. 6, 49, luserat in campo :
Fortunae filius ! omnes. In Juv. 6, 605-609 is a charming
picture of Fortuna with little ones about her, to whom she
is distributing her gifts. —
quadrata ourrunt *run on all :

f ours,' cf. 39, 23. —

annos secum tulisse f requent on tomb- :

stones, as C.I.L. X. 2311, scire laboras, annos quot tulerim mecum;

cf 1069, and Lucan. Phars. xi. 10, saecula iussa ferentem ; Ov.
Metam. xi. 497, gerere annos. —
olim oliorum one of those men :

of long ago,' an intensive phrase, like nummorum nummos, 37, 15;

the reading is, however, extremely uncertain cf EUis, Class. ;

Rev. vi. 117. It may be that oliorum stands to olim as illorum

does to illim, the sense and spelling of oliorum (for ollorum,
ollus being an old f orm of ille) being influenced by olim ; hence
lit. 'I knew him long ago, one of those (old timers),' cf ArcMv,

II. 317. —
canem reliquisse in 74, 25, Trim.'s wife calls him

canis, qui non contineret lihidinem suam. pullarius = paedicator —

— omnis minervae cf 68, 22 so Hor. Sat. ii. 2, 3, crassa

Minerva ; Epist. ii. 3, 385, invita Minerva; Cic. Lael. 5, 19, pingui,
ut aiunt, Minerva ; Verg. Aen. viii. 409, tenuique Minerva; cf
Plin. Epist. xxi. 25. — hoc secum tulit : so in C.I.L. VI. 142,
cum namque) hoc tecum feres ; cf 69, 6. No
vives benefac {tibi
one can rob the departed of the memory of their pleasures.

44. ad caelum nec ad terram pertinet a Greek prov. :


cf Lucian. Alexan., ovre y^<s <^acnv ovre ovpavov aTTTo^ej/ov?. —

quid mordet the
. . .
indic. in ind. quest. in post-class. Lat.

is rare. This instance is not noted in Drager, Hist. Syntax, II.

NOTES. CHAP. 44, LINES 5-22. 89

§ 464. Cf. 76, 29 71, 40. In 33, 17, si = if,' not whether.'
' '

Cf. Ter. Eun. 529, dicat quid vult. On the sense of mordet, cf.
aqua dentes habet, 42, 2. aediles male eveniat —
conf ound the :


the acc. for dat. With this cf Wilmanns, Exeinp.
Inscrip. 252, di vos bene faciant ; cf also the preceding inscription.
— serva me :
cf 45, 43 ama me amabo te is f ound inscribed on


ancient Roraan rings. populus minutus Ital. minutaglia; :

cf Phaedr. iv. 6, 13, minuta plebes. isti — . . . maxillae synesis, :

as in 1. 10 below. simila si siligine — :

if the flour were infe-
rior to (= not made of) the finest wheat.' Cf Crit. Appendix.

— percolopabant used to give them such a trouncing that


Jupiter himself seemed utterly to have forsaken them.' On

the form, cf Introd. p. xxxiii. On iratus cf 58, 21; 62, 35. —
piper non homo : in southern Italy
is it is said of a man who
remarkable for quickness of thought and action that e tutto di

amicus amico cf 43, 10. in tenebris micare to :
— :

count fingers in the dark with a companion was the proverbial

indication of confidence ; cf Cic. De off. iii. 19, 77, and De
fin. ii. In the game, called mora, here alluded to, each
16, 52.

player quickly placed before his opponenfs face at the same

moment a certain number of his fingers which the other was to
— pilabat: 'how he singed (lit. plucked) them one by
one,' i.e., 'how he made things hum.' Vel tractabat is a gloss
explaining pilabat and is out of place in the text. Cf 43, 11. —
schemas Introd. p. xxxv so even Sueton. Tiber. 43, exemplar

imperatae schemae. This metaplastic form is commoner in the

early comedy so in Plaut. Miles, 148, glaucoma is of the Ist decl.

— Asiadis the Asiatic style of oratory was florid and abounded


in figures and rhetorical display; its chief representative at

Rome was Hortensius cf Cic. Brutus, 95. nomina omnium ;

reddere : like the modern voter, the populus minutus of classi-
cal Rome was pleased to have the great public men call them
familiarlyby name; cf Friedl. Sitteng. i. 385. pro luto erat: —
«was dirt-cheap'; cf 51, 11 and 67, 30. In Truc. 556 Plaut.
has bona sua pro stercore hahet; cf Poen., 158 non lutumst lutu-
90 NOTES. CHAP. 44, LINES 23-36.

lentius. —
oculum bublum Intiod. p. xxxiii, B, 3. Charred :

remains of baker's bread have been found in Pompeii; the

form was usually round. Mau-Kelsey, Pompeii, pp. 96 and
378. Baumeister, Denk. Class. Alterth. p. 245. retroversus —
crescit this applies to Cumae as one of the numerous feeble

military colonies of Rome cf. Juv. 3, lines 3 ;

and 322. — coda
vituli so Merchant of Venice, ii. 2
: :

Gohho : What a beard hast thou got thou hast got more hair !

on thy chin than Dobbin my fill-horse has on his tail.

Launcelot : It should seem then that Dobbin's tail grows back-
ward I am sure he had more hair on his tail than I have on my

face when I last saw him.

Nos habemus : Introd. p. xxxvi, B. — domi gaudet = m :

sinu gaudet, '

he laughs in his sleeve.' alter patlrimonium —
habet: alter = alius ; the Fr. autre comes from this supplanter
of alius. — denarios aureos :
cf 33, 8. — coleos haberemus :

cf Ov. Her. 16, 291, si sint vires in semine avorum; Pers.

1, 103, si testiculi vena ulla paterni \
viveret in nohis. — popu-
lus . . . leones : a Greek prov. ; cf. Aristoph. Peace, 1189,
oi/res oiKoi pkv X€ovTe<s, iv fJ-OLXD S' dAd>7r€K€s. Populus means
it is common in this
the citizens,' as a corporate body ;

sense in municipal ordinances, cf Wilmanns, Exemp. Inscrip.

Indices, pp. 612, 701. foras Introd. p. xxxviii, 5. — :
— fruni-
scar so help me Heaven to enjoy myself and mine.'
On the
case of meos cf Introd. p. xxxvi, Drager, I. p. 569 so A ; ;

Plaut. Rud. 1012, malum fruniscei nil potes. This form of

the verb is frequent in inscrip., cf C.I.L. IV. 2953 V. 7453 .

— diibus
; ;

VIII. 9519 and 19606 : = diis, a frequent form in in-

scrip. ; cf C.I.L. II. 325. — ieiunium :
cf Aquaelicium in Smith's
Dict. Antiq.^ p. 156; Harpers', p. 106. There still survives an
old Athenian prayer for rain :

xxTov vcrov c5 0/\e ZeO

Kark T^s apoiL)pas

T^s 'A67)vaLoi}v
Kal TU)v Tre5l(t)v.
NOTES. CHAP. 44, LINE 37; CHAP. 45, LINE 2. 91

Norden, Kunst-Prosa, I. 46. See also Morgan, Rain-GocU and

Rain-Charms ; Transactions Ara. Philol. Association, xxxii. pp.
100 ff. —
opertis oculis with eyes shut to every other inter-

est,' cf. Juv. 6, 433.

stolatas an honorable description of the :

matrons ; sofemina stolata, C.I.L. III. 5225. Livia was, however,

dubbed a Ulysses stolatus (a Ulysses in petticoats) on account of
her cunning; Suet. Calig. 23. — in clivum : to the teraple of

Jupiter; raunicipalities were patterned after Rorae in raany

ways especially by reraodelling the citadel into a Clivus Capi-

; at Faleriura there was even a via sacra. plovebat: —

Introd. p. xxxiii, A, 3 ; analogous to fuvit, = fuit. — udi tam-
quam mures :
probably masc. because the populace joined in
the procession. Note how frequently Ganymedes employs simi-
les. — pedes lanatos thafs why the gods are so slow in getting

after us.' The sense however, obscure. Martial, i. 98, says


of a raan who finds it hard to part with his money that he

suffers frora cheragra. Porphyrion on Horace, Odes, iii. 2, 31,
pede poena claudo, says lioc proximum est illi quod dicitur deos

iratos pedes lanatos habere.

45. centonarius a raaker of rag covers used in smothering


dangerous fires. In the imperial period, centonarii, with fabri

and other craftsraen, formed respectable collegia. Centonarius
is the title of a mirae of Laberius if we supply mimus, we might

compare this with mimus laserpiciarius 35, 15, and understand

that Echion was an actor in a rairae in which a cento figured.
— oro melius loquere parataxis, cf. Introd. p. xli. Donatus :

on Ter. Andria 204, bona verba quaeso, says that this is a euphe-
raisticphrase; quasi dicat 'meliora loquere rogo te'; the sense is
that of melius ominare. modo sic, modo sic 'now it's one — :

way and now another, as the farmer said,' etc. Sam Weller

is f amous for similar comparisons cf, e.g., AU good feelin',


sir . the wery best intentions, as the genlm'n said ven he

. .

run away frora his wife, 'cos she seeraed unhappy with him,'
replied Mr. Weller so deus miserere animabus, dixit Oswald
92 NOTES. CHAP. 45, LINE8 4-17.

cadens in terram; see Otto, Sprichworter, p. xxx. dici potest — :

for the less lively dici possei. —

laborat hoo tempore proba- :

bly from financial straits. Municipalities in Hadrian's time

became so involved in debt on account of reckless and extrava-
gant building, that their fiscal management had to be under-
taken by the Roman senate. This may partially explain the
hard times alluded to; cf. also 1. 8 in the following chapter.

— caelua Introd. p. xxxv, C the appearance of similar masc.


forms for the neuter, dates early Ennius has undantem salejn, ;

fretum omnem; they are also found in inscriptions. et ecce — :

Introd. p. xxxvii, D, 1 on excellente, cf Introd. p. xxxv, B. On


such a festive triduum as is here mentioned, see Friedl. Sitteng. ii.

424. Fesla hints not only at the spectaculum, but also at the epu-
lum and the divisiones. lanisticia — liberti 'no mere training . . . :

class,but most of them past masters in the art.' Libertus is the

gladiator who has been rude donatus and reappears in the arena
on his own accord ;
this sense of the word is shown by gladiato-
rial inscriptions with the abbreviation lib. or libr.; C.T.L. XII.
3324 VI. 10180.
A Pompeian inscription records that after eight
contests a certain gladiator was made lihertus. Rich munici-
pales frequently made a present of gladiatorial shows to their
fellow-citizens cf Suet. Tiber. 37 Mart. iii. 59 Orelli, 2545.
; ; ;

— caldicerebrius : in the words of Portia, '

his hot temper leaps
o'er a cold decree."' — sine fuga :
he will give us a fine show of
steel, with good fighting to the death.' et habet unde il a de — :

quoi ; cf Ter. Adelph. 122, est unde haecfant. sestertium tri- —

centies Trim. 71, 45, hopes to leave an estate as large as this;

he had once lost as much by a shipwreck in a successful voyage ;

he had made ten million, and he might have married that much
more; cf 74, 38; 76, 9 and 18. quadringenta impendat: —
over twenty thousand dollars the amount spent on the games

was sometimes enormous. Milo spent so much that the people

deemed him crazy; cf Cic. Ad Quint. frat. iii. 9, 2; Friedl.

Sitteng. ii. 307. — Manios

explained as the debased use of the

praenomen Manius, like the Eng. Johnny,' Jack,' hodge,' or

' ' '
NOTES. CHAP. 45, LINES 17-37. ^6

the Ger. hdnse. — essedariam :

cf. Tac. Annal. xiv. 35, Bouduicd,
curru Jilios prae se vehens solitum quidem Brittanis feminarum
. . .

ductu hellare testahatur ; this was 61 a.d. Cf also Mau-Kelsey,

Pompeii, p. 217, also pp. 213-220, on gladiatorial shows in Pom-

delectaretur Introd. p. xxxvi, E, 3.
: rixam in C.I.L. — :

X. 1948, we have the cry of a dying gladiator, addressed to the

audience post praemia rixulasque vestras.
: ad bestias dedit — :

such punishment was regulated by law; Mau-Kelsey, p. 213.

On fighting with wild animals, cf Mart. ii. 14, 18 (a bull); i.
43, 14 (a wild boar).

stratum caedit: 'who cannot beat the
mule, whacks the saddle.''

filicem: 'truck'; contemptuous for

— coliibra r^stem n6n parit the apple does not : f all far
from — dedit suas: 'has fouled his own nest';
its tree. suas
refers first to the wife, then to all the women of his household

generally,and thus to the household itself stigmam Introd. .

— :

p. XXXV, A, 1. Greek neuters in -a easily became first decl. fem.

in Latin, since the latter had no neuters in -a. quod — . . .

epulum daturus Introd. p. xliii. Such divisiones and epula as


are here mentioned are abundantly attested by inscriptions ;

cf the Indices in Wilmanns, Exemp. Inscrip. p. 664; C.I.L. X.

pp. 1181-1183; XIV. p. 596; Plin. Ad Traj. 116 f. mihi et —
meis these latter are the augustales, who were commonly re-

membered in the divisiones by a gift of two denarii, or the mem-

bers of the collegium centonariorum to which Echion belonged.

— vinciturum Introd. p. xxxvi, E, 1, possibly a plebeian form


developed in order to distinguish vinco from vivo in the third

stem. The reference is to the next election of duumvirs and
aediles. — bestiarios at best but poor fighters and not equal to

the venatores. — occidit equites: 'he had mounted

. . .
ers kill each other who were no better than lamp figurines.'
Fighting scenes were frequently represented on the lamps placed
in the graves of gladiators lamps have also been found shaped

like a gladiator's helmet. — burdubasta: literally, 'an ass's

burden,' hence, 'a dummy'; probably from hurdus = burdo and

*hastum, seen in basterna, 'litter.'

tertiarius 'and the bye [the :
94 NOTES. CHAP. 45, LINE 39; CHAP. 46, LINE 11.

contestaiit who sat waiting to fight the victor of the first

was as good as dead.' The usual word is suppositicius, as in
C.I.L. IV. 1179, gladiatorum paria XXX et

Mart. V. 24, 8. Cf. C. G.L. II. 320, 59. — adeo{rum)


by rote

of ten the spectators shouted the thrusts and guards (the dictata)
to the fighters, and sometimes to their advantage, as spectators
do at ball games to-day. —
ad summam: cf. Introd. p. xl, E, 5;
Hand. — adhibete give to them';
Tursellinus, iii. 264. :

sc.virgas ferrumque. the cry of impatience from the

This is

audience when the fighting weak. — fugae merae 'every one is :

of them nothing but quitters'; Introd. E, — manus p. xl, 4.

mauum lavat : a Greek proverb, d Se ^etp ttjv x^^P^ vit,u.

46. argutat : Introd. p. xxxvi, E, 3. Agamemnon^ being a

mau of better manners, had remained although he could
talk charmingly (qui potes loqui, next line). fasciae you
— :

don't wear our colors don't belong to our set. pauperorum

— :

2d decl. forms of pauper occur from the time of Plaut. through

the fourth century a.d., in literature and inscriptions Ronsch,
— prae literas — quid

Itala uiid Vulgata, p. 275. :

cf. 39, 29. ergo
est cf 30, 30 39, 7.
— te persuadeam : this construction of
the acc. with persuadeo is found only in Petr. and Apuleius cf.


62, 2 ; 44, 5 and 34 cf Drager, Hist. Synt. I. 405. belle erit :


cf. 42, 19. dispare pallavit set everything to
growing out
of season.' Dispare = dispariter ; Neue, Formenl. II. 587. Pal-
lavit is explained as a corruption of pulavit used in a causative
sense. Echion felt "how many things by season seasoned are |

to their right praise and true perfection," though the present

times seemed to be out of joint. cicaro my youngster so — :
' '

71, 35 Trim., however, has no children. The w^ord is probably


a derivative of endearment, from cicur or ciccum ; so Pollio from

Paulus, or MlkkvXlwv from fiLKpo^. quattuor partes i.e., he — :

can the one-fourth, one-half, three-fourths, of any number


divisible by four he knows his table of fours cf. also 58, 23

; ; ;

75, 9. servulum not really he speaks as one who had once

NOTES. CHAP. 46, LINE 14; CHAP. 47, LINE 5. 95

been a servus himself He means parvulus or puerulus. dixi


quod :
cf. 45, 30, and Gildersleeve-Lodge, Latin Grammar, 525, 7.

— Graeculis calcem impingit he makes a good foundation in :


Greek'; this being his mother tongue. He is also pursuing the

study of the universally spoken Latin with fair results. sibi —

44, 30

placens :
self-complacent cf. Pleraeus, Sprache des
— venit dem
; ;

Petron. p. 32. literas = venit petens ut tradam quod

litteris consignet, since he is employed as a grammatista and lihra-
rius ad manum. — libra rubricata :
law books.' Librum is for
liber;perhaps the Greek neut. (3l/3\lov is in the speaker's sub-
consciousness. The neuter occurs in glossaries cf C.G.L. VI. ;

640. The scholiast on Persius, 5, 90, says, rubricam vocant

minium quo tituli legum annotabantur ; hence in the Digests, suh
ruhrica — suh titulo. —
domusionem 'for honie use cf 48, 9. :

— tonstreinum 'the barber's trade'; strictly, 'the barber's



shop ;
but the two senses were easily confused. So sutrinum and
textrinwn denote either the shop or the trade of the shoemaker
or the weaver, respectively. That we have two concrete words
following is explained by the fact that the words denoting the
respective professions did not exist cf Mart. v. 56, 9, discat ;

citkaroedus, 'learn to become a player'; so Xen. Mem. iv. 4, 5,

cStSa^aro avTov arKvrea. On the dignity of the lawyer's profes-
sion, cf Friedl. Sitteng. i. 326. — Phileronem :
plebeian form
for Philerotem Introd. p. xxxv, B cf 63, 2. This is, of course,
; ;

not the guest named in 43, 1 the causidicus is plainly mentioned ;

as being absent. —
Norbanum cf 45, 32 evidently one of :

the most prominent honoratiores and office-seekers of the town.

— thesaurum this neut. f orm for thesaurus occurs in church

Latin and in glossaries. " a treasure, a

Though learning is still

trade's a good thing."

47. nec medici se inveniunt :

can't find themselves,* ' are
fazed ;
a colloquialism of Petr.'s time ; cf Sen. De Benef v. 12,
and Controvers. iii.
praefat. 13, vix se invenient.
— taeda ex
96 NOTES. CHAP. 47, LINE 5; CHAP. 48, LINE 5.

aceto probably not nnlike modern Greek resinated wine in


taste,though probably giimmy, since it was also good for tooth-

ache cf. Plin. Nat. Hist. xxiv. 41. spero imponet para- — . . . :

taxis; Introd. p. xli, F. putes Introd. p. xliii, {d). sua re — :

facere 'to consult his welfare'; perhaps comparable with Plaut.

Capt. 296, tua {ex) re feceris. pudeatur Introd. p. xxxvi, E, 2. — : "^

— continere :
cf. Suet. Claud. 32. — lovis : Introd. p. xxxv, B
a popular form in early and late Latin. vetuo Introd. p. xxxiii, — :

B, 4 as metui comes f rom metuo, so vetui was popularly referred


to a pres. vetuo ; Heraeus, Sprache des Petr. p. 39. — minutalia :

in apposition with cetera ; 'and other things that may be neces-

sary.' What these are is hinted at in an old glossary cf C.G.L. ;

V. 621, 26, = VI. 701 Heraeus, Sprache, p. 9.

clivo laborare — :

i.e., 'that we had not yet reached the top of the hill''; a Latin
proverb, reappearing in Sen. Epis. xxxi. 4, clivum isfum uno,
si potes, spiritu exsupera.

petauristarios it was a common :

thing in Rome to see rope-dancers, fakirs with their trained

animals, Marsian snake-eaters and charmers, surrounded by
crowds spectators ; cf Mart. i. 41, 7.
(circuli) of fieri — :

Introd. p. xl, E, 1 so faciunt, next line. penthiacum

; beef — :

a la mode,' stuck through and through with pork, as Pentheus

was stabbed by the Maenads. That the meat is beef is
shown from 1. 77 of Vespa, Judicium coci, AnthoL Lat. (ed.
Riese) I. p. 169, est et mihi de bove Pentheus. decuria: when- —
ever any division of slaves became numerous, it was divided
into decuriae, supervised by decuriones or monitores. domi —
natus = vernaculus; so home-raised bees are vernaculae, 38, 7.

48. vinum mutabo the wine he had served yesterday

. . . :

was poor; cf 34, 23. —

bonum faciatis 'relish'; cf 39, 5. :

ad salivam facit makes your mouth water :
so Sen. Epist.


Ixxix, 7, Aetna tibi salivam movet. ego novi the pron. . . . :

used for contrast, hence not redundant. Tarraciniensibus — :

the epenthesis of i af ter n due to popular misspelling so C.I.L. ;

NOTES. CHAP. 48, LINES 6-24. 97

IV. 128, salinienses ; XI. 1421, circienses. agellis the diminii-

— :

tive of endearment increases the sense of personal relation,

interest, or possession ; agellis therefore = meis ipsius agris ;

cf. misella, 63, 8, and audaculum, 63, 12. — Africam Introd.


p. xxxviii, E, 1 ;
so Plaut. Poen. 831, quasi Acheruntem veneris.
— declamasti :
parataxis the impv. is little more thaii an

interj. For the training of their scholars, rhetoricians had

two kinds of exercises, suasoriae and coniroversiae ; cf. Friedl.
Sitteng. iii. 389. A number composed by Seneca still survive.
— fastiditum Introd. p. xxxviii, E, 3.
peristasim the — :

cf. Liddell & Scott, under vTrd^ecrts and

facts in the case ;

also Quint. Institut. v. 10, 104. pauper et dives — :

a popular theme in controversiae ; cf. Sen. Controv. ii. 1 v. 2. ;

— pollicem porcino extorsit :

twisted his thumb off for him
after he had been changed into a Trim. has a shadowy pig.'
and very confused recollection of Ulysses' meeting with Poly-
phemus and Circe. In chap. 50 he shows a similarly hopeless
confusion. —
apud Homerum he had done this in the ludus :

— nam Sibyllam (and I know a great deal

more than what is found in Ilomer) for,' etc. on the ellipsis, ;

cf 38, 9. — 2£Pv\Xa tC QiKns : Varro names ten sibyls this ;

number indicates that the oracles, comprising the so-called Sibyl-

line books, were gathered from very many sources. That the
Cumaean sibyl was so famed is accounted for by the fact that
Cumae was settled from Asia Minor, whence the oldest oracles
came. She owes mainly to the Aeneid her prominence in the
art of the Renaissance. Because her oracles are immortal, she
is immortal also,
though longing to die cf Propert. ii. 2, 16, ;

etsi Cumaeae saecula vatis

aget; Mart. ix. 29, 3. In Petr. the
sibyl is conceived as shrivelled up to the size of a grasshopper,
like Tithonus, else she would not be in anampuUa; cf James,
Class. Rev. vi. 74. Portia, in the Merchant of Venice, i. 2,
says, "If I live to be as old as Sibylla, I will die as chaste
as Diana unless I be obtained by the manner of my father's
will." On Cumis, cf Introd. p. xix, n. 7.
98 NOTES. CHAP. 49, LINE 1, TO CHAP. 51, LINE 2.

49. efilaverat: 'he had not yet finished blowing.' The

common sense is 'to with one's dying breath';
expire,' or 'say
so Florus, ii. 17, 7 (ed. Jahn), verum est quod moriens Brutus

—paulo ante fuerat the live pig of 47, 32. This is

the third course of the cena proper. voca in medio = — . . .

in medium ; cf. the converse fui in funus, 42, 5. despolia — :

'strip him.' The cloak-room in the amphitheatre and the

baths was called spoliarium. solet — fieri : the time-honored
plea of the apologist cf Sen. Controv.
ii. 12, 10, nihil peccaverat,
amat meretricem : solet fieri. So Donatus on Ter. Phorm. 245,
quod a precatoribus dici solebat, hoc dicit: communia esse, etferi

50. automatum

: in 54, 15 it means an actual


mechanism involving a surprise. Gaio cf note on C. noster, :

30, 12. —Corinthea = Corinthia, but is formed like an adj. of

material. Trim. means that his bronzes are of that lump into
which Corinth with all its metals was melted up at the same ;

time the bronze dealer of w^hom he buys is named Corinth.

The pun is weak and is based on a confusion of Corinthus,
the city, with Corinthus, an aerarius. — statunoula : Iiitrod.

p. xxxvi, C, 2 the diminutive of statua

is found in all genders ;

the neut. due to the influence of signum (statue), the general


word with wliich statuncula would be associated in sense. The

neut. form may also be accounted for by the fact that Greek
diminutives are as a rule neut. Trim. had used Greek from his

certe non olunt Corinthian bronzes had a peculiar

odor which served as evidence of their genuineness cf Mart. ;

ix. 59, 11, Consuluit nares an olerent aera Corinthon.

51. Caesarem = ad Caesarem. Such an omission of the prep.

before the name of a person is rare. This Caesar is probably
Tiberius. Plin., Nat. Hist. xxxvi. 195, states that the discov-

ery of a malleable glass was made in his reign, and that the
NOTES. CHAP. 51, LINE 3; CHAP. 52, LINE 5. 99

inventor's factory was destroyed lest such glass take the place
of the precious metals and cause their decline. He, however,
discredits the story. Dio Cassius, Ivii. 21, tells of an engineer
who righted a porticus which leaned out of the true line, and
was banished, in consequence, as an uncanny wizard. In
pleading before the Emperor to be allowed to return, he
dropped a giass cup, which did not break but was merely
bruised by the fall. He repaired the dent with his fingers and
hoped such skill would win the Emperor's favor. He was,
however, put to death. fecit se porrigere :* 'he made as —
though to oifer.'

non pote valdius quam = quam valdissime
poterat: Caesar was most mightily scared'; literally, '(it was)

not possible (to be) more mightily (scared) than Caesar was.'
— vasum : Introd. p. xxxv, A, 4. — martiolum :
hammer '

; cf.
the name of the conqueror at Poitiers, Charles Mariel. Marcus
= 'large hammer'; hence the dimin. marculus, martellus. From
these came the second dimin. martiolus; = Fr. marteau, Sp. mar-
tillo. —
solium lovis the seventh heaven cf. 37, 8
: so Hor.

; ;

Epist. i.
17, 31:, res gerere et captos ostendere civihus hostes attingit
— quia

solium lovis et caelestia tentat. enim : Introd. p. xxxvii,

D, 3. — pro luto :
cf 44, 22.

52. in argento = in argentum; cf. 46, 13. Silver plate is

meant, with which the wealthy Romans loaded their tables cf ;

Friedl. Sitteng. iii. 122.— scyphos urnales : these werehuge

— plus minus C:

an urna = about 22 pints. 'a hundred more

or less.' This asyndeton is found in glosses, cf C.G.L. VI.
under ferme and circiter ; also in inscriptions {C.I.L. III. 3980)
and in literature cf Stat. Silv. iv. 9, 22, emptuin plus minus


asse Caiano. Cassandra (and one I prize very highly :


which has the scene showing) how,' etc; Medea is of course

meant. —
mortui vivere this is up to the level of Trim.'s
. . . :

punning ; on the cf Ov. Metam. x. 250, virginis est

verae facies ut vivere credas. ubi Daedalus Niobam: (and — '

on one is shown the scene) where,' etc. he probably means the ;

100 NOTES. CHAP. 62, LINE 6; -CHAP. 53, LINE 2.

thrusting of Pasiphae into the wooden cow. Mummius may

possibly have been suggested to the befuddled mind of Trim.
by the allusions above to Corinthian bronze, though he is now
talking about silverware.

nam Hermerotis cf. nam, 38, 9 :

on this combination of mythological and gladiatorial scenes, cf.

29, 21. Pompeian graffiti have been found referring to gladia-
tors and giving the names Prudes and Tetraites. These same
names have been found in gladiatorial scenes on old Roman
glass vessels found in other parts of Europe, with a variant
Petrahes or Petraeites.— meum intelligere my knowledge :
' '

so Pers. 1,122, hoc ridere meum; cf Conington's note, and

Wolfflin, Archiv, 75. — tamquam ego tibi the idea being,
iii. :

you are your own enemy.'
— tandem ergo the breaks in the :

lines give some suggestion of how greatly the ojiginal has

been condensed by the epitomator. — cordaoem ducit = . . .

KopSaKtt kXKvew: for a woman

was of course extremely
indecent. Dancing at any time, excepting on the stage and at

religious ceremonies, was offensive to the Roman hence Cic,


Pro Mur. 6, says nemo fere saltat sobrius, nisi forte insanit.
madeia, perimadeia Trim. himself goes through this genuine

tarantella, while the slaves keep time with the refrain, which
seems to mean (well done) by Zeus, oh yea by Zeus.' The

words are possibly Greek, /x.a Aia Trept /xa Ata, and from some
song of a dithyrambic character. Trim. intends a pantomimic
performance, acting out the text, and the slaves taking the part
of the chorusand singing the text. That it is in Greek is not
surprising such pantomimic texts were frequently heard even

on the Roman stage; Harpers' Dict. Class. Antiq., p. 1168.

53. urbis acta possibly in imitation of the journals of the


imperial house (ephemerides ; cf Suet. A ug. c. 64) or of the acta

urhis Romae. It was, however, a necessity that Trim. as master
of a large property should have regular reports made, whether
he imitates the imperial custom or not. —
VII. Kal. Sex. the :

date up to which the report for the first six months of the pre-
NOTES. CHAP. 53, LINE 10; CHAP. 54, LINE 1. 101

ceding year is brought. It has been delayed during July in

preparation, and is now read fully six months after being made
up. There has been a still longer delay in submitting the

ledger account, rationes, containing inter alia his purchase of

Pompeian gardens. So vast are Trim.'s transactions that the
actuarius does not hesitate to say it is hardly time to expect a

report on what he claims is so recent a matter. To Trim. it

does not seem so ;
YiQwcQ excanduit below. — Pompeianis : since
Trim's gentile name is Pompeius, derived from his last ovvner,
these horti may havebelonged to this last owner until bought
or inherited by Trim., and may thus derive their name; it is
possible, however, that they lay near Pompeii, and the name is
thus derived. —
cum elogio exheredabatur disinherited :

with honorable mention.' It was only by the courtesy of the

master that a slave could niake a will. Masters usually in-
herited something from the lihertus, whether by will or not,
unless they had given a release lihertatis causa during the life of
the lihertus. — baro : here and in 63, 17, '
an athlete '

it is the
Eng. 'baron.' It is explained as meaning corpore lit. a man
rohore ferox, or corporis robore stolide ferox. It then passes over
into the sense of proceres, ' vassals,' in which it is employed in
documents of Charles the Bald, 850 a.d. odaria saltare — :

to give a song-and-dance perf ormance like the old Latin ;

Atellanae or a modern vaudeville number. Ovid in his exile

was pleased to know that his poems were often " danced " in
the theatre and received with applause. Tristia, ii. 519.


nam cf 52, 6. Atellaniam facere this would be employ- :

ing a first-rate troupe for second-rate shows. Good plays, in

Trim.'s time, were not sufficiently attractive and well patronized
to hold their place on the stage. The public taste was low.
Cf Friedl. Sitteng. ii. 443.

54. haec dicente Gaio :

'just at the moment Gaius was
thus speaking the boy fell from above (upon the shoulder) of
Trimalchio.' Gaio is plainly corrupt if it refers to Trim., for
102 NOTES. CHAP. 64, LINE 3; OHAP. 55, LINE 15.

the name immediately follows by which Encolpius always men-

tions hira. — hominem tam putidum so disagreeable a being
' '

the boy, not Trim. cf. 34, 15. In 73, 7, however, Encolpius
— alienum mortuum

speaks of Trim.'s iactatio as putidissima. :

have somebody's f uneral on their hands the expression ;

seems part of a proverb. nam cf. nam, 52, 6. pessime — :

erat :I had a very uncomfortable .feeling
cf. Introd. p.



xxxvii, C. catastropha a stage trick the word occurs :


only in Petron. and may be a theatrical term cf. Collignon, ;

^tude sur Petrone, p. 276.

55. In praecipiti :
how sudden a shift there is in human
affairs.' The phrase used with reference to the. headlong

descent of the tumbler. Cf, however, Juv. 1, 147, omne in prae-

cipiti vitium stetit, which shows that the phrase has also a
general sense. ita —
really f requent in this sense at the be-
' '


ginning of a sentence cf 75, 12. ex transverso

the un- :


expected always happens ;

so Plaut. Trin. 361 ;
multa eveniunt
volt, quae nevolt.
homini, quae Cf with the epigram in 34, 30,
on the pentameter preceded by two hexameters. Mopsum —
Thracem this poet belongs in the same category with the

Trojan Hannibal. The epitomator seems to have put the entire

account of the poetarum mentio into a single condensed sentence
of his own. —
On Publilius [Syrus], cf Teuifel, Hist. Rom.
Lit., § 212, 3. The following lines are generally considered to
be an imitation by Trim. in the style of the poet. Ribbeck,
however, prints them among the fragments of Publilius in his
Scaen. Roman. Poesis Frag., II. 303. Publilius was chiefly an
actor and improvisatore, hence only stage copies of his plays
were in circulation. Of his plays we have only the names of
two. The metre which follows is the senarius; Gildersleeve-
Lodge, Latin Grammar, 761. The poem is of such marked vigor
and excellence in choice of words and in alliteration that it

reveals the skill of the actual Petronius behind his dummy

Trimalchio. — tuo palato :
is cooped up and raised for thy
NOTES. CHAP. 55, LINE 19; CHAP. 66, LINE 18. 103

palate, clad in its plumage of royal gold.' The Numidian

pheasant is the afra avis of Hor. Epod. ii. 53. pietaticultrix — :

'haunter of temples.' Titulus —

harbinger of spring.' On the :

stork as a bird for the table, cf. Hor. Sat. ii. 2, 49, tutus erat
rhombus tutoque ciconia nido. Here, however, it finds its final

nest in the stewing-kettle of a luxurious bon-vivant. — bacam

Indicam : sc. optas from below. Horace, Sat. ii. 3, 239, also
calls the pearl a baca — phaleris and precious
pearls, corals,
stones are conceived of as the trappings of luxury.
Carche- '

donios :
why dost thou covet the flash of oriental stones.'
Pliny writes in his Nat. Hist. xxxvii. 92, carbunculi a simili-

tudine ignium appellati. Horum genera Indici et Garamanticif

et Carchedonios vocavere propter opulentiam
quos Carthaginis

56. medicum et nummularium : concrete words for ab-

stract names
of the professions; so 46, 26. anatinum like — ;

goose-grease, it may have been good for colds. Cato, according

to Plut. Cat. Mai. 23, 6, frequently dosed his household wdth
duck's and hare's meat. aes videt the denarius had been — :

debased in Nero's time Mart. xii. 57, 8, hinc otiosus sordidam


quatit mensam Neroniana nummularius massa. nam mutae — :

(but not men
alone lead toilsome lives) for the dumb,' etc. —
illae cf Introd. p. xxxvi, B.
: ibi et acidum every sweet has
— :

its sour cf Plaut. Pseud. 63 Juv. 6, 181 (voluptas) plus aloes
— pittacia
; ;

quam mellis habet. the boy read what was upon the :

cards,and gave each guest the corresponding apophoretum, which

was determined in each instance by a word-pun. This was a
popular diversion as early as the time of Augustus and is not
yet out of vogue cf Friedl., Introd. to Mart. Apophoreta, and

Apoph. xiii. 5. —
argentum sceleratum a silvered (s)ham a :
' '

trinket resembling a ham (o-KeAt? = leg ') is brought; the pun is '

on scEL-era^wm. Corresponding to argentum are silver acetabula;

cf Heraeus, Sprache Petr., p. 12. offla collaris —
a piece of ;

meat off the neck.' — serisapia : this being word-punning,

104 NOTES. CHAP. 56, LINE 20; jCHAP. 57, LINE 12.

where the joke depends on the sound of the words, nothing is

effected by translation. Seri + sapia = xero + pJiagi seri and ;

xero soiind alike, while sapio (^ to taste ') suggests the Greek
root phag, to eat.' Contu + melia = contus (curri) melo. Note

that malum, apple,' could be pronounced melum, and that all


the romance derivatives show the e ; A rchiv Lat. Lex. iii. 528 ;

vi. 438. — porri : this is the porrum sectile (Friedl. ;

Mart. iii

47, 8) ;
sectile is f rom seco ; Jiagello secare is a common phrase :

thus that porri suggests Jlagellum ; as joer-siCA does cultrum.

it is
— canale the sound suggests canis ; the sense of the latter sug-

gests lepus. Pedale suggests the sandal (solea) and this the fish
solea; cf. Plaut. Cas. 495; Heraeus, Sprache, p. 13. sexcenta —
thousands of others of this sort.' Indef numeral.

57. discumbebat: this is the guest who explained the

*Carpe'pun; 36, 16; from 59, 2 it is seen that his name is
Hermeros. —
vervex: a common term of reproach; so Plaut.
Merc. 567, Itane vero, verbex ? intro eas ? cf. Juv. 10, 50, Verve-
cum in patria. These two chapters, in which Hermeros does
some severe scolding, are full of "bad names." domini mei: —
like 'boss' or 'old man,' used by certain kinds of people to-day
in addressing or alluding to their superiors; cf. Friedl. Sitteng.
i. 443, iJber den Gebrauch der Anrede "domine" im gemeinen
Leben. — tutelam . . .
propitiam : 'so help me Heaven ;

44, 34, and Introd. p. xxxix, D, 2 the threatening lan-
75, 6 ; ;

guage continues to the end of the following chapter. On propi-

tiam, cf Wilmanns, Exemp. Inscrip., nos. 251 and 252. Tutela =

genius; cf 74, 36 and note on 37, 6. cluxissem 'shut off — :

his blatting nonsense pleb. for clusissem (= clausissem'), s and

X being interchangeable, as in serisapia = xerophagi, 56, 18. —

bellum pomum added to vituperation and threats.
: sarcasm is

Ridealur ; Introd. p. xxxvi, E, 3. Neue, Formenlehre, II. 86. —

ad summam: here, as in chap. 37, where Hermeros was the
speaker, ad summam is a favorite phrase. So quid si non with
Seleucus, chap. 42 itaque with Ganymedes, chap. 44.
vermes —
NOTES. CHAP. 67, LINES 13-26. 105

nascuntur 'under proper conditions anything will happen.'


On the speaker's ferocious temper, cf. 58, 12. fetum .

— . .

lamna did his father have to buy his precious kid with

money ?
On lamna = '
money,' cf. Mart. ix. 22, 6,aurea lamna ;
so Hor. Od. ii. 2, 2; cf. lamellulas, below, 1. 30 and 58, 25. —
eques Romanus he had seen the gold rings on Ascyltus's

finger : in 58, 33 he contemptuously calls them annulos buxeos.

— homo inter homines cf. 39, 9 and Suet. Nero, 31, quasi:

homlnem habitare, where homo implies the dignity of manhood.

Hermeros probably had royal blood in his veins, if, like Trim.,
he came from the Orient. To make his way in the world, he
sells himself into slavery at Kome and thus being attached to
to some influential Roman, he becomes at last a Ubertus, a civis
Romanus. To have remained at home in the conquered prov-
ince would have subjected him, as a tributarius, to the degrading

poll-tax, as it was levied throughout Egypt, Judea, and Persia.

As a slave, he had to do many things operto capite, now he can
walk anywhere aperto capite and feel no shame. redde quod —
debes he does not owe a red copper to anybody he has

never had a summons served on him; cf Ovid, Ars Am. iii.

449, redde meum, toto voce boanti foro; so Sen. De Ben. iii. 14,
aequissima vox est, ius gentium prae se ferens, redde quod debes ;
St. Matt. xviii. 28, pay me that thou owest.'
ventres pasco: —
having got a little cash on hand, he keeps up a goodly estab-
lishment; cf Sen. Epis. 17, S,facile est pascere paucos ventres. —
sevir gratis I was made commissioner of the Augustates with

rebate of fees.' Sevir and seviratus occur outside of Petronius

only in inscriptions, as in C.I.L. II. 1934. Cf Wilmanns, Indices.

On the functions of these men, cf note on 30, 8. peduclum — :

cf the circumstance which prompted Burns to write :

" wad some power the giftie gie us

To see oursels as ithers see us ;

It wad f rae mony a blunder free us an' foohsh notion.

What airs in dress an' gait wad lea'e us an' ev'n devotion."
106 NOTES. CHAP. 57, LINE 27; CHAP. 58, LINE 4.

For pediculum, whence Ital. pidocchio ; Span. piojo. Cic. writes,

Tusc. iii. 30, 73, est ejiim proprium stultitiae aliorum vitia cernere,
oUivisci suorum. — ridiclei : Introd. p. xxxiii, B, 3. — maior
natus: Gildersleeve-Lodge, 296, 5; the usual numeral is
omitted. — lacticulosus :
a mamma's pet, you dare not say
boo, you're cracked.' More scolding. On the form, cf. such
formations as somniculosus, meticulosus. With mu argutas, cf.
Lucilius (ed. Lachmann), 1138, non laudare hominem quenquam
nec mu facere unquam. In i. 6, 7, Propert. has the active, illa

mihi argutat noctihus ignes.

totis On lorus in aqua, cf. Mart. vii.
58, 3, madidoque simillima loro inguina. vasus fctilis, cf On
Cic. Ad. Att. vi. 1, 13, vasis fctilibus. fidem malo — meam :

repeats 11. 19 and 20; the challenge is repeated in 58, 29.

— puer capillatus : so Ganymedes of himself 44, Q and 12,

— basilica non erat facta

and Trim. of himself, 75, 24. : Introd.

p. XX, n. —
maiiesto et dignitosso 'majestful and dignifer- :

ous a labored pompousness on the formation of dignitosso,
; ;

cf. succossi, 38, 13. Adj. in -osus from nouns in -ias are rare. —
hac illac :
asyndeton as in minus plus, 52, 2 cf. Ter. Heaut.
512. — genio illius gratias : 'thanks to his honor

'; cf 37, 6. —
athla = pericula : note the large number of Greek words and
forms which Hermeros employs in this and the foUowing

58. Qui ad pedes stabat as pedisequus ; cf 26, 10 Giton :


played the part not unwillingly he is the deliciae of Ascyltus. ;

It may, indeed, be that the Satirae was a love tale after the Mile-
sian style, with Giton taking the place of the usual heroine.
On the pedisequus, cf Seut. Calig. 26, and Senec. De Benef iii. 27,
1, servus qui cenanti ad pedes steterat: so Mart. xii. 87, and iii.
23. — caepa cirrata: 'you frizzled onion'; he was a curly-
headed youngster ;
hence below, 1. 18, those cheap baby locks.' '

In Pers. i. 29, cirrati = '


; cf Mart. ix. 29, 7, cirrata

caterva magistri. Again more scolding, sarcasm, bragging, and

NOTES. CHAP. 58, LINES 5-20. 107

threats. — io Saturnalia:
merry Christmas
This, of course, !

is more sarcasm. Cf. C.I.L. IV. 2005% with facsimile, reading'

Saturnina lo Saturnalia ; and Mart. xi. 2, 5, clamant ecce mei


lo Saturnalia versus \
et licet et sub te praeside, Nerva, lihet.

December est cf. 30, 11. vicesimam: the payment of 5%


of the slave's value, to be made by him or his master at manu-
mission. In 71, 6, Trim. promises a slave his liberty with a

present of the vicesima.

corvorum cibaria: cf. Hor. Epist. i.
16, 48; Sat. i, 3, 82 ii. 7, 47. curabo ut is regularly omitted
— :

after curo in the Serm. Pleh. in the Cena; so in Cic. Ad fam.

ii. 8, 1; Hor. Sat. ii. 6, 38. —
satur fiam: 'may I starve if Fm
not keeping cool just to oblige Trim.' depresentiarum 'on — ;

the spot'; cf 74, 44. The word belongs to the Sermo Pleh.;
for the usual impraesentiarum. We have this same plebeian
word in the Vulgate, Gen. 1. 20 Levit. viii. 34, = '
as it is


this day,' 'ashe hath done this day.' isti nugae sc. sunt, :

they are a poor lot.' So Cic. says of Pompey, that his friends

are merae nugae ; Ad Att. vi. 3, 5. qualis dominus a Greek — :

proverb, olairep BicnroLva, rova xv kv(jdv. Cic. gives the first part
in Ad Att. v. 11, 5.
— caldicerebrius :
cf, however, 57, 3 and
11. — in publicum : Introd. p. xxxviii, E, 3. — terrae tuber :

'toad-stool.' In southern Italy they still call a dullard tar-tufolo.

From this comes the Eng. 'truffles.' nec sursum nec deor- —
sum :
I don't grow (i.e., may I not grow) another inch up or
down,' etc. The redundant
neg., and the inappropriateness of
deorsum, betray the hot anger of Hermeros. On the use of
sursum and deorsum together, cf Ter. Eun. 278, ne sursum deor-

sum cursites. rutae folium: cf note on 37, 19. parsero: —
Introd. p. xxxvi, E, 1, and Neue, Formenl. II. 368. Plaut. prefers
this form of the perfect stem. longe sit comula: so Caes. —
Bell. Gall. i. 36, si id non longe
fecissent, iis fraternum nomeri
pop. Rom. afuturum. — venies sub dentem :

yes, yes, I'll chew

you up.' So Gellius, Noc. Att. vi. 9, 4, in quoting Laberius,
simul suh dentes mulieris veni his, ter momordit. — barbam auream :


though you be one of the gilded gods.' This interpretation is

108 NOTES. CHAP. 58, LINES 21-28.

confirmed by Persiiis, 2, 58; Cic, Nat. Deor. iii. 34, says that

Dionysius Aesculapii Epidaurii barham auream demi iussit, since

it was not
right for the son (Aesculapius) to have a beard when
the father was beardless in all his temples. — te Xy}p(x)Sr}
fecit :

who (by his
neglect) has made a babbler out of you.' This hits
Ascyltos and the remainder of Hermeros's scolding is directed
at him. —
alogias menias 'senseless foUies.'
lapidarias lit- —
eras I can read capital letters on the stones.'
Books, in
uncials or cursives, woiild be beyond him. The lapidary, or
stone cutter, an opifex quadratarius ; hence his letters are

litterae quadratae. Hiibner, Exemp. Inscrip. p. xxiii, where this

passage is cited.

partes centum dico I can give the hun-

dredth of any sum in asses, pounds, and sesterces.' He believes

he has elementary knowledge enough for practical business.
Like kings and nobles of mediseval times, he leaves writing
and polite reading to men of books. The subdivision of the as
is important, since interest was probably indicated in terms of
the as, both it and the year being duodecimally divided. As a
man, he is naturally further advanced than Echion's son, 46, 10,
who dicit, or Trim.'s slave, 75, 9, qui decem partes
quatuor partes
though this latter lihrum ab oculo legit.
dicit, ego et tu sc. — :

faciamus. Hermeros wishes to bet that he can rout all of

Ascyltos's learning by a single question in the form of a riddle.

— qui de nobis longe venio 'who of us am I who go far and


wide? Guess me you can. ril add more who of us runs and
if :

leaves not his place? who of us grows and yet becomes small?'
Biich. calls these three questions aenigmata de pede, oculo, capillo.
Friedl. quotes a doubtful and labored solution, taken from spin-

ning and weaving. The last two questions are a dialogue be-
tween the wool and the spindle, this latter continually spinning
on its axis, while the former is ever diminished on the distaff
and increased on the spindle. The first question has to do with
weaving single-colored cloths, the rhythm of the machine sug-
gesting that of the words. The same kind of yarn would be
used for woof and web. Thus the thread in the one says to
NOTES. CHAP. 58, LINE 31; CHAP. 59, LINE 5. 109

that in the other, "I come long (in the web), T come wide (in
the woof), now take me off the machine." Plutarch, Quaest.
Conviv. V. pref. 5., says that <f>opTLKOL kol d<^tAoAoyot indulge
in this form of amusement at table yet Trim., 39, 8, took it
to be '


tanquam mus in matella: utter helpless-

ness ;
so Plaut. Casin. 140, tum tu furcifer quasi mus in medio

pariete vorsabere.
— molestare
rare even in church Latin, and :

found in glosses only as a translation of hoyXiui. qui te ua- —

tum non putat :
who isn't conscious of your existence.' Mart.
has this proverbial phrase in x. 27, Nemo tamen natum te, Dio-
dore, putat ; viii. 64, Natum te, Clyte, nec semel putabo. So Sen.
Apocolocyntosis, 3, 2, nemo enim unquam illum natum putavit.
Aristophanes, Wasps, 558, os €fx ovS' av ^cuvr' iJSetv.
— nisi si :

cf. note on 57, 14. Occuponem holy proiit — :

This is one of
those popular deities (indigitamenta), which Roman religion
could and did easily create, a help in trade and commerce,
whose presence and power were felt the more closely, as their
spheres became more specific. They were appealed to therefore
with all the greater faith. On the form of the name, cf Incubo,
38, 16 and Cerdo, 60, 28. —
hoc ferrum: Ilermeros raises his
hand and flaunts his iron ring in the face of Ascyltus who, as a
Roman eques, wore a gold ring. He harps again, as above in 57,
19, on his business success and soundness. ut populus iuret — :

'that people will swear by my funeral as the model one.' Cf

the wish of Trim. in 78, 5. toga perversa —
with your toga :

all about your ears,' i.e., in wild disorder. maiorem maledi- —

cas Introd. p. xxxvi, A.

mera mapalia and their studies :

are simple nonsense.' See Critical Appendix.

59. Suaviter sit potius lefs have things pleasant.' :

75, 17 the combination suaviter esse occurs in early Lat. and


occasionally in inscriptions.
— adulescentulo :
Ascyltus. san-
guen . . . fervet :
cf 57, 11. The form sanguen occurs in
early and in patristic Lat. Neue, Formenl.
I. p. 243 ; Ronsch,
Itala, p. 272. — qui vincitur vincit . . . : so Publilius, 398
110 NOTES. CHAP. 59, LINES 6-23.

(ed. Ribbeck), non vincitur sed vincit qui cedit suis : Ovid, Art.
Am. ii. 197, cedendo victor abihis.
Cf. Otto, Sprichworter, p.
371. — cocococo the word expresses the rooster's crow; sc.

faciehas. The common verb is cucurro. cor non habebas — :

cor = judgment
so Plaut. Pseud. 769, nwic corde conspicio meo.

The double use of et tu shows that Trim. is acting as peace-

maker. He says, "you, H., spare the young fellow, and thus
be the victor; as for you (Asc.) when you were an innocent
chick you crowed well," etc. —
Homeristas found but once :

elsewhere. It appears in glosses among words pertaining to

the theatre ;
these persons are therefore presumably actors, not
mere reciters, who give scenes in costume from Homer. — The
prelude hastis scuta concrepuit, suggests Iliad, iv. 447 fE.,

aijp p e^dXov pLvoi>f(ri>p d' e^xea Kal fihe dvSpuv

XaXKeo^wpi^KWj', aTap dcrirldes d/x^paXdeaaai
eirXrjvT^ dWifjXTjcrt, 7roXi)s 5' dpv/xaydbs dpibpeiv.

So Livy, xxvii. 29, Exercitus gladiis ad scuta concrepuit. —

consedit :
sat up.' —
at insolenter solent the paronomasia :

produces a pun Cic. seems to attempt the same in De Inven-


tione, i. 28, 43, natura eius evenire vulgo soleat an insolenter et

raro. What Trim. intoned from his Lat. book, as the Homer-
istae prepared for their performance, may have been some

parody upon a scene in the Trojan cycle; possibly it is the

insanity of Ajax, which he is producing in the jumbled account
that follows. —
lance ducenaria a dish weighing 200 pounds,'

= 64.4 kilograms. The weight was engraved upon

it, as

upon the lances in 31, 22. Plin. gives an account, in Nat. Hist.
xxxiii. 139-150, of the development of the use of silver service
in the last century of the Republic. The boiled pig, served
upon this lanx, is the principal part of the fourth course of the
cena proper. The cakes in 60, 12 also belong to it. versa — . . .

supina these either agree with manu to be supplied, or are


acc. of the inner obj. with gesticulatus. The sense is, 'hacking
this way and that.'
NOTES. CHAP. 60, LINES 1-20. 111

60. strophas such elegant surprises.' These continue the


methodium of 36, 10 and the catastropJia of 54, 12. Sen., in

Epist. xxvi. 5, speaks of the day when, remotis strophis ac fucis,
de me iudicaturus sum. The word plu. but Plin.,
is commonly


Epist. i. 18, and Mart., xi. 7, 4, use the sing. lacunaria Vale- :

rius Maximus, ix. 1, 5, also writes of movable panels in describ-

ing the dinner of Metullus Pius demissasque lacunarihus aureas


coronas. Even in the Middle Ages ceilings were constructed

with movable panels. —
descenderet with reference to 54, 2. :

— novi de caelo like a deus ex machina. The spreading of


the ceiling had probably opened the dark sky to their gaze. —
coronae .cum alabastris though wine was drunk during
. . :

the eating, real drinking began with the mensa secunda, now
about to be ushered in, or later, in the so-called comissatio graeco
more, during which crowns and ointment, which figure in early
comedy, were distributed. Cf. Nep. Ages. viii., unguenta coro-
nas secundamque mensam servis dispertiit ; Hor. Od. ii. 11, 14.
Mart., X. 19, 20, wants his poems read cum regnant rosa, cum
madent capilli. Cf. below 65, 17. Priapus the god here — :

shares the same artistic purpose to which the goddess Flora is

put; cf Baumeister, Denkm. Klass. Alt. p. 1408. Both are

patrons of gardens and protectors of fruits. — pompam :
snatched too eagerly at the charming display.'So Plaut., Capt.
769 ff. and Stich. 683, uses this word of the tempting array
of good things to eat. Cf Mart. x. 31, 3. nova ludorum —
missio a phrase playfully borrowed from the amphitheatre


'a new event on the programme.' vexatione: 'pressure*;

so Ov. Amor. i. 14, heu male vexatae quanta tulere comae ; cf
Mart. xi. 89, 2. —
religioso apparatu toward the end of the :

Republic, oriental trade had introduced Asiatic spices into

Rome, and these gradually took the place, in sacrifices, of the
old and simple offerings of milkand wine and first fruits of
cattle and land. —
Augusto . . . f eliciter : this has its coun-

terpart in the modern ceremony at banquets of standing and

drinking in silence to the health, or in memory, of some dis-
tinguished person. It is the veneratio genii Augusti, a ceremony
112 NOTES. CHAP. 60, LINES 23-30.

which developed out of his deification. It grew to be a custom

to place the image of his genius beside the lares compitales, to
observe his birthday as a holiday, and to take one's solemn
oath by his genius. Roscher, Myth. Lex. i. p. 1617 Baumeister, ;

p. 593 Preller, Rom. Myth. p. 571.
The ceremony
came during the mensa secunda and with the worship of the
lares, as here in Petr., though he places both acts during the
mensa prima, which continues until the end of chap. 67. Cf.
Hor. Od. iv. 5, 31, hinc ad vina redit laetus et alteris te mensis \

adhibet deum, . . . laribus tuum [^Augusti] miscet numen.

Tiberius refused to be styled pater patriae, the Augustus here
referred to must be Claudius or Nero. Introd. p. xx. mappas —
implevimus :
mappae were employed not oiily as napkins, but
as wrappers in which to tie up and take home the tidbits artd
gifts received at a dinner as apophoreta. Guests, therefore,
frequently provided their own mappae. Cf. Hor. Epis. i. 5, 21


Mart. xii. 29, 21 and viii. 59, 7. succincti tunicas on the :

construction ; cf. Verg. Aen. ii. 511, ferrum inutile \ cingitur.

— Lares bullatos :
images of the household gods with amulets
about their necks. Bullatos is a participial adj. in -atus like

prasinatus, 28, 18, rubricatus, 46, 22. The old name of the
first line of the legionary maniple (hastati) shows how thor-

oughly Latin such adjectives are. For a lar bullatus, engraved

upon the side of an altar found at Caere, see Baumeister, p. 76,
under amulet. Cerdonem — Felicionem Lucrionem
. . . . . . :

Business, Luck, Gain.' These are Trim.'s three guardian
angels and very close to him in all his concerns, as Occupo is to
Hermeros cf. 58, 33 and the note.
; veram imaginem cf — :

Mau-Kelsey, Pompeii, pp. 262-267 and the illustrations, pp. 263

and 265. Placing the lares upon the table together with the
image of Trim. indicates that the mensa prima is at an end the ;

ceremony created a pause, during which there was silence while

an offering was made, of which the salsa mola formed part.
This was the ancient rite at f ormal dining a prayer was also ;

made, both at the beginning and end of the mensa prima.

NOTES. CHAP. 61, LINES 1-22. 113

61. bonam valitudinem : this is the prayer in connection

with the worship of the with which the mensa prima should
end. That it does not do so until chap. 68, is due to the stories
which now follow and the unceremonious entrance of Habinnas.
Prayers for good health of niind and body were frequent. Cf.
Petr. chap. 88; Sen. Epis. x. 4; so Juv. 10, 356; mens sana in

corpore sano. Hor. Od. i. 31, 17-19. suavius esse 'you used — :

to be better dinner company.' Repeated in 64, 7; cf. 42, 19. —

muttis generally, as here, modified by a neg.,
: and used of
human sounds so in Ennius, Phiut., and Terence.
In the Vul-
gate it is used of dogs. — sic f elicem me videas :
if you want
to see me happy.' "The favor is asked in the name of that
which the grantor of the favor would most desire."
Cf Ovid,
Amores, iii. 6, 20 (sic aeternus eas) lahere fine tuo; so Verg. Ecl.
ix. 30, and x. 4; Hor. Od. i. 3, 1.
— dissilio: the commoner verb
in this usage is rumpi orfndi; cf Hor. Sat. ii. 3, 314, and Suet.
Nero. 41. —
viderint: 'let that be their lookout;* cf 62, 34.

— haec ubi dicta dedit: a stock phrase found as early as

Lucilius (cf ed. Miiller, p. 3), haec ubi dicta dedit, pausam facit
ore loquendi; so Verg. Aen. i. 81, and ii. 790. quomodo dii —
volunt : so 76, 2. This was the common reply to the question,
quomodo res tuae ? omnia bene ? — bacciballum :
a most plump
and lovable girl.' The word is of uncertain derivate and mean-
ing, 'ad plenam et rotundam formam spectans '

(Biich.). It

may be connected, in derivation, with bacca, or with saraballum,

a vase with a good round and broad bottom. fef ellitus sum — :

this form of the participle may be due to Greek influence, being

analogous with the Greek perf. pass. part. in its reduplication.
It is probably because Greek diminutives are neut. that statun-

culum is used in 50, 17, for the fem. form. — per scutum . . .

ocream : 'I tried by hook and by crook.' A gladiatorial phrase.

Cf 5, per ornamenta feriet, and Epist.
Sen. Ques. Natur. 4, praef.
xiv. 15,per ornamenta percussus est. aginavi: found only here —
and in glossaries cf Heraeus, Sprache, p. 14. It is a denom. from

agina, 'the beam of a balance,' or 'the balance' itself. Hence

114 NOTES. CHAP. 61, LINE 23; CHAP. 62, LINE 7.

the verb would refer originally to the bustling activity of the

retail dealer continually weighing out things, cf. Heraeus or to ;

the quivering of the balance beam in

to equilibrium, cf.
Hayley, in Harvard Classical Stud. vii. p. 217. The word then
comes to mean to *
hasten,' festinare, SunrpdcTa-OfjiaL, meanings
clearly recognizedby Du Cange and given in the glossaries, as
quoted by both Heraeus and Hayley. in angustiis amici: so —
Eurip. Hec. 1226, iv rots KaKOis yap ayaOol cratf^ea-TaTOL cjjlXol',
cf. Cic. De amic. xvii. 64 (quoting Ennius), amicus certus in re
incerta cernitur.

62. scruta scita expedienda: 'to despatch some small

business of his.' The noun is rare ;
it occurs in Lucilius, p. 142,
1.77 (Ribbeck), scruta ut vendat scrutarius laudat; so Hor.
. . .

Epist. i. 7, 65, vilia vendentem tunicato scruta

popello. Orcus — :

*hell.' Cf. Solomon's Song, viii. 6, 'for love is strong as death.'

— apoculamus: 'we hasten forth.' This word appears only
here and in 67, 5; its derivative and meaning are uncertain.
Can it be d privative + poculum, analogous to aTLfxdw, and =
we push our cups f rom us ? This derivative would suit both'

passages in which the word appears. Btich. takes it from aTro-

KaA.etv, the syllable -cul- being explained as epenthetical, as in

nomen-cul-ator, from calare. Its first use would be seen in such

a sentence as dominus apoculat servum, = 'calls off (to himself).'
From this would then be developed servus se apoculat, the slave '

answers the calL' Forcellini (see Class. Rev. vi. p. 117) suggests
to bowl ofE,' roll away as the source of this word.

— gallicinia: cf. Hor. Sat. i. 1, 10, sub galli cantu.

intra moni-
menta : the streets leading rom any f large town were generally
lined on both sides with monuments of the dead. Hence the
oft-recurring words in epitaphs, Stay, traveller, as you pass by.'

Cf 71, 46, and the note on the same. On the asyndeton, cf

Introd. p. xlii, G, 2. — homo meus so below, : 1. 31, meus miles;
cf Phaedr. v. 7, 32, Jiomo meus; Juv. 244, 13, noster perfdus,
Avkov. — ad stelas facere made for
Theoc. xiv. 30, t6v ifxbv :
NOTES. CHAP. 62, LINES 7-32. 115

the tombstones.' On facio in this sense, cf. Ter. Phorm. 635,

haec hinc facessat, and the schol. pro ^hinc se faciat' id est
abeat, ut ^huc se faciat* huc accedat signifcat. cantabundus: —
the only adj. of this formation in Petr., nor does this word
occur elsewhere. Adj. in -bundus are found not only in comedy
but among the best writers, especially Livy cf. Cooper, Word


Formation, p. 92. anima in naso esse 'my heart was in my :

mouth.' So in Greek, Kpahtr] Se pii/6s «XP^^ ^vifiatve,'' quoted


by Otto, Sprichw. p. 238. donec —

pervenirem the only
. . .

instance of the subjunc. with donec in Petr. — larua :

cf. 44, 10.

— animam ebullivi :
cf. 42, 6.

per bifurcum 'down my :

crotch.' The agreeing

lex., with Forcellini's seu potius per in-

feriorem maxillarum partem ad gulam, renders over the cheeks


down to the neck.' —

oculi mortui 'my eyes were shut'; i.e., :

fixedand glazed as though he were dead cf 68, 26. When he ;

hears the rest of the tale, he is afraid to shut his eyes. Gai —
nostri according to Friedl., this is Pompeius the patronus of

Trim. and all his conliberti at the dinner cf 71, 41 30, 7 38, 20. ;

— copo compilatus — bovis

; ;

: 'like the landlord after his bill.' :

cf lovis, 58,7; Neue, Formenl. 1.

p. 293.
— versipellem : he
was a '
werwolf {cf Kirby F. Smith, The Wer-

wolf Puplic. Mod. Lang. Ass'n, New Ser. ii. pp. 1 ff.), making
his transformation whenever and wherever he wills, not invol-

untarily because of charms or by the use of salves or any magic.

The story of the werwolf is found in Greek as well as in Celtic
and Germanic literatures. As told by Niceros, it preserves a
unique and decidedly ancient character. Cf Baring-Gould,
Booh of Werwolves; Pischel, Zu Petron. 62, Abhandlungen fUr
M. Hertz, pp. 69 ff. " The one necessary preliminary to trans-
formation consists, simply, in taking off all the clothes. The
return to the human shape depends upon repossession, intact,
of the sanie garments which were taken off. The safe keeping
of those garments during the interim becomes a vital matter.
It was solely for this purpose that the soldier uses his one piece (. lot f
of magic ; it had nothing to do with his transforraation proper."
116 NOTES. CHAP. 62, LINE 34; CHAP. 63, LINE 8.

In Hindostan, as in Italy, " circummicturition was supposed to

charm one fast. The following is the end of an ancient Indian
formula quoted by Pischel O Knecht, du bist umharnt, wohin

wirst du umharnt gehen ? " (K. F. Smith.) With this, cf. 57, 10.
— exopinissent Fr. exopinisso, one of the class of formations

in -izo, -isso (-esso) to which expetisso, incipisso (in Plaut.) belong.

On the same model, though not before late and mediseval Latin,
countless verbs in -izo like pulvenzo, latinizo, were f ormed cf.
— genios

Funck, Archiv, iii, 420. . . . iratos habeam :

cf. 74,
37, and note on 37, 6.

63. salvo tuo sermone :

without doubting your tale.' On
ut, cf Crit. Append. — linguosus :
cf 43, 9 outside of Petr.
— nam

this word appears only in church and late Latin. et

(but two can take a hand at this) for I,' etc. cf 38, 9
ipse :


/t\ and note. asinus in tegulis either Trim. is the ass on the :

^-^ hou setop, i.e., a

sorry hand at a story after so brillia nt an exam-
" hair-
ple a s Niceros, or the story he is about to tell is to be as

lifting,'' as, e.g., such a prodigium as Livy describes, xxxvi. 37,

hoves duos domitos in Carinis per scalas pervenisse in tegulas aedi-

ficii proditum memoriae est. The f ormer is Otto's conjecture ,

(3/ res ting on the fable of the ass (c/!
i5abrius, 125) which imitated
a monkey in climbing to the roof of a house, without getting
t he praise, however, which the monkey received. vitam —
&hiam gessi
gay lif e
cf 75, 27. The shame
I led a pretty -


l essness and ter of the Chians were ipsimi

laugh proverbial.
nostri our master's Cf 69, 9 75, 27, where the explana-
: .'

tory gloss, domini, has slipped into the text cf also 76, 2. ;

So Aristoph. Plut. 83, has a^Tdraro?. Plaut. and Afran. have

ipsissimus. Its use originated in the custom of slaves calling
the master ipse ; cf 29, 18, Plaut. Cas. 790 and Catullus 3, 7.
The old Fr. medesme, Ital. medesimo, is from 7net + ipsimus; moi-
meme= me metipsum. Cf Heraeus, Sprache, p. 15. omnium —
numerum :
perfect in every regard

cf 68, 24. Integer or


absolutus is to be supplied. misella frequent of course in :

NOTES. CHAP. 63, LINE 9; CHAP. 64, LINE 4. 117

tombstone inscript. e.g., C.Z.Z. VI. 20987. — tristimonio :



gaudimonio, 67, 7. strigae the witches.' Their mischiev- :


ous work is referred to again in 134, quae striges comederunt

nervos tuos aut quod purgamentum nocte calcasti in trivio aut cada-
verl To prevent the strigae from eating out the heart and
vitals of children, mothers employed remedies like garlic, scat-
tered through the children's clothes, or placed switches of haw-
thorn in the windows. —
Cappadocem on account of their :

strength, Cappadocian slaves were used, like those Syria, from

for carrying the lectica ; Mart. vi. 77,
— audaculum
4. a :

diminutive of pride or affection cf. misella above. — plane

non mentiar I swear I'rn not lying.'
Plane herp p» in 41,
28; 49, 17. —
mala manus this suggests the saga manus of an :

inscription from Verona, reading eripuit me saga manus crudelis

ubique cum manet in terris et nocet arte sua. amplezaret on — :

the form, cf Introd. p. xxxvi, E, 3 cf Plaut. Poen. 1230. ;

manuciolum 'a dummy.' This word occurs only here. It

is the third dim. used by Trim. in this story. The Ital. .

manucolo, 'bundle,' is derived from this word. — vavatonem : \
probably an onomatopoeic word for the puling baby, from vava,
the sound the baby makes or it may be a reduplication of a root

vat, having the same force as vag in vagitus. Cf Varro's paral-

lel between Vaticanus and Vagitanus, in Gell. Noct. Att. xvi. 17.
would = " baby," as the creature that
If the parallel stands, vavato
cries. —plussciae Hhey know too much,' and so are uncanny.

64. Nocturnas :

night-hags.' Nocturnus, however, is the (b^)

deity which presides over the night ;
he is named in C.I.L. V.
4287 III. 1956 Plaut. 272, credo ego hac noctu Nocturnum
— etAmph.
; ;

ohdormuisse ehrium. iam sane Btich. and Friedl. hold that


a break occurs here. The lamps, which must have been lighted
in the omitted portion, are first mentioned here. have no We
mention of the comissio which had made the eyes of Encolpius
swim. Though it regularly began with the mensa secunda, which

is not mentioned before chap. 68, it must have already begun at

118 NOTES. CHAP. 64, LINE 7; (MAF. 65, LINE 1.

this point in the narrative. Cf. the end of 64 and 67, 2, where
Fortunata is said to be putting away the silver and feeding the
remains of the dinner to the slaves. tibi dico a phrase to — :

attract uotice, often used impatiently; cf. C.G.L. III. 286, 50

(dialogues at the bath), dKoXvOeL ^fuv sequere nos ; crot

TTcpLKdOapfxa tibi dico purgamentum. Frequent in comedy see ;

also Anth. Lat. Epigr. 442, 2 (ed. Buch.) Ov. Met. ix. 122.—

diverbia dicere ' to recite scenes
like e.g. the modern recit-

ing of scenes f rom


melica canturire the singing :

of the lyric parts of a play. Canturire = cantare, desiderat. in f orm

only; it is explained as derived from the nomen agentis, cantor.

© —— the
dulcis caricae: 'ye days of sweet delight''; carica is strictly

dry fig.'

tisicus = phthisicus. He sang himself hoarse.
what about my great barber aCt ? This '

quid tonstrinum

suggests modern impersonation. In 68, 20, the slave of Habin-

nas is shown to be able to give a great variety of them. On imi-
tating the barber, cf Mart. vii. 83 and viii. 52. Apelletem — :

Introd. p. XX, note. Croesum cf 28, 10. — :

— admonitus
ofScii: reminded of his duty to his own dog.'
' — praesidium :

cf Theophr. Charac. 4 (quoted by Reinesius), koI tov Kvva

TrpocTKaXeadfxevo'; Kal CTriAaySo/xevos tov pvy)(0vs eiTrciv ovtos

<])v\dTT€L t6 yoipiov Kol T7]v OLKiav. ut cubaret the command — :

is cuba! 'lie down,' Fr. couche. Cf C.G.L. VI. 290, cubat =

rjpeixeL OrjpLOv.
This verb occurs in inscriptions on several ca-
nine graves, C.LL. YI. 29896, 8 and X. 659,4; Buch. Anth. Lat.
Epig. 1175 f. The first dog is named Margarita; cf 1. 29 below.
Scylax is the same as in 72, 15. bucca bucca, quot sunt hic — :

probably a children's game in which one of them was blind-
folded and had to guess, when the rest struck him on the back,
how many did so or if one struck him, with how many fingers
it was done.' — camellam ;

cf Gellius, Noct. Att. xvi. 7, 9;

probably = gamella, whence Fr. gamelle.

65. matteae :
probably resembling a chicken salad ;

plainly with an excess of chicken, however. It was usually

NOTES. CHAP. 65, LINE 6; CHAP. 66, LINE 6. 119

served after the heavy courses, as salads are served to-day. —

ova pilleata cf, ex farina pingui fgurata, 33, 18.
: lictor —
percussit durmg his office, each sevir was allowed a lictor

without secures ; the collegium was allowed two. praetorem — :

so far as we know, applied at this time only at Cumae

a title

to designate the highest official in that part of Italy. This

fact is important with Friedl. in deciding upon Cumae as the

place of the Cena. Cf Friedl. Cena Trimalchionis, p. 6. —

nudos pedes : the shoes had been removed for comfort. Cf
Plaut. Truc. 367, iam rediit animus, deme soleas, cedo hiham.
In 72, 9, Habinnas goes to the bath nudis pedibus. prae- —
torio loco if this corresponds to the usual locus consularis,

it would be the third, or imus, on the lectus medius. Mart.,

vi. 74, 1, speaks of this place; cf the scene in Tac. Annal. iii.

14, where Piso and Germanicus are reclining at this place.

novemdiale = After a person's death, there
novemdialis cena.
was a period of nine days' mourning, followed by the division
of his estate according to his will, and the sacrifcium novem-'
diale to his manes. Then came the cena, in which eggs, lentils,
and salt were the chief part. vicensimariis —
mantissam . . . :

he has a big bill to settle with the receivers of the manumis-
sion tax.' — ossucula = ossicula ; so in C.I.L. VI. 6 (from
Rome), qui ossucula mea hic sita esse gemis.

66. saviunculum * honeyed cheese-cake :

probably a ple-

beian dirainutive of savillum (Cato, De agricult. 84), a cheese-cake

with added ingredients of poppy, egg, and honey. gizeria —
optime facta :
giblets splendidly cooked.' Gizeria (Eng.
gizard) includes the heart, liver, lungs, and stomach its ;

older spelling is gigeria. It reappears in old Fr. jisier, jui-

sier; Fr. gesier. Facta here, as in 47, 29, of the preparation
of dishes. So Mart. xiii. 54. — autopyrum :
unbolted bread

lit. «wheat just as it is.' Plin. N.H. xxii. 25, 68, § 138, says of
it, ad omnia autem fermentatus qui vocatur autopyrus utilior. On
auto-, cf avTo^vXov, Soph. Philoc. 35. de suo sibi repeats — :
120 NOTES. CHAP. 66, LINE 7; GHAP. 67, LINE 12.

the first element of autopyrus, sihi emphasizing suo, as in Plaut.

Trin. 156 ;
Cic. Phil. ii. 37, 96, priusquam tu suum sibi venderes,

ipse possedit. Cf. Drager, Hist. Synt. f acio I.

p. 76 f .
— mea re :

cf. 47, 8. — scriblita frigida

cf 35, 9. de melle tetigi :
— . . . :

I smeared myself generously with the honey.' On the con-
strnction, cf Heraeus, SpracJie, p. 38. Tangere comes close to
the sense of tingere here cf note on tengomenas, 34, 22. Usque:

a pure adv., as in Plaut. Poen. 692, repleho usque ; Hor. Sat. i.

2, 65.

calvae filberts
' '

probably the frictas nuces of Plaut.

— arbitratu

Poen. 326; cf C.G.L. VI. 170. : 'as one chose.'

— domina mea :
'my lady.' In speaking of her husband's gen-
erosity, Scintilla calls him, 67, 26, domini mei ; cf 57, 5. It is
from mea domina that madame is derived. In Pompeian graffti,
domina appears in this sense. " tJber den gebrauch der
anrede domine im gemeinen leben,'' Sitteng. i. 442. ursina — :

the only passage in Latin literature referring to the eating of

bear's meat; Friedl. In C.G.L. III. 316, 59,
apKia = ursina, in
a list of various kinds of meats. — caseum mollem : Hab. here
describes the mattea withwhich Scissa's dinner had ended. The
catillum concacatumwas probably an elaborate dish over which
a meringue, or dressing, had been poured. It may have been
such a dish as Athenaeus has in mind in 647 c, KariXAos opva-
Tos o Xeyofxevos Trapa Pw/xatot?. pax Palamedes but enoiigh — :

of that.' Palamedes is named is obscure. Pax is here an

interj. silentium imponens, as frequently in comedy Brix, Tjnn.
891. — oxycomina: <pickled caraway.' — pernae missionem

cf 41, 8.

67. reliquias . . . diviserit : this she would do at the close

of the mensa prima. —
aquam in os i.e., she will not join in the :

comissio ; aquam for vinum. est te videre 'do I really see — :

you at last?' A common greeting; cf the school dialogue in

C.G.L. III. 211, 23. So Tiberius was greeted by his German
veterans (Vell. ii. 104, 4), videmus te, imperator. Cf Ter. Hec.
NOTES. CHAP. 67, LINE 18; CHAP. 68, LINE 22. 121

81, sed videon ego Philotium, and Donatus, ad loc. : sic solent
duhitare advenientibus ipsis, quos post multum temporis intervallum
vident. — barcalae :
f ools.' The word is related to bardus or
bargus (barcus), occiirring in glossaries as
= dvaior^r/ro?, d^vT/s;
C.G.L. VI. 129, 130. Baro, 63, 26, is probably a kindred word.
— cx millesimis Mercurii the reference is obscure. The :

armlet was huge, and the profits must have been immense, of
which it was the one-thousandth part, whether in silver or gold.
— Felicionem: the name, also, of one of Trim.'s lares hullati;

cf. 60, 29. Scintilla's capsella was a kind of luck-charm, or

amulet, which she wore constantly. It may have been a tiny
jewel-box, sinceit held duo crotalia. excatarissasti you
— :

cleaned me out.' The form is analogous to exopinissent, 62,

34. may be derived from
It — Ka6apL^(o. pro luto c/. 44, 22. :

— caldum meiere, frigidum potare hard to keep the :

i.e., it is

income up to the expense account. — sudario abscondit from :

1. 10 it can be seen that this was easily done.

secundas mensas cf. note, 64, 1. Regularly, the comis-

68. :

siowould have begun here. poteram contentus Trim. — . . . :

began the cena with a light appetite, and did more drinking
than eating. He means here that the comissio, with its generous
drinking, isall that he cares for.
about muta 'change the — :

tune.' This
probably the actual stage direction for changes

in the cantica of the old comedies. These changes were indi-

cated in Mss. of Plautus by C and DV, in Terence Mss. by
M. M. C. (mutati modi cantici) Friedl. servus qui ad pedes — :


cf. 64, 39. Giton, however, stands cf 58, 1. errantis bar-

bariae: 'of his flighty and barbarous rendering.' adiectum

aut deminutum 'the crescendo and diminuendo.'
: erudi- —
bam : for erudiebam ; Neue, Formenl. III. 317, 318. — despe-
ratum valde :
confoundedly awf ully clear.' Desperatum is not
so used elsewhere it = Plautus's insanum.
; Cf. Plaut. Trin.
673, insanum malum ; Most. 908. Insanum, however, is not used
to modify an adv.

omnis musae mancipium cf. 43, 27 so :
122 NOTES. CHAP. 68, LINE 24; CHAP. 69, LINE 19.

Quint. i. 10, 28, crassiore musa,

in plainer manner '

so sine ulla
musa — 'without any wit'; cf. eiusdem musae, Gell. Noct Att.
iii. 10. — omnium numerum :
au fait ; cf. 63, 8. strabo- —
nus = strabo. He
a squinter. His eyes have the pretty liquid

effect, To vypov, of the eyes in Venus statues, in which the lower

eyelid is raised a trifle, and the eye seems to be trying to focus

sharply. Hence he is vix oculo mortuo, scarcely ever listless,
always a Paul Pry. Cf. Baumeister, Denbn. i. 89 b, aud EUis,
Class. Rev. vi. 117.

69. trecentis denariis : a modest figure. Cato, as censor,

184 B.c, assessed the slaves of the idle rich at 10,000 asses, =
about 2500 denarii. agaga —
a gay Lothario.' In C.O.L. VI.

41, agagula = lenocinator, vanus fornicator ; its Greek form is

dyayas, from ayw, for dycoyas,

one who leads astray.' — Cap-
padocem from :
63, 11, and Polybius,
appears that iv. 38, 4, it

good slaves came from Cappadocia. Cf, however, Hor. Ejnst.

i. 6, 39, and Orelli-Mewes note, and the schol. on Persius, 6, 77,

qui Cappadoces dicerentur habere studium naturale ad falsa tes-

timonia proferenda, qui nutriti a pueritia in tormentis equuleum
sihi facere dicuntur ut in eo se invicem torquerent, et cum in poena

perdurarent, ad falsa testimonia se bene venumdarent. defrau- —

dit Introd. p. xxxvi, E, 2.

nemo parentat i.e., post-mortem :

sacrifices do not bring to the dead the joys they must pluck this
side of the grave. Cf 43, 28. debattuere in mal. part. ; — :

irombattuo; Fr. battre, dehattre ; Ital. debattere; cf C\c. Ad fam.

ix. 22, 4, and below, 75, 29. —
dabo panem to keep it quiet. :

" Least
said, soonest mended." fata egit —
he acted the role :

of.* On fata in the sense of dicta {cf. 33, 9), Biich. quotes
Lucan, Phars. iv. 361. tanto melior —
bully for you.' Fre- :

quently found in comedy; Quint., Instit. viii. 2, 18, calls the

phrase illa egregia laudatio. Cf Plaut. Pers. 326. epidipnis —
. . . allata : in answer to the order in 68, 7. The mensa secunda
is meant ; cf Mart. xi. 31, 7, where a variety of fancy dishes
is made from something like a pumpkin, as here from swine's
NOTES. CHAP. 69, LINE 27; CHAP. 70, LINE 35. 123

flesh (see 70, 2). ego —

prudentissimus Encolpius, the
. . . :

valoroiis hero, must occasionally be an innocent victim cf. ;

29, 1; 36, 18; 41, 9; 49, 15. eiusmodi imaginem 'just — . . . :

such counterfeits of things to eat.' During the festival of the

Saturnalia presents were made, usually of wax candles and
images; c/. Mart.
88; v. 18; Suet. Aug. 75; Plin. Ejmt.
iv. 46,

iv. 9, 7. The were playthiugs for children (Macrob. i.


11, 1), and many made of terra-cotta have been found. Some-
tinies they were made of hard biscuit. A market in Rome
was named sigillaria, from the manufacture and sale of these

70. crescam . . . non corpore : so Hor. Sat. ii. 6, 14, pingue

pecus domino facias et cetera praeter ingenium. The prayer is \

made so that untoward misunderstanding is avoided. So the

Lydian Croesus carefully tested the oracles which he consulted.
— colaepio 'a knuckle of pork.'
Colyphia (Plaut. Pers. 92)
and coloephia (Mart. vii. 67, 12) are other forms of the word.
In the glossaries it is explained as a knuckle of meat of any
kind; cf C.G.L. VI. 234, colgph ium. 'Da.edalna 'Jack of all — :

trades.' So in Plato's Euthgphron, 11 b, one who is ingenious in

extricating himself from a debate is called a son of old father

Daedalus.' —
ad buccam probaremus cf Suet. De Rhet. 5, :

Fulviam, cui altera bucca infiatior erat, acumen still tentare dixit.
— gastris hence the Ital. grasta, flower-pot.'
pedes ' — . . .

unxerunt may allude to the friendly relations between

: this
Nero and Otho (Tac. Annal. xiii. 12 and 46), and lend some
" Neronian
support to the hypothesis," that Petronius wrote
the Satirae with the express purpose of hitting of£ Nero; cf
Introd. p. xxiv, note. The treatment of the feet, as here men-
tioned, was an innovation of Otho's which Nero approved ;
N.H. xiii. 22. — permitto : sc. recumhatis. sponsione — : bet-

ting on the circus games was common ;

hence Juv. 9, 20, audax
sponsio ; cf Mart. xi. 1, 15. The green was the favorite party
in the circus. Trim. does not seera to have belonged to it. The
124 NOTES. CHAP. 71, LINES 1-23.

games at Rome are

meant, in which rural people, also, took great
interest.Only rarely were they held outside of Rome. To be
dragged away from Rome is the same as avelli circensibus, Juv.
3, 223.

71. Diffusus by the slave*s desire to bet with

i.e., in risum,
his master. — lactem So Shylock " [Is not a Jew]
cf. 75, 2. :

fed with the same food, hurt with the same weapons, subject to
the same diseases? ... If you prick us, do we not bleed?"
On the form, cf. note on 38, 2. malus fatus cf 42, 13 and — : .

77, 8. The
personified fatus recurs in metrical sepulchral in-
scriptions, as C.I.L. V. 10127. So in Anthol. Lat. epig. (Biich.)
1537, B, dolere mater noli; faciendum hoc fuit ; properavit aetas ;
voluit hocfatus meus. Hence Fr. fee, Eng. fairy. Preller, Rom.
Mythologie, ii. 194.

aquam liberam cf I. Kings, xxii. 27, :

" feed him with bread of affliction and with water of affliction "

so Ovid, Am. i. 6, 26, tihi . . . serva hihatur aqua; Aristoph. frag.

25 (Kock), ^-qhi-jroff vSwp TrcoLfXL iXevOepov. Masters frequently
set their slaves up in business, on making them free that the ;

freedom of the contuhernalis was desired at the same time, was

natural; cf C.I.L. II. 2265, and Mommsen's translation, and
Petr. 57, 22. —
vicesimam cf 58, 6 and 65, 24. post mortem

vivere people shall forever know what joys he had in this life

and what joyous memories he is to take away with him. Cf

Mau-Kelsey, Pompeii, 411. The burial plot is thirty times larger
than that of Porcius at Pompeii Mau-Kelsey, 402. On Petrais, ;

whose battles were engraved on some of Trim.'s cups, cf 52, 6.

— poma: it was customary about a grave and to plant trees

to bequeath funds for their protection cf C.I.L. VI. and care ;

11275 and 15526 and 29775; XIV. 2139; IX. 3956; also Verg.
Aen. V. 761, and Servius, ad loc. ; Eclog. v. 40, and Coning-
ton's note. —
et vinearum largiter and lots of vines.' Lar- :

giter of quantity, not size; cf Plaut. Rud. 1188, illic inesse

auri et argenti largiter.

NOTES. CHAP. 71, LINES 26-43. 125

tombs and burial plots remain in the family as heirlooms ;

heirs outside the faraily are excluded from any rights to

them. H. M. H. N. s. is frequent in inscriptions see sanctio-


nes, in Wihnanns, Exemp. Inscrip. ii. 693. custodiae causa :

inscriptions show that this was necessary; cf. Marq. Privatl.

369. —ut naves etiam cf. Mau-Kelsey, pp. 414, 415, with

illustrations. — me in tribunali sedentem such a scene is on :

the tombstone of M. Valerius Anteros of Brixia. Augustales,

at all public functions, wore the toga praetexta. Trim. also
expects to be buried in his cf 78, 2 and 29, 12.
; quod dedi — :

Introd. p. xliii, (rZ). An epulum and divisio of money were regu-

larly expected of the sevir on taking office. Cf Wihnanns,

Exemp. Inscrip. 2099.

faciantur triclinia . . . : we read, in in-
scriptions, of tables being spread in the
open air, as at Ostia,
where 217 were spread, and are informed that frequently the
banquet was a complete one. At Amiternum, besides bread
and wine, two oxen and fifteen sheep were consumed (C.I.L.
IX. 4215) on a certain occasion. Often the banquet was more
modest, and money was distributed, the decuriones receiving
three denarii, the augustales two, and other citizens one.

— eSluant vinum '

lest they empty (
: =
lose) their wine.' This
trans. use of effiuo occurs only once elsewhere. velit nolit: —
'whether he will or no'; a common phrase; cf Cic. De Deor.
Nat. i. 7,
17; Sen. Epist. 107, 11. —

in the early empire often required a second cognomen, in order

to avoid confusion, in the interpretation of wills. This par-
ticular cognomen recurs in inscriptions, as C.I.L. VI. 4016 ;

X. 6014. —
HIC REQVIESCIT: so C.I.L. I. 1489, ending Mc requi-
escent; sometimes the formula is hic situs; cf C.I.L. V. 1214 Wil-


manns, II. p. 681. SEVIRATVS ABSENTI this was done by the :

decuriones of the town. The Veronese, on another occasion,

conferred the sevirate upon an individual ratione Jiahita absentis
eius extra ordinem. —

feeling of a hourgeois gentilhomme, to whom metropolitan club

life seemed easy to enter. Decuriae = clubs,' as in Suet. Tib.
126 NOTES. CHAP. 71, LINE 44; CHAP. 73, LINE 25.

41, of knights ;
Claud. 1, of clerks. There was, however, a long
tenure of ofRce among government employees at Rome, which
increased the conservatism of their decuriae as to admitting
outsiders. —
FORTIS, FIDELIS cf. Hor. Sat. ii. 5, 102; so sicca :

sobria, 36, 11.

— SESTERTIVM . . . TRECENTIES : so 45, 14; cf.
Hor. Sat. ii. 3, 87-90. Mommsen and Friedl. cite the similar

inscription of a P. Decimius, which shows the sums of money he

had given away, and ends, quam mortuus est reliquit hic pridie

pairimoni HS milia quingenta viginti. VALE ET TV vale said — : :

by the dead; et tu, by the passer-by. Such greetings as ave,

have, vale, salve, vale viator, are common on gravestones. Some-
times the salutation inscribed is from the wayfarer to the dead,
as Lolli ave ; have Claudi bene valeas. C.I.L. V. 4887 ends
viator vale, and with et tu on the next line.

72. quare non vivamus :

cf. Mart. i. 15, 12.
— sic videam :

80 61, 4 ; 75, 6. — calet . . . furnus : it was a question whether

hot baths were advisable after dining Hor. Epist. i. 6, 61 Juv. ; ;

1, 143; Pers. 3, 98. They were thought, however, to remove

cruditas. — cibo f urorem suppresserat : so the lingua canina,
43, 8, of a too ready talker is suppressed ; cf. 69, 11.

73. lavari :
they were now more than ready for a hot bath.
— proiectis vestimentis there was probably no apodyterium.

On bathing arrangements in private houses in Pompeii, cf Mau-

Kelsey, 261, 300, 350, 356. A semicircular niche for the labrum
(1.13) has been f ound in some houses. cisternae frigidariae — :

a tank for cooling the water. rectus stabat it was customary — :

to sit. —
Menecratis the mention of this citharoedus is impor-

tant in fixing the date of the Satirae, if he is the one mentioned

by Suet. Nero, 30. —
gingilipho probably a kind of Indian :

war dance, to the accompaniment of a cantilena quam, dum nexis

manibus in orbem currunt, canebant; Biich. It may be a deriva-
tive of yiyyXLCTfxos. — barbatoriam: sc. diem. Cf Juv. 3, 186;
NOTES. CHAP. 73, LINE 26; CHAP. 75, LINE 9. 127

the day would be one of festivity, as is seen from its place in the
list,'de diebus festis; in C.G.L. III. 171, 66, and 239, 48.—
tengomenas faciamus :
cf. 34, 22.

74. vinum sub mensam :

cf. Plin. Nat. Hist. xxviii. 26,
incendia inter epulas nominata aquis sub mensam abomi-
namur. Wine is used here, as in 34, 12. — traiecitperfusis
in dezteram :

cf Plin. N.H. xxviii. 57, apropos of sneezing or hiccoughing,

anulum e sinistra in longissimum dextrae digitum transferre. On
the form of the adj., cf Neue, Formenl. 11. § 5. dicto citius — :

cf Verg. Aen. i. 142 Livy, xxiii. 47, 6 Hor. Sat. ii. 2, 80. de —

; ;

porco aves fecerat cf 70, 2. matteis mentioned in 65, 1.

: :

— classis = grex; Quint., Instit. i. 2, 23, also uses classis in this

post-classical sense. machina — the slave-block :
' '

so Quintus
Cic, to his brother, de pet. con.suZ., writes, amicam . . . de machi-
nis emit. The
post-classical word is catista ; cf. Tibull. ii. 3, 60.
— hominem inter homines :
cf 39, 9. — in sinum spuit :
ting upon one's breast was supposed to avert the ill effect of
haughty words or deeds so in Greek ei? koXttov ov Trrvet cf

; ;

Plin. N.H. xxviii. 35; Juv. 7, 111. codex non mulier cf on :

43, —
14. somniatur Neue, Formenl. III. p. 91.
: Cassandra —
this thumping tragedy-queen.'
: In 75, 13, Trim.
calls her fulcipedia, '
high stepper.' unguentarius the per- — :

fumer's business was an important one in Italy and Gaul.

Feminine gossip was doubtless associated with it. non patia- —
ris so 75, 14, non facias ringentem.
: bonatus too good — :
' '

so impuralus from impurus, Ter. Phorm. 669. Cf Fr. bonasse.

— recte, curabo cf 58, 19 and 14.
depresentiarum cf — :

58, 10.

75. homines sumus : to err is human ;

to forgive, divine.
So in 130, fateor me, domina saepe pecasse; nam et homo sum et adhuc
iuvenis. —
ut se frangeret: cf Cic. Cat. i. 9, 22, te ut ulla res

decem partes dicit: cf on 46, 10, and 58, 24. —
128 NOTES. CHAP. 75, LINE 9; CHAP. 76, LINE 4.

librum ab oculo Hermeros could not read other than lapida-


rias 23.
literas ; cf. 58,

Thraecium: 'and he earned ( =
boiight) a Thracian suit by means of his savings.' The word
denotes a child's outfit of shield, dagger, and costume, on the
pattern of Thracian soldiers. So children to-day are often
dressed in a sailor or highland costume. archisellium: 'a —
seat with rounded back
or '
box seat,' if the reading be arci-
sellum. — in oculis f eram :
f or me to keep my eyes upon.' So
Cic, Adfam. xvi. 27, 2, writes, te, ut dixi, fero in oculis. — fulci-
pedia: cf Plaut. Trin. 720. bonum tuum conquas 'find — :

what comfort you can.' —

clavo ta.hula.ri = trabali ; it is
clinched. So Cic. Verres, v. 22, 53, quemadmodum dicitur, trahali
clavo figeret; cf Hor. Odes, i. 35, 17. tam fui quam vos 'I — :

was as you are.' Cf Plaut. Miles, 11, tam hellatorem; &o feliciter
esse, C.I.L. YIL 265; suavius esse, 64, 7.— dissilio: cf 61, 7.
— sterteia: she was still sobbing.^rostrum: 'snout' = os/
cf Plaut. Men. 89. — nec turpe est quod dominus iubet:
so Shylock says, Merchant of Venice, v. 1 :

" You have

among you many a purchased slave,
Which like your asses and your dogs and mules,
You use in abject and in slavish parts,
Because you bought them, should I say to you :

Let them be free, marry them to your heirs ?

Seneca quotes, Controvers, IV. pref. 10 (Kiessling), impudicitia

in ingenuo crimen est, in servo necessitas, in liberto officium.

76. di volunt cf 61, 13, and note; so

quemadmodum :

below, quod di volunt, 1. 17. Cf Liv. i. 39, 4 Ov. Met.

cito fit


viii. 619. —
cepi cerebellum: 'I took his fancy.' Caesari: at
first it showed the emperor's popularity to be mentioned in his

will later it became dangerous not to mention him cf Suet. ;


Aug. 66; Tih.^^', Tacit. Agric. 43. nemini nihil satis — . . .

est a Greek usage of the redundant negative. Cf 58, 15, and


Abbott: Studies in Classical Philology, Univ. of Chicago, III,

NOTES. CHAP. 76, LINE 7; CHAP. 77, LINE 20. 129

p. 73.

contra aurum: 'wine was worth its weight in gold.'
So Plaut. Truc. 538; Curcul 201; Pseud. 688; Miles, 660.—
omnes naufragarunt And not one vessel 'scaped the dread- :

ful touch of merchant-marring rocks.' The verb is

freq. in

patristic Latin; cf. Vulgate, I Tim. vi. 10.

— faotum non fabula :

cf. Index, A lliteration. — gusti fuit

either for gustui, or the geni- :

tive of gustum, the constr. being the same as in mihi non fiocci
erat. — vinum . . .
mancipia :
wine, onions, and cabbages, were
staple export articles of Pompeii, which was not far frora Trim.'s
home. Cf.Mau-Kelsey, pp. 357-358. The raising of beans was
a regular business inscriptions mention a negotiatio fabaria.

manum de tabula no more Cf. Cic. to Fadius Gallus (Ad

fam. vii. 25).

— exhortavit: Neue, Formenl. III. p. 47. — con-
siliator deorum :
cf. Cic. De legg. iii. 19, 43, speaking of the
augur as consiliarius atque administer lovis. — ab acia et acu :

i.e., down to the very smallest detail. Cf. Thesaurus Ling. Lat.
L 398, 16.

de rebus illis = rehus venereis ; cf. C.G.L. V. 462, 1. ad

res =
ad res venereas, and Plaut. Most. 897. felix in amicos —
= /. ad amicos; possibly a hellenism. Cf Eurip. Orest. 542,
(.vTv^dv cs reKva.. Cic. writes ad casum fortunamque felix. —
viperam sub ala a Greek pfoverb; cf Eurip. Alces. 309.

— fundos Apuliae iungere: cf 48, 6; Hor. Epist. ii, 2, 177. —

dum Mercurius vigilat 'under the watchful care of Mercury.' :

Burman believes we have here an allusion to the custom which

Servius (Aeneid, viii. 3) describes: is qui helli susceperat curam,
sacrarium Martis ingressus, primo ancilia commovehat, post hastam
simulacri ipsius, dicens ^
Mars Cf Aen. 228. — susum
vigila.' x. :

Neue, Formenl. II. 750 — sessorium:

f. 'a sitting-room.' —
Scaurus: Introd. p. xx, note.
— mavoluit = maluit; cf Ter.
Hec. 540 ;
theorm is f
f in requent Plaut. — assem habeas assem
valeas money makes the man,' was a proverb as current in

the ancient world as it is to-day. Cf Otto, Spnchw., hahere, 1.

— profer vitalia :
cf. on 42, 14.
130 NOTES. CHAP. 78, LINES 2-19.

78. praetextam: cf. on 71, 30.

gloriosus efferri: cf. 42,
14. — imprecetur : such prayers (salutadones) are found on
tombstones; e.g., sit tihi terra levis or ossa tua bene quiescant.
See under salutatio in Wilmanns, Exemp. Inscrip.; Indices. Cf.
above 39, 9. —
nardi: Plin., N.H. xii. 43 and 44, mentions this
as a most expensive and precious oil. ad parentalia mea: —
not only to his funeral, but to the anniversaries of his death.
— extendit se super torum: in the relief from Aquila, men-
tioned by Friedl., exhibiting a similar funeral scene, there is
not only the procession of mourners about the bier, but there
are three kinds of horn-blowers ;
the cornicines with curved
horns, tibicines with double flagelettes, and one who has a lituus.
On Trim.'s fondness for cornicines, cf. 53, 28. Heinsius quotes
Sen. De Brevit. Vit. 20, 3, showing that Trim.'s imitation of a
f uneral was not unusual : Turranius fuit exactae diligentiae senex,
qui post annum nonagesimum . . .
componi se in lecto et velut ex-
animem a civcumstante familia plangi iussit.Cf Tac. Hist. iv. 45.
— dicite = canite, 'play something.'
— concitaret viciniam :

cf however, Hor. Sat. ii. 5, 105. — qui custodiebant regionem :

the cena therefore probably took place in a town or city, not

in the country cf 73, 9.
H= Codex Traguriensis.
L= the Ms. upon which Scaliger's apographon and the edi-
tions of Tornaes and Pithoeus are based.

26, 11. in balnea sequi, BUch.^ in halneo sequi, H Biich.*


29, 1.
(cum> titulis, Burmann Biich. Friedl. titulis, H L.
— [copiosa], Friedl. cornu abundanti copiosa, HL Btich. For
copiosa Buch. conj. conspicua. Goes and FriedL insert cum
before cornu.
30, 1. multas iam (picturas). multaciam, H
Biich. FriedL
simul omnes lautitias, conj. Buch.^ multa (ynultas) iam + noun,
Buch.3 maltaceam, fr. maltha, fresco-paintings on stucco,'
Ellis, Journ. Philol. XXIX. p. 1 (1886).
6. imam, ed. Pithoeus, Lipsius. unam, L Biich. H ;
= top
part terminating in an emholum with its inscript.
28. cubitoria, H
L Biich. {ac)cubitoria, Friedl. following
Lipsius and Heinsius.
31, 15. (simul cantabat), sugg. by Biich.
20. in promulsidari, H
L Friedl. inter promulsidaria, Btich.
32, 2. minutissima, L Biich.i Friedl. munitissima, Biich.^ H
33, 4. omnem voluptatem, L Heins. Biich. voluptatem,

34, 8. (supel>lecticarius, Douza Friedl. Heraeus. lecticarius,

H Buch.
21. tengomenas, Biich.s tangomenas, H Friedl. tengomeniasy
Sittl, Archiv, VI. 445.

35, 17. [hoc est in. cenae], H Reiske Wehle Friedl. hoc
est ius cenae, L Biich. Originally marg. gloss, in. = initium.

37, 10. lupatria, H Biich. Friedl. lupacea, Sittl, Archiv, H.

12. [tantum auri vides], prob. misplaced gloss of saplutus.
Biich. dives for vides.

38, 2. credrae, H
Friedl. cedrae, Btich.»
6. culavit, H Buch.^ Friedl. testiculavit, Btich.» using Paul.
Fest., MUller, p. 306.
10. culcitras, H Friedl. culcitas, Biich.
18. sub alapa. est tamen suffiatus, conj. by Hirschfeld. suh-

alapo (subalapator), conj. by Ronsch, Rh. Mus. 1879, p. 632,

collect. philol. p. 25. Cf. Heraeus, Sprache des Petrons, p. 31.
19. locationem, conj. by Friedl. cum, H. cenaculum, Biich.^
casam, Btich.^
23. sociorum oUa. sociorum {mala opera) olla, E. in Berl.
Philol. Wochens. xii. p. 755.

35. <C>, conj. by Biich., adopted by Friedl.

39, 32. mali facit, Biich. male facit, H
Friedl. moliti facit

(moli facit), Rohde.

41, 4. duravi, H
Btich.i Friedl. decrevi, Buch.» believing
duravi nimlae ut in hoc dicendi genere audacitatis esse.
23. pataracina. Heraeus, Vahlenfestschrift, derives from Tra-
expanded in Latin to patacinum, and then by connection

with patera (a,nd pateo), through volksetymologie, to pataracinum.

42, 2. balniscus, Scheffer Friedl. haliscus, H Biich.
18. neminem nihil. feminae nihil, Gtohov. neminem feminae
nihil, P. in Archiv, HI. 67.
43, 17. oricularios, Reinesius Heins. Btich.^ Friedl. oracu-

larios, H Biich.^
25. olim oliorum, Biich. conj. molitor mulierum. mulierarium,
Scheffer. mulierosum, Heins. Cf. EUis, Class. Rev. VI. 116.
27. pullarius, Burmann, adopted by Btich. Friedl. Havet,
A rchiv, I. p. 194, def ends the reading of H puellarius.
44,5. esuritio, established by C.G.L. V. 164, 28, as the
proper reading for esurio H.

10. simila si siligine inferior esset, conj. by Biich. for the

impossible Ms. reading. Heraeus, in the Vahlenfestschrift, pro-

poses si milia, si cilia (= xt^ici)? but fails
to emend interiores et,
the reading of the next two words in H. A clew to the inter-
pretation may possibly be found in the similarly disconnected
phrases, modo sic modo sic, 45, 2, or aut tunc aut nunquam,

44, 40.
11. [sed], bracketed by Scheffer, as a dittograph from esset.

16. [vel] [tractabat], an interlinear gloss of pilahat.

17. directum, Reiske Btich.i Friedl. derectum, Btich.^
40. redibant, Jacobs Wehle Blich. ridebant, Friedl. H
freuten sich ').

45, 5. haberet, H Btich. saperent, Friedl. from conj. by

13. amphitheater, cf. F. B., Rh. Mus. xlix. p. 175, and
Heraeus, Sprache, p. 43.
46, 3. loqui non loquere, Btich.^ Friedl. [loqui] ,
8. dispare pallavit, H Btlch. Friedl. ('hat wachsen lassen').
Biich. pref ers Reiske's pullavit Q das wetter hat heuer alles zur

ungehorigen zeit wachsen lassen'). Cf. R. Ellis, Class. Rev.

VI. 117.
25. (aliquid), inserted by Friedl.

47,8. [causa] an interlinear gloss.

swam rem, conj. Friedl.,
cf. Friedl. Cena Trim. p. 251.
11. nec lovis potest, Heraeus, Vahlenfestschrift, conj. ne
lovis potest, ne =
ne quidem as in Apuleius; cf. also Btich.
Anthol epig. 1178, 33, and Quint. i. 5, 39.
48, 21. poUicem porcino, Buch.^ for p. porcino.
" Ein H
dera schweinskopf anliches instrument zum Zwischenscheiben,
klemmen und spalten, das im volksmunde schlechtweg porcinum
benannt war," Buch.i
23. Cumis,Segebade et Lommatzsch, Lex. Petronian,
n. 2 " attentius
enim c. 1-99 legentem non puto f ugiet
p. iii, :

Petronii animo alium locum observatum esse in cena Trimal-

chionis, alium in reliquis rebus enarratis.
Colonia certe urbs
ista non appellatur nisi a libertinis (c. 44, 57, 76)."

51, 2. se porrigere, Biich.^ Thielmann (^Archiv, III. 179).

reporrigere Caesarem, Scheffer Biich.i Friedl.
4. valdius, conj. by Friedl. for validius of H. validius, Biich.
8. (Caesari), added by Biich. and adopted by Friedl.
52, 2. (C), f or the lacuna which f oUows, Goes suggested quibus

3. patrono <meo) Mummius, Biich. emend. for patronorum
meus H. Sonie of the description must have disappeared after
Mummius, since the Niobe scene was not on all the cups.
25. [et], bracketed by Btich. Friedl.
27.(verebatur), added by Heins. Biich. Friedl. poss. some ;

word like indignantem has also been lost; cf. Van der Vliet,
Mnemosyne, 24, p. 2 (1896), fortunam suam {verebatur).
53, 29. <animalia), Btich. Friedl., the word being^ an inter-
linear gloss referring back to petauristarios and cornicines, as
obscure words. J. Gilbert conj. reliqua enim talia for animalia,
and does not bracket; Rh. Mus. li. pt. 3, 1896, p. 471.
54, 1. puer, Biich.^ suggests qui innixus debili et infirmo scalae

gradu saltabat, perfregit eum et in lectum.

55, 1. et . . .
quam, sc. recordati or et cum Agamemnon expro-
mere coepisset, Biich.^ In other Mss. than H, varioque follows
factum immediately.
6. (ubique) and <nostra), foU. line, were sugg. by Hein-
10. -que and memorata est are the epitomator's additions ;

erat stood after diu, Friedl.

22. margaritam caram . . . bacam Indicam, Friedl. Btich.
nominat. margarita cara tribacia Indica, Heraeus, Vahlenfest-
schrift; on tribacia cf. quadribacium, C.I.L. II. 3386, 10; C.G.L.
III. 203, 8 and Plin. N.H. ix. 114.

56, 19. zerophagi ex sapa, Friedl. saprophagiae ex sale,

Biich. Rh. Mus. xvii. 322. xerophagiae ex sale, Biich.^
25. (accepit), Biicheler's insertion.
57, 4. vervex, for berbex, H. Cf Wolfflin, Archiv, VIII. 565.
8. balatum cluzissem, Friedl. balatum duxissem, Biich. H
58, 6. numerasti, a lacuna foUows ;
sc. nescit unless quid.

faciat be corrupted from such a word as stigmatia, Biich. Friedl.

quid fatuat, Hirschfeld.
16. [non] coniecero, so editors; but Hermeros speaks in
anger, and shows that he is a Greek in the use of his negatives.
21. Xtip«8tj fecit, Ludwich. deuro defecit, H. nemo desue-
fecit and demode fecit and eleutherode fecit are conj. by Btich.
Friedl. indicates lacuna af ter fecit.
23. alogias menias menias — menenias ; cf Porph. on Hor.

Sat. ii. 3, 287, menenium melius furiosum accipimus vel potius

stultum, unde meneniae stultitiae ineptiae. Mss. of Porph. even

give meniae for meneniae. Porph. prob. knew his Petron. ; cf.
on Od. iii. 2, 32, and Petron. 44, 41.
39. (nos alia). I have foUoWed Friedl. in inserting both nos
and alia. Biich.^ inserts nos only.
41. <illos scholasticos). The text is hopelessly corrupt.
I have followed Friedl. in its general emendation. The words
following magister down to ego certainly belong to the
(1. 39)
magister. From
mapalia, however, through evadit the
words are given to Hermeros by Heraeus in the Vahlensfest-

59, 8. factio statim, Friedl. imagines a lacuna between

these words, and suggests primum Graecorum deinde Troiano-
rum ac.
20. ducenaria, Burmann Friedl. dunaria, H. donaria,
Biich.3 denaria, Btich.i
60, 11. <rursus rem novam notavi), sugg. by Biich.^
15. ad pompam, Keller suggests ad Priapum; cf, however,
Knapp, Class. Rev. x. 428, a.
16. hic refecit, \hic'\, Friedl. liquefacit or minorem fecit or
remissio (H) hilaritatem hinc reiecit. hiare fecit, Rohde.
61, 16. <illam) aut, Buch.^ Friedl. autem, H.
19. <quicquid habui), Biich. Friedl.
22. egi aginavi, H Friedl. and finally Btich. — <scitis), Biich.^
Friedl. autem, H. scito, Segebade.
62, 18. tota via. mata via, H. The emendation is Scheffer's.

Heraeus, Vahlensfestschrift, proposes ma tan Hekatan.


24. (perculit), added by Biich., adopted by Friedl.

" er kann nur sagen man moge glauben dass sich
63, ut,
die haare gestraubt haben, nicht wie sehr, ut ist also zu
streichen," Friedh
7. sacritus, Ronsch*s emend., Neue Jahrbb., 1882, p. 424, for

caccitus, H.
10. (stridere), inserted by Jacobs, adopted by Biich. Friedl.

64, 2. (sedibus), BUch. Friedl. Cf., however, Zielinski,

Philologus, 1901, p. 6, and Hor. Sat. ii. 3, 324.
11. tisicus, H
Friedl. phthisicus, Biich.
19. hanc, Hadrianides. Aac, H. [/mc] ,
Biich.» Friedl.
39. <et), Anton, Friedl. Biich.,» fearing ne plura desint, indi-
cates a gap.
66, 4. botulo, Gronov Friedl. poculo, H Biich.
eo deinde, " ante eo f orsitan
multa perierint," Biich.i
67, 13.
32. Interim, " decurtasse narrationem compilator videtur,"
Biicb.8 —sociae, Studemund. sauciae, H Biich. FriedL
68, 15. adiectum, Muncker Scheffer Btich. abiectum, H.
au(*tum, Friedl.
25. Biich. conj. strabus. Heraeus, Vahlenfestschrift, strambus
{stranbus) ; cf. Archiv, V. 480 Lowe, Prodromos, p. 391 Nonius,
; ;

p. 27, strabones sunt strambi quos nunc dicimus ; cf C.G.L.

181, 11.
69, 25. <amici>, Buch.^ Friedl.
29. fimo, Buch.3 Friedl. defuncta, H, defacta, marg.
71, 28. <in lateribus), Biich.i Cf Mau-Kelsey, Pompeii, pp.
33. faciantur, Goes Friedl. faciatur, Biich. Possibly H
justifiable as aGraecism, the subject is a neuter plural.
72, 10. <coepit), Burmann.
12. assectemur, Biich.^ assentemur, H Friedl.
23. [at], Buch.sFriedl. e?, Wehle.
24. udique, Biich conj. utique, H Biich. Friedl.

73, 7. sic, Biich.8 suggests istic.

15. [aut], dittograph.

— pavimento, add ore dentibus, Bur-
mann. Friedl. adds {ore).

18. in solium, Friedl. Biich.^ in solo, H. Btich. prefers m

solio. Cf. Heraeus, Sprache, p. 34.

temperabatur, Heins.
Friedl. parabatur, Biich.i vaporahatur, Biich.^ pervapatur, H,
in marg. al. parabatur.
74, 33. machina, Biich. Friedl. macUlla, H Burmann.
75,12. fulcipedia. fultipedia orfulcripedia, Buch. Rh. Mus.
xxxix. p. 425.
76, 23. libertos, H Biich.s (per) lihertos, Heins. Biich.i

77, 2. illis, Hirschfeld conj. imis.

12. cenationem, Scheffer Biich. cellationem, H Friedl.

[The numbers refer to the chapters.]

ab acia et acu 76. foras, vinum intro 52; in os

absentivos 33. coniciet 57 libera 71. ;

ad summam 31, 37 (bis), 38, 45, 57 argenti pondus 31 a coepit ;

. . .

{bis) , 58, 71, 75, 77. everrere 34; a. plus 37; in -to
adverb as predicate belle erit 46, : studiosus 52; -um sceleratum
solide natus 47, pessirae . . . erat 56; -ura coraposuerit 67. Adj.:
54, suaviter 59, 61, 65, 75; quod pinna a. ;
aureos a. denarios 33;
sursura est 63 tam f ui 75. ;
larua a. 34; clibano a. 35; a. co-
aediles male eveniat 44. rona 50; craticula a. ;
a. pelve
agaga 69. 70 ;
mensas totas a. 79.
aginavi 61. arietilli 39.
sub alapa 38. asiuus in tegulis 63.
AUiterations, Anaphora: sicca so- assera aerariura 57.
bria 37 honeste vixit honeste
Atellauiara facere 53; 68.
obiit 43; araicus araico 43, 44; -atus: capillatus 27; soleatus 27;
sed rectus sed certus; nerao prasinatus 28, 29; piperatus 36;
. . nerao
. nemo 44 Martis . . .
; expudoratus 39 pilleatus 40, 41,

marcent moenia; palato pavo 65, 66; starainatus 41; rubrica-

pascitur; titulus tepidi terapo- tus 46 bullatus 60 j moratus 61
; ;

ris; uudara in nebula linea 55; bonatus 74.

mufrius non raagister 58; non babae babae 37.
cor non intestina non quicquara babaecalis 37.
63 pax Palaraedis 66 idem su-
; ;
bacalusiae 41.
tor i, cocus i. pistor 68; fortis bacciballura 61.
fidelis 71; fiebat et Fort. fiebat baliscus fullo est 42.
et Hab. 76; raaiores et raeliores barbara aureara habeas 58 ;
et feliciores 76. toria 73.
aniraara ebulliit 42, 62; -ma in naso barbaria 68.
62 abiciet 74.
barcalae 67.
apoculare 62, 67. baro53, 63 {bis).
apophoreta 40, 56, 60. bisacciura 31.
aquam poscere ad raanus 27; in bucca 43, 44, 64, 70.
manus 31 34 dentes habet 42; ; ;
burdabasta 45.
140 INDEX.

graeculis calcem impingere 46. lescentulus 59, 64; manuciolum

caldicerebrius 45, 58. 63 catella 64 (bis)
; saviuncu- ;

calvae 66. lum 66; cingillum, capsella 67;

pueros capillatos 27, 70 57 34 63. ; ; ;
auricula 67 corolla 70 corolla-
; ;

Carpus 36. rium, urceolus 74 corcillum 75. ;

catillum concacatum 66. Adj.: vetulus28; meliuscula 38 ;

cave canum 29; c. catena vinctus corneolus43; misella 63, 65 au- ;

64; 72. daculus 63; aureola 67; aeneo-

cepi cerebellum 75. lus 73.
cicaro 46, 71. dispare pallavit 46.
cisternae frigidariae 73. dissiliogaudimonio61; d. felicitate
de colaepio 70. 75.
si nos coleos haberemus 44. domusio 46, 48.
colonia 44, 57, 76. ecce 38, 57, 58, 60, 68 ;
et ecce 40, 45,
Comparisons phantasia non homo
38 discordia non homo 43 piper
; ;
nondum efflaverat omnia 49.
non h. 44 codex non mulier 74,
; Epithets stips 43 illa matella 45
; ;

Condensed phrases: nec quid nec vervex, bellum pomum,-larifuga,

quare 37 aut hoc aut illud, quid
; nocturnus, vasus fictilis, lorus in
utique 45 putes taurum 47 nec
; ; aqua 57 caepa cirrata, crucis of-

mora 49, 64 nec hoc nec illud 50

; ; fla, corvorum cibaria, mus, terrae
facinus indignum, aliquis est . . .
tuber, bella res, volpis uda, mu-
56; velit nolit 71. f rius 58 purgamentum, canis 74
; ;

comicines 53, 78 (bis) .

fulcipedia, milva, sterteia 75;
cubitum ponere 27 reclinatus in c. ; viper 77.
39 reposui c. 65.
; ergo afflrmative : 27, 28, 29, 30, 31,
culavit in gregem 38. 34 ibis), 39, 46 {bis), 51, 52, 60,
denarios aureos 33, 44. 61, 63, 64, 67 {bis), 70, 73 {bis) ;
depresentiarum 58, 74. question: 34, 39, 46, 47, 48, 58,
desperatum valde 68. 59, 72.
despolio 30, 49 (bis), 67, 79. essedarium 36, 45.
dextro pede 30. est te videre 67.
ad dictata pugnavit 45. Euphemisms cum dominam delec-

digitos crepitare 27. taretur 45; ipsumam meam de-

quomodo dii volunt 61 75 76. ; ; battuere 68; ad delicias domini
Diminutive nouns: libellus 28 cra- ; fui; ipsimae satis faciebam 75;
ticula 31 ; ficedula, vitellus 33 ;
de rebus illis fecisti 76.
testiculus, sterilicula, pisciculus excatarissasti 67.
35 ;
utriculus 36 ;
vernaculae 38 ; exopinissent 62.
Graeculus 38, 46; taurulus 39; Falernum 28 ;
f .
Opimianum 34, 55.
sportella (bis), porcellus, alicula fatus 42, 71, 77.
40; casula 44, 46, 77; servulus, Gaio feliciter 50 ; Augusto f . 60.
potiunculis 47; agellus 48; sta- ferculum 35, 39, 41, 66; 60, 68, 69.
tunculum 50; martiolus 51; gle- foras cenat 30; f. vulpes 44; 47;
bula, lamellula, peduclum 57; 52.
comula, sponsiuncula, 58; adu- genius 37, 53, 57, 62, 74, 75.
INDEX. 141

gingilipho 73. pedes lanatos 44.

gizeria 66. larua 34, 44, 62.
Greek words: iatraliptae, chira- Laserpiciarius 35.
maxium 28 ;
embolum 30 paro-
lautus 26, 31 lautitiae 27, 32, 34,

nycliia 31; paropsis 34, 50; 47,57,70,73; lotam 40.

pittacium 34; euripus, metho- lerode 58.
dium 36; topanta, saplutus 37; linguam caninam 43 ; linguosus 43,
theca, philologia, genesis, cata- 63; lingua 73.
phaga 39; soplios, apophoreta, libertini loco 38 ; praetorio loco 65.
polymitus 40; calathiscus, lasa- lupatria 37.
num 41; laecasm 42; schema pro luto 44, 54, 67.
44 anathymiasis, penthiacus 47
; ;
maiiesto et dignitosso 57.
bybliotheca, peristasis 48 auto- ;
maiores maxillae 44.
maton 50, 54 phiala 51 acro- iam Manios habet 45.
; ;

mata 53, 78; catastropha 54; mapalia 58.

philosoplios 56; pittacium 56; matteae 65, 74.
athla 57 critica; alogias 58 secimdae mensae 68 {his)
. . .

stroplias, pompa 60 scholasticus in tenebris micare 44. ;

61; phreneticus 63; podagricus, homo micarius 73.

tisicus 64; autopyrum, hepatia, ex millesimis Mercurii 67.
oxycomina 66 periscelides, phae- milvus 37 milvinum genus 42.
; ;

casiae, crotalia 67 epidipnis 69. omnis minervae homo 43.


Guests of Trimalchio: Agamem- populus minutus 44 minutalia ;

non, Encolpius, Diogenes, lulius modo modo 37, 42, 46; modo sic
Proculus 38 Dama 41 Seleucus
; ;
modo sic 45.
42 Phileros 43 Ganymedes 44
; ; ;
momento temporis 28 momento 40. ;

Niceros 44, 61, 63; Echion 45; nec mu nec ma

argutas 57.
Ascyltus 57, 59, 72; Hermeros Names: Achilles59; Aegyptius35;
59 Plocamus 64.
Aeneas 68 Aethiopes 34 Af rica
; ;

gustatio 31 ; gustatorium 34. 35, 48; Agamemnon Agatho 59;

Homeristae 59. 74; Aiax59; Alexandrini 31, 68;
homo inter liomines 39, 57, 74. Apelles 64; Aratus 40; Asia 44,
homuncio 34 (Ms), 56, 66, 75 Atellania 53, 68 Athana 58
; ; ;

Impersonations of Bacchus 41; : Athenae 38; Augustus 30, 69;

Syrum 52; luscinias 68; mulio- Baiae 53; Bromius 41; Caesar
nes sive circulatores 68; tubi- 51, 76; Capua 62; Carpus 36,
cines choraulas mulionum fata
; ;
40 Cassandra 52, 74 Cerdo 60
; ; ;

69 Epliesum trag.
70. Chiam 63; Chiysanthus 42;
impropero 38. Cicero 55; Cinnamus 30; Corin-
meum intelligere . . . vendo 52. thus 31, 50; Croesus 64; Cumae
ipsimus 63, 75, 76 ipsima 69, 75. ; 48, 53 Cyclops 48 Daedalus 52,
; ;

ita in asseveration 44, 57, 58, 70, 74; Dama

41; Diana, Diomedes
74. 59 Dionysus 41
Echion 45 ; ;

ius cenae = initium cenae 35. Ephesus 70; Euhius 41; Faler-
lacte gallinacium 38. num 21, 28, 34, 55; Felicio 60,
lacticulosus 57 unum lactem 71. ;
67 ;
Fortuna 29, 43, 55 ;
Gaius 30,
142 INDEX.

50, 53, 54, 62, 67, 74, 75; Gany- 53; procurator 30; supellectica-
medes 44, Glyco 45 Habin-
59 ; ;
rius 34 structor 35 scissor 36
; ; ;

nas 77 ;
Hannibal 50 Helena 59 ;
nomenculator 47 viator 47 ac- ; ;

Herculis 48;Hermeros 52, 59 tuarius 53; atriensis 53; saltu-

Hermogenes 45 Hipparchus 40 ;
arius 53; circitor 53; balneator
Homerus 48,59 (bis) Ilias 29 ;
53 cubicularius 53 nummula-
; ;

Ilium 50 ; Incuboni, India 38, 55 rius 56.

Iphigenia 59; luppiter 44, 47, 51, olim oliorum 43.
56, 58 (bis) Laenatis 29 Lares
; ;
ossa bene quiescant 39 65 ;

29, 60; Laserpiciarius 35; Liber Parataxis: rogo me putatis 39;

41 Lucrio 60 Lyaeus 41 Mam-
; ; ;
curat quid mordet 44; r.
. . .

maea, Manios 45 Margarita 64 ; ;

vos oportet 45, 63; oro lo- . . .

Mars 34, 55 Marsyas 34 Massa

; ; quere 45; spero imponet 47; r.
69; Melissa 61, 62; Menecratis . . tenes 48 narra
decla- . . .

73; Menelaus 27; Mercurius 29, masti 48; r. putas 55; s.

. . .

67, 77 Minerva 29, 43 Mithra-

; ;
sic moriar 57; r. December est
dates 53; Mopsus 55; Mummius 58; o. narra illud 61; n. quare
52; Niceros 61, 63; Nioba 52; . . recumbit 66; vide si
. . . .

Nocturnae 64 Norbanus 45, 46 ; ;

videtur 71; r. fruniscaris 75;
Occupo 58; Odyssia 29; Opi- scitis habet 76.
mianum 34; Orcus, 34, 45, 46, hoc nemo parentat 69; parentalia
62; Palamedes 66; Parcae 29; 78.

Pegasus 36; Petraitis 52, 71; malam parram pilavit 43.

Phileros 43, 44, 46; Plocamus partes dico 46, 58, 75.
64; C. Pompeius Diog. 38; C. pataracina 41.
Pompeius Trim. 30, 71; Pom- percolopabant 44.

peiani 53 Priapus 60 Primige-

; ; petauristarius 47, 53 (bis) , 60.
nius 46; Proculus 38; Publilius piscina 72.
55 Saturnalia 44, 58, 69 Mam.
; ;
sibi placere 44, 46.
Aem. Scaurus 77; Scintilla 67, plane intensive 32, 35, 41, 43, 49, 53,
75; Scissa65; Scylax 64; Seleu- 58, 63, 67; sarcasm or surprise
cus 42 Serapa 76 Sibulla 48
; ; ; 41, 69.
Stichus 77, 78 Syrus 52; Taren- ; plussciae 63.
tum 38, 48, 61; Terraciniensis pollicem porcino 48.
48; Ulixes 39, 48; Venus 29, 68; Caesar non pote valdius quam 51.
Vergilius 39, 68. prasinus 27, 64, 70 prasinianus 70. ;

Negatives : neminem nihil 42 ;

nec promulsidaria 31.
sursum nec deorsum non cresco Proverbs: vinum dominicum mi-
58. nistratoris gratia 31; aequum
alias nenias 46, 47. Mars amat 34; sociorum olla
nesapius 50. mala fervet 38; ubi semel res
novendiale 65. inclinata, amici de, medio 38;
numerum omnium 63, 68. pisces natare oportet 39; anti-
nummos modio metitur 37. quus amor cancer 42 longe fugit ;

Officials:ostiarius 28, 37, 64, 77; quisquis suos f nunquam recte .


dispensator 29, 30 (ter) 45 (bis) , ,

faciet qui cito credit 43; serva
INDEX. 143

me servabo te 44; quod hodie sevir 30, 57, 65; seviratus 71.
non est cras erit; qui asinum similia si siligine inferior esset 44.
non potest, stratum caedit; Singing: 28, 31 (6is), 34, 35, 41, 52,
milvo volante ungues resecare; 68, 69, 70, 73.
colubra restem non parit; sibi in sinum suum spuere 74; in fa-
quisque peccat; manus manum ciem meam inspue 75.
lavat 45 quicquid discis tibi d.
; ;
staminatas duxi 41.
literae tliesaurum est, et artifi- vafer et magnus stelio 50.
cium nunquam moritur 46 clivo ; strigae 63 (bis) .

laborare 47 aquam foras vinum

sucossi 38.
intro 52; ubique dulce est ibi et symphonia 32, 33, 34, 36 {bis), 47;
acidum 56; in molle came ver- -cus 28.
mes nascuntur in alio peduclum
; tanquam: t. favus, t. mola 39; t.

vides, in te ricinum non 57 qua- ;

libertus 41; t. favus 43, 76; t.

lis dominus, talis et servus 58; corvus 43; coda, t. mures,


qui vincitur vincit 59; in angu- t. tuba, t. unus de nobis 44; t.

stiis amici apparent 61; tace vasum 51; t. urbis acta 53; t.
lingua, dabo panem 69; asciam liircus 57; t. mus 58; t. orcus,
in crus impegi 74assem habeas
; bovis, copo, lanio, meridie 62;
assem valeas 77. t. furnus 72 t. rana 74.

Puns: Carpe36; Dionyse liber esto tanto melior 69.

41 ;
controversia 48 ;
the apopho- tengomenas 34, 73.
reta 56. terrae filius 43.
redde quod debes 57. in capite tersit 27 ;
in sinu t. 57.
Repetition: magis magisque 49; omnia textorum dicta 33.
quid? quid? 49; voca voca 49; tutelam huius loci 57.
quia enim 51 nisi si 58.
unus servus 26.
ridiclei 57. ursinae 66.
in rutae folium 37, 58. vavatonem 63.
sacritus 63. venies sub dentem 68.
scordalias de medio 59. versipellem 62.
scriblita 35, 66 (his). vitalia 77.
scruta scita 56. non vult sibi male 38.
serisapia et contumelia 56. xerophagi ex sapa 66.


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tJie :

A FIRST BOOK IN LATIN. By Hiram Tuell, A.M., late Principal
of the Milton High School, Mass., and Harold N. Fowler, Ph.D.,
Professor iu the Western Reserve University. Ready.
A NEW LATIN COMPOSITION, for Schools. By M. Grant Daniell,
A.M., formerly Principal of Chauncy Hall School, Boston. Ready.
A NEW GRADATIM. By M. C. Smart, A.M., Principal of Claremont
(N.H.) High School. Ready.
WORLD. Edited by John K. Lord, Ph.D., Professor in Dart-
mouth College.
CAESAR, Gallic War, Books I-V. By Harold W. Johnson, Ph.D.,
Professor in the Indiana University, and Frederick W. Sanford,
A.M., Professor in Illinois CoUege.
CICERO, Pro Ligario. By Clarence H. White, Latin Master,
Worcester (Mass.) Academy. Ready.
CICERO, Select Orations. By Benj. L. D'Ooge, Ph.D., Professor in the
Michigan State Normal College. Ready.

EUTROPIUS, Selections. By Victor S. Clark, Lit.D. Ready.

soN, A.B., Assistant Professor iu the University of California,
H. Rushton Fairclough, Ph.D., Professor in the Leland Stan-
ford Jr. University, and Benjamin O. Foster, Ph.D., Instructor
in the Lelaud Stanford Jr. University.
NEPOS, Selections. By J. C. Jones, A.M., Professor in the University
of Missouri.
OVID, Selections from the Metamorphoses, based upon the edition of
Meuser-Egeu. By B. L. Wiggins, A.M., Professor in the Univer-
sity of the South.
OVID, Selections, for rapid reading. By A. L. Bondurant, A.M.,
Professor in the University of Mississippi.
SALLUST, Catiline, based upon the edition of Schmalz. By Charles
G. Herbermann, Ph.D., LL.D., Professor in the College of the
City of New York. Ready.
VERGIL, Books I-VI. By James H. Kirkland, Ph.D., Chancellor of
Vanderbilt University, and William H. Kirk, Ph.D., Professor in
Rutgers College.
VERGIL, The Story of Tumus from Aen. VII-XII, for rapid reading.
By MosES Slaughter, Ph.D., Professor in the University of Wis-
consin. Ready.
VIRI ROMAE, With Prose Exercises. By G. M. Whicher,
A.M., Teachers' Normal College, New York City. Ready.

BENJ. H. SANBORN & CO., Publishers,

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